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# Ashley McMenamy

EDU 341

Professor Wisnewski

## © Molloy College, Division of Education, Rockville Centre, NY 11571

Revised 10/25/16
My choice of manipulative is the humble pom-pom. Math manipulatives are an extremely
important part of learning math and should be used in lessons as often as possible. Manipulatives offer
the student the ability to connect mathematical concepts and symbols to physical objects, which in turn
helps to solidify concept development and learning. Manipulatives can be any sort of concrete object
including counters, unifix cubes, place value blocks, an abacus, etc. I chose pom-poms for counters as
my manipulative in this lesson because I believe that they are a staple in an early childhood classroom.
Pom-poms are perfect for young children. They are soft, light, colorful, and fun to touch and feel.
Pom-poms are great for early childhood learning and activities because they are perfect for little hands in
promoting fine motor practice. Many teachers consider pom-poms to be their go-to for math
manipulatives when working on skills like counting, sorting, or color identification.

Some mathematical concepts that can be taught using pom-poms include patterns, graphing,
sorting and counting, number sense and counting, adding and subtracting, and making basic shapes like
circles, triangles, or squares. In this lesson I have chosen to use pom-poms as counters to practice
addition, part-part-whole relationships, and solving multiplication problems with equal-groups. Below are
images of some mathematical concepts that can be taught using pom pom counters. These concepts
pictured below correspond with my developmental procedures.

## My virtual manipulative counterpart URL:

http://www.glencoe.com/sites/common_assets/mathematics/ebook_assets/vmf/VMF-Interface.html

## © Molloy College, Division of Education, Rockville Centre, NY 11571

Revised 10/25/16
Molloy College
Division of Education

## Ashley McMenamy Professor Wisnewski

EDU 341 September 29, 2018
Grade: K Topic: Number Sense Mathematics

## NYS-CCLS / +NYS STANDARDS AND INDICATORS

NY-K.OA.1
Domain:​ ​ Operations and Algebraic Thinking
Cluster:​ ​Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking
apart and taking from.
Standard:​ ​Represent addition and subtraction using objects, fingers, pennies, drawings, sounds, acting
out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, equations, or other strategies.

Indicator:​ ​This will be evident when students use pom-pom counters to represent the combinations for a
particular number.

NY-K.OA.2a
Domain:​ ​ Operations and Algebraic Thinking
Cluster:​ ​Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking
apart and taking from.
Standard:​ ​Add and subtract within 10.

Indicator:​ ​This will be evident when students compose or decompose the designated quantity that is
written on the missing-parts card into two or more parts.

NY-K.OA.3
Domain:​ ​ Operations and Algebraic Thinking
Cluster:​ ​Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking
apart and taking from.
Standard:​ ​Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way. Record each
decomposition with a drawing or equation.

Indicator:​ ​This will be evident when students determine the missing addend that makes the designated
whole number and record it on the part-part-whole chart.

DEVELOPMENTAL PROCEDURES
(including Key Questions)

1. Students will sit together on the rug where the teacher will show students a “missing part card,”
with the flap closed. Teacher will instruct the students to look at the whole number and
corresponding dot set on the card and identify how many more dots are needed to make the whole
number. ​(How many are missing?)
© Molloy College, Division of Education, Rockville Centre, NY 11571
Revised 10/25/16
2. Teacher will ask one student to answer using fingers to explain their response. Teacher will
instruct the student to raise the flap on the “missing-part card” to reveal the hidden dot set and
check their answer. Teacher will write the equation to match the problem on the board to
represent the number sentence. Teacher will continue with additional cards. ​(How many more
dots did we add to make the whole number?)
3. Students will return to their desks and be given a set of “missing-part cards” to and pom-pom
counters. Students will continue to find missing parts, justify their responses by using pom-pom
counters to explain, and then self check under the flap for the correct answers. Students should
record their responses on a separate piece of paper. ​(How did you decide how many dots you
needed to make the whole number?)
4. Teacher will progress monitor to be sure students remain on task and listen to student
explanations as they work and record what students understand about composing, decomposing,
and part-part-whole relationships. (​What do we call the types of number sentences that you have
5. Teacher will bring students back together to share their strategies while they were working with
the “missing-part-cards.” After a few strategies have been shared, teacher will instruct students to
discuss similarities and differences that they see in the various strategies. ​(Did you take out the
total number at the beginning of the card and then break off the first dot set on the card to find
the missing part? Did you count out the total number and use the pom-pom counters to add and
count on to find the missing part?)
6. After students have shared strategies split the students into pairs and give each pair an “on/off
mat” and a handful of pom-pom counters. Teacher will instruct students to work with their
partner on this activity and then will model the activity for the students first. Students will count
out 10 pom-pom counters to start. One partner will gently drop the pom-pom counters so they
land on the “on/off mat” and the other partner will count how many pom-pom counters landed in
each different colored area on the mat. Students should record how many landed in each area.
Students will take turns spilling the pom-pom counters and counting how many landed in each
color. After a few minutes of working the teacher will have students share their outcomes as a
class and record the answers for students to see on the board. ​(If 7 pom-pom counters landed on
the blue side, how many does that mean landed on the other side?)
7. Students will work with their partner to solve the ​Part-Part-Whole Worksheet​ b​ efore going over
answers as a class. Teacher will look for misconceptions or misunderstandings and will guide
students in a conversation to debrief the ​Part-Part-Whole Worksheet ​and process the lesson.
(What did you learn about combinations of numbers while working with your partner today?
What are some ways you can make ____? What goes with _____ to make ____? Is there another
way to make ___?)
8. Teacher will administer the ​Part-Part-Whole ​exit ticket. Students will complete the assignment
independently and submit their work when they have finished. Teacher will assess their work
later to determine any misunderstandings or misconceptions.

## CONNECTING THE STANDARDS FOR MATHEMATICAL PRACTICE

When students progress from drawing realistic (artistic) pictures of situations to diagramming addition
and subtraction situations using circles or other symbols, and making connections between them, they are
relating the concrete to the abstract (MP.2) and making their first mathematical models (MP.4).
Equations to describe these situations (such as 8 + 2 = 10) are also mathematical models.

## © Molloy College, Division of Education, Rockville Centre, NY 11571

Revised 10/25/16
MP.2: Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

Mathematically proficient students make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations.
They bring two complementary abilities to bear on problems involving quantitative relationships: the
ability to decontextualize—to abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the
representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their
referents—and the ability to contextualize, to pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to
probe into the referents for the symbols involved. Quantitative reasoning entails habits of creating a
coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning
of quantities, not just how to compute them; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of
operations and objects.

## MP.4: Model with mathematics.

Mathematically proficient students can apply the mathematics they know to solve problems arising in
everyday life, society, and the workplace. In early grades, this might be as simple as writing an addition
equation to describe a situation. In middle grades, a student might apply proportional reasoning to plan a
school event or analyze a problem in the community. By high school, a student might use geometry to
solve a design problem or use a function to describe how one quantity of interest depends on another.
Mathematically proficient students who can apply what they know are comfortable making assumptions
and approximations to simplify a complicated situation, realizing that these may need revision later. They
are able to identify important quantities in a practical situation and map their relationships using such
tools as diagrams, two-way tables, graphs, flowcharts and formulas. They can analyze those relationships
mathematically to draw conclusions. They routinely interpret their mathematical results in the context of
the situation and reflect on whether the results make sense, possibly improving the model if it has not
served its purpose.

## © Molloy College, Division of Education, Rockville Centre, NY 11571

Revised 10/25/16
Molloy College
Division of Education

## Ashley McMenamy Professor Wisnewski

EDU 341 September 29, 2018

## NYS-CCLS / +NYS STANDARDS AND INDICATORS

NY-3.OA.1
Domain:​ ​ Operations and Algebraic Thinking
Cluster:​ ​Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division.
Standard:​ ​Interpret products of whole numbers, e.g., interprets 5 x 7 as the total number of objects in 5
groups of 7 objects each.

Indicator:​ ​This will be evident when students solve basic multiplication facts.

DEVELOPMENTAL PROCEDURES
(including Key Questions)

1. Teacher will begin lesson with students sitting on the rug participating in a skip-counting activity
as a group. The teacher will first instruct the students to join in counting aloud numbers 1-20
forward and backward. The teacher will use fingers to rhythmically point upward or downward
signaling whether students should count up or down. ​(Can you count to 20? Can you count
backward from 20?)
2. Teacher will instruct students to count to 20 forward and backward again but instead will instruct
students to whisper every other number. The teacher will then have students count forward and
backward to 20 again but instead will instruct students to hum every other number instead of
whispering. The teacher will instruct students again to count to 20 forward and backward again
but instead of whispering or humming this time the students are instructed to think silently every
other number. Students will then discuss with their partner what they just counted by. ​(What did
we just count by?)
3. Students will return to their desks and the teacher will project a problem on the board. The
students will be instructed to read the problem, draw and label, write an equation, and write a
word sentence. The teacher will give students ten minutes to complete the problem. Students will
be asked to volunteer to explain how they found their answer. ​(What is the total? How did you
find the total?)
4. Teacher will select ten students to come to the front of the room. The teacher will ask the
students to say how many arms they each have. Students will skip-count the students’ arms by
twos to determine how many arms they have altogether. The teacher will instruct the students to
lift up their arms once they have been counted in order to keep track of the count. ​(How many
arms do we have in all?)
5. Teacher will instruct the students to put their arms down and asks how many twos did they count
to find the total? The students will be instructed to turn and whisper to their partner to discuss

## © Molloy College, Division of Education, Rockville Centre, NY 11571

Revised 10/25/16
their answer. ​(How many twos did we count to find the total? What did you count to find the
number of twos?)
6. The teacher will instruct the students to skip-count to find the total number of arms and will write
an addition sentence on the board as they count.
7. The teacher will distribute 12 pom-pom counters to each student and will instruct the students to
make equal groups of two. ​(Can you show me with your fingers how many pom-pom counters
you will put in each group? How many equal groups did you make?)
8. The teacher will write an addition sentence on the board to show the groups of two and explain to
students that 6 x 2 is another way to write the addition sentence. The teacher will record 6 x 2 =
12 under 6 twos = 12 on the board. The teacher will instruct students to turn and talk to a partner
about 6 x 2 = 12 relates to the other number sentences written on the board. ​(How do you think 6
x 2 = 12 relates to the other number sentences?)
9. Teacher will explain how multiplication is an easier, faster, and more efficient way to find totals
of equal groups than repeated addition. The teacher will repeat this process with 4 threes, 3 fours,
and 2 sixes.
10. The teacher will draw a picture depicting equal groups on the board and will instruct students to
turn and tell a partner why the groups drawn on the board are equal. Teacher will ask students to
volunteer to tell their response and explain their reasoning. Teacher will instruct the students to
work with a partner to write a repeated addition and a multiplication sentence for the drawing on
the board. The teacher will ask a volunteer to come up to the board and write the repeated
addition and multiplication sentence that they found and explain how they determined this
answer. ​(What is a repeated addition sentence for this drawing? Can you write a multiplication
sentence for this drawing?)
11. The teacher will draw two groups of four and one group of three on the board with the
multiplication sentence ​3 x 4 = 12 n​ ext to the drawing to represent the picture. The teacher will
instruct the students to check if this multiplication sentence written on the board is correct by
writing an addition sentence and counting to find the total. The teacher will instruct the students
to use the addition sentence and talk to a partner about whether they agree or disagree with the
multiplication sentence written on the board. Teacher will ask students to explain their reasoning.
(Does the drawing show 3 fours? Does 3 times 4 represent this drawing? How might we redraw
the picture to make it show 3 x 4?)
12. The teacher will explain that the multiplication sentence written on the board is incorrect because
the three groups drawn on the board as not equal and equal groups are needed in order to be able
to multiply. ​(Are we able to multiply if our groups are not equal?)
13. The students are given ten minutes to complete the ​Multiplication Worksheet ​independently.
Students should do their personal best to complete the worksheet and are permitted to use
pom-pom counters for assistance.
14. Students are instructed to return to the rug with their completed worksheet. The teacher invites
students to review their solutions for the ​Multiplication Worksheet ​by comparing answers with a
partner before going over the answers as a class. The teacher progress monitors by observing and
looking for misconceptions or misunderstandings that need to be addressed and then guides the
students in a conversation to debrief the ​Multiplication Worksheet ​and process the lesson. ​(On
the first page, what did you notice about the answers to your problems? What is the relationship
between repeated addition, unit form, and the multiplication sentence _____?)
15. Teacher will instruct students to complete the Exit Ticket. Students will complete the exit ticket
independently and will submit their work upon completion for review by the teacher. The teacher
will use the exit ticket to assess students’ understanding of the concepts presented in the lesson.
© Molloy College, Division of Education, Rockville Centre, NY 11571
Revised 10/25/16
CONNECTING THE STANDARDS FOR MATHEMATICAL PRACTICE

Students learn and use strategies for finding products and quotients that are based on the properties of
operations; for example, to find 4 × 7, they may recognize that 7 = 5 + 2 and compute 4 × 5 + 4 × 2. This
is an example of seeing and making use of structure (MP.7). Such reasoning processes amount to brief
arguments that students may construct and critique (MP.3).

## MP.3: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

Mathematically proficient students understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously
established results in constructing arguments. They make conjectures and build a logical progression of
statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them
into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. They justify their conclusions, communicate them
to others, and respond to the arguments of others. They reason inductively about data, making plausible
arguments that take into account the context from which the data arose. Mathematically proficient
students are also able to compare the effectiveness of two plausible arguments, distinguish correct logic or
reasoning from that which is flawed, and—if there is a flaw in an argument—explain what it is.
Elementary students can construct arguments using concrete referents such as objects, drawings,
diagrams, and actions. Such arguments can make sense and be correct, even though they are not
generalized or made formal until later grades. Later, students learn to determine domains to which an
argument applies. Students at all grades can listen or read the arguments of others, decide whether they
make sense, and ask useful questions to clarify or improve the arguments.

## MP.7: Look for and make use of structure.

Mathematically proficient students look closely to discern a pattern or structure. Young students, for
example, might notice that three and seven more is the same amount as seven and three more, or they may
sort a collection of shapes according to how many sides the shapes have. Later, students will see 7 × 8
equals the well-remembered 7 × 5 + 7 × 3, in preparation for learning about the distributive property. In
the expression x2 + 9x + 14, older students can see the 14 as 2 × 7 and the 9 as 2 + 7. They recognize the
significance of an existing line in a geometric figure and can use the strategy of drawing an auxiliary line
for solving problems. They also can step back for an overview and shift perspective. They can see
complicated things, such as some algebraic expressions, as single objects or as being composed of several
objects. For example, they can see 5 - 3(x - y) 2 as 5 minus a positive number times a square and use that
to realize that its value cannot be more than 5 for any real numbers x and y.

## © Molloy College, Division of Education, Rockville Centre, NY 11571

Revised 10/25/16
REFERENCES

New York State Education Department. (2017). New York State Next Generation Mathematics
Standards. Retrieved September 29, 2018, from
http://www.nysed.gov/common/nysed/files/nys-next-generation-mathematics-p-12- standards.pdf

## © Molloy College, Division of Education, Rockville Centre, NY 11571

Revised 10/25/16
© Molloy College, Division of Education, Rockville Centre, NY 11571
Revised 10/25/16
© Molloy College, Division of Education, Rockville Centre, NY 11571
Revised 10/25/16