University “ Ss.

Ciryl and Methodius” Faculty of Philology “Blaze Koneski” – Skopje


(Skeletal and Muscular System)

MADE BY: Natalija Tashkova – 20155 Sanja Gicheva - 20170
Skopje, 2010

MENTOR: Blagoj Dzajkov

Human musculoskeletal system 2010 Content: Muskuloskeletal syste          Skeletal system Function Joints Tendons Ligaments Bursa Muscular System Skeletal Muscle Muscle Fibres 2 .

The human skeleton is composed of both fused and individual bones supported by ligaments. producing blood for the body. and storing minerals. tendons. and other connective tissue (the tissue that supports and binds tissues and organs together). the skeleton comprises around 14% of the total body weight. and protecting vital organs. Irregular bones. allowing motion. stability. cartilage. tendons. vertebral column and ribcage. and Sesamoid bones. muscles and cartilage. Fused bones include those of the pelvis and the cranium. shoulder and pelvic girdles There are five general classifications of bones. 3 . The bones is composed of ground substance ( matrix). and movement to the body. joints. muscles. The biggest bone in the body is the femur in the upper leg. To allow motion different bones are connected by joints. many bones fuse together between birth and maturity. Flat bones. The bone consists of two parts: compact bone and spongy bone. It is divided into two parts : the central – axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. mineral salts. tendons. the latter comprises the bones of the extremities. Cartilage prevents the bone ends from rubbing directly on to each other. The compact bone is a hard dense shell traversed only by fin canals. muscles and cartilage. The former of the bones of the skull. These are Long bones. The musculoskeletal system provides form.Human musculoskeletal system 2010 Human musculoskeletal system A musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotory system) is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using the muscular and skeletal systems. Humans are born with about 300 to 350 bones. and the smallest is the stapes bone in the middle ear. The musculoskeletal system's primary functions include supporting the body. allowing bodily movement. In an adult. it provides the shape and form for our bodies in addition to supporting. Short bones. and half of this weight is water. lungs and heart. the Haversian canal. The bones provide the stability to a body in analogy to iron rods in concrete construction. It is the matrix that gives its characteristic properties. It is made up of the body's bones (the skeleton). It serves as a scaffold which supports organs. however. and protects organs such as the brain. phosphates or calcium and cells ( osteocytes and endostal cells). anchors muscles. Muscles keep bones in place and also play a role in movement of the bones. ligaments. This system describes how bones are connected to other bones and muscle fibers via connective tissue such as tendons and ligaments. Subsystems Skeletal The Skeletal System serves many important functions. As a result an average adult skeleton consists of 206 bones. protecting. The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments. Muscles contract (bunch up) to move the bone attached at the joint.

the humerus.five lumbar vertebrae. The first seven pairs extend from the vertebral column to the sternum. The pelvic gridle is composed of two large hip bones that form the front and the sides. the ball and socket joint allows a greater range of movement than the pivot joint at the neck. which articulates with the scapula in the shoulder joint. The bones of the toes are also reffered to as phalanges. The shoulder girdle is composed of the scapula and clavicle. The tarsals of the foot articulate with the metatarsals. Function The skeleton has three main functions:  Support The skeleton provides the framework which supports the body and maintains its shape. The first two vertebrae are known as atlas and axis respectively. the sacrum five sacral vertebrae welded into sacral bone. The forearm has two bones: The radius and ulna.Human musculoskeletal system 2010 through which the blood vessels enter inside of the bone. i. The bone marrow is situated inside this spongy area. The scapula which forms the back of the shoulder girdle is a large flat bone located latteraly in the upper part of the back.twelve thoracic vertebrae. The vertebral column. costal cartilages.four coccygeal vertebrae.e. they are floating. the lumbus . The leg is composed of two bones : the tibia and the fibula.  Movement The joints between bones permit movement. The cranium has two parts: neurocranium and viscericranium. which articulates with the hip bone in the coxal joint. and the intercostal muscles the lungs would collapse.the femur. is composed of only one bone . Inside the shell the bone is spongy. Without the ribs. some allowing a wider range of movement than others. It is important for stem sells from which erythrocytes. which is the main supporting structure of the cervical vertebrae. the coccyx . like the arm. In the ankle joint the tallus articulates proximally with the tibia and fibula and distally with the tarsals of the foot. can be divided into five regions: cervix . The thigh. is formed of vertebrae. The first which protects the brain consists of eight bones united by immovable joints called sutures. The next three pairs are attached with cartilages to the sternum. leucocytes and platelets are formed. The arm contains only one large bone. Movement is powered by skeletal muscles. The ribcage contains twelve pairs of ribs. the radius articulates with three carpal bones of the wrist distally. which forms the front of the shoulder girdle is a thin bone attached medially to the sternum and laterally to the scapula. which are attached to 4 . the thorax . Which articulate with the humerus proximally. and the coccygeal bones that form the back. which is the main supporting structutre of the body . which according to where they are located. The pelvis and associated ligaments and muscles provide a floor for the pelvic structures. and the sacral. and the last two parts are unnattached. also welded into one coccygeal bone. The second is made up of the facial bones of which only the mandible is mobile. and the tibia in the knee joint. In addition. The clavicle. e.g.

       Protection The skeleton protects many vital organs: The skull protects the brain. The vertebrae protect the spinal cord. joints that are immovable. biaxial. the eyes. Muscles. that allow little or no movement and are predominantly fibrous. and multiaxial. The ilium and spine protect the digestive and urogenital systems and the hip. The patella and the ulna protect the knee and the elbow respectively. all coordinated by the nervous system. and joints provide the principal mechanics for movement. bones.Human musculoskeletal system 2010 the skeleton at various sites on bones. and false joints or synarthroses. gliding. joints in which the apposed surfaces 5 . The clavicle and scapula protect the shoulder. The rib cage. heart and major blood vessels. There are two divisions of joints. and the middle and inner ears. diarthroses which allow extensive mobility between two or more articular heads. The carpals and tarsals protect the wrist and ankle respectively. uniaxial. The plane. Joints Human synovial joint composition Joints are structures that connect individual bones and may allow bones to move against each other to cause movement. spine. Diarthroses are synovial joints that allow various kinds of movement: plane or gliding. and sternum protect the lungs.

which allow movements on only one plane. and saddle joints. such as those of the wrist. which allow rotation only around the axis. forwards. fibrous elastic tissue. and the gomphoses. The ball-and-socket joints are multiaxial joints that allow a wide range of movement: backwards. In diarthroses. such as those of the ankle.Human musculoskeletal system 2010 are more or less flat. or prevent certain movements that may cause breaks. elbow and finger. such as those between the radius and ulna. Ligaments A ligament is a small band of dense. white. together. tendons transmit the forces to the rigid bones. they add up the considerable flexibility over the whole vertebral column. Ligaments may also restrict some actions: movements such as hyperextension and hyperflexion are restricted by ligaments to an extent. flexible band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscles to bones. such as those of the knee. It is lined on the inside by the synovium. Tendons A tendon is a tough. Also ligaments prevent certain directional movement. eventually becoming solid bands of tendon that merge into the periosteum of individual bones. As muscles contract. permit a gliding motion. flexible cartilage. Biaxial joints can be ellipsoid. in which the articular surface of one bone is concave in one direction and convex in a direction at right angles to the first. Since they are only elastic they increasingly lengthen when under pressure. Ligaments connect the ends of bones together in order to form a joint. There are two types of uniaxial diarthroses: hinge joints. Muscles gradually become tendon as the cells become closer to the origins and insertions on bones. as between the articular processes of the vertebrae. Most ligaments limit dislocation. Each joint is a complicated structure bound together on the outside by fibrous bands called ligaments. Examples of these joints are the sutures that effectively weld the cranial bones into one rigid structure. pulling on them and causing movement. the vertebral symphisial joints that permit very limited movement although. Synarthroses allow very little or no movement. 6 . and pivot joints. the surface of the bone ends which meet is covered with a smooth. When this occurs the ligament may be susceptible to break resulting in an unstable joint. a thin membrane that continuously produces tiny amounts of fluid to lubricate the joint. with the articular surface of the other bone reciprocally convex and concave. sideways and rotation. A fibrous joint capsule surrounds the joint. The hip and shoulder joints are examples of ball-and-socket joints.

Bursa may also be formed by a synovial membrane that extends outside of the join capsule. to communicate nervous energy to. including the movement of the body itself and the organs within the body. muscles nearly always work in coordinated groups: contraction of one muscle is accompanied by relaxation of another while other muscles stabilize nearby joints. the brain instructs the biceps muscle to contract. if one wants to bend the elbow. These contractions can be voluntary and involuntary. Muscles are innervated. these muscles are not under conscious control.Human musculoskeletal system 2010 Bursa A bursa is a small fluid-filled sac made of white fibrous tissue and lined with synovial membrane. they consciously move the organs they are attached to. So. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and arranged in opposing groups around joints. Consequently. Skeletal and cardiac muscles have striations that are visible under a microscope due to the components within their cells. skeletal. Cardiac muscles are found in the heart and are used only to circulate blood. The muscle tissue is composed of tiny filaments that move in relation to each other when stimulated by a nerve impulse. which conduct electrical currents from the central nervous system and cause the muscles to contract. Smooth muscles are used to control the flow of substances within the lumens of hollow organs. For example. such as those in the limbs . bursa are filled with synovial fluid and are found around almost every major joint of the body.cardiac. like the smooth muscles. Only skeletal and smooth muscles are part of the musculoskeletal system and only the skeletal muscles can move the body. It is this movement that accounts for the contraction and relaxation of muscles. the brain signals the biceps muscle to relax and instructs the triceps muscle to contract. There are three types of muscles . It provides a cushion between bones and tendons and/or muscles around a joint. and smooth. by nerves. 7 . and are not consciously controlled. Muscular System Skeletal muscle Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle All movement. perform voluntary contractions and relaxations of the muscle tissue because they are under conscious control of the nervous system. to straighten the arm. is carried by muscles composed of tissues that have the unique ability to contract. Voluntary muscles.

perform involuntary contractions because they are under the control of the autonomic nervous system. which are subdivided into: thorahic muscles. which hold the organs inside the pelvic cavity firmly in place. i. 2. which are subdivided into: upper limb muscles. They also have strong anchorage points especially at the pelvis. head movements. digestive tract and large blood vessels. assist in the regular movements made in breathing. Skeletal muscle A top-down view of skeletal muscle 8 . they normally function without conscious control or even awareness. which are attached to two or more bones and are mainly responsible for breathing. trunk muscles. abdominal muscles. which keep the viscera firmly in place. muscles of the limbs. whose bulk is at the shoulder and below the elbow where long tendons connect the muscles of the forearm to the wrist and fingers. Muscles can be divided into three main groups according to where they are located: 1. which are among the most powerful in the body. such as those in the heart. muscles of the back. which are responsible for facial expressions. head and neck muscles. and lower limb muscles. They have strong anchorage points. Pelvic muscles. speech and swallowing. which hold the spinal column erect.Human musculoskeletal system 2010 Involuntary muscles. and - 3. and balance the muscles of the spine.e.

Skeletal muscle is made up of individual components known as muscle fibers. Differentiation into this state is primarily completed before birth with the cells continuing to grow in size thereafter. the others being cardiac and smooth muscle. multinucleated cells composed of actin and myosin myofibrils repeated as a sarcomere. The interaction of myosin and actin is responsible for muscle contraction. The myofibers are long. Muscle fibers Individual muscle fibers are formed during development from the fusion of several undifferentiated immature cells known as myoblasts into long. The principal cytoplasmic proteins are myosin and actin (also known as "thick" and "thin" filaments. There are two principal ways to categorize muscle fibers: the type of myosin (fast or slow) present. multinucleated cells. Type II fibers are white due to the absence of myoglobin and a reliance on glycolytic enzymes. These fibers are efficient for short bursts of speed and power and use both oxidative metabolism and anaerobic metabolism depending on the particular sub-type. Skeletal muscle can thus be broken down into two broad categories: Type I and Type II.Human musculoskeletal system 2010 Skeletal muscle is a form of striated muscle tissue existing under control of the somatic nervous system. respectively) which are arranged in a repeating unit called a sarcomere. most skeletal muscle is attached to bones by bundles of collagen fibers known as tendons. It is one of three major muscle types. the basic functional unit of the cell and responsible for skeletal muscle's striated appearance and forming the basic machinery necessary for muscle contraction. cylindrical. Skeletal muscle exhibits a distinctive banding pattern when viewed under the microscope due to the arrangement of cytoskeletal elements in the cytoplasm of the muscle fibers. The term muscle refers to multiple bundles of muscle fibers held together by connective tissue. These fibers are formed from the fusion of developmental myoblasts. Type I fibers appear red due to the presence of the oxygen binding protein myoglobin. 9 . These fibers are suited for endurance and are slow to fatigue because they use oxidative metabolism to generate ATP. and the degree of oxidative phosphorylation that the fiber undergoes. cylindrical. As its name suggests. These fibers are quicker to fatigue.

Marković. Sixth edition. A. Beograd: Tehnićka knjiga: Glosarijum. Jelica V.S.Human musculoskeletal system 2010 Bibliography:      Encyclopedia Britannica. Zoze Murgoski. Skopje 2008. unabridged. englesko-srpski. 2009. Medicinski Rećnik. www. English Macedonian Dictionary. Hornby. 1996 10 . Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica 2009 Student and Home ( Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia) Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English.

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