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Strength of Materials

Lecture 7

Torsion of circular shafts –


Part 1
Tharaka Bandara
Angle of twist
• Consider a circular shaft that is
attached to a fixed support at
one end. If a torque T is applied
to the other end, the shaft will
twist, with its free end rotating
through an angle φ called the
angle of twist.
• Angle of twist is proportional to
torque T and the length of the
shaft L.

(Beer et al 2012)
• All of the equally spaced circles shown in
Fig. (a) will rotate by the same amount
relative to their neighbours.

• Each of the straight lines will be


transformed into a curve (helix) intersecting
the various circles at the same angle as
seen in Fig. (b).

When a circular shaft is subjected


to a torsion, every cross section
remains plane and undistorted.
(Beer et al 2012)
Determining the distribution of
shear strains
• We will now determine the distribution of shearing strains in a
circular shaft of length L and radius c that has been twisted
through an angle φ.
• Detaching from the shaft a cylinder of radius r, we consider
the small square element formed by two adjacent circles and
two adjacent straight lines traced on the surface of the
cylinder before any load is applied.

𝐿𝛾 = 𝜌𝜑

𝝆𝝋 Thus, the shearing strain in a


𝜸= (1) circular shaft varies linearly with
𝑳
the distance from the axis of the
shaft.
(Beer et al 2012)
𝜌𝜑
𝛾=
𝐿

From the equation above, it follows that the


shearing strain is maximum on the surface of
the shaft, where ρ = c.
𝒄𝝋
𝜸𝒎𝒂𝒙 = (2)
𝑳

Combining the two equations above and


eliminating φ, we can express the shearing
strain 𝛾 at a distance ρ from the axis of the
shaft as
𝝆
𝜸= 𝜸𝒎𝒂𝒙 (3)
𝒄

(Beer et al 2012)
Stresses in the elastic range
Recalling Hooke’s law for shear stress (𝜏) and shear strain

𝜏 = 𝐺𝛾 (4)
where G is the modulus of rigidity or shear modulus of the material.
Multiplying both sides of equation (3) by G

𝜌
𝐺𝛾 = 𝐺𝛾𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝑐
Making use of equation (4), we have
𝝆
𝝉= 𝝉𝒎𝒂𝒙 (5)
𝒄
The shearing stress in the shaft varies linearly with the distance ρ from
the axis of the shaft.
Figures below show the distribution of shear stresses in a solid circular
shaft of radius c as seen in Fig. (a) and Fig. (b) in a hollow circular shaft
of inner radius c1 and outer radius c2.

(Beer et al 2012)
The integral depends only on the geometry of the
shaft. It represents the polar moment of inertia (J) of
the shaft’s cross-sectional area about the shaft’s
(Hibbeler 2011)
longitudinal axis.
Therefore, we can write

𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝐽
𝑇=
𝑐
Rearranging the formula, we obtain These two formula
are often referred to
𝑻𝒄 as Torsion formula.
𝝉𝒎𝒂𝒙 =
𝑱

(Hibbeler 2011)

The shear stress at the intermediate distance ρ can be determined from


𝑻𝝆
𝝉=
𝑱
Polar moment of inertia

(Hibbeler 2011)
Polar moment of inertia

(Hibbeler 2011)
(Hibbeler 2011)
Example 1
The solid shaft of radius c is subjected to a torque T. Determine the
fraction of T that is resisted by the material contained within the outer
region of the shaft, which has an inner radius of c/2 and outer radius c.

(Hibbeler 2011)
(Hibbeler 2011)
(Hibbeler 2011)
(Hibbeler 2011)
Example 2
A hollow cylindrical steel shaft is 1.5 m long
and has inner and outer diameters
respectively equal to 40 and 60 mm.
(a) What is the largest torque that can be
applied to the shaft if the shearing
stress is not to exceed 120 MPa?
(b) What is the corresponding minimum
(Beer et al 2012)
value of the shearing stress in the shaft?
(a) What is the largest torque that can be
applied to the shaft if the shearing stress is
not to exceed 120 MPa?

(Beer et al 2012)

(Beer et al 2012)
(b) What is the corresponding minimum value
of the shearing stress in the shaft?

(Beer et al 2012)
(Beer et al 2012)
Example 3
Shaft BC is hollow with inner and outer
diameters of 90 mm and 120 mm,
respectively. Shafts AB and CD are solid and
of diameter d. For the loading shown,
determine
(a) the maximum and minimum shearing
stress in shaft BC,
(b) the required diameter d of shafts AB
and CD if the allowable shearing stress
in these shafts is 65 MPa.

(Beer et al 2012)
(Beer et al 2012)
(b) the required diameter d of shafts AB and CD if the
allowable shearing stress in these shafts is 65 MPa.

Recall that shafts AB and CD are solid and of diameter d

(Beer et al 2012)