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18 July 1996


ELSEVIER Physics Letters B 381 (1996) 317-324

The quark-antiquark asymmetry of the nucleon sea 1

Stanley J. Brodsky a*2,Bo-Qiang Ma b*c,d.3

a Stanford Linear Accelerator Centec Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94309, USA
b CCAST (World Laboratory), PO. Box 8730, Beijing 100080, China
’ Institute of High Energy Physics, Academia Sinica, PO. Box 918(4), Beijing 100039, China
d Faculty of Natural Sciences, Kwanghua Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100081, China

Received22 April 1996

Editor: M. Dine

Although the distributions of sea quarks and antiquarks generated by leading-twist QCD evolution through gluon splitting
g + 4q are necessarily CP symmetric, the distributions of nonvalence quarks and antiquarks which are intrinsic to the
nucleon’s bound state wavefunction need not be identical. In this paper we investigate the sea quark-antiquark asymmetries
in the nucleon wavefunction which are generated by a light-cone model of energetically-favored meson-baryon fluctuations.
Tbe model predicts striking quark-antiquark asymmetries in the momentum and helicity distributions for the down and
strange contributions to the proton structure function: the intrinsic d and s quarks in the proton sea are predicted to be
negatively polarized, whereas the intrinsic d and 3 antiquarks give zero contributions to the proton spin. Such a picture is
supported by experimental phenomena related to the proton spin problem and the violation of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule. The
light-cone meson-baryon fluctuation model also suggests a structured momentum distribution asymmetry for strange quarks
and antiquarks which could be relevant to an outstanding conflict between two different determinations of the strange quark
sea in the nucleon. The model predicts an excess of intrinsic dd pairs over UUpairs, as supported by the Gottfried sum rule
violation. We also predict that the intrinsic charm and anticharm helicity and momentum distributions are not identical.

PACS: 13.60.Hb; 11.30.H~; 12.39.Ki; 13.88.+e

1. Introduction eigenstate of the QCD Hamiltonian is expanded at

fixed light-cone time 7 = t + z/c on the complete set
The composition of the nucleon in terms of its fun- of color-singlet eigenstates {In)} of the free Hamilto-
damental quark and gluon degrees of freedom is a key nian which have the same global quantum numbers:
focus of QCD phenomenology. In the light-cone (LC) Ip) = &#(xi, kli, Ai) In). Thus each Fock compo-
Fock state description of bound states, each hadronic nent in the light-cone wavefunction of a nucleon is
composed of three valence quarks, which gives the
nucleon its global quantum numbers, plus a variable
* Work partially supported by the Department of Energy, con-
tract DE-AC03-76SF00515and by the National Natural Science number of sea quark-antiquark (44) pairs of any Aa-
Foundation of China under Grant No. 19445004 and the National vor, plus arm number of gluons. The quark distribu-
Education Committee of China under Grant No. JWSL[ 19951806. tions q( x, Q) of the nucleon measured in deep inelas-
2 E-mail: tic scattering are computed from the sum of squares
s E-mail:

0370-2693/96/$12.00 Copyright 0 1996 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

PII SO370-2693(96)00597-7
318 S.J. Brodsky, B.-Q. Ma/Physics Letters B 381 (1996) 317-324

of the light-cone wavefunctions integrated over trans- tuations are most likely to be those closest to the en-
verse momentum kl up to the factorization scale 6, ergy shell and thus have minimal invariant mass. For
where the light-conemomentum fraction x = k+/p+ = example, the coupling of a proton to a virtual K+A pair
(k’ + k3) /(PO -i- P3) of the struck quark is set equal provides a specific source of intrinsic strange quarks
to the Bjorken variable XBJ. and antiquarks in the proton. Since the s and S quarks
It is important to distinguish two distinct types appear in different configurations in the lowest-lying
of quark and gluon contributions to the nucleon sea hadronic pair states, their helicity and momentum dis-
measured in deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering: tributions are distinct.
“extrinsic” and “intrinsic” [l-3]. The extrinsic sea The purpose of this paper is to investigate the quark
quarks and gluons are created as part of the lepton- and antiquark asymmetry in the nucleon sea which
scattering interaction and thus exist over a very short is implied by a light-cone meson-baryon fluctuation
time A?- N l/Q. These factorizable contributions model of intrinsic qq pairs. Such fluctuations are nec-
can be systematically derived from the QCD hard essarily part of any quantum-mechanical description
bremsstrahlung and pair-production (gluon-splitting) of the hadronic bound state in QCD and have also
subprocesses characteristic of leading twist pertur- been incorporated into the cloudy bag model [ 41 and
bative QCD evolution. In contrast, the intrinsic sea Skyrme solutions to chiral theories [ 21. We shall uti-
quarks and gluons are multiconnected to the va- lize a boost-invariant light-cone Fock state descrip-
lence quarks and exist over a relatively long lifetime tion of the hadron wavefunction which emphasizes
within the nucleon bound state. Thus the intrinsic multi-parton configurations of minimal invariant mass.
qq pairs can arrange themselves together with the We find that such fluctuations predict a striking sea
valence quarks of the target nucleon into the most quark and antiquark asymmetry in the corresponding
energetically-favored meson-baryon fluctuations. momentum and helicity distributions in the nucleon
In conventional studies of the “sea” quark distribu- structure functions. In particular, the strange and an-
tions, it is usually assumed that, aside from the effects tistrange distributions in the nucleon generally have
due to antisymmetrization, the quark and antiquark sea completely different momentum and spin characteris-
contributions have the same momentum and helicity tics. For example, the model predicts that the intrinsic
distributions. However, the ansatz of identical quark d and s quarks in the proton sea are negatively po-
and antiquark sea contributions has never been justi- larized, whereas the intrinsic d and S antiquarks pro-
fied, either theoretically or empirically. Obviously the vide zero contributions to the proton spin. We also
sea distributions which arise directly from gluon split- predict that the intrinsic charm and anticharm helicity
ting in leading twist are necessarily CP-invariant; i.e., and momentum distributions are not strictly identical.
they are symmetric under quark and antiquark inter- We show that the above picture of quark and anti-
change. However, the initial distributions which pro- quark asymmetry in the momentum and helicity distri-
vide the boundary conditions for QCD evolution need butions of the nucleon sea quarks has support from a
not be symmetric since the nucleon state is itself not number of experimental observations, and we suggest
CP-invariant. Only the global quantum numbers of the processes to test and measure this quark and antiquark
nucleon must be conserved. The intrinsic sources of asymmetry in the nucleon sea.
strange (and charm) quarks reflect the wavefunction
structure of the bound state itself; accordingly, such
distributions would not be expected to be CP symmet- 2. The light-cone meson-baryon fluctuation
ric. Thus the strange-antistrange asymmetry of nu- model of intrinsic 44 pairs
cleon structure functions provides a direct window into
the quantum bound-state structure of hadronic wave- In order to characterize the momentum and helic-
functions. ity distributions of intrinsic 44 pairs, we shall adopt
It is also possible to consider the nucleon wavefunc- a light-cone two-level convolution model of structure
tion at low resolution as a fluctuating system coupling functions [ 51 in which the nucleon is a two-body sys-
to intermediate hadronic Fock states such as noninter- tem of meson and baryon which are also composite
acting meson-baryon pairs, The most important fluc- systems of quarks and gluons. We first study the intrin-
S.J. Brodsky, B.-Q. Ma/ Physics Letters B 381 (1996) 3t7-324 319

sic strange SS pairs in the proton. In the meson-baryon Wigner rotation factor of order 0.75 for light quarks
fluctuation model, the intrinsic strangeness fluctua- and of order 1 for heavy quarks [6]. We therefore
tions in the proton wavefunction are mainly due to the predict that the net strange quark helicity arising from
intermediate K+A configuration since this state has the the intrinsic SS pairs in the nucleon wavefunction is
lowest off-shell light-cone energy and invariant mass negative, whereas the net antistrange quark helicity is
[ 31. The K+ meson is a pseudoscalar particle with approximately zero. This aspect of quark-antiquark
negative parity, and the A baryon has the same parity helicity asymmetry is in qualitative agreement with
of the nucleon. The KfA state retains the parity of the the predictions of a broken-U( 3) version of the chiral
proton, and consequently, the K+A system must have quark model [ 71 where the intrinsic quark-antiquark
odd orbital angular momentum. We thus write the to- pairs are introduced through quark to quark and Gold-
tal angular momentum space wavefunction of the in- stone boson fluctuations.
termediate KA state in the center-of-mass reference In principle, one can measure the helicity distribu-
frame as tions of strange quarks in the nucleon sea from the A
longitudinal polarization of semi-inclusive A produc-
tion in polarized deep inelastic scattering [ 3,891. We
expect that the polarization is negative for the pro-
If3 IL= l,LZ = 1) IS= ;,s, =-;) duced A and zero (or slightly positive [2]) for the

produced 2. The expectation of negative longitudinal
- IL= l,L; =O) IS= &sZ = ;> . (1) A polarization is supported by the measurements of
the WA59 Collaboration for the reaction Y + N ---f
In the constituent quark model, the spin of A is pro- p+A+X [ lo]. The complementary measurement of ;;i
vided by its strange quark and the net spin of the anti- polarization in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering
strange quark in K+ is zero. The net spin projection of is clearly important in order to test the physical picture
.,i in the K+A state is S, (A) = - %. Thus the intrinsic of the light-cone meson-baryon Buctuation model.
strange quark normalized to the probability PK+~ of It is also interesting to study the sign of the A po-
the K+A configuration yields a fractional contribution larization in the current fragmentation region as the
AS, =2&(A) = -$PK+,, to the proton spin, whereas Bjorken variable x --) 1 in polarized proton deep in-
the intrinsic antistrange quark gives a zero contribu- elastic inclusive reactions. From perturbative QCD ar-
tion: AS, = 0. There thus can be a significant quark guments on helicity retention, one expects a positive
and antiquark asymmetry in the quark spin distribu- helicity distribution for any quark struck in the end-
tions for the intrinsic SS pairs. point region x + 1, even though the global helicity
We also need to estimate the relative probabili- correlation is negative [ 111. Thus we predict that the
ties for other possible fluctuations with higher off- sign of the A polarization should change from nega-
shell light-cone energy and invariant mass, such as tive to positive as x approaches the endpoint regime.
K+(E) L+?(uds), Ku(&) Z’+(uus), and K*+(G) x The momentum distributions of the intrinsic strange
A( uds) . For example, we find that the relative prob- and antistrange quarks in the K+A state can be mod-
ability of finding the K*‘A configuration (which has eled from the two-level convolution formula
positively-correlated strange quark spin) compared
with K+A is 3.6% (8.9%) by using a same nor-
malization constant for a light-cone Gaussian type s(x) =
J- fA/K+A(y) qs/A
(power-law type) wavefunction. We find that the x
higher fluctuations of intrinsic SS pairs do not alter
the qualitative estimates of the quark and antiquark dy
S(x) = 7 fK+,‘K+A(y) %/K-+ ; . (2)
spin asymmetry in the nucleon sea based on using the 0
K+A fluctuation alone.
The quark helicity projections measured in deep in- where f/l/K+n (y), fK+/K+A (y) are probabilities of
elastic scattering are related to the quark spin pro- finding A, Kf in the K+A state with the light-cone
jections in the target rest frame by multiplying by a momentum fraction y and 4sl~ (x/y ), &/Kt (x/v) are
320 S.J. Brodsky, B.-Q. Ma/Physics Letters B 381 (1996) 317-324

probabilities of finding strange, antistrange quarks in

A, K’ with the light-cone momentum fraction x/y.
We shall estimate these quantities by adopting two- 6 (4
body momentum wavefunctions for p = K+A, K+ = 5
US, and A = sud where the ud in A serves as a spec-
tator in the quark-spectator model [ 121. We choose 24
two sim le functions of the invariant mass M2 = s3
c’,, ( klj + m?)/Xi for the two-body wavefunction: 2
the Gaussian type and power-law type wavefunctions

3 (b)
= A atussianeXp(-M*/2~*)
ICI t (3) 2
ch,wer(M2) =A ~ower( 1 + M*/a*l -LJ 3 (4) “, O
- -I
where u sets the characteristic internal momentum -3
scale. We do not expect to produce realistic quark dis-
tributions with simple two-body wavefunctions; how- 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
ever, we can hope to explain some qualitative fea- X
tures of the data as well as relations between the dif- Fig. 1. The momentum distributions for the strange quarks and
antiquarks in the light-cone meson-baryon fluctuation model of
ferent quark distributions [ 121. The predictions for
intrinsic 44 pairs, with the fluctuation wavefunction of K+A nor-
the momentum distributions s(x), S(X), and S,(X) = malized to I. The curves in (a) are the calculated results of s(x)
s(x) - S(X) are presented in Fig. 1. The strong, struc- (solid curves) and S(x) (broken curves) with the Gaussian type
tured momentum asymmetry of the s(x) and S(X) in- (thick curves) and power-law type (thin curves) wavefunctions
trinsic distributions reflects the tendency of the wave- and the curves in (b) are the corresponding 8, (x) = s(x) - .Y(x)
The parameters are mq = 330 MeV for the light-Ravor quark mass,
function to minimize the relative velocities of the in-
m, = 480 MeV for the strange quark mass, tng = 600 MeV for
termediate meson baryon state and is approximately the spectator mass, the universal momentum scale LY= 330 MeV,
same for the two wavefunctions. and the power constant p = 3.5, with realistic meson and baryon
We have performed similar calculations for the masses.
momentum distributions of the intrinsic dd and c.?
pairs arising from the p(uud) = &(ud) n(udd) 3. The strange quark-antiquark asymmetry in
and p( uud) = @(UC) A,f(udc) configurations. The the nucleon sea
results are presented in Fig. 2. We find a large quark
and antiquark asymmetry for the dd pairs. The CC We have seen that the light-cone meson-baryon
momentum asymmetry is small compared with the fluctuation model of intrinsic q4 pairs leads to signif-
sS and dd asymmetries but is still nontrivial. The cE icant quark-antiquark asymmetries in the momentum
spin asymmetry, however, is large. Considering that it and helicity distributions of the nucleon sea quarks.
is difficult to observe the momentum asymmetry for A strange-antistrange asymmetry in the nucleon sea
the dd pairs due to an additional valence d quark in has also been suggested from estimates in the cloudy
the proton, the momentum asymmetry of the intrinsic bag model [4] and Skyrme solutions to chiral theo-
strange and antistrange quarks is the most significant ries [ 2 J. At present there is still no direct experimen-
feature of the model and the easiest to observe. We tal confirmation of the strange-antistrange asymmetry.
have not taken into account the antisymmetrization However, a strange-antistrange momentum asymme-
effect of the u and d sea quarks with the valence try in the nucleon can be inferred from the apparent
quarks [ 141. conflict between two different determinations of the
S.J. Brodsky, B.-Q. Ma/ Physics Letters B 381(1996) 317-324 321

7 0.5

s 0.3
m3 x 0.2
2 0
0 0.0 -
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
Fig. 2. The momentum distributions for the down and charm quarks Fig. 3. Results for the strange quark distributions xs(n) and
and antiquarks in the light-cone meson-baryon fluctuation model x3(x) as a function of the Bjorken scaling variable n. The open
of intrinsic qcj pairs, with the fluctuation wavefunctions normalized squares shows the CEQ determination of i x[ s(x) + .T(x) ]
to 1. The curves are the calculated results for d(x) (thick solid obtamed from E5 ( F2‘N+F;N)(n)(CCFR)-3Fzfl(n)(NMC).
curve), d(x) (thick broken curve), c(x) (thin solid curve), and The circles show the CCFR determinations for xs(n) from dimuon
c(x) (thin broken curve) with the Gaussian type wavefunction. events in neutrino scattering using a leading-order QCD analysis
The parameters are ?nd = 330 MeV for the down quark mass and at Q2 c 5 (GeV/c)’ (closed circles) and a higher-order QCD
mc = 1500 MeV for the charm quark mass, with other parameters analysis at Q2 = 20 (GeV/c)2 (open circles). The thick curves are
as those in Fig. 1. the unevolved predictions of the light-cone fluctuation model for
U(X) (solidcurvelabeleda) and ~x[s(x)+S(x)] (brokencurve
strange quark content in the nucleon sea. labeled b) for the Gaussian type wavefunction in the light-cone
The strange quark distribution in the nucleon is meson-baryon fluctuation model of intrinsic qq pairs assuming
a probability of 10% for the K+A state. The thin solid and
usually obtained from analyses of the deep inelastic
broken curves (la&led a’ and b’) are the corresponding evolved
lepton-nucleon scattering data assuming identical mo- predictions multiplied by the factor d, ( x ) 1at/d,,(x) 1,,,&I assuming
mentum distribution for the strange and antistrange a probability of 4% for the KfA state.
quark distributions, i.e., s(x) = S(n) . The CTEQ [ 15 ]
global analyses of quark distributions are based pri- The CTEQ Collaboration has determined the quantity
marily on the following representations of the nucleon on the left-hand side of Eq. (9) at Q2 = 5 GeV2 using
structure functions: data from the New Muon Collaboration (NMC) [ 161
and CCFR [ 171, as shown in Fig. 3. The strange quark
_ Fpn =
2 $x(u+E-d-d), (5) distribution measured in this way can be effectively
identified with the mean i [s(x) + S(x) 1.
In principle, the difference between s(x) and J(X)
=&x[u+ii+d+d+$(s+S)], (6) can be determined from measurements of deep inelas-
tic scattering by neutrino and antineutrino beams since
;(F$“+F;ni) =x(u+ii+d+d+s+S) , (7)
they probe strange and antistrange quarks in distinct
$(F;~+F;~) =(u-c+d-J+s-i), (8) ways. One also requires explicit light-flavor quark dis-
tributions u(x), d(x) and U(x), d(x). The CCFR
where F% are converted from FF? using a heavy-target determinations of the strange quark distributions are
correction factor, with F2% denoting 4 ( F2p3+ FT J). obtained from 5044 neutrino and 1062 antineutrino
These four observables determine four co&binatibns dimuon events by assuming S(X) = S(x) [ 181. How-
of quark distributions, which can be taken to be u + ii, ever, we can regard their results as a rough estimate
d + d; ii + d and s + S if one neglects the relatively of s(x) alone since the neutrino events dominate the
small contribution from the s - J term in Es. (8). data set.
From Eqs. (6) and (7)) one obtains the equality In Fig. 3 we plot the calculated xs(x) and
ix[s(x)+S(x)] wherethenormalizationoftheK+A
A (F2”N+F;N)-3F2ti = ;x[s(x)+s(x)] . (9) probability is adjusted to fit the measured strange
322 S. J. Brodsky. B.-Q. Ma /Physics Letters B 381 f I9961 317-324

sea at x M 0.2. This prediction does not take into

account QCD evolution but indicates the inherent 6
quark-antiquark asymmetry predicted by the ffuctu-
ation model with the input light-cone wavefunction.
In order to reflect the evolution effect we have sim-
ply multiplied by a factor d,.(x) lht/dl, ( X) Imodelin the
light-cone quark-spectator model [ 121 to the calcu-
lated s(x) and S(X) in our model. Aside from very
small x where shadowing may be playing a role, the
predictions of the model are in reasonable qualitative
agreement with the empirical determinations of XS( x) 0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
and ix[ s(x) + S(X)]. Thus the quark-antiquark X
asymmetry of the intrinsic strange quark distributions Fig. 4. Results for the strange asymmetry $(x)/f(x) as a function
may help to explain the apparent conflict between the of the Bjorken scaling variable x. The open squares are the com-
two measures. Of course, the actual wavefunctions bined CTEQ-CCFR “data” and the closed circles are the CCFR
underlying the higher Fock states are undoubtedly measurement of s(x)/?(x). The thick (thin) solid curve is the
calculated result of s(x)/S(x) in the light-cone meson-baryon
more complicated than the simple forms used here.
fluctuation model for the Gaussian type wavefunction with LY= 330
The CCFR collaboration has re-analyzed the (530) MeV. The thick broken curve is the result with a larger
strange quark distributions within the context of a CI = 800 MeV and the thin broken curve is the above result with of
higher-order QCD analysis [ 191. The discrepancy = 0.07( 1-I)‘)
about 30% extrinsic strange quarks (i.e., ~~~~~~~~~~~
between the new measured strange quark distributions included for comparison with the CCFR result at small n.

and those of the CTEQ parametrizations is reduced,

but it is still significant. The CTEQ “data” is still It is also important to note that the CCFR analy-
larger than the new CCFR data, in agreement with sis of s(x) and S(x) forces the data to fit specific
the ratio of $x[s(x) + S(X)] to xs(x) predicted by power-law parametrizations which preclude a struc-
the fluctuation model. In Fig. 4 we plot the CTEQ- tured asymmetric intrinsic sea contribution of the type
CCFR “data” for the strange asymmetry s(x) /S( x ) predicted by the LC fluctuation model. Thus the CCFR
by combining the CTEQ “data” and the new CCFR parametrizations shown in Figs. 3 and 4 may not ac-
data. Allowing for the experimental errors, there is curately represent the actual physics and we urge a
a reasonable agreement between the “data” and the reanalysis that allows a structured asymmetric intrin-
predictions of the LC fluctuation model if we increase sic strange sea. Higher precision data and more stud-
the value for the wavefunction momentum scale LY.A ies are clearly needed in order to positively confirm
larger momentum scale LYis also required for a good an asymmetry in the momentum distributions of the
description of structure function within the light-cone strange and antistrange quarks.
quark model [ 201. We should be cautious about com- The normalization for intrinsic sS fluctuations can
parisons in the small x region, since the dominant be determined by fitting the two “measurements” of
contribution to strange and antistrange quarks in this the strange quark distributions in the nucleon at x M
region comes from the extrinsic sea quarks as well as 0.2. We find a probability of approximately 10% for
the evolution of the intrinsic contributions; in fact, it intrinsic SS pairs. The net spin fraction of the intrinsic
has been shown that gluon splitting alone is sufficient strange sea (s,) quarks is AS,$ = --! normalized to
to describe the data [ 2 I 1. the s9 fluctuation of K+n. The Wigner rotation factor
The CCFR collaboration has made a s(x) # S(x) should be close to 1 due to the larger mass of the
tit to their neutrino and antineutrino induced dimuon strange quarks. Thus the helicity contribution from the
events and did not find clear evidence for a differ- intrinsic s quarks with Fock state probability 4-15%
ence between s(x) and S(x) [ 193. However, within is As,~ = -0.01 to 0.05, which is somewhat smaller
the allowed errors, the CCFR data for s(x) /S(X) does than the currently estimated empirical value [ 221 As =
not rule out a strange asymmetry of the magnitude -0.10&0.03. It is possible that part of this discrepancy
suggested by the LC fluctuation model, see Fig. 4. is due to the use of exact SU(3) flavor symmetry in
S.J. Bradsky, B.-Q. Ma/Physics Letters B 381 (I 996) 317-324 323

the global fit [ 221, as suggested in Refs. [ 231. fairly large errors, the calculated Au,,(x) in the light-
cone quark-spectator model are in good agreement
with the data. However, the predicted Ad,,(x) distri-
butions do not tit the data well and seem to demand
4. The light-flavor quark content in the nucleon an additional negative contribution. This again sup-
sea ports the light-cone meson-baryon fluctuation model
in which the helicity distribution of the intrinsic d sea
The light-cone fluctuation model contains neutral
quarks Ad,(x) is negative.
meson fluctuation configurations in which the inter-
The standard SU(6) quark model gives the con-
mediate mesons are composite systems of the intrin-
straints IAu~,] I 4 and IAd,,\ I ;. A global fit [22] of
sic up UZ and down da pairs, but these fluctuations polarized deep inelastic scattering data together with
do not cause a quark-antiquark asymmetry in the
constraints from nucleon and hyperon decay and the
nucleon sea. The lowest non-neutral ur7 fluctuation included higher-order perturbative QCD corrections
in the proton is p(uud) = r-(dti) d++(uuu), and leads to values for different quark helicity contribu-
its probability is small compared to the non-neutral
tions in the proton: Au = 0.83 f 0.03, Ad = -0.43 f
dd fluctuation. Therefore the dominant non-neutral 0.03, As = -0.10 Z!Z0.03. In the light-cone meson-
light-flavor qq fluctuation in the proton sea is dd baryon fluctuation model, the antiquark helicity con-
through the meson-baryon configuration p( uud) = tributions are zero. We thus can consider the empirical
T+ (ud) n( udd) . This leads naturally to an excess of values as the helicity contributions Aq = Aq[, + Aq.$
dd^ pairs over urZpairs in the proton sea. Such a mech- from both the valence qL, and sea qs quarks. Thus the
anism provides a natural explanation [24] for the empirical result jAdJ > 5 strongly implies an addi-
violation of the Gottfried sum rule [ 251 and leads to tional negative contribution Ad, in the nucleon sea.
non-trivial distributions of the sea quarks. The NMC
measurement So = i + 5 J; dx[u,(x) - d,(x)1 =
0.235 i 0.026 [25] implies & dx[d,(x) - u,(x)] = 5. Summary
0.148 f 0.039, which can be considered as the proba-
bility of finding non-neutral intrinsic dd fluctuations Intrinsic sea quarks clearIy play a key role in de-
in the proton sea. termining basic properties of the nucleon, including
In the light-cone meson-baryon fluctuation model, its static measures such as the strange quark contri-
the net d quark helicity of the intrinsic qq fluctua- bution to the nucleon magnetic moments. As we have
tion is negative, whereas the net d antiquark helicity shown here, the corresponding intrinsic contributions
is zero. Therefore the quark-antiquark asymmetry of to the sea quark structure functions lead to nontrivial,
the dd pairs should be apparent in the d quark and an- asymmetric, and structured momentum and spin dis-
tiquark helicity distributions. There are now explicit tributions. Understanding the role of the intrinsic dis-
measurements of the helicity distributions for the in- tributions is essential for setting the boundary condi-
dividual u and d valence and sea quarks by the Spin tions for the QCD evolution of the quark sea. Although
Muon Collaboration (SMC) [ 261. The helicity distri- the sea quarks generated by perturbative leading twist
butions for the u and d antiquarks are consistent with QCD evolution from gluon spitting are necessarily CP
zero in agreement with the results of the light-cone and flavor symmetric, this is not true for the momen-
meson-baryon fluctuation model of intrinsic q4 pairs. tum and helicity distributions of intrinsic sea quarks
The explicit x-dependent helicity distributions for controlled by the bound state nature of the hadrons.
valence u and d quarks can be related to the unpolar- In this paper we have studied the sea quark-
ized valence quark distributions in a light-cone SU( 6) antiquark asymmetries in the nucleon wavefunc-
quark-spectator model [ 121 for nucleon structure tion which are generated by a light-cone model of
functions by taking into account the flavor asymmetry energetically-favored meson-baryon fluctuations. The
due to the difference between scalar and vector spec- model predicts striking quark-antiquark asymmetries
tators and the Wigner rotation effect from the quark in the momentum and helicity distributions for the
transversal motions [ 61. Although the SMC data have down and strange contributions to the proton structure
324 S.J. Brodsky. B.-Q. Ma /Physics Letters B 381 (1996) 317-324

function: the intrinsic d and s quarks in the proton 131 S.J. Brodsky and D.G. Robertson, SLAC-PUB-95-7056,
sea are negatively polarized, whereas the intrinsic d OSU-NT-95-06.

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