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Spur gear & Helical gears: Cutaway model

Spur gear:
This gear system I the easiest and visualize gear system to transmit power to
parallel shafts. Also this is the common gear system which used in many
mechanical devices. This gear system commonly used in high torque low speed

 Transmission efficiency is high than other gear system.
 Straightforward design.
 It has constant velocity ratio.
 Reliability
 Easy to assemble.

 Limited center distance
 Noise is high
 Spur gears take significant stress.
 Used in vehicle engines.
 Used in aircraft engine
 Used in railway trains.

Helical gears
Helical Is most common used gear system in transmission. They also generate
large amount of thrust and use bearing to help support the thrust and use
bearing to help support the thrust load. Helical gears can be used to adjust the
rotating angle by 90deg. When mounted perpendicular shafts.

 Silent operation.
 Non parallel shaft can handle.
 Strength is higher than the spur gear.
 There Is a greater degree of friction between the teeth.
 The helical gear efficiency is lower than the other gear systems.
 Higher manufacturing cost than the spur gear.
 Thrust which results along the gear axis.
 Vehicle gear box.
 Machine tools.
 Used in fertilizer industries and printing industries.
 Used in steel rolling mills.
 used in textile industries ,plastic industries, elevators, blowers and
compressor etc.

Worm gear model

This gear system consists of two elements those are worm screw and worm
wheel. A worm drive can reduce rotational speed or transmit higher torque.
This gear system can transfer motion in 90 degrees. Also this gear system can
rotate only one direction gear will lock for other direction motions.

 Higher speed reduction
 Worm and worm gear operate silently
 It has self locking it will restrict the reverse movement.
 Manufacturing cost Is high
 Cost of raw material to manufacture the worm gear is high.
 Efficiency is low.
 It has heavy power losses.
How cans worm gear is reversible
To get reversible rotating motion it Is necessary to connect ac motor to the
worm of the worm and worm gear system.

Planetary gear model

The planetary gear system consists of mainly three components:
 The sun gear
 The planet gear and the planet gear’s carrier
 The ring gear
Each of these three components can be the input, the output or can be held
stationery. Choosing which piece plays which role determines the gear ratio for
the greatest.
 This gear system is used to get higher gear ratio in compact space.
 Planetary gear has light weight as compared to traditional gear systems.
 Power transmission efficiency will be quiet good.
 It has higher torque transmission capability and will have a lower inertia.
 Driven and driver equipment can arrange in same gear system.
 It has higher stability.
 Cost of planetary gear system is higher than the normal gear system.
 Designing and manufacturing is very complex.
 Determination of efficiency Is very difficult.
 Gearing should be accurate.
 Some of these gearing system make noise.
 To avoid any additional gearing, driver and driven members must be

 Used in clocks.
 Lunar calendar
 Car mirrors
 toys
Continues variable transmission (CVT) model

A continuous variable transmission, or CVT, is a type of automatic

transmission that provides more useable power, better fuel economy and a
smoother driving experience than a traditional automatic transmission.
 Compact design.
 Stepless acceleration.
 Fuel efficiency.
 Cost and maintains is hard
 Different driving experience.
 A high power/density belt.
 A set of Cone pulleys.
 Hydraulic Actuator.
 Mechanical torque sensor.
 Microprocessor.
 Torque Converter or Multi-layered clutch (replacing conventional