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PHYSICS LETTERS B

a Stanford Linear Accelerator Centec Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94309, USA

b CCAST (World Laboratory), PO. Box 8730, Beijing 100080, China

’ Institute of High Energy Physics, Academia Sinica, PO. Box 918(4), Beijing 100039, China

d Faculty of Natural Sciences, Kwanghua Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100081, China

Editor: M. Dine

Abstract

Although the distributions of sea quarks and antiquarks generated by leading-twist QCD evolution through gluon splitting

g + 4q are necessarily CP symmetric, the distributions of nonvalence quarks and antiquarks which are intrinsic to the

nucleon’s bound state wavefunction need not be identical. In this paper we investigate the sea quark-antiquark asymmetries

in the nucleon wavefunction which are generated by a light-cone model of energetically-favored meson-baryon fluctuations.

Tbe model predicts striking quark-antiquark asymmetries in the momentum and helicity distributions for the down and

strange contributions to the proton structure function: the intrinsic d and s quarks in the proton sea are predicted to be

negatively polarized, whereas the intrinsic d and 3 antiquarks give zero contributions to the proton spin. Such a picture is

supported by experimental phenomena related to the proton spin problem and the violation of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule. The

light-cone meson-baryon fluctuation model also suggests a structured momentum distribution asymmetry for strange quarks

and antiquarks which could be relevant to an outstanding conflict between two different determinations of the strange quark

sea in the nucleon. The model predicts an excess of intrinsic dd pairs over UUpairs, as supported by the Gottfried sum rule

violation. We also predict that the intrinsic charm and anticharm helicity and momentum distributions are not identical.

fixed light-cone time 7 = t + z/c on the complete set

The composition of the nucleon in terms of its fun- of color-singlet eigenstates {In)} of the free Hamilto-

damental quark and gluon degrees of freedom is a key nian which have the same global quantum numbers:

focus of QCD phenomenology. In the light-cone (LC) Ip) = &#(xi, kli, Ai) In). Thus each Fock compo-

Fock state description of bound states, each hadronic nent in the light-cone wavefunction of a nucleon is

composed of three valence quarks, which gives the

nucleon its global quantum numbers, plus a variable

* Work partially supported by the Department of Energy, con-

tract DE-AC03-76SF00515and by the National Natural Science number of sea quark-antiquark (44) pairs of any Aa-

Foundation of China under Grant No. 19445004 and the National vor, plus arm number of gluons. The quark distribu-

Education Committee of China under Grant No. JWSL[ 19951806. tions q( x, Q) of the nucleon measured in deep inelas-

2 E-mail: sjbthQslac.stanford.edu tic scattering are computed from the sum of squares

s E-mail: matq@bepc3.ihep.ac.cn

PII SO370-2693(96)00597-7

318 S.J. Brodsky, B.-Q. Ma/Physics Letters B 381 (1996) 317-324

of the light-cone wavefunctions integrated over trans- tuations are most likely to be those closest to the en-

verse momentum kl up to the factorization scale 6, ergy shell and thus have minimal invariant mass. For

where the light-conemomentum fraction x = k+/p+ = example, the coupling of a proton to a virtual K+A pair

(k’ + k3) /(PO -i- P3) of the struck quark is set equal provides a specific source of intrinsic strange quarks

to the Bjorken variable XBJ. and antiquarks in the proton. Since the s and S quarks

It is important to distinguish two distinct types appear in different configurations in the lowest-lying

of quark and gluon contributions to the nucleon sea hadronic pair states, their helicity and momentum dis-

measured in deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering: tributions are distinct.

“extrinsic” and “intrinsic” [l-3]. The extrinsic sea The purpose of this paper is to investigate the quark

quarks and gluons are created as part of the lepton- and antiquark asymmetry in the nucleon sea which

scattering interaction and thus exist over a very short is implied by a light-cone meson-baryon fluctuation

time A?- N l/Q. These factorizable contributions model of intrinsic qq pairs. Such fluctuations are nec-

can be systematically derived from the QCD hard essarily part of any quantum-mechanical description

bremsstrahlung and pair-production (gluon-splitting) of the hadronic bound state in QCD and have also

subprocesses characteristic of leading twist pertur- been incorporated into the cloudy bag model [ 41 and

bative QCD evolution. In contrast, the intrinsic sea Skyrme solutions to chiral theories [ 21. We shall uti-

quarks and gluons are multiconnected to the va- lize a boost-invariant light-cone Fock state descrip-

lence quarks and exist over a relatively long lifetime tion of the hadron wavefunction which emphasizes

within the nucleon bound state. Thus the intrinsic multi-parton configurations of minimal invariant mass.

qq pairs can arrange themselves together with the We find that such fluctuations predict a striking sea

valence quarks of the target nucleon into the most quark and antiquark asymmetry in the corresponding

energetically-favored meson-baryon fluctuations. momentum and helicity distributions in the nucleon

In conventional studies of the “sea” quark distribu- structure functions. In particular, the strange and an-

tions, it is usually assumed that, aside from the effects tistrange distributions in the nucleon generally have

due to antisymmetrization, the quark and antiquark sea completely different momentum and spin characteris-

contributions have the same momentum and helicity tics. For example, the model predicts that the intrinsic

distributions. However, the ansatz of identical quark d and s quarks in the proton sea are negatively po-

and antiquark sea contributions has never been justi- larized, whereas the intrinsic d and S antiquarks pro-

fied, either theoretically or empirically. Obviously the vide zero contributions to the proton spin. We also

sea distributions which arise directly from gluon split- predict that the intrinsic charm and anticharm helicity

ting in leading twist are necessarily CP-invariant; i.e., and momentum distributions are not strictly identical.

they are symmetric under quark and antiquark inter- We show that the above picture of quark and anti-

change. However, the initial distributions which pro- quark asymmetry in the momentum and helicity distri-

vide the boundary conditions for QCD evolution need butions of the nucleon sea quarks has support from a

not be symmetric since the nucleon state is itself not number of experimental observations, and we suggest

CP-invariant. Only the global quantum numbers of the processes to test and measure this quark and antiquark

nucleon must be conserved. The intrinsic sources of asymmetry in the nucleon sea.

strange (and charm) quarks reflect the wavefunction

structure of the bound state itself; accordingly, such

distributions would not be expected to be CP symmet- 2. The light-cone meson-baryon fluctuation

ric. Thus the strange-antistrange asymmetry of nu- model of intrinsic 44 pairs

cleon structure functions provides a direct window into

the quantum bound-state structure of hadronic wave- In order to characterize the momentum and helic-

functions. ity distributions of intrinsic 44 pairs, we shall adopt

It is also possible to consider the nucleon wavefunc- a light-cone two-level convolution model of structure

tion at low resolution as a fluctuating system coupling functions [ 51 in which the nucleon is a two-body sys-

to intermediate hadronic Fock states such as noninter- tem of meson and baryon which are also composite

acting meson-baryon pairs, The most important fluc- systems of quarks and gluons. We first study the intrin-

S.J. Brodsky, B.-Q. Ma/ Physics Letters B 381 (1996) 3t7-324 319

sic strange SS pairs in the proton. In the meson-baryon Wigner rotation factor of order 0.75 for light quarks

fluctuation model, the intrinsic strangeness fluctua- and of order 1 for heavy quarks [6]. We therefore

tions in the proton wavefunction are mainly due to the predict that the net strange quark helicity arising from

intermediate K+A configuration since this state has the the intrinsic SS pairs in the nucleon wavefunction is

lowest off-shell light-cone energy and invariant mass negative, whereas the net antistrange quark helicity is

[ 31. The K+ meson is a pseudoscalar particle with approximately zero. This aspect of quark-antiquark

negative parity, and the A baryon has the same parity helicity asymmetry is in qualitative agreement with

of the nucleon. The KfA state retains the parity of the the predictions of a broken-U( 3) version of the chiral

proton, and consequently, the K+A system must have quark model [ 71 where the intrinsic quark-antiquark

odd orbital angular momentum. We thus write the to- pairs are introduced through quark to quark and Gold-

tal angular momentum space wavefunction of the in- stone boson fluctuations.

termediate KA state in the center-of-mass reference In principle, one can measure the helicity distribu-

frame as tions of strange quarks in the nucleon sea from the A

longitudinal polarization of semi-inclusive A produc-

tion in polarized deep inelastic scattering [ 3,891. We

expect that the polarization is negative for the pro-

=

If3 IL= l,LZ = 1) IS= ;,s, =-;) duced A and zero (or slightly positive [2]) for the

Jf

produced 2. The expectation of negative longitudinal

- IL= l,L; =O) IS= &sZ = ;> . (1) A polarization is supported by the measurements of

the WA59 Collaboration for the reaction Y + N ---f

In the constituent quark model, the spin of A is pro- p+A+X [ lo]. The complementary measurement of ;;i

vided by its strange quark and the net spin of the anti- polarization in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering

strange quark in K+ is zero. The net spin projection of is clearly important in order to test the physical picture

.,i in the K+A state is S, (A) = - %. Thus the intrinsic of the light-cone meson-baryon Buctuation model.

strange quark normalized to the probability PK+~ of It is also interesting to study the sign of the A po-

the K+A configuration yields a fractional contribution larization in the current fragmentation region as the

AS, =2&(A) = -$PK+,, to the proton spin, whereas Bjorken variable x --) 1 in polarized proton deep in-

the intrinsic antistrange quark gives a zero contribu- elastic inclusive reactions. From perturbative QCD ar-

tion: AS, = 0. There thus can be a significant quark guments on helicity retention, one expects a positive

and antiquark asymmetry in the quark spin distribu- helicity distribution for any quark struck in the end-

tions for the intrinsic SS pairs. point region x + 1, even though the global helicity

We also need to estimate the relative probabili- correlation is negative [ 111. Thus we predict that the

ties for other possible fluctuations with higher off- sign of the A polarization should change from nega-

shell light-cone energy and invariant mass, such as tive to positive as x approaches the endpoint regime.

K+(E) L+?(uds), Ku(&) Z’+(uus), and K*+(G) x The momentum distributions of the intrinsic strange

A( uds) . For example, we find that the relative prob- and antistrange quarks in the K+A state can be mod-

ability of finding the K*‘A configuration (which has eled from the two-level convolution formula

positively-correlated strange quark spin) compared

1

with K+A is 3.6% (8.9%) by using a same nor-

malization constant for a light-cone Gaussian type s(x) =

dy

J- fA/K+A(y) qs/A

(power-law type) wavefunction. We find that the x

higher fluctuations of intrinsic SS pairs do not alter

the qualitative estimates of the quark and antiquark dy

S(x) = 7 fK+,‘K+A(y) %/K-+ ; . (2)

spin asymmetry in the nucleon sea based on using the 0

x

K+A fluctuation alone.

The quark helicity projections measured in deep in- where f/l/K+n (y), fK+/K+A (y) are probabilities of

elastic scattering are related to the quark spin pro- finding A, Kf in the K+A state with the light-cone

jections in the target rest frame by multiplying by a momentum fraction y and 4sl~ (x/y ), &/Kt (x/v) are

320 S.J. Brodsky, B.-Q. Ma/Physics Letters B 381 (1996) 317-324

7

A, K’ with the light-cone momentum fraction x/y.

We shall estimate these quantities by adopting two- 6 (4

body momentum wavefunctions for p = K+A, K+ = 5

US, and A = sud where the ud in A serves as a spec-

tator in the quark-spectator model [ 121. We choose 24

two sim le functions of the invariant mass M2 = s3

r

c’,, ( klj + m?)/Xi for the two-body wavefunction: 2

the Gaussian type and power-law type wavefunctions

1

[I315

3 (b)

= A atussianeXp(-M*/2~*)

Gaussian(M2)

ICI t (3) 2

I

2

ch,wer(M2) =A ~ower( 1 + M*/a*l -LJ 3 (4) “, O

- -I

-2

where u sets the characteristic internal momentum -3

scale. We do not expect to produce realistic quark dis-

-4

tributions with simple two-body wavefunctions; how- 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

ever, we can hope to explain some qualitative fea- X

tures of the data as well as relations between the dif- Fig. 1. The momentum distributions for the strange quarks and

antiquarks in the light-cone meson-baryon fluctuation model of

ferent quark distributions [ 121. The predictions for

intrinsic 44 pairs, with the fluctuation wavefunction of K+A nor-

the momentum distributions s(x), S(X), and S,(X) = malized to I. The curves in (a) are the calculated results of s(x)

s(x) - S(X) are presented in Fig. 1. The strong, struc- (solid curves) and S(x) (broken curves) with the Gaussian type

tured momentum asymmetry of the s(x) and S(X) in- (thick curves) and power-law type (thin curves) wavefunctions

trinsic distributions reflects the tendency of the wave- and the curves in (b) are the corresponding 8, (x) = s(x) - .Y(x)

The parameters are mq = 330 MeV for the light-Ravor quark mass,

function to minimize the relative velocities of the in-

m, = 480 MeV for the strange quark mass, tng = 600 MeV for

termediate meson baryon state and is approximately the spectator mass, the universal momentum scale LY= 330 MeV,

same for the two wavefunctions. and the power constant p = 3.5, with realistic meson and baryon

We have performed similar calculations for the masses.

momentum distributions of the intrinsic dd and c.?

pairs arising from the p(uud) = &(ud) n(udd) 3. The strange quark-antiquark asymmetry in

and p( uud) = @(UC) A,f(udc) configurations. The the nucleon sea

results are presented in Fig. 2. We find a large quark

and antiquark asymmetry for the dd pairs. The CC We have seen that the light-cone meson-baryon

momentum asymmetry is small compared with the fluctuation model of intrinsic q4 pairs leads to signif-

sS and dd asymmetries but is still nontrivial. The cE icant quark-antiquark asymmetries in the momentum

spin asymmetry, however, is large. Considering that it and helicity distributions of the nucleon sea quarks.

is difficult to observe the momentum asymmetry for A strange-antistrange asymmetry in the nucleon sea

the dd pairs due to an additional valence d quark in has also been suggested from estimates in the cloudy

the proton, the momentum asymmetry of the intrinsic bag model [4] and Skyrme solutions to chiral theo-

strange and antistrange quarks is the most significant ries [ 2 J. At present there is still no direct experimen-

feature of the model and the easiest to observe. We tal confirmation of the strange-antistrange asymmetry.

have not taken into account the antisymmetrization However, a strange-antistrange momentum asymme-

effect of the u and d sea quarks with the valence try in the nucleon can be inferred from the apparent

quarks [ 141. conflict between two different determinations of the

S.J. Brodsky, B.-Q. Ma/ Physics Letters B 381(1996) 317-324 321

7 0.5

6

0.4

5

s 0.3

s‘4

v

m3 x 0.2

2 0

0.1

1

0 0.0 -

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

X X

Fig. 2. The momentum distributions for the down and charm quarks Fig. 3. Results for the strange quark distributions xs(n) and

and antiquarks in the light-cone meson-baryon fluctuation model x3(x) as a function of the Bjorken scaling variable n. The open

of intrinsic qcj pairs, with the fluctuation wavefunctions normalized squares shows the CEQ determination of i x[ s(x) + .T(x) ]

to 1. The curves are the calculated results for d(x) (thick solid obtamed from E5 ( F2‘N+F;N)(n)(CCFR)-3Fzfl(n)(NMC).

curve), d(x) (thick broken curve), c(x) (thin solid curve), and The circles show the CCFR determinations for xs(n) from dimuon

c(x) (thin broken curve) with the Gaussian type wavefunction. events in neutrino scattering using a leading-order QCD analysis

The parameters are ?nd = 330 MeV for the down quark mass and at Q2 c 5 (GeV/c)’ (closed circles) and a higher-order QCD

mc = 1500 MeV for the charm quark mass, with other parameters analysis at Q2 = 20 (GeV/c)2 (open circles). The thick curves are

as those in Fig. 1. the unevolved predictions of the light-cone fluctuation model for

U(X) (solidcurvelabeleda) and ~x[s(x)+S(x)] (brokencurve

strange quark content in the nucleon sea. labeled b) for the Gaussian type wavefunction in the light-cone

The strange quark distribution in the nucleon is meson-baryon fluctuation model of intrinsic qq pairs assuming

a probability of 10% for the K+A state. The thin solid and

usually obtained from analyses of the deep inelastic

broken curves (la&led a’ and b’) are the corresponding evolved

lepton-nucleon scattering data assuming identical mo- predictions multiplied by the factor d, ( x ) 1at/d,,(x) 1,,,&I assuming

mentum distribution for the strange and antistrange a probability of 4% for the KfA state.

quark distributions, i.e., s(x) = S(n) . The CTEQ [ 15 ]

global analyses of quark distributions are based pri- The CTEQ Collaboration has determined the quantity

marily on the following representations of the nucleon on the left-hand side of Eq. (9) at Q2 = 5 GeV2 using

structure functions: data from the New Muon Collaboration (NMC) [ 161

and CCFR [ 171, as shown in Fig. 3. The strange quark

F”

2

_ Fpn =

2 $x(u+E-d-d), (5) distribution measured in this way can be effectively

identified with the mean i [s(x) + S(x) 1.

F~~=;(F;~+F~)

In principle, the difference between s(x) and J(X)

=&x[u+ii+d+d+$(s+S)], (6) can be determined from measurements of deep inelas-

tic scattering by neutrino and antineutrino beams since

;(F$“+F;ni) =x(u+ii+d+d+s+S) , (7)

they probe strange and antistrange quarks in distinct

$(F;~+F;~) =(u-c+d-J+s-i), (8) ways. One also requires explicit light-flavor quark dis-

tributions u(x), d(x) and U(x), d(x). The CCFR

where F% are converted from FF? using a heavy-target determinations of the strange quark distributions are

correction factor, with F2% denoting 4 ( F2p3+ FT J). obtained from 5044 neutrino and 1062 antineutrino

These four observables determine four co&binatibns dimuon events by assuming S(X) = S(x) [ 181. How-

of quark distributions, which can be taken to be u + ii, ever, we can regard their results as a rough estimate

d + d; ii + d and s + S if one neglects the relatively of s(x) alone since the neutrino events dominate the

small contribution from the s - J term in Es. (8). data set.

From Eqs. (6) and (7)) one obtains the equality In Fig. 3 we plot the calculated xs(x) and

ix[s(x)+S(x)] wherethenormalizationoftheK+A

A (F2”N+F;N)-3F2ti = ;x[s(x)+s(x)] . (9) probability is adjusted to fit the measured strange

322 S. J. Brodsky. B.-Q. Ma /Physics Letters B 381 f I9961 317-324

1

account QCD evolution but indicates the inherent 6

quark-antiquark asymmetry predicted by the ffuctu-

ation model with the input light-cone wavefunction.

In order to reflect the evolution effect we have sim-

ply multiplied by a factor d,.(x) lht/dl, ( X) Imodelin the

light-cone quark-spectator model [ 121 to the calcu-

lated s(x) and S(X) in our model. Aside from very

small x where shadowing may be playing a role, the

predictions of the model are in reasonable qualitative

agreement with the empirical determinations of XS( x) 0

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

and ix[ s(x) + S(X)]. Thus the quark-antiquark X

asymmetry of the intrinsic strange quark distributions Fig. 4. Results for the strange asymmetry $(x)/f(x) as a function

may help to explain the apparent conflict between the of the Bjorken scaling variable x. The open squares are the com-

two measures. Of course, the actual wavefunctions bined CTEQ-CCFR “data” and the closed circles are the CCFR

underlying the higher Fock states are undoubtedly measurement of s(x)/?(x). The thick (thin) solid curve is the

calculated result of s(x)/S(x) in the light-cone meson-baryon

more complicated than the simple forms used here.

fluctuation model for the Gaussian type wavefunction with LY= 330

The CCFR collaboration has re-analyzed the (530) MeV. The thick broken curve is the result with a larger

strange quark distributions within the context of a CI = 800 MeV and the thin broken curve is the above result with of

higher-order QCD analysis [ 191. The discrepancy = 0.07( 1-I)‘)

about 30% extrinsic strange quarks (i.e., ~~~~~~~~~~~

between the new measured strange quark distributions included for comparison with the CCFR result at small n.

but it is still significant. The CTEQ “data” is still It is also important to note that the CCFR analy-

larger than the new CCFR data, in agreement with sis of s(x) and S(x) forces the data to fit specific

the ratio of $x[s(x) + S(X)] to xs(x) predicted by power-law parametrizations which preclude a struc-

the fluctuation model. In Fig. 4 we plot the CTEQ- tured asymmetric intrinsic sea contribution of the type

CCFR “data” for the strange asymmetry s(x) /S( x ) predicted by the LC fluctuation model. Thus the CCFR

by combining the CTEQ “data” and the new CCFR parametrizations shown in Figs. 3 and 4 may not ac-

data. Allowing for the experimental errors, there is curately represent the actual physics and we urge a

a reasonable agreement between the “data” and the reanalysis that allows a structured asymmetric intrin-

predictions of the LC fluctuation model if we increase sic strange sea. Higher precision data and more stud-

the value for the wavefunction momentum scale LY.A ies are clearly needed in order to positively confirm

larger momentum scale LYis also required for a good an asymmetry in the momentum distributions of the

description of structure function within the light-cone strange and antistrange quarks.

quark model [ 201. We should be cautious about com- The normalization for intrinsic sS fluctuations can

parisons in the small x region, since the dominant be determined by fitting the two “measurements” of

contribution to strange and antistrange quarks in this the strange quark distributions in the nucleon at x M

region comes from the extrinsic sea quarks as well as 0.2. We find a probability of approximately 10% for

the evolution of the intrinsic contributions; in fact, it intrinsic SS pairs. The net spin fraction of the intrinsic

has been shown that gluon splitting alone is sufficient strange sea (s,) quarks is AS,$ = --! normalized to

to describe the data [ 2 I 1. the s9 fluctuation of K+n. The Wigner rotation factor

The CCFR collaboration has made a s(x) # S(x) should be close to 1 due to the larger mass of the

tit to their neutrino and antineutrino induced dimuon strange quarks. Thus the helicity contribution from the

events and did not find clear evidence for a differ- intrinsic s quarks with Fock state probability 4-15%

ence between s(x) and S(x) [ 193. However, within is As,~ = -0.01 to 0.05, which is somewhat smaller

the allowed errors, the CCFR data for s(x) /S(X) does than the currently estimated empirical value [ 221 As =

not rule out a strange asymmetry of the magnitude -0.10&0.03. It is possible that part of this discrepancy

suggested by the LC fluctuation model, see Fig. 4. is due to the use of exact SU(3) flavor symmetry in

S.J. Bradsky, B.-Q. Ma/Physics Letters B 381 (I 996) 317-324 323

the global fit [ 221, as suggested in Refs. [ 231. fairly large errors, the calculated Au,,(x) in the light-

cone quark-spectator model are in good agreement

with the data. However, the predicted Ad,,(x) distri-

butions do not tit the data well and seem to demand

4. The light-flavor quark content in the nucleon an additional negative contribution. This again sup-

sea ports the light-cone meson-baryon fluctuation model

in which the helicity distribution of the intrinsic d sea

The light-cone fluctuation model contains neutral

quarks Ad,(x) is negative.

meson fluctuation configurations in which the inter-

The standard SU(6) quark model gives the con-

mediate mesons are composite systems of the intrin-

straints IAu~,] I 4 and IAd,,\ I ;. A global fit [22] of

sic up UZ and down da pairs, but these fluctuations polarized deep inelastic scattering data together with

do not cause a quark-antiquark asymmetry in the

constraints from nucleon and hyperon decay and the

nucleon sea. The lowest non-neutral ur7 fluctuation included higher-order perturbative QCD corrections

in the proton is p(uud) = r-(dti) d++(uuu), and leads to values for different quark helicity contribu-

its probability is small compared to the non-neutral

tions in the proton: Au = 0.83 f 0.03, Ad = -0.43 f

dd fluctuation. Therefore the dominant non-neutral 0.03, As = -0.10 Z!Z0.03. In the light-cone meson-

light-flavor qq fluctuation in the proton sea is dd baryon fluctuation model, the antiquark helicity con-

through the meson-baryon configuration p( uud) = tributions are zero. We thus can consider the empirical

T+ (ud) n( udd) . This leads naturally to an excess of values as the helicity contributions Aq = Aq[, + Aq.$

dd^ pairs over urZpairs in the proton sea. Such a mech- from both the valence qL, and sea qs quarks. Thus the

anism provides a natural explanation [24] for the empirical result jAdJ > 5 strongly implies an addi-

violation of the Gottfried sum rule [ 251 and leads to tional negative contribution Ad, in the nucleon sea.

non-trivial distributions of the sea quarks. The NMC

measurement So = i + 5 J; dx[u,(x) - d,(x)1 =

0.235 i 0.026 [25] implies & dx[d,(x) - u,(x)] = 5. Summary

0.148 f 0.039, which can be considered as the proba-

bility of finding non-neutral intrinsic dd fluctuations Intrinsic sea quarks clearIy play a key role in de-

in the proton sea. termining basic properties of the nucleon, including

In the light-cone meson-baryon fluctuation model, its static measures such as the strange quark contri-

the net d quark helicity of the intrinsic qq fluctua- bution to the nucleon magnetic moments. As we have

tion is negative, whereas the net d antiquark helicity shown here, the corresponding intrinsic contributions

is zero. Therefore the quark-antiquark asymmetry of to the sea quark structure functions lead to nontrivial,

the dd pairs should be apparent in the d quark and an- asymmetric, and structured momentum and spin dis-

tiquark helicity distributions. There are now explicit tributions. Understanding the role of the intrinsic dis-

measurements of the helicity distributions for the in- tributions is essential for setting the boundary condi-

dividual u and d valence and sea quarks by the Spin tions for the QCD evolution of the quark sea. Although

Muon Collaboration (SMC) [ 261. The helicity distri- the sea quarks generated by perturbative leading twist

butions for the u and d antiquarks are consistent with QCD evolution from gluon spitting are necessarily CP

zero in agreement with the results of the light-cone and flavor symmetric, this is not true for the momen-

meson-baryon fluctuation model of intrinsic q4 pairs. tum and helicity distributions of intrinsic sea quarks

The explicit x-dependent helicity distributions for controlled by the bound state nature of the hadrons.

valence u and d quarks can be related to the unpolar- In this paper we have studied the sea quark-

ized valence quark distributions in a light-cone SU( 6) antiquark asymmetries in the nucleon wavefunc-

quark-spectator model [ 121 for nucleon structure tion which are generated by a light-cone model of

functions by taking into account the flavor asymmetry energetically-favored meson-baryon fluctuations. The

due to the difference between scalar and vector spec- model predicts striking quark-antiquark asymmetries

tators and the Wigner rotation effect from the quark in the momentum and helicity distributions for the

transversal motions [ 61. Although the SMC data have down and strange contributions to the proton structure

324 S.J. Brodsky. B.-Q. Ma /Physics Letters B 381 (1996) 317-324

function: the intrinsic d and s quarks in the proton 131 S.J. Brodsky and D.G. Robertson, SLAC-PUB-95-7056,

sea are negatively polarized, whereas the intrinsic d OSU-NT-95-06.

and 9 antiquarks give zero contributions to the proton 141 A.1. Signal and A.W. Thomas, Phys. Len. B 191 (1987)

205.

spin. Such a picture is supported by experimental

151 B.-Q. Ma, Phys. Rev. C 43 (1991) 2821; lnt. J. Mod. Phys.

phenomena related to the proton spin problem: the E 1 (1992) 809.

recent SMC measurement of helicity distributions for 161 B.-Q. Ma, J. Phys. G 17 ( 1991) L53;

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