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GC203 COUNSELING TECHNIQUES 1  Exploration stage – building relationship with clients.

Instructor: DR. JOAN B. CANEDA, Ph.D., RPm, RGC  Understanding stage – assisting the client to better
understand their perceptions of themselves,
Reporter: Sittie Nabila Naga Panandigan
significant others and their perceptions of the
 Action phase – assisting the clients in devising a plan of
action to resolve their problems.
Introductions  Parents & Teachers were also involved in the counseling
process in either group or individual conferences.
Yakubo (2000) asserted that a SPECIAL POPULATION is any
group of people identified with a certain empirical evidences or
features that distinguished them from the normal persons. Thus
but admiring them in a special way, due to the features that make PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS
them strange from all others. It should however, be noted that
the features do not only involve negative qualities but also Children with Emotional Health Problems
positive ones. Anything that makes one look or behave different  ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) &
from others make one a special. Attentional problems
 Anxiety Disorders (Including separation anxiety)
The Involvement of Counseling with Special Population therefore  Depression
is to improve and possibly remedy the challenges, facing people  Disruptive behaviors/Acting out
with special needs. Human Communities have used  Mood instability
EDUCATION to improve their standard of living, develop new  Attachment & trauma issues
methods and skills of production, so is the need of counseling  Autism Spectrum Disorders
Symptoms that may indicate a Children with Emotional &
 Unwarranted aggression
Childhood Behavioral Problems – are often a child’s way of  Incontinence
communicating when he/she lacks the social or language  Difficulty adjusting to social situations
skills to express wants and needs clearly.  Frequent nightmare & sleep difficulties
 A sudden drop in grades at school
 Often occurs when a child is experiencing anxiety at
 Persistent worry & anxiety
home or at school, and a child may become stressed or
 Withdrawing from activities they normally enjoy
anxious when a behavior is approved by one adult and
 Loss of appetite & dramatic weight loss
disciplined by another.
 Performing obsessive routines like hand washing
 Expressing thoughts of suicide
 Talking about voices they hear in their head
 Social isolation & wanting to be alone
Symptoms of children w/ behavioral problems:
 self-harm such as cutting
 Cope poorly with stress
 Increased physical complaints despite a normal health
 Inability to respond appropriately in day to day life physician’s report
 Throw tantrums  In addition to these issues, the child may be dealing
 Act out in aggressive or angry ways with:
 Defiant, Disrespectful or Oppositional  Persistent feelings of sadness or hopelessness
 Difficulty in tolerating disappointment and frustration  Constant anger and a tendency to overreact to situations
 Difficulty in creating and maintaining healthy rules and  Preoccupation with physical illness or their own
boundaries appearance
 Act impulsively  An inability to concentrate, think clearly or make decision
 Talks back  An inability to sit still
 Refuse to go to school or participate in activities  Dieting excessively or binging
 Inadequate immature behaviors  Taking part in violent acts such as setting fires or killing
 Poor social skills and uncooperative animals

Is it A Phase or A Pattern? Five Important Goals in Counseling/ Therapy

 Building the child’s self-esteem
 While oppositional and defiant behavioral problems in  Helping to improve the child’s communication skills
children are not pleasant to deal with, these behaviors are  Stimulating healthy, normal development
often a normal part of childhood. Children will test limits  Building an appropriate emotional repertoire
and sometimes seek negative attention. However, when  Improving the child’s emotional vocabulary
disobedient and disruptive behaviors are ongoing, and a
child is not learning from consequences or a reward system Emotional Kids Therapy and Counseling
for good behavior, there may be cause for concern. • Cognitive Therapy- is a good choice for emotional
children as it involves:
COUNSELING THE CHILDREN W/ BEHAVIORAL  Reducing anxiety and learning new ideas and new ways
PROBLEMS to channel the child’s feelings and energy.
 It will also help him/her to identify the bad ones with  I can achieve stage
more positive helpful ones.  I want to achieve stage (Desire to achieve)
• Applied Behavior Analysis – can help the child learn  I will achieve stage (Commitment Stage)
how to respond to situations in better, more effective  Actual expenditure of Effort
ways, and will teach them about rewards and
punishments for their behavior 4) COUNSELING CONFUSED ADOLESCENTS
• Play Therapy- is a good choice for younger children w/ ADOLESCENT STAGE
emotional issues since they can act them out through toys  is the period when a child transitions from being a child
or dolls. to becoming an adult and usually takes place between
the ages of 10 and 19. during this period, the young
CHILD THERAPY TECHNIQUES FOR CHILDREN WITH adult starts experiencing a great deal of mental and
 The Feeling Word Game  Physically, adolescents start seeing changes in their
 The Mad Game bodies; a process referred to as PUBERTY, and is a
 The Slow motion Game time that leaves them CONFUSED as the CHANGES in
 The Bubble Breaths HORMONES start affecting their moods and thoughts.
 Second Story Technique
 Positive Posting  Often, when these changes start setting in, Adolescents
 Extremely sensitive
 Are the students, who have lowered in academics  Fluctuations in their confidence level
because of various reasons.  Felt pressured by their own parents
 This may be due to physical, mental, psychological,  They tend to make new friends and experiment with
familial and social discomforts. new things
 Too often parents, teachers and even counselors assume  If not properly guided or counseled, Adolescents:
that underachiever are students who can but simply  Start to take their own devices, and start making their
don’t (or won’t) achieve. own judgments, which are often clouded.
 They could end up following the wrong path
Identified Six Types of Underachievers  Becoming prey to negative things that could ruin their
1. Coasters - those who are the ultimate procrastinators, lives like; drugs, peer pressure and many more.
easy going and unmotivated.  It is for this reason that adolescents should consider
2. Anxious Underachievers- those who want to do better counseling to address their own feelings and thoughts
but are too tense and uptight to work effectively. allowing them to grow into healthy, sound-minded
3. Identify Searchers – those who are so wrapped up in adults.
figuring out who they are that they become distracted
from schoolwork. ADULT COUNSELING
4. Wheeler Dealers – those who are impulsive,  Is counseling aimed at young people to help them make
manipulative and so intent on instant gratification that sense of their feelings, behaviors and thoughts and
they see no point in doing well in school. entails the use of unique techniques that draw out the
5. Sad Underachievers – those who lack the energy need expressive nature of a young person like art therapy or
for schoolwork because of their depression and low self- more traditional approaches like talking therapy.
esteem.  This form of counseling is important in helping guiding
6. Defiant Underachievers – those who underachieve as kids transitioning into adulthood and to understand
act of rebellion. them better.
 Adolescent counseling is not only for adolescents w/
Characteristics of Low Achiever Children personality or behavioral issues but it for any child
 Difficulties in studies undergoing adolescence who may be confused or
 Not attentive in classes overwhelmed.
 More distracted Different Methods or Approaches
 Low span of attention Some of the available methods include:
 Very low level of satisfaction  Interactive Counseling Workshops
 Have health issues  Are often performed with the main intention
 Irregular in school attendance of counseling groups of young adults all at
 Behavioral problem once. Activities like talks, games and other
 Never participate in school activities practical sessions. At the same time young
 Intolerable for problems adults are given information talks about
 Inability to maintain friendship adolescents and peer pressure.
 One-on-One Counseling
Basic concepts of the Updated Counseling Underachievers Model  Involves having the adolescent attend
1. External Variables (Family/Communities, Peers, counseling sessions. Often, this form of
School, Teachers, Teaching Methods, Task difficulty) counseling is advised in the event a parent has
2. Cognitive Variables (Mental ability/Aptitudes, concerns about their child and/or about
Prerequisite knowledge, Past learning experiences, transitioning into adolescents or who has been
Study skills, Learning style) influenced negatively by different factors
3. Affective Variables (Mood or Disposition, Psychological during this very fragile stage.
development, Values/Goals, Risk-taking propensity,
The perception of the academic ability for underachievers
 The youths are the most vulnerable group of drug
abuse; therefore there is a need for an understanding of DESCRIPTIONS OF CHILD-ABUSED:
why many youths have the need to abuse drugs.
 Causes or threatens to cause non-accidental physical or
 Drug abuse can lead to extreme personal, social, and
mental injury
cognitive behavior.
 Neglects or refuses to provide adequate food, clothing,
The following were identified by Yakubu(2008) as the possible
cause of Drug Abuse/Dependence shelter, emotional nurturing, or health care
 The drive towards modernization  Abandons the child
 Excessive use of drugs made or induced young ones to  Fails to provide adequate supervision
experiment as well  Commits or allows to be committed any illegal sexual
 Seeking of pleasure act upon a child including incest, rape, fondling,
 To help cope with personal problems and psychological indecent exposure, prostitution, or allows a child to be
used in any sexually explicit visual material.
 Young ones trying to protest against norms imposed on
 Increase an international contacts as to imitate lifestyles CHILD-ABUSED
 Social factors such as peer influence  Bruises and welts on the face, mouth, lips, back,
 Poor self-image and frequent feelings of lack of self- buttocks, and thighs
esteem  Unexplained burns and fractures
 Marital disharmony, family stress, and the break-up of  Withdrawing from others
families are important factors
 Aggressive behaviors
 The desire to achieve in a competitive world
 Ignorance  Wearing clothing that is inappropriate to weather or
 Mass media body size
 An act of rebellion  Complaining of discomfort or pain
 It can be noted that there is no single causes of drug  Arriving early to school and leaves late
abuse/addiction. It is however generally agreed that  Being cautious of adult interaction
certain reasons for abuse and addiction are important.
Such as:
 Availability of drugs, marijuana, cigarettes, alcohol and NEGLECT
etc.  Abandonment by parents or guardians
 A vulnerable personality  Consistent hunger
 Social pleasure  Inappropriate clothing
 According to Abayemi(1990) many drug users,  Unattended medical needs
particularly adolescents taking non-prescribed drugs  Stealing food
appear to have a personality disorder particularly  Arriving early and leaving late to school
before taking drugs as shown by;  High level of fatigue
 Poor school record  Delinquency
 Truancy
 Alcohol or drug abuse
 Delinquency &
 Drop  Speech disorder
 Ulcers and delayed physical development
The Counseling Strategies that can be employed for EMOTIONAL INDICATORS OF CHILD-ABUSED
individuals or groups should include the following:  Is calling the child names, putting the child down and
(a) Confrontation rejecting the child.
(b) Accurate Education  May exhibit extreme passivity and aggression,
(c) Decision making strategies delinquent behavior, anti-social behavior, or sleep
(d) Peer cluster involvement (Adegoke, 2003) disorders.
ABUSED  Professional school counselors are mandated reporters
 Based on statistics gathered through National Child and need policies, referral procedures, and essential
Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) of the knowledge. It is legal, moral, and ethical responsibility
Children’s Bureau, for Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) 2005, to report child abuse.
an estimated 899, 000 children in the District of  ASCA (American School Counselor Association)
Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the 50 states were recognizes it is the absolute responsibility of
determined to be victims of neglect and abuse. professional school counselors to report suspected cases
 Child abuse and neglect is real, is traumatic; and for of child-abuse/neglect to the proper authorities.
thousands of children is a common part of their lives.
MALTREATMENT INCLUDES:  School counselors will serve as consultants w/ concerned
 PHYSICAL ABUSE parents, teachers, or other school personnel.
 SEXUAL ABUSE  School Counselor should speak w/ the child to gain a
 NEGLECT better understanding of the situation.
 It may be helpful to ask questions regarding what • Substance abuse
happened to a child or a time when something • Post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD)
happened that made the child feel uncomfortable. • Self-mutilation
 Noticing the body language of the child during the  Physical Indicators includes:
interview  Unexplained pain, swelling, bleeding/irritation of the
 Allowing the child to tell his/her story about the event mouth, genital, or anal area
 Express empathy  Sexually transmitted infections (sores, a discharge,
 Use active listening skills frequent itching of the genitals)
 During interview, school counselor should not ask a  Pregnancy
leading questions or help w/ the details  Unexplained difficulty in walking
 In order to help the child feel comfortable, it is  Increase in headaches or stomach aches
important for the school counselor to validate the child  Compulsive washing of hands & body
for disclosing the abuse. Child Sexual Abuse includes:
 Once school counselors determine possible abuse/  Incest/familial abuse (by blood relative)
neglect, they take on various roles including informants,  Extra familial abuse (by someone outside the child’s
counselors to the victims/perpetrator, employees, family)
liaisons w/ others, court witnesses and counselors to the  Pressured sex (use of persuasion/enticement)
family.  Forced sex (use of force/threat/harm)
There are many reasons children do not disclose abuse:
7) COUNSELING THE SEXUALLY-ABUSED • Children are taught to obey adults
CHILDREN • Developmental differences that child may not know the
words that describes the abuse, have difficulty
*Some children withdraw, others have outbursts of strong
understanding the event, be mixed up about the time
emotions, and sometimes there are behaviors that are
and location, and may confuse reality and fantasy
challenging or hard to understand. Sometimes these patterns
• Confusion about appropriate touches
• Fear of parent’s anger or blame
*As an important adult in the child’s life, it’s vital that you
• Fear of the consequences or that they will not be
actively listen and respond in ways that the child knows that
you believe in him/her. We coach family members to
• Fear of loss of privileges
practice patience, and over-time learns more about how kids
• Guilt for feeling pleasure
and families deal with (and heal) from sexual abuse.
• Fear of threats made by the perpetrator
 CHILD SEXUAL ASSAULT (CSA) – is attempted or
Responding to a child’s disclosure:
actual sexual contact between a child and an adult or a
• Filter your natural reactions of expressions of anger,
child and another child.
shock & horror
- can involve the use of physical force, threats of
• Stay calm, reassuring, non-judgmental, and believe
violence, bribes, or abuse of a position of authority.
what the child tells you
Indicators of Sexually-abused Children
• Let the child do the talking and take down the facts
 Behavioral Indicators includes:
• Do not condemn the abuser
• Excessive Crying
• Keep your promises and stated expectations realistic
• An increase in irritability/temper tantrums
• Give the child your full attention, listen and show
• Fears of a particular person or object
• Disrespectful behaviors
• Aggression towards others
• To be told that the abuse was not their fault and they
• Poor school performance
did nothing wrong: over and over again
• Bedwetting/ soiling of pants
• To be believed and reassured that they were right to tell
• Knowing more about sexual behavior than what is
• To be informed of what will happen next: use language
expected of a child of that age
and information that the child understands
• Sexualized play (e.g. trying to have intercourse with
• To receive support and love
other child)
• To assessed for counseling
• Unexpected change in a child’s behavior (e.g. a lively
outgoing child becoming withdrawn)
• Suicidal
 Forming a trusting relationship, so that the children can
• Eating changes (increase or decrease in appetite)
communicate what is on their mind and in their heart.
• Sleeping difficulties/nightmares
 Must also take into account the age, maturity, and the
• Having a lot of worries
emotional state of the child
• Difficulty concentrating in school
 It is also important that the counselor helps to make the
• Role reversal
child feel safe and comfortable.
• Running away from home
a. See the child in an appropriate and
• Reenactment of abuse behavior
comfortable setting.
• Secretiveness
b. Get to know the child, not just his/her problem.
c. Protect the child’s privacy and  Violence in Lesbian and Gay Male
confidentiality by only informing those who Couples
needs to know.  Gay and Lesbian Families
d. Create an atmosphere of safety and trust  Religious Issues
for the child.  Drug and Alcohol Abuse
 It is important to explain openly and honestly the  AIDS
purpose of counseling to the children  Loneliness
a. Help them to understand why they are with  Guilt
you, and tell them about the procedures  Depression
that will be taking place.  Suicide
b. Introduce the idea that during counseling
there will be discussion about the sexual 9) COUNSELING WITH GIFTED/SPECIAL STUDENTS
 It has long been recognized that gifted and talented
students have unique personal, social, and academic
 The counselor must give the child an opportunity to characteristics that distinguished them from their non-
discuss his/her experience of the sexual abuse and gifted peers.
feelings about the event.  Specialized guidance and counseling services are
a. The counselor should follow the child’s lead, recognized by many experts in the field as essential to
but may at times need to sensitively the maximum educational achievement of gifted and
introduce the topic of the sexual abuse. talented students.
 GIFTED is asynchronous development in which
b. When working with children, you are
advanced cognitive abilities and heightened intensity
working with their heads, heart and combine to create inner experiences and awareness that
imagination. When you enter the child’s are quantitatively different from the norm.
world, it is important to follow the child’s  The uniqueness of the gifted renders them particularly
lead. This allows the child to lead where you vulnerable and requires modifications in parenting,
need to go. In daily life it is the adult who teaching, and counseling in order for them to develop
leads. In counseling, it is important that the optimally.
 Social and emotional difficulties may arise because of
counselor follow the child.
the gifted children’s asynchronous or uneven
 The counselor should keep questions open-ended and development, exceptional abilities, and notable talents
not ask leading questions. and can be especially problematic during the teenage
 Remember NOT to command, direct, threaten, preach, years.
lecture, ridicule, interrogate, blame or shame. SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DIFFICULTIES OF THE
 Depression
 There are at least 20 – 25 million gay,
 Emotional intensity and heightened sensitivity
lesbian and bisexual individuals, or  Feeling different from others
10% - 15% of the adult population.  Perfectionism
 There is no typical gay, lesbian or  Social isolation
bisexual person. Individuals come  Social skills deficits and peer relationship issues;
from different races, ethnicities,  Stress management problems
religious backgrounds,  The social and emotional needs of gifted children are
not static, but are greatly influenced by the
socioeconomic statuses, and cultures.
environment in which the child exists and the culture in
 There are seven variables of sexual which he/she is immersed. Such issues are;
orientation: sexual attraction, sexual  Parent separation or divorce
behavior, sexual fantasies, emotional  An unstable home life
preference, social preference,  Personality conflicts
lifestyle, and self-identification.  Grief and behavior issues
Problems Faced by Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Clients  Motivational deficits
 Academically, the intellectual abilities of gifted students
 Cultural Homophobia
differ both quantitatively and qualitatively from
 Cultural Heterosexism average children. They learn at a faster pace, think or
 Internalized Homophobia process more deeply, and require less repetition or
 Homophobia and Heterosexism in practice to master assigned material, thus warranting
Counselors greater educational challenge in their coursework.
Identity Development of Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Clients However, if left academically unchallenged , these
students can become;
 Identity confusion
 Bored and exhibit disruptive behaviors
 Identity conflict  Lack of goals, motivation or direction
 Identity denial  Failure to develop self-regulatory strategies can impact
 Community identity the academic performance of high ability students
 Coming out or not  GIFTED AND TALENTED LEARNERS may also feel
Special Situations in Counseling for Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual pressure to live up to the expectations of parents,
Clients teachers, and other significant adults in their lives and
may have a fear of failure, experience frustration, and
underachieve in school.
 Thomas and Woods (2003) wrote that “Disability” is an
1. Counselors should be attuned to differences in the umbrella term providing a common language for school
emotional as well as the intellectual systems of the gifted
counselors and teachers. In which, there are 13
students and work w/ students based on these
differences. disability categories recognized by the Individuals with
2. Counselors should help these students learn about their
Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004.
special characteristics so that feelings of being different
, of social alienation, and of inferiority are not allowed  Although children with disabilities are an extremely
to develop unchecked.
heterogeneous group of diverse learners, each with
3. Counselors should focus on both cognitive and affective
needs of gifted students through a program that unique learning strengths and needs.
provides academic, psychosocial, and career counseling
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) defined
4. Counselors should act as a advocates for the gifted disabilities includes:
student in the educational institution and help negotiate 1. Autism
and facilitate individual progress through appropriate 2. Deaf-blind
school experiences. 3. Developmental Delay
5. Counselors should provide an information 4. Emotional Disturbance
clearinghouse for outside resources that could benefit 5. Hearing Impairments
these students. Human resource needs include role
6. Intellectual Disabilities(Mental Retardation)
models and mentors; material resource needs might be
in the area of museums, libraries, and universities. 7. Multiple Disabilities
6. Counselors should aid students in decision-making 8. Orthopedic Impairments
skills and planning. These students tend to have more 9. Other Health Impairments
choices in regard to course-taking, college, and careers 10. Specific Learning Disabilities
than do other students and frequently need to make 11. Speech or Language Impairments
decisions earlier in their school careers.
12. Traumatic brain injury
7. Counselors should value, encourage, and reward self-
initiated learning on the part of students. 13. Visual Impairments (Blindness)
8. Counselors should develop a system for assessing tested Characteristics of students with Disabilities from a counseling
strengths and weaknesses of individual students perspective
and providing constructive criticism for developing a  Developmental delays
plan of action around them.  Inappropriate behavior relative to their chronological
9. Counselors should encourage students to read books age
that relate to their particular problems or situations
 Socially isolated
and should provide a reading list and follow-up
discussion opportunities. Such Bibliotherapy techniques  Poor self-concept
have been found to be most effective for counseling this  Lack adequate expressive language
population.  Often disorganized in their thought processes
10. Counselors should be sensitive to the value conflicts  Difficulty with Time Management
experienced by students who come from low Common Problems for Clients with Disabilities
socioeconomic backgrounds. Such students need special
 Lack of motivation.
support and help in clarifying their goals and moving
toward actualizing them.  Secondary gain.
11. Counselors should establish a special network of female  Depression and anxiety.
students in order to encourage course-taking in  Poor body image.
mathematics and science as well as to provide support  Problems with self-concept.
for high-level academic decisions.
 Impaired social or vocational roles.
12. Counselors should act as chief communicators to other
educational personnel on individual case problems or  Changing family dynamics or relationships.
general issues regarding the needs of these students  Disruption of social life.
13. Counselors should serve as initiators in the  Negative attitudes toward own disability.
identification process of these special students whether  Social rejection and social isolation.
for inclusion in special programs or individual attention
from others in the education community.  Loss of control.
14. Counselors should team w/ parents, psychologists, and  Loss of reward and pleasure.
others who influence these students to conduct  Loss of independence (physical and economic).
“staffing” on severe problems related to  Difficulty in adjusting to the disability.
underachievement, social adjustment, or personal  Inability to access the environment.
crises. Referral to outside agencies or specialists in such
In providing school counseling;
• It is important not to generalize across disabilities w/
handicapping conditions, putting children &
adolescents with disabilities at risk.
• School counselors should be cognizant of the limits and  Providing assistance w/ developing academic, transition
biases that may be presented by children w/ moderate and postsecondary plans for students w/ IEP’s as
to severe disabilities. appropriate.
• School counselors must have knowledge of the laws and
understand the rights of children w/ disabilities. Adaptive Tasks to Help Clients Cope With Disabilities
• The initial stage of counseling requires the  Help clients deal with pain and
manipulation of several components in the counseling incapacitation.
environment.  Help clients deal with stress.
a. counseling activities should be no longer than 20 to 30  Help clients manage negative
minutes. feelings.
b. Distractions in the environment should be kept to a  Help clients regain a positive self-
minimum or eliminated. image.
c. Tasks should be structured and followed consistently.  Help clients gain a sense of
d. Multisensory approaches including auditory, visual, competence.
tactile, and kinesthetic, should be used by counselors while  Help clients change their lifestyle.
presenting activities to the students.  Help clients gain independence.
• The ability to communicate concretely is vital for  Help clients manage their
success w/ handicapped students. relationships.
e. Verbal generalities should be avoided. Abstract  Prepare the client for an uncertain
relationships and terms should not be used by the counselor. future if additional losses are likely.
f. Questions beginning w/ the words how and why
g. Short, concise, explicit sentences should be employed.
• Frequent and consistent repetitions are needed during  As society ages, more counselors will be needed to work
the counseling session. with those 65 years or older.
h. A review of previous meeting and their objectives  It is estimated that by the year 2020, this population will
should occur at the beginning of each counseling session. encompass 50 million of the Philippine population.
i. Students of clients should be told what to expect at  Older adults will vary according to: age, sex, marital
each session. status, geographic distribution, race and ethnicity,
j. A summary of the activity should be presented retirement, employment and income status as well as
stressing the important areas for students or clients to remember. physical and mental health.
• Repetitions allow students to absorb each session and Problems and Concerns of the Older Adult
understand the continuity of the presentations.
School Counselor responsibilities may include, but are not  Loss of work role identity.
limited to:  Increased amount of leisure time.
 Providing school counseling curriculum lessons,  Decreased financial support.
individual and or/group counseling to students with  Loss of significant other(s).
special needs within the scope of the comprehensive  Increased loneliness and separation.
school counseling program.  Geographic relocation.
 Providing short-term, goal-focused counseling in  Peer and family restructuring.
instances where it is appropriate to include these  Increased physiologic disorders.
strategies as a part of IEP.  Increased amount of dependence.
 Encouraging family involvement in the educational Counseling Principles for the Older Adult
process.  Enhancement of dignity and worth.
 Consulting and collaborating w/ staff and families to  Counselors need to “sell” the positive
understand the special needs of a student and benefits of counseling.
understanding the adaptations and modifications  Counselors need to attend to the
needed to assist the student. physical environment.
 Advocating for students w/ special needs in the school  The counselor is often an advocate of
and in the community. the client.
 Contributing to the school’s multidisciplinary team  Goals should be short-term and
within the scope and practice of the comprehensive clear-cut.
school counseling program to identify students who may  Counselors need to attend to
need to be assessed to determine special education dependence/independence issues.
eligibility.  Counselors need to attend to the age
 Collaborating w/ other related student support differential.
professionals (e.g. school psychologists, physical  Counselors need to attend to the
therapists, occupational therapists, special education client's place in history.
staff, speech and language pathologists) in the delivery  Counselors need to diagnosis
of services. carefully with this population.
Goals for Counseling for the Older Adult
 To decrease anxiety and depression.
 To reduce confusion and loss of
contact with reality.
 To increase socialization and
improve interpersonal relationships.
 To improve behavior within
 To cope with crisis and transitional
 To become more accepting of self
and the aging process.