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Lecture 7

Part 1

Tharaka Bandara

Angle of twist

• Consider a circular shaft that is

attached to a fixed support at

one end. If a torque T is applied

to the other end, the shaft will

twist, with its free end rotating

through an angle φ called the

angle of twist.

• Angle of twist is proportional to

torque T and the length of the

shaft L.

(Beer et al 2012)

• All of the equally spaced circles shown in

Fig. (a) will rotate by the same amount

relative to their neighbours.

transformed into a curve (helix) intersecting

the various circles at the same angle as

seen in Fig. (b).

to a torsion, every cross section

remains plane and undistorted.

(Beer et al 2012)

Determining the distribution of

shear strains

• We will now determine the distribution of shearing strains in a

circular shaft of length L and radius c that has been twisted

through an angle φ.

• Detaching from the shaft a cylinder of radius r, we consider

the small square element formed by two adjacent circles and

two adjacent straight lines traced on the surface of the

cylinder before any load is applied.

𝐿𝛾 = 𝜌𝜑

𝜸= (1) circular shaft varies linearly with

𝑳

the distance from the axis of the

shaft.

(Beer et al 2012)

𝜌𝜑

𝛾=

𝐿

shearing strain is maximum on the surface of

the shaft, where ρ = c.

𝒄𝝋

𝜸𝒎𝒂𝒙 = (2)

𝑳

eliminating φ, we can express the shearing

strain 𝛾 at a distance ρ from the axis of the

shaft as

𝝆

𝜸= 𝜸𝒎𝒂𝒙 (3)

𝒄

(Beer et al 2012)

Stresses in the elastic range

Recalling Hooke’s law for shear stress (𝜏) and shear strain

𝜏 = 𝐺𝛾 (4)

where G is the modulus of rigidity or shear modulus of the material.

Multiplying both sides of equation (3) by G

𝜌

𝐺𝛾 = 𝐺𝛾𝑚𝑎𝑥

𝑐

Making use of equation (4), we have

𝝆

𝝉= 𝝉𝒎𝒂𝒙 (5)

𝒄

The shearing stress in the shaft varies linearly with the distance ρ from

the axis of the shaft.

Figures below show the distribution of shear stresses in a solid circular

shaft of radius c as seen in Fig. (a) and Fig. (b) in a hollow circular shaft

of inner radius c1 and outer radius c2.

(Beer et al 2012)

The integral depends only on the geometry of the

shaft. It represents the polar moment of inertia (J) of

the shaft’s cross-sectional area about the shaft’s

(Hibbeler 2011)

longitudinal axis.

Therefore, we can write

𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝐽

𝑇=

𝑐

Rearranging the formula, we obtain These two formula

are often referred to

𝑻𝒄 as Torsion formula.

𝝉𝒎𝒂𝒙 =

𝑱

(Hibbeler 2011)

𝑻𝝆

𝝉=

𝑱

Polar moment of inertia

(Hibbeler 2011)

Polar moment of inertia

(Hibbeler 2011)

(Hibbeler 2011)

Example 1

The solid shaft of radius c is subjected to a torque T. Determine the

fraction of T that is resisted by the material contained within the outer

region of the shaft, which has an inner radius of c/2 and outer radius c.

(Hibbeler 2011)

(Hibbeler 2011)

(Hibbeler 2011)

(Hibbeler 2011)

Example 2

A hollow cylindrical steel shaft is 1.5 m long

and has inner and outer diameters

respectively equal to 40 and 60 mm.

(a) What is the largest torque that can be

applied to the shaft if the shearing

stress is not to exceed 120 MPa?

(b) What is the corresponding minimum

(Beer et al 2012)

value of the shearing stress in the shaft?

(a) What is the largest torque that can be

applied to the shaft if the shearing stress is

not to exceed 120 MPa?

(Beer et al 2012)

(Beer et al 2012)

(b) What is the corresponding minimum value

of the shearing stress in the shaft?

(Beer et al 2012)

(Beer et al 2012)

Example 3

Shaft BC is hollow with inner and outer

diameters of 90 mm and 120 mm,

respectively. Shafts AB and CD are solid and

of diameter d. For the loading shown,

determine

(a) the maximum and minimum shearing

stress in shaft BC,

(b) the required diameter d of shafts AB

and CD if the allowable shearing stress

in these shafts is 65 MPa.

(Beer et al 2012)

(Beer et al 2012)

(b) the required diameter d of shafts AB and CD if the

allowable shearing stress in these shafts is 65 MPa.

(Beer et al 2012)

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