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Dept. of Computer Science AcharyaNagarjuna University
MCA-3rd Semester Regd.No : Y10MC20038
Electrical computers today widely used and they are almost in every home. These materials don t synchronize with nature and they caused for global warming. So we need to prepare a new era of computers with biological items like DNA or RNA. The storage capability of biological computers is very Giant , for example, one pound of Bio-logical molecule can stored the data equal to the storage capacity of all electrical storage devices manufactured by man yet. Max speed of Human made electrical super computer is (1.75 PFLOPS practically ) very much less than the speed of bio logical computers (for eg: human brain s speed is 10 PFLOPS ). These biological computers can mixed up with earth and don t cause for global warming. Though
preparation of operating systems is huge for super computers , it will happen in future days.
through miniaturization that could bring huge increases of computing capacity. The impact of Nano-technology production could not only alter how we manufacture computer components. Finally we will look at how this cutting edge technology might be adopted in the future. but might spread to other forms of manufacturing as well. and who would be most likely to make use of bio-computers. storage and speed. followed by the key scientific principles and applications of molecular technology that makes this potential revolution in computing power possible.THE BIOLOGICAL COMPUTERS As we reach the technically feasible limits of the current electronic technology of the desktop computer. The Present Day Computer. Today¶s state-of-the-art personal computers are based on the refined technology surrounding the development of the silicon computer . a new breed of biologically based bacterial Nano-computers of the future may have the capacity to impact and alter desktop computing forever. In this article we will examine the current developments of bio computing. power.
60Hz would represent 60 cycles or instructions per second. A single hertz (Hz) is one completed cycle per second. Following this model.1 micron. Now a single printed circuit on the surface of a chip is down to 0. Each cycle represents a single instruction. This power was attained by leaps in miniaturization. Today the state-of-the-art Pentium 4 based PC chip touts speeds up to 2000mhz. . squeezing more and more circuits onto a single chip. and a gigahertz represents one billion cycles or computations per second. measured in the frequency of hertz. about 1. Today the computing capability of the computer chip has been embraced by consumers and industry alike in the clock speed of the PC Chip.chip.000 times thinner than a human hair. or one of millions of instructions created by a computer¶s software. a megahertz is a million cycles or computations per second. which may be as simple as the addition of two numbers.
.The Bio-Chip Computer of Tomorrow.
of switches and components. Nano biotechnology can be defined as any type of technology that uses both nano-scale materials. and the ability to pack billions more circuits onto a microchip than ever thought possible. or even trillions. in a more general sense.e. and it is possible to make chips containing billions." From this statement it would seem logical to assume that this new molecular technology has the possibility to increase the capacity of a single chip by . The term Nano biotechnology can be defined in multiple ways.The development of bio computers has been made possible by the expanding new science of Nano biotechnology. Science news writer Tim McDonald asserts that "molecules are only a few Nano meters in size. i. materials having characteristic dimensions of 1-100 nanometres Enter the field of molecular computing.
And if this possibility of such huge increases of a computer microchip exists. Let¶s start fresh with a look at the most refined and efficient model of a biological supercomputer that exists today: the human brain. The human brain and our accompanying sensory biology. Fortunately there is a body of knowledge based on the 30-year quest for robotic vision. These were made up of thousands of PC Chips and cost in the tens of millions . We will speak no more of the CPU¶s chip speed. With all this fuss over desktop multimedia. The term supercomputer is widely used but even more widely misunderstood.factors measured in the millions. Experimental computers achieved a few million MIPS in 1998. here is a fact worth remembering--you are your most powerful computing asset. represent a level of power and sophistication that makes even our best PCs look downright pokey. Embracing a measurement in the MIPS (million instructions per second). it is thought that PC computing equivalent of human sight requires 100 million MIPS. In order to define what a supercomputer is. and these statistics are revealing. such as eyesight. then what many would call a super computer becomes achievable. first we must leave behind the old style of measuring computing speed and power. It is irrelevant to the new computing models we are going to explore.
If we are ever to enter the realm of the super-computer. Naval Research Labs. NEC.of dollars. It is clear that computing devices are only one of many different products that are feasible. including industry giants Genex. capable of tremendous processing power and speed. most scientific predictions of what types of Nano-technical machines are possible are ambiguous. The list of organizations that are actively engaged in nanotechnology research and development. Some examples of applications for microscopic machines range from microscopic bacterial syringes ± born from current bio-technology ± that kill cancer cells. The race to engineer a new breed of machines and computers at the molecular level is well under way. IBM.S. and Toshiba to name a few. Hitachi. we will need to look beyond our current model of an electronically based silicon chip computer. Enter bio-chip based computing. which many scientists in a variety of disciplines believe holds the key to a new era of computers. Other areas include data . to pocket DNA testers. as well as practical applications is impressive. It is worth noting that even with this impressive collection of corporate R&D muscle. U. to airplane wings made of "smart skin" material that allows the micro-surface to act as finely tuned flaps allowing for safer and more efficient flight.
and casings.storage. so too can molecular tools bond molecules together to make tiny gears. inertial navigation. "Just as ordinary tools can build ordinary machines from parts. weapons. . and a dizzying array of nano pumps. motors.´ Comparison : All the transistors are replaced with DNA molecules and electrical signals are replaced by Bio-reactions. levers. and valves. In principal these devices will share many familiar engineering concepts used today. and assemble them together to make complex machines.
B.825 PFLOPS (1.S) Dawning (China) Vendor Cray (U.04 PFLOPS (1.B.02 theoretical) I.M (Germany ) Cray (U.3 theoretical) Kraken 0.28 theoretical) Jugene (Blue gene) 0.75 PFLOPS (2.27 PFLOPS (2.of transistors 2300 291 million Calculations per sec 200 20 Billion 40 Billion extreme 781 million TOP500 Super computers ± Range : Name Jaguar speed 1.M (U.S) I.S) .3 theoretical ) Nebula 1.831 PFLOPS (1.9* theoretical) Road runner 1.Comparison of several stages in Electrical computers : product 8080 (1974 year) Core2 Duo (2006) Core (2008) i7 No.
or On or Off.01 micron sized circuits of today's silicon chip. Biology and Electronics Merge. both on and off. Electronic computers of today simply act as routers for electrons over the . and we have the makings of what we would now consider a supercomputer in a device the size of a current day PDA or smaller. at least in theory. the potential computing power grows exponentially. we start to see how a single molecule capable of being in a state of 0 or 1. makes the possibility of molecular computing achievable. A . Combine this increased computing power with emerging miniaturized data storage technology that raises the bar of fast access to media up to terabyte capacity. The ability to engineer and build a bio-computer lies first and foremost in the ability to merge the biological parts with the electronics into hybrid systems. And since it has been proven that molecular switches can exist in several states at once.But human brain contains 100 Billions of neurons which are acts as transistors and produce electrical + chemical reactions which are called feelings and thoughts What About The Bio-chip computer? Based on the underlying principal of digital computing based on the binary code of 0's and 1's.
may allow for the same sized circuit to handle the equivalent of one thousand circuits through the development of Micro electromechanical systems. input. Self-Assembling Materials. Manufacturing on the molecular level on a scale that would be useful is made possible by the ability for some molecules to "self-assemble. But the ability to design nanotechnology based on organic molecules that build themselves once started is very new." This ability to reproduce organically is noteworthy in many ways. Inspired by nature. and connectivity. sound. MEMS is the practice of combining miniaturized mechanical and electronic components. Through a wide variety of techniques currently being researched and developed. Already successfully proving this concept are new liposomes that contain drugs for treatments of an array of diseases. successful MEMS technology will be key to building hybrid systems containing technology based in both organically grown molecules and traditionally manufactured electronics. It is widely accepted that any successful bio-chip based computer can only be built by combining the bio-chip with the latest electronic technologies. or MEMS.biological PC chip. There are many other areas where self-assembly has been proven to work. Some big wins include the successful design and growth of . this model is nothing new. however. including those for display.
" to stretch the software analogy -. as well as a very relevant piece to the bio-computing puzzle. which are tiny self assembling graphite tubes that act as the smallest electrical wire ever known. any one person or group cannot own the fundamental principals that would allow for such extraordinary developments.crystals starting off with a self assembling monolayer (SAM). which leads us to believe it can be only good for the developing nano-machines based in biological technology. anyone can take it and tweak. the parts list -. There is the possibility of a "democratization" regarding the ability to design and manufacture as the technology matures. What propels the entire field of biological nano -technology is the ability to manipulate organic matter. "The toolbox of biochemistry.the "kernel. much like open source code for software.´ This non-ownership factor has enormous importance. Once any biological technology is developed. Bucky tubes. For the most part. Award-winning .is shared by all organisms on the planet. The Universal Key. This model has been shown to foster innovation in the software industry.
and eventually to the home garage and kitchen. But there is another aspect of this technology that could effect us in ways so profound it becomes hard to imagine. We all know that the current model of industrialization is a wasteful one. biological manufacturing has a huge advantage. alternative power. mainly that "renewable.science writer Robert Carlson believes that "these critical technologies will first move from academic labs to large biotechnology companies to small business. the potential of biological computer chip manufacturing to be more efficient from an economic view is an important factor. Aside from the obvious solutions of recycling. and other "green" sciences. for instance. and bio-computing will be no different in that respect. it is now a fact that." Fantastic as that may seem. All This And Cheaper Too? Considering a computer chip manufacturing plant costs upward of one billion dollars. The combination of cheaper and faster always gets attention. biological manufacturing will take . that many lab tests that in the past required a doctoral degree and tremendous scientific resources now come in colour coded kits any undergraduate can use successfully.
thus allowing each of us to create a virtual life history stored in digital media. and sound output by a miniature ear-piece.place anywhere someone wants to set up a vat or plant a seed. it is simply grown. Input is provided by speaking into a tiny microphone coupled with advanced speech recognition. let¶s speculate. allowing for real-time interaction and sharing of data. Connectivity would be achieved by high speed wireless network access to the Internet. visually experienced by wearing glasses that project images onto the surface of the each lens. and your colleagues. I offer this scenario. what capabilities a supercomputer the size of a watch might have." Once the scientific design of any given bio-pc component is refined. for example. Add a virtual staff of intelligent software agents able to perform . The drain on our planet resources and the wasteful pollution resulting from current manufacturing methods are eliminated in the process. What could we do with a Bio-Chip computer? In order to see just what the future implications of this new and exciting technology might realistically bring. a handheld or wearable computer device capable of generating a photo-realistic 3D virtual computing environment. Then consider the exciting prospect of recording every moment and interaction each and every day of our lives.
The Bio-Chip Revolution«Will It Come? As great as a bio-chip super computer sounds. engineering -. most of the population . and to many. Until there is a fundamental shift in the very nature of computing. much less use.anything a room full of highly educated and expensive employees would normally do -. Unless some ³killer´ application comes along that requires a quantum leap in computational power. that in the next twenty years some form of hybrid bio-chip super computer will be developed. the prospects of such huge advances in computing power and environments are truly revolutionary. it is possible. even probable. such an incredible device. The silicon chip based computer provides more than enough computing power than most of the population will ever need. and is widely adopted.and we start to see the potential of this new technology. including myself. Yes. in my opinion precious few of us will ever get to use one in our lifetime. Unfortunately there are many reasons why most of us will never even see. thank you very much. given the advances discussed in this article.research. our Pentium 4 or 5 or 10 chip will suffice quite well.
most of us will never see one. More With Less. I believe that the majority of consumers computing needs are easily handled by the computers of today.running Windows 200X on their desktop will be oblivious to the possibilities a bio-chip computer could offer. It consisted of a 1970¶s era Intel 486 chip. The precious few of us who actually need the upwards of 100 million MIPS computing punch are fooling around in such focused areas as robotics and artificial intelligence -.highly specialized fields that only a select few actually work in. The Hubble telescope received a highly touted PC upgrade in the waning days of 1999. In the race to make our computer technology more efficient. . The military might be an early adopter. comes along that makes us want. or someone for that matter. Until something. or better yet. feel we must have a bio-chip supercomputer. but we¶d never know about it unless we wore a star or two on our collar. many clever software developers learned to do more with less.
however. So. He creates life but then rejects his creation. to mange the many processes it¶s been programmed to run. The human body does require some amount of electricity and along with the ³body. THE MODERN PROMETHEUS (1818).´ a brain. Mary Shelley was 21 when the book was published. best known as the writer of FRANKENSTEIN. It seems to be founded on some science. the term is most often used . OR. The story deals with an ambitious young scientist. The Computer Today Technically.The First Biological Computer? English Romantic novelist. it is conceivable that in theory albeit very simplistic terms. a computer is a programmable machine. a monster. she started to write it when she was 18. OR. Off Topic? While ³FRANKENSTEIN. THE MODERN PROMETHEUS (1818).´ is science fiction. biographer and editor. Today. or central processor. the human body can be automated with sufficient power and a brain to carry out instructions. This means it can execute a programmed list of instructions and respond to new instructions that it is given.
"We hope a biological computer . When referring to a desktop model. Still. If you want to be really technical. But their aim is to devise a new generation of fast and flexible computers that can work out for themselves how to solve a problem. the term "computer" technically only refers to the computer itself -. and mouse.the team calls the novel calculator the "leech-ulator".to refer to the desktop and laptop computers that most people use. it is acceptable to refer to everything together as the computer. rather than having to be told exactly what to do. is leading the project and says he is amazed that today's computers are still so dumb. at the Georgia Institute of Technology.not the monitor. the device can perform simple sums . At the moment." he says. the box that holds the computer is called the "system unit. keyboard. Professor Bill Ditto." Biological Computers Today A computer made of neurons taken from leeches has been created by US scientists. "Ordinary computers need absolutely correct information every time to come to the right answer.
´ constructed entirely of DNA. performing diagnosis and administering treatment. tiny implantable devices that can monitor the activities and characteristics of human cells. and proteins. could eventually revolutionize medicine by directing therapies only to diseased cells or tissues. The world's smallest computer (around a trillion in a drop of water) might one day go on record again as the tiniest medical kit. Biological computer diagnoses cancer and produces drug ± in a test tube Weizmann Institute scientist¶s vision: Microscopic computers will function inside living tissues.will come to the correct answer based on partial information. The information provided by these ³molecular doctors. RNA. Made ." Medical Applications Scientists developed tiny implantable bio computers Molecular devices¶ remarkably precise scans of cellular activity could revolutionize medicine Researchers at Harvard and Princeton universities have taken a crucial step toward building biological computers. by filling in the gaps itself.
Similarly. the signs of one form of lung cancer. depending on the type of cancer. and to react by producing a drug molecule to fight the cancer cells. output and "software" are all composed of DNA. while DNA-manipulating enzymes are used as "hardware. In one series of test-tube experiments. which will be able to operate inside a living . in the test tube. following a correct diagnosis. they were able to identify. this computer was successfully programmed to identify (in a test tube) changes in the balance of molecules in the body that indicate the presence of certain cancers. As in previous biological computers produced in Shapiro's lab. One day in the future. input. to diagnose the type of cancer. which may be overproduced or under produced.entirely of biological molecules. the material of genes." The newest version's input apparatus is designed to assess concentrations of specific RNA molecules. Using preprogrammed medical knowledge. the output unit of the computer can initiate the controlled release of a single-stranded DNA molecule that is known to interfere with the cancer cell's activities. causing it to self -destruct. to release the short DNA strands designed to kill cancer cells. they hope to create a "doctor in a cell". the team programmed the computer to identify RNA molecules that indicate the presence of prostate cancer and. the computer then makes its diagnosis based on the detected RNA levels. In response to a cancer diagnosis.
spot disease and apply the necessary treatment before external symptoms even appear. Assuming it can even be done. . Risk-Benefit Analysis: Animated Corpse The idea of animating a corpse as in Mary¶s Shelly¶s tale.´ The practice would enrage certain pro -life or prodded groups. Risks: The general consensus might consider the idea or practice inhuman.´ Able to run BILLIONS upon BILLIONS of calculations. Who would volunteer his/her body? How long would these subjects be kept ³alive. Benefits: Understanding the mechanics of the human physiology in a new way. Tiny computers: cheap to ³manufacture.body. DQ would be LOW Risk-Benefit Analysis: Biological Computer for Medical or Scientific Advancement Tiny ³doctors´ monitoring diseases within patients and administering the correct medicines in correct doses.
they are differ with humans in various acts. He is independent but computer is programme dependent . if any small misused operations leads huge mistakes which are irrecoverable .b ut computers must be programmed in particular language. . There is many risks in operating with huge computers.Risks: Technology is it¶s infancy. Because they follow operations and programs but human don¶t need to follow any programmer¶s instructions. Bio-computers cannot synchronous with nature in both reproduction and growing . Human beings can prepare personality by visioning and listening . Will take some time to mature. Particularly. Potential to save lives and offer a better quality of life is high.