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1st Semester, 2012-2013


Prepared by: Prof. ARIEL Y. BORDON

For Classroom Use On




I. Introduction......................................................................................................................3
A. Etymology and Definition
B. Importance of the Humanities
C. What is Art?
D. Classifications of Art
E. The Artist
F. The Process of Creation
G. Aesthetics and Beauty
H. Various Types of Beauty
I. Subjects of the Visual Arts

II. Mediums and Elements of Art......................................................................................17

III. The Visual Arts ...........................................................................................................32

A. Drawing
B. Painting
C. Sculpture
D. Arts and Crafts

IV. Performing Arts............................................................................................................49

A. Music
B. Dance

V. Digital Art and Computer Art........................................................................................63

VI. Bibliography.................................................................................................................66



The term “Humanities” comes from the Latin word, humanus which means “human, one
who is refined, cultured, and worthy of the dignity of man”.

The Humanities refer to man’s culture or his lifestyle and the things that he creates as an
artistic being. These creations are also means to survive /adapt to the environment where he
lives. Thus, everyday things we see and use like clothes, cooking utensils, tables and chairs
are products of man’s artistic nature and are part of culture. Everything created or made by
man is part of his culture and is part of the humanities. It shows his ingenuity and talent in
transforming ordinary things, situations, ideas and even discarded materials into creations of
beauty and refinement. It also includes his values, talents, aspirations, and dreams in life. The
Humanities is commonly referred to the study of the Fine Arts. On the contrary, it is the study
of humanity, that is, man as an artistic, creative and rational/thinking being.

The Humanities include man’s development as an innately artistic and creative being in
the course of history. An example would be in architecture. The construction of buildings and
other structures from the simplest houses to modern skyscrapers show man’s changing
artistic philosophies and ideals through history.

Bahay kubo architecture.


A Spanish ancestral house

The front entrance of Fuerza de Santiago towering 40 metres high.

A drawing of Miag-ao Church, Iloilo.


The Church of the Holy Sacrifice in UP Diliman is the first circular church and the first thin-shell concrete dome in
the Philippines.

. A skyscraper/tower in Makati, Philippines

The Humanities reflect man’s aspirations and dreams for a better world. Feelings of
nationalism, national unity, patriotism and environmental preservation are shown in posters,
slogans, paintings, drawings, monuments and even in embroidery.

An example of a picture of Cory and Ninoy Aquino symbolizing the Filipinos’ struggle for democracy.

Statue of Lapu-Lapu in Luneta Park, Manila.


Rizal Monument. Manila.

The sewing of the Philippine flag in Hongkong.

The modern Philippine flag, an artistic symbol of Filipino history,

nationalism and artistry.

Humanities are also referred to as cultural education. It emphasizes man’s dignity, the
need to develop his full potentials and make him a well-balanced individual as a cultured
person (Ferraro 2008). There is a need to teach art education in schools and even at home.
Artistry and creativity must be given attention and importance. Art education means the
appreciation of creativity and beauty in the achievements of learners. It must be fostered and
cultivated, encouraged and nurtured. Students with artistic inclinations and talents are
encouraged to pursue their artistry, explore the artistic world and make their own stamp as
future artists.

The appreciation of the arts creates a well-balanced learning process. Learning must be
heterogeneous not homogeneous. There needs to be a balance between academics and non-
academics. Learning is not purely cognitive. It is a combination of the three major domains
of learning which are cognitive, affective and psychomotor. For example, the brain would be
overused, bored and unproductive if it is just constantly fed with mathematics and numbers.
Thus, the brain needs a “change of activity” in order for it to function productively. Change
in activity relaxes the brain. It’s like tuning-up a car in order for it to function well. The arts
tunes-up the brain and gives it a break from the strenuous activities in life. We need to engage
in sports, artistic activities and appreciate beautiful things in order to relax our system. Aside
from this, by means of appreciating the arts we could discover, develop and nurture the
artistry in us.


1. Humanities gives us a broad knowledge of our history and cultural traditions.

2. It helps us acquire the values and wisdom to understand and appreciate the excellent
achievements of our people.
3. It inspires us to exert greater effort and at the same time, refine our taste and
4. It helps us develop our sense of pride through our appreciation of the significant
achievements of man during the different stages of development, about
their failures and successes, that can guide present day people into making acts that are
dignifying to him, his country, and people.


Art is man’s way of expressing his ideas and feelings through his creations whether in the
form of tones, words, body movements or even in simple things like cooking or sewing.

For a creation to be labelled as art, it must be marked by the beauty of design and form
that shall be appealing to man’s mind, arousing his pleasant emotions, kindling his creative
and aesthetic imagination and thereby enhancing his sense impressions (Ferraro, 2008).

Art could be:

1. a creation of man, whether graphic or non-graphic forms, that is appealing to the
senses (poem, song, drama, a special menu)

2. the use or employment of things to answer some special need (creation of a pair of
scissors for cutting, application of make-up to enhance facial beauty, cake
3. the special skill required by those who practice fine arts (being a pianist, vocalist,
dancer, painter, sculptor require rigid training to become a professional
4. a way or means of communicating ideas through sensuous mediums (a singer
communicates the message of the song through the use of beautiful voice
and tone colouring, a painter imparts his emotions of sadness by means of depicting
sadness in a painting, a cook attracts people’s attention through the
fragrant aroma of his delicious menu).
5. created because it is an important ingredient of culture (folk dances reflects the
lifestyle of a group of people).

Furthermore, it is clear that even the basic meaning of the term "art" has changed several
times over the centuries, and has continued to evolve during the 20th century as well. As
man’s needs increase, so is his demand for the creation of art for survival and enjoyment. Art
usually implies no function other than to convey or communicate an idea.


Arts could be classified in the following way:

1. Visual Arts. Arts that we see. The sense of sight enables us to appreciate the use of
lines, color combinations, and strokes used by the artist in portraying an
image or event in the form of a drawing, painting.
2. Auditory or Aural Arts. Arts that use sound through the harmonious combination of
organized tones, rhythms, and the use of several instruments.
3. Space Arts and Time Arts. The visual and aural arts fall under this category because
they utilize an area for performance. In the case of music, it uses duration
or time during performance.
4. Major Arts and Minor Arts. Major Arts are those that have reached the highest level of
development and have attained great achievements like music, literature,
painting, sculpture, theatre, architecture. Minor Arts are those that have not yet
reached the peak of development or “perfection” like crafts, storytelling
and culinary arts.


An artist is a person who exhibits a exceptional skill and ability in any field of the arts.
He possesses the technique or “control of the ability” in his chosen field of artistic endeavour.
For example, a concert pianist has undergone rigid training to learn the complicated
technique of piano mastery, memorization, and virtuosity. A professional cook possesses the
unique “taste buds” that he has enriched through many years of experience as a cook.

Artists are very sensitive persons fully aware of things around them. A painter easily
catches attention of the form, shape, and colours of a flower by the roadside. The splashing of
waves on the shore could inspire a composer to compose a song admiring the beauty of the
sea. A novelist gets inspired by the touching story of a prostitute. A sculptor picks up a piece
of stone and carves the image of the Blessed Virgin Mary in it.

Photograph of a painter at work.

What the artists see, hear, and feel could instantly become an inspiration for the creation
of anything artistic. Through the mediums or materials they use, they could transform
ordinary things and events into artistic masterpieces. For example, the saga of EDSA
Revolution inspired sculptors to craft monuments symbolizing the triumph of democracy
over dictatorship.

The sources of inspiration of artists do not merely exist as “raw data” or information that
only they could understand. Once this information or “raw data” are transformed or
converted into a work of art through the process of creation, these are shared and
disseminated to a wider audience or public in order that their beauty, message, and meaning
become nationally or internationally known, seen and recognized.

Artists are classified in two general ways: creators and performers. The creators are the
“sources of artistic materials” because they “create” it. For example, a composer writes a
song for a singer to sing. A choreographer created dance steps for dancers to perform. A
teacher teaches art education to the learners for them to transmit it to their future learners.

The performers are the people who perform or “act out” what the creators have created.
This is commonly found in the Performing Arts like music, dance, and theatre. Singers are
representatives of composers on stage because they are the composers’ “bridge” or means to
be able to communicate to the audience. Dancers bring out the message of the dance created
by the choreographer/s through graceful body movements, facial expressions, and costumes.
Actors and actresses “bring to life” the story written by the scriptwriter on stage, television,
or in any form of stage.

An ensemble of musicians (performers) at Ninoy Aquino International Airport entertaining local and foreign


Creating a work of art involves a number of processes or organized steps. These are:

1. THE IDEA. An idea is an abstract representation of what we have in mind. It merely

exists as a thought, plan, or scheme (a plan or program of action). Everything that we plan to
do begins as a mental image or mental construct that is “visualized” in our minds. Ideas
could be generated by inspiration. It becomes our “engine” that enables us to “act” or take-
off toward the next step.

For example, a painter saw a red rose in full bloom. He is inspired by its beauty. The
beauty of the rose became an inspiration to paint or draw the flower before it withers or wilts.
The rose in full bloom became the stimulant or source of inspiration. The inspiration
generated or created in the painter’s mind is the IDEA.

2. THE MATERIAL OR MEDIUM. Once the idea is already mentally formed, the next
step is to look for mediums or materials that would make that idea physically present or
tangible. Materials or mediums are the tangible means used by artists to concretize or give
physical meaning to their ideas. Mediums could be pen and pencil, paper, pigment or colour,
tones, rhythm, dancers, recipes, stone, or wood. These are the visible and audible means that
enable the artist to communicate his ideas.

For example, the painter chooses what are the materials or mediums that he will use in
order to “capture” or illustrate the beauty of the rose that inspired him. He could use paper,
water colour, coloured pencils, pigment (colours used in painting), charcoal, chalk, paint
brush, etc.

3. ORGANIZATION AND FORM. The third phase is the manner of organizing the idea
through the use of materials in order to give shape and form to the idea. Materials are not

merely placed in a disorganized way. The artist chooses and organizes the materials very well
in order to give beautiful form to his ideas. The ability of artists to organize their artistic
ideas is the essence of “masterpieces of art”.

For example, the painter has gathered the necessary materials needed to paint or draw the
rose. He starts to organize his thoughts through the materials that he chose to use and starts
painting or drawing the rose that inspired him. The product of the painter is, a beautiful
drawing or painting of a red rose in full bloom.


Aesthetics (also spelled æsthetics or esthetics) is a branch of philosophy dealing with

the nature of beauty, art, and taste, and with the creation and appreciation of beauty. It is
more scientifically defined as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes
called judgments of sentiment and taste. More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics
as "critical reflection on art, culture and nature."

Beauty is the quality in a person or thing that gives intense aesthetic pleasure.

Several philosophical views on beauty are given by the following: (Ferraro, 2008).

Plato equated beauty with the sublime (elevated) identity with the good. For Plato,
beauty is equivalent to truth and goodness. He quotes, “Beauty of style and harmony and
grace and good rhythm depends on simplicity”.

Aristotle considered beauty as “symmetry (beauty characterized by the excellence of

proportion), proportion, and an organic order of parts into a united whole”. A thing of beauty
is considered to be perfect in all aspects of its construction. Everything used in the
construction of a beautiful thing is in order/proper place, balanced, and there are no errors in
it. It is considered to be “perfect” and also function in a “perfect” way.

Webster Dictionary defines beauty as an “assemblage of perfection through which an

object is rendered pleasing to the eye.” This is equivalent to the proverb of the Idealists that
says, “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder”.

The Realists say that, “beauty is where you find it”. All of us want beauty, beautiful
things, and events around us. None of us want hunger, pain, poverty, or suffering. For the
Realists, we are always searching for beauty, even in ordinary and simple things. Once we
find it, we feel fulfilled, joyful, and the “beauty need” in us is satisfied.

Spinoza considered a thing beautiful if it is desirable. If it is desirable, it must be good;

and if it is good, it must be beautiful. In other words, some things that we desire and possess
are what we consider to be beautiful.

Santayana said that, “beauty is pleasure objectified.” When we see a beautiful object,
when we hear beautiful music, it is the realization of the pleasures that we desire. The thing

that we consider beautiful satisfies our “hunger” for a certain pleasure that we crave for. For
example, a person is looking for a gown with a specific design for the Prom. When she saw a
gown that is exactly what she was looking for, her “search for pleasure” or “hunger for
pleasure” is gratified. She’ll do her best to purchase the gown because it is the one that she
desired for.

Kant and Schopenhauer says “Beauty is that quality where an object pleases us
regardless of use, stirring us in a will, with less contemplation and disinterested happiness.”
For example, we like a beautiful object even if it is just placed in the corner, we seldom pay
attention to it, or it is not even used in our everyday lives. Despite this, it is still kept and
cherished because to us, it is beautiful and unconsciously, we are pleased by its appearance
and presence.

Several quotations about beauty are enumerated below. Could you explain some of them?

1. “Everything has beauty, but not everyone sees it.” Confucius (BC 551-BC 479), Chinese

2. “The best part of beauty is that which no picture can express”. Francis Bacon (1561-
1626), British statesman and philosopher.

3. “The average girl would rather have beauty than brains because she knows the average
man can see much better than he can think”. Unknown source.

4. “Beauty is not caused. It is.” Emily Dickinson (1830-1886). American poet

5. “A thing of beauty is a joy for ever: Its loveliness increases; it will never pass into
nothingness; but still will keep a bower quiet for us, and a sleep full of sweet dreams, and health,
and quiet breathing...”. John Keats (1795-1821) British poet.


1. IDEAL BEAUTY. A type of beauty that one finds from objects, scenes or persons,
which conforms (in accordance to) or approximates to man’s idea of how beauty should be.
This idea is the result of man’s accumulated knowledge from his exposure and immersion to
various types of culture. This idea of ideal beauty serves as man’s measure of what IDEAL
beauty is and should be.

Ideal beauty is a universal concept; regardless of culture, historical period, nationality, or

religion. It is the beauty wanted by humanity.

2. REAL BEAUTY. This is the type of beauty that conforms to man’s general expectation
of belief of what an object, thing, or quality should be AS WHAT IS acclaimed in man’s own
society, period, culture. This is the type of beauty that is considered or observed to be true,
authentic, and attributively reliable in a particular society.

For example, the wearing of Maria Clara dresses is real beauty for Filipino women during
the Spanish Period because they were expected to be dressed that way because that’s how
women should dress to show their femininity and real beauty.

3. NATURAL BEAUTY. A type of beauty as found in nature in its original form and
state. It is found in objects, scenes, or persons that exhibit manifestations that there has been
no intervention made on them by man or by man to himself.

4. ARTIFICIAL BEAUTY. This type of beauty is realized the moment man tries to make
some changes in nature or what has been endowed to nature. These necessary changes are
done to realize the idea of man about beauty and to realize that IDEA OF BEAUTY. Natural
beauty is altered or changed through the use of technology or personal tastes. For example,
the use of make-up and beauty treatments changes ideal beauty of a person. Face-lifting,
bust-lifting, nose-lifting, etc. transform ideal beauty into artificial beauty.

5. DECORATIVE BEAUTY. This is the type of beauty that is realized from the actual
physical or material presence of a physical object. It refers to the decorative function of an
artwork that helps beautify the place. It may be a wall décor, a vase, jar, painting, etc.

6. SPIRITUAL BEAUTY. It is that type of beauty that is discerned from works of art
with subjects that are about or related to religion or spirituality found in noble and virtuous
life and deeds. It is a type of beauty concerned with or about man’s relationship with God or
his Creator.


Subject or Subject Matter in art refers to what is presented or shown. It answers the
question “What is this being shown or portrayed in that work of art?”

The following are the common sources of art subjects.

1. History. These are subjects that show historical figures, places, and events. For
example, photographs of the 1986 EDSA Revolution, monument of Dr. Jose Rizal, artifacts
and relics found in museums.

The Baybayin. This is a pre-Spanish Philippine writing system. It is a member of the Brahmic family and is
recorded as being in use in the 16th century. It continued to be used during the Spanish colonization of the
Philippines up until the late 19th Century.

2. Legends and Mythology. Subjects that portray legendary and mythological characters
(though they are only figments of the imagination and not real). For example, Si Malakas at
si Maganda in Philippine Mythology, Zeus and Pegasus in Greek mythology. Philippine
legends like Maria Makiling is one of the favorite subjects of Filipino visual artists.

Statue of Maria Makiling, the protector of Mt. Makiling in Laguna province.

3. Religion. Statues and paintings of saints, churches, mosques, are examples of religious
art subjects.

Masjid Haji Imam, Sitangkai, Tawi-Tawi, the Philippines.

4. Nature. The primary source of visual art subjects are those found in nature.

5. Science and Technology. The development brought about by technology has inspired
artists to make scenes of city life like traffic jams, squatter areas, and many more as art
subjects. The computer age has also influenced art subjects. Computer graphics could make
new art subjects. Computers are also used to preserve great art masterpieces through
scanning and digitization.

6. The Artist Himself. Sources of art subjects may not always come from outside or
external sources. Sometimes, the artist himself could invent his own subject. This is the case
of the group of visual artists known as surrealists. Their art subjects are “beyond realism”. It
is what most of us do not see or even imagine of. Sometimes, they even use their own dreams
as art subjects.

The Elephant Celebes (1921) by Max Ernst

The Persistence of Memory (1931) by Salvador Dalí.




Every art form has mediums or materials in order to give shape and form to the artists’
ideas. Some common mediums in art are enumerated below.

Painting: oil, water color, charcoal, colored pencil, chalk, etc.

Sculpture: stone, wood, glass, ice, wax, clay, plastic, metal plates, ivory, etc.

Literature: words

Architecture: stone, concrete, wood, glass, steel, etc.

Music: organized tones, rhythms, musical instruments, musicians.

Theatre: actors and actresses, props, director, stage, lights, costumes, etc.

Dance: music, rhythms, costumes, dancers, choreographer, lights, props, etc.


The elements of art are a commonly used group of aspects of a work of art used in
teaching and analysis, in combination with the principles of art.


Texture is the quality of a surface or the way any work of art is represented. Lines and
shading can be used to create different textures as well. For example, if one is portraying
certain fabrics, one needs to give the feeling of the right texture so that it closely resembles
what the artist is trying to convey.


Form may be created by the forming of two or more shapes or as three-dimensional

shape (cube, pyramid, sphere, etc.). It may be enhanced by tone, texture and colour. Form is
considered three-dimensional showing height, width and depth. Examples of these are
sculpture, theatre play, figurines.


Space is the area provided for a particular purpose. It may have two dimensions (length
and width), such as a floor, or it may have three dimensions (length, width, and height).
Space includes the background, foreground and middle ground. Space refers to the distances
or areas around, between or within components of a piece. There are two types of space:

positive and negative space. Positive space refers to the space of a shape representing the
subject matter. Negative space refers to the space around and between the subject matter.


Line is most easily defined as a mark that spans a distance between two points (or the
path of a moving point), taking any form along the way. Lines always have direction and they
are always moving (Sanchez 1998, 51). Lines are of different kinds:

1. Horizontal Lines suggest repose (rest) or serenity. They are found in calm bodies of
water, in the horizon, and in reclining (lying) persons.

2. Vertical Lines are lines that move from a base, upwards. They express feelings of
stability, confidence, strength, dignity.

3. Diagonal Lines suggest action or movement. A person who is running assumes a

diagonal position.

4. Curved Lines suggest grace, movement, flexibility, joyousness, and grace. Curved
lines are found in the petals of flowers, the shape of the moon, and in the
curvature of women’s waists.


Shape pertains to the use of areas in two dimensional space that can be defined by edges,
setting one flat specific space apart from another. Shapes can be geometric (e.g.: square,
circle, triangle, hexagon, etc.) or organic (such as the shape of a puddle, blob, leaf,
boomerang, etc.) in nature. Shapes are defined by other elements of art: Space, Line, Texture,
Value, Color, Form.


Color or colour is the visual perceptual property corresponding in humans to the

categories called red, green, blue and others. Color derives from the spectrum of light
(distribution of light energy versus wavelength) interacting in the eye with the spectral
sensitivities of the light receptors. Because perception of color stems from the varying
spectral sensitivity of different types of cone cells in the retina to different parts of the
spectrum, colors may be defined and quantified by the degree to which they stimulate these
cells. These physical or physiological quantifications of color, however, do not fully explain
the psychophysical perception of color appearance.

The science of color is sometimes called chromatics. It includes the perception of color
by the human eye and brain, the origin of color in materials, color theory in art, and the
physics of electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (that is, what we commonly refer to
simply as light).

Color is a property of light. We see different colors in the presence of light, and none in
the absence of light.

How we see color - The color effect-

Daylight (white light) is made up of numerous waves or impulses each having different
dimensions or wavelengths. When separated, any single wavelength will produce a specific color
impression to the human eye. What we actually see as color is known as its color effect. When an
object is hit (bombarded) with light rays, the object absorbs certain waves and reflects others,
this determines the color effect.

For example, what we actually see when we observe a blue ball is

that the ball appears blue because it reflects only blue light and
absorbs all other light.

The ball does not have color in itself. The light generates the
color. What we see as color is the reflection of specific
wavelength of light rays off an object.

The color white: If all light waves are reflected from a surface
the surface will appear to be white.

The color black: Similarly, when all light waves are absorbed by a surface the surface will
appear to be black.

The energy of light waves is converted into heat when absorbed. Wearing white or light colored
clothing during hot summer days takes advantage of the quality.

The colored light in the visible spectrum ranges from red to violet. We can see this process by
passing sunlight (white light) through a prism. Upon entering the prism, white light refracts (is
bent, causing light waves of different lengths to be revealed, red having the longest wave length
and violet having the shortest) into the visible spectrum.

Similarly, white light can be generated when all colored light in the spectrum is passed through a
converging lens.

How the Eye Sees Color

Color originates in light. Sunlight, as we perceive it, is colorless. In reality, a rainbow is

testimony to the fact that all the colors of the spectrum are present in white light. As illustrated in
the diagram below, light goes from the source (the sun) to the object (the apple), and finally to
the detector (the eye and brain).

1. All the "invisible" colors of sunlight shine on the apple.

2. The surface of a red apple absorbs all the colored light rays, except for those corresponding to
red, and reflects this color to the human eye.

3. The eye receives the reflected red light and sends a message to the brain.

The most technically accurate definition of color is:

"Color is the visual effect that is caused by the spectral composition of the light emitted,
transmitted, or reflected by objects."

Reprinted with permission from Color Logic

© Copyright 2004, all rights reserved

How are rainbows formed? What causes double rainbows to appear simultaneously?

Dimensions of Color

Color has three dimensions: (1) hue, (2) value, and (3) intensity.

Hue is the property or dimension that gives color its name. When we say, “red blouse”,
we are naming the color of the blouse which is red.

Value or Tone, refers to the use of light and dark, shade and highlight, in an artwork.
Black-and-white photography depends entirely on value to define its subjects. Value is
directly related to contrast.

Intensity of a spectral color refers to the degree of sharpness or dullness of a color. It also
refers to the color’s brightness or darkness and gives color strength (Sanchez 1998, 57). It the
magnitude or force of a color as it affects the eye of the viewer. Red has strong color intensity
compared to pink.

The Color Wheel

A color wheel or color circle is an abstract illustrative organization of color hues around
a circle, that shows relationships between primary colors, secondary colors, complementary
colors, etc.

A typical artists’ paint or pigment color wheel includes the blue, red, and yellow as
primary colors. They are called primary colors because they exist as pure and natural colors,
without the combination of other colors. They are also called “parent colors”.The
corresponding secondary colors are green, orange, and violet. The tertiary or intermediate
colors are red–orange, red–violet, yellow–orange, yellow–green, blue–violet and blue–green.

Most color wheels are based on three primary colors, three secondary colors, and the six
intermediates formed by mixing a primary with a secondary, known as tertiary colors, for a
total of 12 main divisions; some add more intermediates, for 24 named colors. Other color
wheels, however, are based on the four opponent colors, and may have four or eight main

Formation of Secondary and Tertiary Colors

Secondary colors are formed by combining two primary colors of equal


Red + Blue = Violet

Blue + Yellow = Green

Yellow + Red = Orange

Tertiary or Intermediate colors are formed by combining one primary color and one
secondary color.

Red + Orange = Red-Orange

Red + Violet = Red-Violet

Blue + Violet = Blue-Violet

Blue + Green = Blue-Green

Yellow + Orange = Yellow-Orange

Yellow + Green = Yellow-Green

In writing names of tertiary colors, the name of the primary color is ALWAYS
WRITTEN FIRST, followed by a DASH, and the secondary color. This is because the
primary colors are known as “parent colors” and the sources of secondary colors and the
tertiary colors are the result of combining primary and secondary colors.

Warm and Cool Colors

Colors appear to us in various degrees of intensity. Some are glaring or brilliant to

the eyes while others are calmer or soothing to the eyes. It is for this reason that colors
are classified as either, warm or cool.

The contrast, as traced by etymologies in the Oxford English Dictionary, seems related to
the observed contrast in landscape light, between the “warm” colors associated with daylight
or sunset and the “cool” colors associated with a gray or overcast day. Warm colors are often

said to be hues from red through yellow, browns and tans included. Warm Colors are
associated with objects like sun and fire and other sources of heat. In a painting or visual
composition, they suggest activity, restlessness, heat, and warmth (Sanchez 1998, 55). Warm
colors are said to advance or appear more active in a painting. Objects in warm colors appear
to be “in front” or “advancing forward” toward the viewer.

Cool colors are often said to be the hues from blue green through blue violet, most grays
included. They are colors where blue predominate (reign supreme). Cool colors tend to
recede or “move away” from the viewer. They suggest distance and calmness.

A color wheel showing warm and cool colors.

The Cool Colors and Warm Colors in Segment Forms



Color Harmonies or Color Matching refer to any three colors next to each other on the
color wheel. The center color is the main color emphasis.

Violet, Red, Orange and Blue, Violet, Red

Green, Blue, Violet and Yellow, Green, Blue

Orange, Yellow, Green and Red-Orange, Orange, Yellow-Orange


Complementary Colors are colors that are directly across from each other on the color
wheel. One of the colors is from the warm color variety and the other from the cool
color. When placed next to each other, they create a great color match. When use over
the other color, it cuts down the intensity and will “grey” or “darken” the other color.

Violet (cool) and Yellow (warm), Red (warm) and Green (cool),

Blue (cool) and Orange (warm)


The Violet Vase and the Yellow Flower is an example of Complementary Color


It is common among some painters to darken a paint color by adding black paint—
producing colors called shades—or lighten a color by adding white—producing colors called
tints. Lights are made brighter or dimmer by adjusting their brightness, or energy level; in
painting, lightness is adjusted through mixture with white, black or a color’s complement.

For example, red is a parent or primary color. Addition of black or gray to red will make
it appear darker, producing maroon. Therefore, maroon is a shade of red. Addition of white to
red will make it look lighter producing pink. Therefore, pink is a tint of red.

Another practice when darkening a color is to use its opposite, or complementary, color
(e.g. purplish-red added to yellowish-green) in order to neutralize it without a shift in hue,
and darken it if the additive color is darker than the parent color.

Notice the combination of warm and cool colors, tints and shades in this pointillistic painting
by Seurat.

Colour Meanings and Symbolisms

Colors have positive and negative meanings based on personal tastes and cultural
contexts. For example, red is a taboo during Filipino funeral wakes or burial services because
it symbolizes death or a bad omen to the person wearing it. Among the Chinese, red is
preferred during funeral wakes and processions because it symbolizes power.

Here are some meanings that colors imply;

1. Black is associated with sin, bad luck, anarchism, evil, mystery, death and gloom.
However, there are weddings with black motifs because it symbolizes power, wealth and
elegance and is considered to be a “sexy” color. It is also the color of crime and
sophistication. Black is a neutral color and any color goes well with it.

According to superstition, when a black cat crosses your path at night, it’s a bad omen.

2. White stands for purity, cleanliness and innocence. Like black, white is a neutral color
and goes well with any color.

A Japanese bride wearing a white kimono.

3. Blue is the color of heaven and deep, still waters. It suggests immensity like the blue
sea and blue sky that has no end. It is the coldest and most tranquil of all colors.

The blue sky and sea symbolizes peace, quietude, repose and peace. Blue also symbolizes immensity or never-
ending like the sky and sea. The outline of the distant mountains indicate their far distance from the viewer.

Claude Monet, Water Lilies, 1916, The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo

4. Yellow is the color of light, the most cheerful, and exultant of the colors. It suggests
hospitality and jealousy. In the famous song, “Tie a Yellow Ribbon on the Old
Oak Tree”, yellow is the color of forgiveness and hospitality.

Rapeseed field in Germany

5. Red is the warmest of the colors. It suggests blood, fire, chaos, war, restlessness,
anger, fear and activity.

The STOP sign is colored red to indicate a warning.


Umberto Boccioni, The City Rises (1910)

6. Green is the color of nature and hope. It is known as the color of life because the
first leaves of a young plant are colored green. The aprons used by doctors and
nurses during an operation are also colored green because they are supposed to
restore life.

Emerald comes in many shades of green.

7. Orange is the color of freshness and ripeness. It suggests assertive and dominance.

Ripe oranges

8. Pink is a tint of red. It is known as the color of love.

A pink plant

9. Violet is the color of power, royalty, mourning (grieving) and death.

The violet flower

10. Brown suggests humility and submissiveness as in the habit of the monks that is
colored brown. It is traditionally associated with chocolates.

The brown earth during a drought.


11. Grey suggests knowledge, respect, and wisdom because the hair of older people is
colored grey. Thus, they deserve respect for their age and “wisdom”.

Warm grey mixed with 6% yellow (left) and cool grey mixed with 6% blue.

III. Visual Arts

Van Gogh: Church at Auvers (1890)

The visual arts are art forms that create works which are primarily visual in nature, such
as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture, architecture, printmaking, modern visual arts
(photography, video, and filmmaking), design and crafts. These definitions should not be taken
too strictly as many artistic disciplines (performing arts, conceptual art, textile arts) involve
aspects of the visual arts as well as arts of other types. Also included within the visual arts are the
applied arts such as industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, interior design and
decorative art.

A. Drawing

Drawing is a means of making an image, using any of a wide variety of tools and
techniques. It generally involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure from a tool, or
moving a tool across a surface using dry media such as graphite pencils, pen and ink, inked
brushes, wax color pencils, crayons, charcoals, pastels, and markers. Digital tools which simulate
the effects of these are also used. The main techniques used in drawing are: line drawing,
hatching, crosshatching, random hatching, scribbling, stippling, and blending. An artist who
excels in drawing is referred to as a draftsman or draughtsman.

B. Painting

Painting, taken literally, is the practice of applying pigment suspended in a carrier (or
medium) and a binding agent (a glue) to a surface (support) such as paper, canvas or a wall.
However, when used in an artistic sense it means the use of this activity in combination with
drawing, composition and other aesthetic considerations in order to manifest the expressive and
conceptual intention of the practitioner.

Pigment and brushes

Mixing pigments

Pigments used in painting fabrics.

Painting on canvas.

Lisa Monica Nelson. The Difference between cats and Dogs (Oil on canvas)

Abstract acrylic painting

The Genesis of Judeo-Christian and Islamic Faiths

The use of yellow is a tribute to Cory.


A realistic market scene painting by Fernando Amorsolo (1942)

Luksong Tinik by Dante Hipolito

Inday. An enchanted painting by Joselito Jandayan



Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork created by shaping or combining hard materials,

typically stone such as marble, metal, glass, or wood, or plastic materials such as clay, textiles,
polymers and softer metals. Ice is also another medium of sculpture.

Sculpture is presented in three ways: additive, subtractive or a combination of both.

Materials may be worked by removal (subtractive) of unwanted parts such as carving; or they
may be additive such as by welding , hardened such as by firing, or molded or cast. Removed
materials could also be used as additive materials in forming other sculptural works. Sculpture is
an important form of public art. A collection of sculpture in a garden setting may be referred to
as a sculpture garden.

Bronze sculpture depicting MacArthur’s landing in Palo, Leyte in 1945.

Ifugao figure in wood.


UP Oblation by Guillermo Tolentino made of bronze.

Philippine eagle ice sculpture

Dragon ice sculpture


Balloon sculpture

Epoxy sculpture. Carabao by Glenn Cagandahan

Stone sculpture

Sand sculpture in Boracay

Bronze relief

Clay sculpture

Ifugao sculpture (wood)

Steel sculpture

Mother scolding her son by Michael Cacnio


Banana sculpture

Pencil sculptures

Chicken/bird made from tree chips


Books sculpture

Paper mache

Bas relief

Michelangelo’s Pieta made of marble (1499)

Henry Moore, Reclining Figure (1951

D. Arts and Crafts

Arts and crafts comprise a whole host of activities and hobbies that are related to making
things with one's hands and skill. These can be sub-divided into handicrafts or "traditional crafts"
(doing things the old way) and "the rest". Some crafts have been practiced for centuries, while
others are modern inventions, or popularizations of crafts which were originally practiced in a
very small geographic area.

Most crafts require a combination of skill, speed, and patience, but they can also be learnt
on a more basic level by virtually anyone. Many community centers and schools run evening or
day classes and workshops offering to teach basic craft skills in a short period of time. Many of
these crafts become extremely popular for brief periods of time (a few months, or a few years),
spreading rapidly among the crafting population as everyone emulates the first examples, then
their popularity wanes until a later resurgence.

Flower crafts for kids

A quotation placed in house made of popsicle sticks.

Coffee Filter Butterflies


Easter craft ideas for kids and pre-school children.

Halloween Mason Jar Lanterns


Yarn and Needle craft


Kaleidoscope. Rainbow Stars Craft

Rolled Paper Wreath





How to define music has long been the subject of debate; philosophers, musicians, and,
more recently, various social and natural scientists have argued about what constitutes music.
Music may be defined according to various criteria including organization, pleasantness, intent,
social construction, perceptual processes and engagement, universal aspects or family
resemblances, and through contrast or negative definition.

Etymology. The word music comes from the Greek word, mousikê by way of the Latin
musica. It is ultimately derived from mousa, the Greek word for muse. In ancient Greece, the
word mousike was used to mean any of the arts or sciences governed by the Muses (the
goddesses of the arts). In the European Middle Ages, musica was part of the mathematical
quadrivium: arithmetics, geometry, astronomy and musica. The concept of musica was split into
four major kinds by the fifth century philosopher, Boethius: musica universalis, musica humana,
musica instrumentalis, and musica divina. Of those, only musica instrumentalis referred to music
as performed sound.

Musica universalis or musica mundana referred to the order of the universe, as God had
created it in "measure, number and weight". The proportions of the spheres of the planets and
stars (which at the time were still thought to revolve around the earth) were perceived as a form
of music, without necessarily implying that any sound would be heard—music refers strictly to
the mathematical proportions. From this concept later resulted the romantic idea of a music of
the spheres.

Musica humana, designated the proportions of the human body. These were thought to
reflect the proportions of the Heavens and as such, to be an expression of God's greatness. To
Medieval thinking, all things were connected with each other—a mode of thought that finds its
traces today in the occult sciences or esoteric (understood by or meant for only a select few,
private, secret) thought—ranging from astrology to believing certain minerals have certain
beneficiary effects.

Musica instrumentalis was the lowliest of the three disciplines and referred to the
manifestation of those same mathematical proportions in sound—be it sung or played on

Definitions of Music

1. As Organized sound. An often-cited definition of music, coined by Edgard Varèse, is that it

is "organized sound" (Goldman 1961, 133). Music is similar to the visual arts. In the
visual arts, materials are gathered and organized in order to create forms and shapes. In
like manner, sounds (the materials used in music) are organized in an orderly manner so
as to create beautiful sounds and tone combinations.

Many people do, however, share a general idea of music. The Websters definition of music is a
typical example: "the science or art of ordering tones or sounds in succession, in combination,
and in temporal relationships to produce a composition having unity and continuity" (Webster's
Collegiate Dictionary, online edition).

2. As a Language

Many definitions of music implicitly hold that music is a communicative activity which conveys
to the listener moods, emotions, thoughts, impressions, or philosophical, sexual, or political
concepts or positions.

3. Musical universals

Music is found in all cultures of the world. It is a culture universal or a cultural characteristic that
is present in all cultures regardless of cultural and geographical differences. No culture could
exist without music.

4. Social construct

Post-modern and other theories argue that, like all art, music is defined primarily by social
context. According to this view, music is what people call music, whether it is a period of
silence, found sounds, or performance.

"Cultural background is a factor in determining music from noise or unpleasant experiences. The
experience of only being exposed to a particular type of music influences perception of any
music.” Culture defines what is music or noise, what kind of instrumental tuning is acceptable,
how to sing, what is the music that is allowed at certain occasions, who are the performers, the
space for music performance and many more. The universality of music as a social construct is
defined by its social context. Thus, different cultures have different definitions and concepts of

5. As Subjective experience

This approach to the definition focuses not on the construction but on the experience of music.
An extreme statement of the position has been articulated by the Italian composer Luciano Berio:
“Music is everything that one listens to with the intention of listening to music” (Berio,
Dalmonte, and Varga 1985, 19). Thus, music could include "found" sound structures—produced
by natural phenomena or algorithms—as long as they are interpreted by means of the aesthetic

cognitive processes involved in music appreciation. This approach permits the boundary between
music and noise to change over time as the conventions of musical interpretation evolve within a
culture, to be different in different cultures at any given moment, and to vary from person to
person according to their experience and proclivities (a natural or habitual inclination or
tendency). It is further consistent with the subjective reality that even what would commonly be
considered music is experienced as nonmusic if the mind is concentrating on other matters and
thus not perceiving the sound's essence as music (Clifton 1983, 9).

Different Types of Music

Music is a form of art. Edgard Varese defined it as "organized sound". Music expresses our
feelings as well emotions in a melodious and pleasant way. Is there anyone who doesn't like this
form of art? Read on to know the various types of music. Different types of music help in
soothing one's disturbed soul, in the growth of concentration and also enliven us to live life to the
fullest. There are varied genres of music as people have different tastes. For e.g., classical music,
rock, jazz, metal, rap, folk etc. But the objective remains the same. The aim of all music is to
touch the core of the heart and thus music can be called an expression of our heart's saying. To
understand and know about different genres of music, let us have a look at the following genres.

Different Music Genres

Classical Music: Classical music is a complex form of music as it requires skills like learning to
become a pianist, violinist, opera singer, conductor or composer. If you wish to learn it, then you
have to go through proper training.

Rock Music: This music genre originated in the rock and roll era of 1950’s. The vocals are
accompanied by guitar, drum and bass. Certain rock groups also use piano, synthesizer,
saxophone, flute, mandolin and sitar for a deeper effect. This type of music has several sub
genres, such as hard rock, progressive rock and metal rock.

Metal Music: Metal music emerged after the Second World War. Here the melody of the song is
heavily influenced by the structure of the songs. While in rock music, songwriting is based
within a form; in metal music, the central melody decides the structure of the song. It is also
known as 'information music'.

Hip-hop Music: Hip-hop music always includes the use of instruments such as guitar, violin,
fiddle, piano, bass and drums. In this type of music, the bass is the main instrument. This can be
used in different intensities to emote feelings of anger, pride and others. This type of music is the
result of hip-hop culture and is known as hip-hop music. This music shows a heavy influence of
Jamaican music. The roots of the music are found in African-American and West African music.
It was first played by a group of traveling singers and poets of West Africa.

Trance Music: This type of music is usually played in club houses and discotheques. It
originated in the 20th century. This music is characterized by fast tempo and repetitious beats of
the percussion. It has a hypnotic effect on the souls of listeners.

Jazz: This type of music is featured by strong and complex rhythms. The main instruments used
for jazz music are cornet, trumpet or violin that help carry the melody. This is a rhythmic music
and has a forward momentum called "swing". However, in this genre, the skilled performer
interprets a tune in his own way.

Folk Music: Folk music is a kind of traditional music that is handed down from generations in
every culture. This type of music reflects the emotions of common laity. Popular music and tribal
music are the two sub genres of folk music. This folk music shows the social upheaval that lies
among various classes of people. This also portrays their struggle for survival and their culture.

Techno Music: Techno music is also known as fusion music. This became popular towards the
middle part of the 1980s. This is a form of electronic dance music and based on African-
American music styles like funk, electro and electric jazz. It features fast beats and this form was
initiated by Juan Atkins, Kevin Saunderson and Derrick May.

Opera Music: Opera music first emerged in Italy in the 1600s. This genre has a remarkable
combination of theatrical art and musical invention and is specifically played in the theaters. This
has greater appeal for its delightful orchestral accompaniment. The preludes and interludes of
this music set the tone for the action on-stage.


Dance is a type of art that generally involves movement of the body, usually rhythmic
and to music, performed in many different cultures and used as a form of expression, social
interaction and exercise or presented in a spiritual or performance setting.

Dance may also be regarded as a form of nonverbal communication between humans, and
is also performed by other animals (bee dance, patterns of behaviour such as a mating dance).
Gymnastics, figure skating and synchronized swimming are sports that incorporate dance, while
martial arts kata are often compared to dances. Motion in ordinarily inanimate objects may also
be described as dances (the leaves danced in the wind).

Definitions of what constitutes dance are dependent on social, cultural, aesthetic, artistic
and moral constraints and range from functional movement (such as folk dance) to virtuoso
techniques such as ballet. Dance can be participatory, social or performed for an audience. It can
also be ceremonial, competitive or erotic. Dance movements may be without significance in
themselves, such as in ballet or European folk dance, or have a gestural vocabulary/symbolic
system as in many Asian dances. Dance can embody or express ideas, emotions or tell a story.

Dancing has evolved many styles. Breakdancing and krumping are related to the hip hop
culture. African dance is interpretative. Ballet, Ballroom, Waltz, and Tango are classical styles of
dance while Square Dance and the Electric Slide are forms of step dances.

Every dance, no matter what style, has something in common. It not only involves
flexibility and body movement, but also physics. If the proper physics are not taken into
consideration, injuries may occur.

Choreography is the art of creating dances. The person who creates (i.e., choreographs) a
dance is known as the choreographer.

Kinds of Dances

1. Ethnologic or Folk dance. These are dances that are native or indigenous to a certain group of
people or tribe. Themes for these dances range from routinary or everyday activities to festive
ones. The use of costumes, musical instruments and choreography are also indigenous.

Korean Fan Dance

Classic Dance of India


African Dance

Mexican Hat Dance

2. Ritual or Ceremonial Dances. These are dances related to rituals and invokes the gods and
spirits, to appease the anger of supernatural deities and to ask favors from them for continued
protection and abundance.

A modernized ritual dance.

3. Social Dances. This type of dance is also known as ballroom dancing. They are danced in
pairs like cha-cha, tango, rhumba, boogie, swing, etc.

Ballroom Dancing

4. Ballet. A court dance that originated in Europe. It is a complicated type of dance that
requires rigid training. Ballet dancers mostly begin learning it while very young when the
bones and muscles are flexible and easy to mold.

Ballet Dancer

5. Modern Dances. Some examples of modern dances include disco dancing, hip hop, break
dancing. These are dances that are considered to be informal and have tremendous appeal to
the masses. It is also rapidly growing in popularity and are appealing to the younger

Modern Dance

Break dancing

Hip hop

Ethnic and Non-native Philippine Folk Dances

Countries of the world have their own cultures that are made more colourful, beautiful and
vibrant because of folk dances that are a reflection of who they are and what they are.

In the East, the Chinese have their symbolical Dragon Dance; the Japanese have the ancestral
dance Bon Odori. In the West, the Americans have their Square Dance. The Scottish people have
their world-famous dances (Highland and Country Dance, Jig and Reel). On the other hand, the
Philippines will not be left behind! The “Pearl of the Orient” boasts of a variety of Philippine
folk dances.

The Filipinos pay tributes and owe itself to cultural heritage. One way of showing such love and
respect for the country gave birth to the development of Philippine ethnic folk dances. Some of
these are the following:

1. Binasuan - Originated in Pangasinan Province “meaning with the use of drinking glasses”,
this vibrant dance basically shows off balancing skill of the performers. Glasses filled with rice
wine are placed on the head and on each hand carefully maneuvered with graceful movements.
This dance is common in weddings, fiestas and special occasions.

2. Pandanggo sa Ilaw - The word “pandanggo” comes from the Spanish dance “fandango”
characterized with lively steps and clapping while following a varying ¾ beat. Pandanggo
requires excellent balancing skill to maintain the stability of three tinggoy, or oil lamps, placed
on head and at the back of each hand. This famous dance of grace and balance originated from
Lubang Island, Mindoro.

3. Sublian - The term “subli” is from two Tagalog words “subsub” meaning falling on head and
“bali”, which means broken. Hence, the dancers appear to be lame and crooked throughout the
dance. This version is originally a ritual dance of the natives of Bauan, Batangas, which is shown
during fiestas as a ceremonial worship dance to the town’s icon, the holy cross.

4. Kuratsa - Commonly performed during festivals in Bohol and other Visayan towns, this dance
portrays a young playful couple’s attempt to get each other’s attention. It is performed in a
moderate waltz style.

5. Itik-itik - According to history of this dance, a young woman named Kanang (short for
Cayetana) happened to be the best performer in the province of Surigao del Norte. At one
baptismal reception, she was asked to dance the Sibay, and began improvising her steps in the
middle of her performance imitating the movements of an “itik”, a duck, as it walks with choppy
steps and splashes water on its back while attracting its mate. Because of its unusual steps and
fascinating interpretation, the audience began imitating her.

6. Tinikling - Tinikling is considered the national folkdance with a pair of dancers hopping
between two bamboo poles held just above the ground and struck together in time to music.
Originated from Leyte Province, this dance is in fact a mimic movement of “tikling birds”
hopping over trees, grass stems or over bamboo traps set by farmers. Dancers perform this dance
with remarkable grace and speed jumping between bamboo poles.

7. Maglalatik - Originally performed in Binan, Laguna as a mock-war dance that demonstrates a

fight between the Moros and the Christians over the prized latik or coconut meat during the
Spanish rule, this dance is also shown to pay tribute to the town’s patron saint, San Isidro
Labrador. It has a four-part performance such as the palipasan and the baligtaran showing the
intense battle, the paseo and the escaramusa- the reconciliation. Moro dancers wear read trousers
while the Christian dancers show up in blue. All dancers are male; with harnesses of coconut
shells attached on their chests, backs, thighs and hips.

8. La Jota Manileña - It is a dance named after the capital city of the Philippines, Manila, where
an adaptation of Castilian Jota afloats with the clacking of bamboo castanets played by the
dancers themselves. The costume and the graceful movements of the performers noticeably
inspired by Spanish Culture.

9. Sakuting - Originated in Abra, this dance interprets a mock fight between Ilokano Christians
and non- Christians with training sticks as props. It is traditionally performed during Christmas
at the town plaza or from house-to-house as a caroling show. As a return, the dancers receive
presents or money locally known as “aguinaldo”.

10. Pantomina - Meaning "Dance of the Doves", this dance is the highlight of Sorsogon’s
Kasanggayahan Festival every third week of October. Groups of participants, mainly elderly in
colourful costumes, dance to the tune of Pantomina song. It is a courtship dance originated from
imitating the courtship and lovemaking of doves that then showed during the dance where men
attempt to please the women.

11. Singkil. A courtship dance from Mindanao. There are different versions of Singkil found in
different Muslim communities in Mindanao.


V. Computer Art and Digital Art

Joseph Nechvatal (2004) Orgiastic abattOir

Wires by Perry Welman 2007

Computer art is any art in which computers played a role in production or display of the
artwork. Such art can be an image, sound, animation, video, CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, videogame,
web site, algorithm, performance or gallery installation. Many traditional disciplines are now
integrating digital technologies and, as a result, the lines between traditional works of art and
new media works created using computers has been blurred. For instance, an artist may combine
traditional painting with algorithm art and other digital techniques. As a result, defining
computer art by its end product can thus be difficult. Computer art is by its nature evolutionary
since changes in technology and software directly affect what is possible.

Digital art is an umbrella term for a range of artistic works and practices that use digital
technology. Since the 1970s various names have been used to describe what is now called digital
art including computer art and multimedia art but digital art is itself placed under the larger
umbrella term new media art

The impact of digital technology has transformed traditional activities such as painting,
drawing and sculpture, while new forms, such as net art, digital installation art, and virtual
reality, have become recognized artistic practices. More generally the term digital artist is used to
describe an artist who makes use of digital technologies in the production of art. In an expanded
sense, "digital art" is a term applied to contemporary art that uses the methods of mass
production or digital media.[4]

Examples of digital art

World Skin (1997), Digital Mosaic at Joseph Nechvatal

Maurice Benayoun's Newschool ASCII Orgiastic abattOir
Screenshot Habsburgerallee
virtual reality (Underground station), 2004 computer-robotic
interactive installation Frankfurt am Main by assisted acrylic on
Manfred Stumpf canvas (digital

Benoît Mandelbrot
Initial image of a A scene from Rooster
Installation by Shawn
Mandelbrot set zoom Teeth Productions'
Brixey of Chimera
sequence with popular machinima
Obscura at the
Picture produced by continuously coloured series Red vs. Blue:
Gene(sis) Exhibition
Drawing Machine 2 environment Electronic The Blood Gulch
Language International Chronicles

The Cave Automatic ComplexCity by John F. Loops (still frame) by

Picture by drawing Simon Jr. 2000. Software, The OpenEnded Group
Virtual Environment
machine 1, Desmond Macintosh Powerbook
Paul Henry, c.1960s G3 and acrylic. 19 × 16 ×
3½ inches.

Bob Holmes
Uncuttable (Flash Pascal Dombis
Arambilet: Sutil/Subtle Interaction),, Instalation view of
Nude by Sandro Bocola
Museum of Modern Art 2007, San Francisco Irrationnal Geometrics
Multiple for
(MAM), Dominican Museum of Modern Art 2008
xartcollection, 1970
Republic, 2006

Arambilet: Dots on the

I's, D-ART 2009 Online
Digital Art Gallery,
exhibited at IV09 and
CG09 computer
R Gopakumar: Graphics conferences, at Shooter G.H.
Cognition-Libido Pompeu Fabra Hovagimyan & Peter Lillian Schwartz
(Digital Print on University, Barcelona; Sinclair, 2001 Comparison of
Canvas, Limited Tianjin University, installation view at Leonardo's self portrait
Edition, 1/7) Permanent China; Permanent
Eyebeam Atelier and the Mona Lisa
Art Collection Kinsey Exhibition at the
based on Schwartz's
Institute for Research in London South Bank
Mona Leo
Sex, Gender, and University