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1. According to recent research, sunshine and warm weather have a

positive effect on our moods. The British Journal of Psychology has
published a report in which it claims that anxiety levels fall when
temperatures rise, while increased exposure to sunshine makes us think
more positively about our lives.

2. As to the Industrial Revolution, one cannot dispute today the fact that
it has succeeded in inaugurating in a number of countries a level of mass
prosperity which was undreamt of in the days preceding the Industrial
Revolution. But, on the immediate impact of Industrial Revolution, there
were substantial divergences among writers.

3. While blue is one of the most popular colors, it is one of the least
appetizing. Blue food is rare in nature. Food researchers say that, when
humans searched for food, they learned to avoid toxic or spoiled objects,
which were often blue, black or purple. When food dyed blue is served to
study subjects, they lose appetite.

4. When countries assess their annual carbon dioxide emissions, they

count up their cars and power stations, but bush fires are not included —
presumably because they are deemed to be events beyond human
control. In Australia, Victoria alone sees several hundred thousand
hectares burn each year; in both 2004 and more recently, the figure has
been over 1 million hectares.

5. When countries assess their annual carbon dioxide emissions, they

count up their cars and power stations, but bush fires are not included —
presumably because they are deemed to be events beyond human
control. In Australia, Victoria alone sees several hundred thousand
hectares burn each year; in both 2004 and more recently, the figure has
been over 1 million hectares.

6. For any marketing course that requires the development of marketing

plans, such as marketing management, marketing strategy, and
segmentation support marketing, this is the only planning handbook that
guides students through the step by step creation of customized
marketing plan. While offering commercial software to aid in the process.
7. How quickly is the world's population growing? In the United States
and other developed countries, the current growth rate is very low. In
most developing countries, the human population is growing at 3 people
per second. Because of this bustling growth rate, human population is
grown to reach 9 billion within your lifetime.

8. Hundreds of millions of people eat fast food every day without giving it
much thought, they just unwrap their hamburgers and dig in. An hour or
so later, when the burgers are all gone and wrappers were tossed in the
bin, the whole meal has already been forgotten.

9. How do we imagine the unimaginable? If we're asked to think of an

object -say, a yellow tulip — a picture immediately forms in our mind's
eye. But what if we try to imagine a concept such as the square root of
negative number?

10. The southerners did not accept Lincoln as a president because of

certain reasons, based on historical grounds. Southerners wished to
protect their rights in the government and become more independent
from the north. They considered president elections to be unfair.
Moreover, they thought that their own rights would be ignored and
limited. All this caused the separation of the southern states and marked
the beginning of the Civil War.

11. Major breeding areas, and breeding islands, are shown as dark green
areas or darts. Open darts shown no-breeding records on islands, and are
also used for offshore sightings, that is from ships or boats. Other areas
where species is not meant to be seen are plain pale green, with pale
green hatching where records are usually sparse.

12. Long isolated from Western Europe, Russia grew up without

participating in the development like the Reformation that many Russians
taking pride in their unique culture, find dubious value. Russia is, as a
result, the most unusual member of the European family, if indeed it is
European at all. The question is still open to debate, particularly among
Russians themselves.

13. The Ford Company provides plenty of opportunities for its employees.
It guarantees not only comfortable and appropriate working conditions,
but also many other advantages. Therefore, becoming a part of the Ford
Motor company is always profitable and beneficial. Moreover, it is
important to mention that Ford Motors provides its employees with
effective and useful services and takes care of their well-being.

14. At the end of this year, we will launch the cup class boats. So these
will be about twice the power. The sailors are down in the cockpits, unlike
today. A lot of power is being generated by these four grinders that are
providing hydraulic power, and that energy is being used to control the
flying surface, the hydrofoil and is also being used to control the wing and
the flaps, effectively the engine, of what we have.

15. Studying abroad is a very popular option for students who come from
a wealthy family. Most people believe that overseas experience provides a
deeper understanding of cultures and develops communication skills.
While this may be true, not all of these new experiences are useful for
finding a job. Employers tend to value interpersonal skills and industry
knowledge more than cultural background.

16. Botanic gardens are scientific and cultural institutions established to

collect, study, exchange and display plants for research and for the
education and enjoyment of the public. There are major botanic gardens
in each capital city. Zoological parks and aquariums are primarily engaged
in the breeding, preservation and display of native and exotic fauna in

17. Researchers gathered 160 uncaffeinated adults, people who

consumed less than 500 milligrams of caffeine a week. These decaf
subjects looked at pictures of various objects, then took either a placebo
or a pill containing 200 milligrams of caffeine. That's roughly the amount
you'd get from two cups of coffee.

18. Major breeding areas, and breeding islands, are shown as dark green
areas or darts. Open darts are shown no-breeding records on islands, and
are also used for offshore sightings, that is from ships or boats. Other
areas where species are not meant to be seen are plain pale green, with
pale green hatching were records are usually sparse.

19. The diversity of human language may be compared to the diversity of

the natural world. Just as the demise of plant spices reduces genetic
diversity, and deprive humanity or potential medical and biological rest so
extinction of language takes with it a wealth culture, art and knowledge.
20. It is difficult to tell whether the speaker approves of Hemingway's
lifestyle or not. He was famously macho and spent a lot of time hunting
wild animals, going to wars and getting into fights. All these things got
into his books, and the speaker thinks that this is not necessarily a good
thing as it means that too many people prefer to read about his life than
read his books.

21. Howard believed that all clouds belonged to three distinct groups:
cumulus, stratus and cirrus. He added a fourth category, nimbus, to
describe a cloud in the act of condensation into rain, hail or snow. It is by
observing how clouds change color and shape that weather can be
predicted, and as long as it is the first three of cloud to keep their normal
shape there won't be any rain.

22. Charles Darwin published his paper "On the Origin of Species" in
1859. It is one of the most well-known pieces of scientific literature in
human history. In the paper, Darwin proposes the theory of natural
selection. He states that for any generation of any species, there will
always be a struggle for survival. Individuals who are better suited to the
environment are "fitter", and therefore have a much higher chance of
surviving and reproducing. This means that later generations are likely to
inherit these stronger genetic traits.

23. Such cross-protection is usually seen between two animals. But Gore
studies the same sort of mutualism in microbes. He and his team
demonstrated the first experimental example of that cross-protective
relationship in drug-resistant microbes, using two strains of antibiotic-
resistant E. coli bacteria: one resistant to ampicillin, the other to

24. Written examinations are a fact of life for most high school and
university students. However, recent studies have shown that this
traditional form of assessment may not be an accurate indicator of
academic performance. Tests have shown that many students experience
anxiety during exam weeks, which leads to poorer results. As a result,
some learning institutions are replacing exams with alternative
assessments such as group work and oral presentations.

25. In classes, your teachers will talk about topics that you are studying.
The information that they provide will be important to know when you
take tests. You must be able to take good written notes from what your
teacher says.

26. The physical location of a restaurant in the competitive landscape of

the city has long been known as a major factor in its likely success or
failure. Once restaurants are established in such environments they can
do little about their location. All they can do is work to improve customer
access to their premises. Restaurateurs often do this by engaging in
battles with local authorities about car parking.

27. Hundreds of millions of American people eat fast food every day
without giving it too much thought, unaware of the subtle and not so
subtle ramifications of their purchases. They just grab their tray off the
counter, find a table, take a seat, unwrap the paper, and dig in. The
whole experience is transitory and soon forgotten.

28. A national study into fraud by bookkeepers employed at small and

medium-sized businesses has uncovered 65 instances of theft in more
than five years, with more than $31 million stolen. Of the cases identified
by the research, 56 involved women and nine instances involved men.
However, male bookkeepers who defrauded their employer stole three
times, on average, the amount that women stole.

29. Avalanche is rapidly descending large mass of snow, ice, soil, rock, or
mixtures of these materials, sliding or falling in response to the force of
gravity. Avalanches, which are natural forms of erosion and often
seasonal, are usually classified by their content such as a debris or snow

30. The main production of soft drink was stored in 1830’s & since then
from those experimental beginning, there was an evolution until in 1781
when the world’s first cola-flavoured beverage was introduced. These
drinks were called soft drinks, only to separate them from hard alcoholic
drinks. Today, soft drink is more favourite refreshment drink than tea,
coffee, juice etc.
31. Since 2003, borrowing for education advanced faster, in percentage
terms, then all other types of consumer debt that includes mortgages,
auto loans and credit cards, data from the Federal Reserve Bank of New
York show. As of the fourth quarter, student loans represented 10.5
percent of a record $13.1 trillion in household debt, up from 3.3 percent
at the start of 2003.

32. The next wave of leaders in industrial manufacturing will build an

ecosystem that capitalizes on the promise of analytics and connectivity to
maximize efficiency for themselves and their customers. They will map
out their strategies and prioritize measures that will bring the most value
to their business, starting now with pilot projects, and building greater
strengths in data analytics with cross-functional teams of experts.

33. Flags can be unifying to a country, and many times are. A country
that can look to its flag flown high above the landscape in times of trouble
and remember that the country will go on. People that have never met
before can feel unity towards one another knowing that they’re part of the
same country and fly the same flag.

34. Banksia scabrella, commonly known as the Burma Road banksia, is a

species of woody shrub in the genus Banksia. It is classified in the series
Abietinae, a group of several species of shrubs with small round or oval
inflorescence. It occurs in a number of isolated populations south of
Gerald ton, Western Australia, with the largest population being south and
east of Mount Adams.

1. Number the beakers and put them away before tomorrow.

2. Columbia is a world leading coffee exporter.

3. Please explain what the author means by sustainability.

4. She doesn't care about anything but what is honest and true.

5. The leading scientists speculate that numerous planets could support

life forms.

6. The theoretical proposal was challenged to grasp.

7. The office opens on Mondays and Thursdays directly follow the

freshman seminar.

8. The library is located on the other side of the campus behind the
student centre.

9. Could you please pass the handouts to the students that are in your

10. Number the bricks and put them away before tomorrow.

11. The library is located on the other side of the campus behind the
student centre.

12. Companies need to satisfy customers' needs if they want to be


13. Student residents’ accommodation is very close to the academic

building which is in a walking distance.

14. Don't forget to hand in your assignments by the end of next week.

15. Rules of breaks and lunch time vary from one company to another.

16. Your watches are fast; you need to reset it.

17. Research has found that there is no correlation between diet and

18. Please carefully study the framework and complete the survey.
19. It is clear that little accurate documentation is in support of this

20. Haemoglobin carries oxygen from lungs to other parts of the body.

21. This number went up very slowly over several centuries.

22. The number of people in the world tripled during the last century.

23. In just 12 years, the global population raised from just six to seven

24. There are several interesting blocks you can refer to for your
academic writing

25. I am taking biology, physics, statistics, and emerging technology

classes this semester.

26. What is the requirement for the masters of biochemistry course at the
University of Melbourne?

27. There are several technologies available in the market for video
conferencing such as Skype and Google hangouts.

28. When will spring be here?

29. According to the professor, the biodiversity of a rainforest is very rich

and currently endangered.

30. Does anyone know how to use the new constitutional voting system?

31. There was a big bushfire and everyone in the town got evacuated.

32. Vitamin C is clinically proven to boost your immune system!

33. I think it's very important to protect our eyes because we don't want
anything damaged.

34. If someone leaves a party to start a new one it can be pretty


35. Well, it's impossible to burn coal and not make pollution.

36. Aussie kids are constantly adding to that pile using social media apps
like Instagram.
37. Some social media companies are working to make it easier for kids
to figure out how to use their apps safely and responsibly.

38. I'll be getting taught at a mainstream school which will be very


39. One thing that people might not know about distant education is that
students never miss a day of school even if they are sick.

40. 8 in 10 of the students said that they spend more time in front of a
screen than recommended by experts.

41. On the 2nd of December 1911, Douglas Mawson set sail for

42. Some online companies and social media sites are not attempting to
sort the fake news from the real stuff.

43. To try to understand all this better, a number of satellites already

monitor the sun.

44. A recent report by the World Meteorological Organization said, ‘2016

is set to become the hottest year on record’.

45. At the moment, 193 countries have signed the Paris agreement.

46. When people breathe in too many polluted particles, it can cause
serious, even life-threatening, health conditions.

47. The twin-engine aircraft should have been able to successfully take
off even after losing an engine.

48. Students who selected two to three courses may need an extension.

49. Could you pass the material to students that are in your row?

50. A lot of people who have up until now been spending money having a
good time now need to be more careful with their money.

51. What distinguishes him from others is the dramatic use of black and
white photography.

52. Our university has strong partnerships with industry as well as

collaborative relationships with government bodies.
53. Acupuncture is a technique involved in traditional Chinese medicine.

54. We would like a first draft of the assignment by Monday.

55. The agricultural sector in that country has heavily subsidized.

56. A preliminary bibliography is due the week before the spring break.

57. Higher fees cause the student to look more critically at what
universities offer.

58. It's important to keep this medicine in the fridge.

59. She doesn't even care about anything but what is honest and true.

60. Tomorrow's lunchtime seminar on nuclear engineering has been


61. The food at the Thai restaurant was very spicy.

62. The sunset over the valley was a spectacular sight.

63. Every photograph knows how important sunlight is to get good


64. Excuse me sir, do you know the way to the North Church?

65. Every student in this class will need to submit their cover sheet prior
to the release of the assignment.

66. The salt used in this dish was imported from Egypt.

67. The pyramids have been standing for over thousands of years and
draws tourists from all over the world.

68. Spring is just around the corner, hold on!

69. Fish oil is a good source of omega 3 for your body.

70. The fireworks last night was spectacular.

71. The great ocean road is a scenic route which stretches on for miles.

72. Parents of children who are found outside of school can be punished
under the law.
73. Companies want to protect their brands from negative comments.

74. Some employees spend two hours a day on social networking sites.

75. Potential customers can see what employees say online.

76. The feeling of disgust is related to the stomach.

77. Disgust helps us to avoid diseases and viruses.

78. We acquire disgust through our genes and culture.

79. The presentation on “disgust” will be in the great hall.

80. Anyone who feels ill should visit our medical centre.

81. Next week’s assignment will be similar to last week’s.

82. The Student’s Union governs the use of the Sports Centre.

83. We can use machines to scan brain activity as it happens.

84. Oceans cover two-thirds of the earth’s surface.

Describe images

1. 2.

3. 4.
5. 6.

7. 8.
9. 10.



15. 16.

17. 18.
19. 20.

21. 22.

24. 25.







38. 39.

Retell Lectures and Summarise spoken texts:

1. Australian export

 The lecture talks about the comparison of Australian exports to

China, Japan and the US.
 Australian exports used to be isolated from North America and UK
 China is the second largest exporter after Japan.
 In recent years, the rise of China has changed the world situation,
and influenced Australia as well.
 Australia should take advantage of China’s rise.

2. Brain development

 The lecture talks about human brain development which contains

language and cognition.
 The sensing pathways which include vision and hearing starts when
babies were born and peaks at 3 months old, subsides around 4
years old.
 The language skill increases from new born and peaks at 9 months
old, and subsides around 4 years old.
 The higher cognitive function starts the earliest before babies were
born, but peaks later at 1-year-old, and subsides around 16 years

3. Darkness between galaxies

 This is a photo of thousands of galaxies, which is the largest photo

so far taken by NASA.
 It is copyright free. It took more than a month to produce this photo
by using Hubble Ultra-Deep Field.
 The deepest mystery of galaxies is the darkness of galaxy, because
galaxies are not dark actually.
 But why is the sky dark at night? This is the question that scientists
are trying to understand.

4. Bomb calorimeter

 Bomb calorimeter is used to calculate how much energy is contained

in food.
 The thermometer can calculate the energy contained in the food.
 Bomb calorimeter can measure the heat of the food but cannot
measure the digestible energy that people intake.

5. High LG and Low LG

 Differences in stress reactivity of adult rats are determined by

maternal licking and grooming (LG) during infancy.
 L means licking and G means grooming.
 The experiment tested on high and low level of licking and grooming
that mother rats give to their children, to test out its effect on the
children’s stress reactivity.
 High LG will bring modest stress reactivity, which can reduce the risk
for poor development and diseases.
 Low LG will increase the stress reactivity, which can increase the risk
for heart disease, type II diabetes, alcoholism, affective disorders
and brain aging, etc.

6. Napoleon III Renovation of Paris

 This lecture talks about the renovation of Paris in the 1890s, which
was a vast public program directed by Haussmann, commissioned by
Napoleon the Third.
 Napoleon the third told Haussmann to bring air and light to the
center of to make the city safer and more beautiful.
 The renovation removed the unhealthy neighbourhood and it
includes building roads, parks and squares, planting more trees and
the construction of new infrastructure.
 Finally, the speaker mentions that the reason for doing this is that
the old Paris had many serious problems such as overcrowding,
disease and crime.

7. Pavlov’s Classic Conditioning Experiment

 The professor uses Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiment to

demonstrate the reward process and how motivation works.
 First, a dog salivates in response to seeing food, which is called
unconditional responses.
 Conditioning means we ring the bell every time when the dog sees
 Thus, the dog will salivate in response to a ringing bell, which is
called conditioned response.
 This experiment is called Classical Conditioning and this is how
motivation works.

8. Air Pollution

 Increasing combustion which leads to greenhouse gases emissions is

the major cause of global warming and climate change.
 But soot emissions are another bigger threat to human’s health
which makes people live shorter.
 It is not to say that we should ignore carbon dioxide emissions and
greenhouse gases.
 It is that soot emission is one quarter more harmful to health than
carbon dioxide is.
 Also, the reduction of soot emission is the quickest and easiest way
to tackle global warming in short-term. Infinite monkey theorem
 If you give a monkey a typewriter, it may type six letters.
 But if you give the monkey pen and paper, it may only make some
 As long as we give the monkey infinite time, there is a chance that
the monkey can type out a whole article.

9. Visual Description

 The comic I show you with lots of people chatting around a room is a
form of description.
 Sometimes we have to use visual description, especially when we
cannot witness the scenario.
 I was born during the Second World War. I always asked my mom
about the war. I often asked my mom “you have mentioned this or
that when talked to me.” I will ask her about what the shelter was
like and ‘when did you go to the shelter’.
 From her response I could get more visual evidence, so that I can
experience as if I were there. This is how I can write my book.

10. The Increasing Productivity

 The development of technology has shortened the production time

and increased productivity.
 Thus the unit cost has gone down, so that products are becoming
more affordable.
 Take example, in the past, the cost of compute production was
relatively high because the price of semiconductors was expensive.
 With increased advance technology, the cost of computer parts
(semiconductor) declined, and the productivity has increased, so the
single selling price of computer has become cheaper.

11. Poverty in Rural Areas

 The lecture describes the migration from rural to urban.

 In the past, there was only 7% people living in urban areas. Now
there is a population migration in 19xx.
 It is important to make sure that population in rural areas access to
sanitation and education.

12. Dissociation of a Personality

 Morton Prince was an American physician and psychologist, his book

“Dissociation of Personality” was the best-seller at that time. It tells
a story of Miss Christine Beauchamp, who was suffering from MPD
(Multiple Personality Disorder)
 Miss Beauchamp has several personalities, namely B1, B2 and B3.
There was hidden memory in these 3 personalities.
 Miss Beauchamp was B2. B2 knows about B1, B3 knows both B1 &
B2, but B1 knows nothing about B2 or B3.
 The strongest personality account for most of the time and it will
take over the others and become the main personality at the end.
 This case and theory give great help to crime investigation.

13. Children Overweight

 There are 20% of children in USA today have overweight problems.

 As a result, heart diseases have become more and more common
among children. The smallest is 5 years old.
 Cases of heart attack and other health problems are happening
 This has to be solved because overweight will lead to more serious
situations, such as Type 2 Diabetes, kidney failure and strokes.

14. Teaching

 Students are motivated by the needs to learn and that’s how we can
 Teaching can demonstrate current researches to students. Teaching
can bring intelligence together, find problems in the research
through the teaching process.
 Teaching’s goal is to stimulate and to motivate. Teaching is to find
new ideas and new ways to do things.
 This is how to become a good professor.

15. The Large Hadron Collider

 The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the largest and the most
powerful particle accelerator in the world. It is used to recreate the
conditions of space after the big bang at the start of the universe.
 LHC is operated in a tunnel of 27km long. It can create 1.4 million
times of collisions per second.
 Each particle beam collision will generate 7 TeV (teraelectron volt),
which is the largest energy manmade collision of particle beams.
 The LHC's main magnets operate at a temperature of 1.9 K (degree
Kelvin) over the absolute zero, which is even colder than the
temperature of the outer space 2.7 K (degree Kelvin).

16. Food Labelling

 Traffic light colors (red, amber and green) are used to represent
food healthy standard.
 Different colors represent different information and categorize food
types, so that people would know what to eat when they need some
certain type of nutrients.
 It is the retailer’s responsibility to label food properly so that
consumers can choose exactly what type of food they need.
 In this way, consumers can be aware of food with less salt or less

17. Biomedical Engineering

 Human used to utilize simple machines to understand themselves

and improve wellbeing.
 Later, engineers developed more complicated machines to expand
human’s life expectancy.
 So that we can have more time to create more advanced machines.
 For example, now we have ECG to study the different parts in our
body and how they work, without going into the body.
18. Freedom of Speech in Britain

 In the 18th century, the British policy encourage freedom of speech.

 People can talk about anything like politics, military, and the
government in public space, in a coffee houses or on the streets.
 In coffee houses, people can read newspapers, criticize on politics.
 That period of time marked the significant peak for public freedom.

19. How Human Use Materials.

 How humans use materials around us to make our life better.

 First we use materials to make simple machines to cure wounds, and
so that to improve our health and life expectancy.
 When life expectancy increases, we have more time to study and
invent more complicated machine, and further increase the quality
of life.
 Such as machines to scan and monitor brain activities.

20. The Best Rice

 There is a Green Revolution in Mexico in 19xx

 The rice is called IR8, its gene is modified and it is selected from a
range of crops. It is the best rice.
 It increases 10 times yield compared with traditional rice.
(mentioned lots of “years” and “numbers”)
 It is now used worldwide and feed the world population.

21. Indian HIV Training.

 This lecture talks about the health trainings for community service
 Trainings and consultation will be provided to help them understand
the scope and how to prevent diseases such as HIV.
 Large workshops and seminars are held quarterly in India. These
trainings will be provided by big hospitals and professionals.
 But these target groups are hard to reach or contact because they
live in remote areas and the team has to cross the river.

22. Government Blogging

 We normally see blogging as a two-way interaction, in which the

blogger/author creates the content and the readers interact or
challenge the author.
 But the case will be much difficult when it comes to government,
such as the White House.
 Because people will become coarser and ride online, especially in the
comment area.
 Hence the governor blog may go wild and chaotic.

23. Superman & Superpower

 Today we are going to recount some heroic stories. Some human

beings can execute super human strength like lifting a car. But are
these stories true?
 They are actual anecdotal.
 This kind of strength is called hysterical strength, or superhuman
 From scientific perspectives, humans will temporarily have
superhuman strength sometimes, especially when they are facing
crisis, danger and fear.
 But after that period, they cannot do the same things ever again.

24. Earth and Mars

 This lecture compares the conditions on the earth and Mars, as well
as the habitability of Mars.
 There are some similarities such as polar caps, atmospheres and
water climate.
 But Mars and the earth also have lots of difference. Even the most
inhabitable areas on the earth are way different from those on Mars.
 The lecture also describes different forms of water (hydrology) on
the surface and underground of the earth and Mars.

25. Water on Mars

 In the past five years, the temperature of Mars has increased.

 The research conducted on the Mars indicates the prior existence of
liquid water.
 The evidence is that researchers found several elements which are
essential to form water, such as calcium carbonate, salt, mineral,
and perchlorate.
 Consequently, we can speculate that there used to be water existed
on Mars as liquid form and Mars may be a hospitable planet long
time ago.
26. Dogs tell growl apart

 In this video, when a dog approaches some food, different snarls are
played back.
 Sometimes a dog doesn't stop from taking the bones when hearing
the voices, in other cases, it will be deterred.
 Therefore, a dog can tell different growls.

27. Edmund Wilson

 This lecture talks about Wilson.

 He comes from a very different world and is the focal point an
American culture.
 He believes that literature is a part of life for everyone as for
 In over 50 years, he is a dedicated literary journalist.

28. Course in Stanford University

 The Stanford university held a speech which stressed the importance

of management and leadership in business school.
 The education purpose is to learn management and leadership.
 Students should be responsible for their management performance.
 The responsibility means that the accomplishments achieved by
others does not indicate what you are capable of.

29. Drug Advertisement on TV

 Drug advertisement is shown on TV during prime time frequently.

 The amount of money spent has doubled.
 The information provided by the advertisement is technically correct,
but the tone is misleading.
 Drug may help patients to recover but life changes also have some

30. Conditions for species to survive

This lecture talks about the general conditions of how animals can survive
and reproduce, how they maintain their bodies under water, how they
tolerate different temperature and seasons, how they use their habitats,
and how about their daily activities and behaviours. For example, if the
specie is put into the fridge, it will die, which highlight the
31. Laugh as a therapy

The speech is about benefits of laughing, especially in adversity.

People realized the importance of laughing a long time ago and there are
different understandings about humour in different regions.

There were war jokes about the Berlin Wall spreading among east regions
for 30 years during the second World War that could ease the harm of the

As humour, laughing can help people get through bleak and boring time.
As a therapy, laughing can effectively improve people's self-respect and

32. Coffee industry in Vietnam

The lecturer talks about the changes that have taken place in coffee
production in Vietnam.

In the past 10 years the coffee production in Vietnam increased from 6

billion to 30 billion.

The huge demand in Europe and America has helped Vietnam to become
the second largest coffee producer, which had a great impact on
Colombia's production.

The output in central America has significantly decreased and people are
also going through changes in coffee drinking habits.

33. Public Tertiary Education expenditure in EU

This lecture compares the public expenditure on tertiary education in

European countries.

UK spent 1.4% of its GDP on tertiary education, which was insufficient

compared to other European countries such as Finland, Denmark.

The spending of Spain is dose to that of the UK. Countries like Denmark
and Finland spent much more than other European countries, which is
about 2% of their GDP.

EU countries on average spend 4.6% of GDP on tertiary education.

34. Environmental law

The lecture is about environmental law. British government launched the

environmental law in order to control the impact of humans on
environment. The enforcement of environmental law was an aggressive
regulation innovation which aimed to improve environment locally and
globally. Companies applied the Adam Smith theory to increase their
profitability. Managers were unsatisfied about environmental law because
companies would pay more money to ensure the health of their
employees under the environmental law, which made companies less
competitive in the market.

35. Latin America Economic Growth

This lecture mainly talks about the economic development in Latin


In the past 20 years, the Latin American economy grew about 80%.

However, after the globalization and reform, the growth rate slow down
from 80% to 10%. Therefore, the speaker mentions the economy after
reform become unsustainable.

And some people start to consider whether the reform is

positive or negative for the economic development.

36. Business Entity

The essence of business entity is exchange. You exchange your goods to

other goods.

The goal of marketing is transfer products from suppliers to consumers to

meet the demands of customers.

Capital gain is very important because only if by making profits, company

would reinvest and produce more.

37. Population Growth Mega City

The lecture is about population growth and resource consumption from

1990 to 2000.

In 1900. the population was about 1.5 billion and it increased to 6 billion
in 2000. The increase of energy consumption was much more significant
which is increased by 16 folds. Due to the urbanisation, cities, which only
account for 2% of the land, have 50% of the total population and
consumes 75% of the resources.

At the end, the lecturer emphasizes that people not only use every
resource on the planet but also produce tons of wastes.

38. Secret Life of Bees

This lecture appears in summarize spoken text:

A novelist took a long detour in writing but she had no regret about it.
The word 'no art ever came out of not risking your neck' said by Eudora
Welty inspired the novelist and she first started writing when she was
thirty years old in the early 90s. Later she finished the first chapter of her
novel called The Secret Life of Bees.

39. Voynich Manuscript


There are different theories proposed for voynich manuscript, some of

which claims it is a hoax dated from the 15th century, whereas other
people argue it teaches people how to make money. Mother group
believes it is the encoded secrets which have not been revealed. The
author suggests, however, the manuscript is genuine, a sort of human-
devised script behind which is an Asian language other than European.

40. The first Robot

 These robots are the first robots; they are characters in the play
 People think they are toys, initially, but in fact they were created
after political turmoil, after the end of WW1.
 People are thinking about their meaning to human
 After all, they are assembled on production line and are designed to

41. Industrial Revolution and regulation

The notion of pragmatism and democracy had succeeded in tempering the

market economy in developed countries. In the past. the Industrial
Revolution had negative effects on the working class in terms of living
standards, so legislations were set on working conditions to avoid worst
consequences. Regulations were made in the 20th century to reverse
damages so that benefits of the market economy are far widely shared
than 100 years ago.

42. Drug safety

Drugs have to be stored properly to discourage the access by children.

Some people mistake drugs, causing allergy reaction and if the wrong
dosage was taken, drug resistance may develop. It is advised that
physicians should stress the importance of taking the right drugs.

43. Interpreters and Translators

The lecture compared and contrasted the similarities and differences

between interpreters and translators. Firstly, translators have to translate
written texts whereas interpreters deal with verbal communication.
Secondly, translators are required to write comprehensively in the foreign
language, but interpreters have to speak both languages professionally.
Lastly, qualification and experience requirements are different.

44. Urbanisation

The lecture accentuates the dynamic associated with urbanization as

development. The progress of cities demands more people which is only
attainable when the productivity of the countryside increases
dramatically. The decreased need for labouring in the countryside as a
result of increased productivity compels people to move to cities, search
jobs and provide the labour force to the market.

45. Why not burn coal/soot emission

 Soot is black, and is second to CO2 in terms of warming.

 Its lifetime is shorter, so if we reduce soot, we can make changes in
 The amount of warming from soot is about one quarter from CO2
 There will be immediate effects in reducing warming in areas where
soot emissions were large.

46. Faults and earthquakes

 The lecture is described as the relationship between faults and

 Faults are breaks in the earth crust.
 Earthquake occurs on the faults, starts at the particular point on the
faults plane and we call that the focus of the earthquake.
 The epicentre is just the surface projection of the focus of the
earthquake, which is just a point vertically above the focus at the
surface of the earth.

47. Food and income in Africa

 Wildlife is important for people's livelihood, especially fish.

 Billions of people in the world rely on fish as their main food source,
the source of protein, and source of income.
 As food source, fish is beneficial to health. as a source of income, it
alleviates poverty.
 It is expected that fish industry will become the prime source of
foreign income because it attracts tourists

48. Political Words

 The Socialism was born in 1880s and the Communism was

originated in 1840s, which became as ideologies after the French
 The words political left and political right were originated from the
French Revolution.
 Political left is more aggressive while political right tends to be more
conservative to the old regime.

49. Prevention of epidemic transmitting

 In the developed world, like the United States, it uses various

methods to prevent epidemic transmission with a wide range of
resources such as invention of antiviral drugs and vaccines and
health management.
 However, epidemic prevention can be a big challenge for some less
developed countries since they do not have the same level of
resources as rich countries do.

50. Risks and safety

The lecture focuses on the literal definition of risk and safety. Two parts of
the definition of risk include consequences of some kind of dangers, and
possibilities of loss, whereas the definition of safe, though involves a
circular argument, is free from harm, which is an absolute notion being
either safe or not safe.

51. Space time

 If we want to talk about relativity, we have to talk about space-time.

 Space-time is the four dimensional world we live in 3. We need four
numbers to specify a point in space.
 Also, the four dimensional world is the arena of physics. everything
happens physically in space-time.

52. Productivity and cost

 Productivity is the number of output per unit.

 Cost per item is the unit cost.
 Prices dropped dramatically during the manufacturing process.
 In particular, for computers, the average prices dropped so
dramatically because of the revolution we have.

53. Visual arts and WWII

 The author was born from the Island or Moreton

 He learnt to write letters about WWII and how to ask visual
questions. which gives him more clues about the War.
 For example, he asked about his mother what does the shelter look
like. His mother depicts the details, then he would draw into

54. What forms clouds

 Every cloud drop is a particle

 At sea, sea-spray, sea-salt are forming clouds
 But when you go inland, different sources form clouds more effective
than others
 They reflect the light back to space, so keeping things much cooler
 Also when more pollution is putting into the cloud, it affects weather

55. Mr. Green-Amory Lovins (SST)

Amory Lovins is an unusual character with a wide range of

knowledge. but he is not an academic person. He has a consulting
company and lives in a house which is built in the mountain. He has
thought and used a lot of ways to save energy and solve problems
with existing technologies for 30 years. People tend to regard him
as genius and crazy Mr. Green

56. HTML

 When90’s comes around, more and more people could get online.
 Thanks to UK, the invention of HTML allowed people to create a wide
variety of works.
 During the first decade, people created things like web pages and
lessons without fears, religion, motivation or profitability
 Because people can feel a sense of enjoyment through their creation

57. Vitamin D

 Vitamin D is, in fact, a kind of hormone which can be ingested from

 It is not necessary to ingest Vitamin D via food only if it can be
sufficiently absorbed from sunshine.
 However, people have been migrating from the equator to other
places where they need to put clothes on.
 Therefore, more Vitamin D via food is needed now as people’s skin
are less exposed to sunshine.


1. If a species is described as venomous, what substance it has? - Toxin

2. Animals with white ivory and long trunk? - Elephant

3. How many eggs are there in a dozen? - 12

4. What is the book with maps? - Atlas

5. What is the mountain with the possibility of explosion? - Volcano.

6. What do you use to test the body temperature? - Thermometer.

7. Which of the following sports is more dangerous, parachuting or long-
distance running? - Parachuting.

8. What is the big musical instrument that has 88 black and white keys? -

9. How many days are there in February during a leap year? - 29 days.

10. Which part of body do optometrists examine? - Eyes.

11. What is the day when someone is born? - Birthday.

12. How would you call people who study ancient bones, rocks and
plants? - Archaeologist.

13. What is the opposite of ‘positive’? - Negative.

14. What is the joint between your shoulder and your forearm? - Elbow.

15. If you have a toothache, who would you go to? // A person who
studies teeth? - Dentist

16. What is the opposite of “predecessor”? - Successor.

17. The instructions that tell you how to cook food? - Recipe.

18. What is the piece of paper that you receive after you have bought an
item? - Receipt

19. What kind of food that vegetarians do not eat? - Meat.

20. What is the red liquid that flows from the heart to the rest of the
body? - Blood

21. How many sides does a pentagon have? - Five

22. Which part at the end of book can be used for further reading? An
index or a bibliography? - Bibliography

23. Computer, telephone and typewriter, which one is first invented? -


24. How do you describe the type of magazine that is published four
times a year? - Quarterly
25. What kind of book would you use to look up a word that you don‘t
understand? – Dictionary

26. What term is used for the amount of money we owe, asset or debt? –

27. Which one is not a mammal: elephant, kangaroo, butterfly or dolphin?

- Butterfly.

28. • How would you call someone who likes to drink heavily every day? –

29. Which one is not mythological animal? Unicorn, giraffe, dragon or

mermaid? - Giraffe

30. What do humans and animals need to inhale for survival? – Oxygen

31. Which one would you use to describe the desert, humidity or aridity? –

32. Where does a camel normally live? - Desert.

33. What kind of book is written by a person about their own life? –

34. What do we call the frozen water? - Ice.

35. How many years does a centennial celebrates? - 100 years.

36. What is the heading at the top of an article or page in a newspaper or

magazine? - Headline.

37. If you are happy with an agreement, what would you like to put at
the bottom of the contract with the date? - Signature.

38. What do we call the organ in our chest that we need to breath?—

39. Apart from addition, subtraction, and multiplication, what is the other
mathematical calculation method? – Division

40. Which department studies the human’s body part of heart? –

41. What do you call a list in front of a book which outlines the structure
of a book? - Table of Contents

42. Which one is the quickest to finish 100 m? Running, walking, or

jogging? – Running

43. What can bring astronauts to space? - Spacecraft.

44. Which one has a low humidity, a desert or a rainforest? – A desert.

45. When you get lost in city, what item do you need to buy to find out
where you are and where to go? – Map.

46. In which direction does the Sun arise from? – East

47. What material is the tire made of? - Rubber.

48. What natural resource is used by a carpenter? - Wood.

49. How much per cent is three quarters? -75%

50. How many years are there in a decade? – 10 years

51. What is the strings on shoes? – Shoelace.

52. The name of the building where you can borrow books? - Library.

53. How would you describe an animal that no longer exist on the earth?
– Extinct

54. What is H2O in chemistry? – Water

55. What attitude would you have when you are in a job interview,
enthusiastic or passive? – Enthusiastic

56. What publication reports daily news? – Newspaper.

57. What is paper made from? - Wood. / Trees.

58. What century are we living in now? – The 21st century.

59. What electronic device wakes you up in the morning? – Alarm clock.

60. What will snow become after its melt? – Water.

61. What is the table that lists chemical elements in order of atomic
numbers in rows and columns? – Periodic Table (of Elements)
62. Do unions work for workers or management? – Workers

63. What is paper made from? - Trees/Wood.

64. How many times does a biannual magazine published in one year? –

65. Which part of your leg can make it possible to bend? – Knee

66. Use of periodic table is in which subject? - CHEMISTRY

67. What happens to ice, when it is heated? – MELT

68. What is the sense of ear? – HEARING

69. What is opposite of artificial? – ORIGINAL

70. What do you call a system of government in which people vote for the
people who will represent them? – DEMOCRACY

71. Where would you go to see an exhibition of sculpture? - ART


72. Would you measure the volume of bottle water in litres or Kilos? –

73. What's the joint called where your hand is connected to your arm? –

74. Which hospital department would you go to for an x-ray: radiology or

cardiology? –RADIOLOGY

75. What do we call the piece of paper that proves you have bought the
item? – RECEIPT

76. How many seasons in a year? – FOUR

77. How many hours in a day? - TWENTY-FOUR

78. Which ocean is located on the west of the US? - The Pacific Ocean

79. The phrase used to describe the way that repeatedly increases and
decreases or rises and falls - Ebb and Flow

80. Sleep enjoyed in the afternoon, Siesta or Nap? – Siesta

81. Language which is confused and unintelligible, Jargon or vocabulary?
– Jargon

82. A man whose wife is dead, Is he a Widow or Widower? – Widower

83. A place where dead bodies are kept, Cemetery or Mortuary? -


84. One whose business is to find out criminals, Detectives or police? –


85. The government runs by the dictator. Autocracy or Democracy-


86. A great lover of books - Bibliophile

87. One who tests eyesight and sells spectacles. – Optician

88. One who kills animals and sells their flesh. Butcher or barber? -

89. Which disease can spread by contact? - Contagious disease

90. A man, who thinks only for himself? - Egoistic

91. An animal living both on land in water - Amphibian

92. A building for keeping and feeding horses in, Stable or Kennel? -

93. A string of beads used for counting prayers, Rosary or Garland? –


94. Art and science dealing with rules of language, Grammar or Literature
- Grammar

95. Not limited by person or number. Infinite or Finite - Infinite

96. Something that is quickly and easily set on fire and burned, Is it
flammable or Non-flammable? - Flammable

97. The one who is unable to pay his debts, In debt or Insolvent -

98. Name a medicine which induces sleep. – Narcotic

99. Having a lot of fat in one’s body - Obesity

100. A notice of death in a newspaper - Obituary

101. Which is easier to be recycled, plastic or paper? - PAPER

102. Which kind of mountain can erupt? - VOLCANO

103. What do we call the "Times New Roman" in word? - Typeface/Font

104. In addition to the A, E, I, O, what is the other vowel? – U

105. What is the altitude related to, weight or height? – HEIGHT

106. What is a part of the digestive system and is essential for churning
food? - STOMACH

107. Which is more expensive, gold or silver? – GOLD

108. What is the item of footwear intended to protect and comfort human
foot? - SHOES

109. What is a standard set of letters that is used to write one or more
languages based upon the general principle? – ALPHABET

110. What kind of dictionary provides synonyms, antonyms and related

words? – THESAURUS

111. Inhalation of which tobacco substance or activity is dangerous? -


112. Which department studies the humans body part of eyes? -


113. When was the tractor invented? (picture will be given) – 1892

114. What's the material that we use to stick two things together? -

115. What is the verb form of the noun "abstention”? – ABSTAIN



A. Early rails were used on horse drawn wagon ways originally with
wooden rails, but from the 1760s using strap-iron rails, which consisted of
thin strips of cast iron fixed onto wooden rails.

B. These rails were too fragile to carry heavy loads, but because the initial
construction cost was less, this method was sometimes used to quickly
build an inexpensive rail line.

C. However, the long-term expense involved in frequent maintenance

outweighed any savings.

D. These were superseded by cast iron rails that were flanged (i.e. 'L'
shaped) and with the wagon wheels flat.

E. An early proponent of this design was Benjamin Outram. His partner


F. The first steel rails were made in 1857 by Robert Forester Mushet, who
laid them at Derby station in England. Steel is a much stronger material,
which steadily replaced iron for use on railway rail and allowed much
longer lengths of rails to be rolled.


A. My study of the history of religion has revealed that human beings are
spiritual animals Indeed, there is a case for arguing that Homo sapiens is
also Homo religious.

B. Men and women started to worship gods as soon as they became

recognizably human; they created religions at the same time as they
created works of art.

C. This was not simply because they wanted to propitiate powerful forces.

D. These early faiths expressed the wonder and mystery that seems
always to have been an essential component of the human experience of
this beautiful world.


A. Vegetarians eat only vegetables. They do not eat meat.

B. The school cafeteria provides food according to these vegetarian

C. Many non-vegetarians also like vegetarian food.

D. This improvement is highly relevant to the increasing population of



A. There are more than 100 schools in the country.

B. Do not ever choose a school without going to the place and having a
look. You should go and see once you have a chance.

C. You can see the facilities and accommodations around the school.

D. 4 Because you might be living there. 5 And they can be helpful to your
study as well.


A. Heart attack is the caused by the sudden blockage of a coronary artery

by a blood clot.

B. When the clot is formed, it will stay in the blood vessels.

C. The clot in blood vessels will block blood flow.

D. Without the normal blood flow, it will cause muscle contraction.


A. All over the world students are changing countries for their university

B. They don't all have the same reasons for going or for choosing a
particular place to study.

C. They may choose a university because of its interesting courses or

perhaps because they like the country and its language.

D. Some students go overseas because they love travel.

E. Whatever the reason, thousands of students each year make their

dreams of a university education come true.

A. I think, we should pay attention to the reporting of science, not the

science itself.

B. Of course, there are rare extremely scientific dishonesties, that’s

(Almost 3 lines.)

C. Take mobile phones, for example, can cause incidents if drivers insist
on talking on the phone instead of looking at roads.

D. But no one would argue that mobile phones can help us to make a
phone call when we are under a crisis. (to be confirmed).


A. In language learning there is a distinction between competence and

performance. Competence is a state of the speaker’s mind. What he or
she knows?

B. Separate from actual performance – what he or she does while

producing or comprehending language. In other words, competence is put
to use through performance.

C. An analogy can be made to the Highway Code for driving. Drivers know
the code and have indeed been tested on it to obtain a driving license.

D. In actual driving, however, the driver has to relate the code to a

continuous flow of changing circumstances, and may even break it from
time to time.

E. Knowing the Highway Code is not the same as driving.


A. The invention of electronics has become a challenge.

B. An Indian university persuaded IT service department to have an

Electronic Recycling Collection Day.

C. During these days, people are encouraged to recycle their e-waste

instead of throwing them into the bin.

D. On certain days throughout the year, many electronic devices like ….

from families and households
E. 200,000 electronic products had been recycled in 2010.


A. A requirement of Humanities 104 is to write a persuasive paper on a

topic of your choice.

B. The topic you choose should be supported by a range of sources.

C. The source should be cited under APA guidelines, and the final draft
should be written in APA styles.

D. The final draft is due one week before the final exam.


A. Students may don't know how to achieve high marks in exams.

B. Actually, you don’t have to write down everything you know.

C. Before writing, you should figure out what the question is after, and
what is not relevant.

D. And then you will have an idea of what you should write.


A. In general, there is a tendency to underestimate how long it takes to

discuss and resolve an issue on which two people initially have different

B. The reason is that achieving agreement requires people to accept the

reality of views different from their own and to accept change or

C. It is not just a matter of putting forward a set of facts and expecting

the other person immediately to accept the logic of the exposition.


A. When Vijay Govindarajan and Christian Sarkar wrote a blog entry on

Harvard Business Review in August 2010 mooting the idea of a “$300-
house for they were merely expressing a suggestion. “.

B. Of course, the idea we present here is an experiment,” wrote Prof

Govindarajan, a professor of international business at the Tuck School of
Business at Dartmouth and Mr. Sarkar, a marketing consultant who works
on environmental issues an almost apologetic disclaimer for having such a
“far-out” idea.

C. Who could create a house for $300 and if it was possible, why hadn’t it
been done before?

D. Nonetheless, they closed their blog with a challenge: “We ask chief
executives, governments, NGOs, foundations


A. A study showed man cannot hear voice higher than 5mhz.

B. as this frequency is too high that

C. to test this theory xxx from xxx university gathered 6 students … four

D. As to the previous study, the volunteers …


A. You may have heard about a client management system that can
collaborate clients’ data.

B. If we have such a system…

C. Now we have this system…

D. This system can benefit …

E. Once you have this system, even those people who don’t understand
management can use it well.


A. Historical records, coins, and other date-bearing objects can help – if

they exist. But even prehistoric sites contain records – written in nature’s

B. The series of strata in an archaeological dig enables an excavator to

date recovered objects relatively, if not absolutely.

C. However, when archaeologists want know the absolute date of a site,

they can often go beyond simple stratigraphy.
D. For example, tree rings, Dendrochronology (literally, ―tree time‖)
dates wooden artefacts by matching their ring patterns to known records,
which, in some areas of the world, span several thousand years.


A. It is a truism to say that in 21st century society science and

technology are important.

B. Human existence in the developed world is entirely dependent on some

fairly recent developments in science and technology.

C. Whether this is good or bad is, of course, up for argument

D. But the fact that science underlies our lives, our health, our work, our
communications, our entertainment and our transport is undeniable.


A. Early in 1938, Mário de Andrade, the municipal secretary of culture

here, dispatched a four-member Folklore Research Mission to the north-
eastern hinterlands of Brazil on a similar mission.

B. His intention was to record as much music as possible as quickly as

possible, before encroaching influences like radio and cinema began
transforming the region’s distinctive culture.

C. They recorded whoever and whatever seemed to be interesting: piano

carriers, cowboys, beggars, voodoo priests, quarry workers, fishermen,
dance troupes and even children at play.

D. But the Brazilian mission’s collection ended up languishing in vaults



A. In 'Easier Said than Done', we set out some of the reasons why we
might find it hard to live in a healthy way, exercising, eating well, getting
adequate sleep, and checking for early warning symptoms.

B. Perhaps most importantly, we look to the field of behavioural science

for strategies that people can use to overcome those hurdles and to
initiate lifestyle changes.
C. These include Commitment devices, where we make it very
unattractive to not follow through on an intention.

D. Changing existing behaviour can be a difficult task, but with the help of
these strategies new behaviours can become habitual, facilitating a long-
term sustained healthy lifestyle.


A. Palaus and his colleagues wanted to see if any trends had emerged
from the research to data concerning how video games affect the
structure and activity of our brains.

B. The collected the results from 116 scientific studies, 22 of which looked
at structural changes in the brain and 100 of which looked at changes in
brain functionality and/or behaviour.

C. The studies show that playing video games can change how our brains
perform, and even their structure.

D. For example, playing video games affects our attention, and some
studies found that gamers show improvements in several types of
attention, such as sustained attention or selective attention.

21. Selective university

A. England’s most selective universities must do more to attract

teenagers from disadvantaged backgrounds if they want to charge higher
tuition fees, the country's fair access watchdog has warned.

B. Professor Les Ebdon, director of Fair Access to Higher Education, has

said universities can no longer make excuses about the number of poorer
students they take on.

C. In a statement issued yesterday, Prof Ebdon dismissed the argument

from the country's most selective universities, which claim that young
people from poorer backgrounds generally secure worse grades.

D.” Such defences from the country's most elite universities do not hold
water", Prof Ebdon said, as he urged the institutions to do more to widen
their intakes."
22. Benefit of language

A. Over the years many human endeavours have had the benefit of

B. In particular, a written language can convey a lot of information about

past events, places, people and things.

C. But it is difficult to describe music in words, and even more difficult to

specify a tune.

D. It was the development of a standard musical notation in the 11th

century that allowed music to be documented in a physical form.

E. Now music could be communicated efficiently, and succeeding

generations would know something about the music of their ancestors.

23. Tutorial

A. Many students sit in a tutorial week after week without saying


B. Why is that?

C. Maybe they do not know the purpose of a tutorial.

D. They think it is like a small lecture where the tutor gives them

E. Even if students do know what a tutorial is for, there can be other

reasons why they keep quiet.

24. Game

A. Researchers in the field of artificial intelligence have long been

intrigued by games, and not just as a way of avoiding work.

B. Games provide an ideal setting to explore important elements of the

design of cleverer machines, such as pattern recognition, learning and

C. Ever since the stunning victory of Deep Blue, a program running on an

IBM supercomputer, over Gary Kasparov, then world chess champion, in
D. 1997, it has been clear that computers would dominate that particular
E. Today, though, they are pressing the attack on every front.

25. Earthquake

A. At 5:12 a.m. on April 18, 1906, the people of San Francisco were
awakened by an earthquake that would devastate the city.

B. The main temblor, having a 7.7-7.9 magnitude, lasted about one

minute and was

C. the result of the rupturing of the northernmost 296 miles of the 800-
mile San Andreas fault.

D. But when calculating destruction, the earthquake took second place to

the great fire that followed.

E. The fire, lasting four days, most likely started with broken gas lines
(and, in some cases, was helped along by people hoping to collect
insurance for their property— they were covered for fire, but not
earthquake, damage).

26. Greener technologies

A. Engineers are much needed to develop greener technologies, he says.

B. “The energy sector has a fantastic skills shortage at all levels, both
now and looming over it for the next 10 years,” he says.

C. Not only are there some good career opportunities, but there's a lot of
money going into the research side, too.

D. With the pressures of climate change and the energy gap, in the last
few years funding from the research councils has probably doubled".

27. New ventures

A. New Ventures is a program that helps entrepreneurs in some of the

world's most dynamic, emerging economies-- Brazil, China, Colombia,
India, Indonesia and Mexico.

B. We have facilitated more than $203 million in investment, and worked

with 250 innovative businesses whose goods and services produce clear,
measurable environmental benefits, such as clean energy, efficient water
use, and sustainable agriculture.
C. Often they also address the challenges experienced by the world's

D. For example, one of the companies we work with in China, called

Ecostar, refurbishes copy machines from the United States and re-sells or
leases them for 20 percent less than a branded photocopier.

28. Summer school

A. The Canadian Institute for Neutron Scattering will be holding the

eleventh neutron summer school at Chalk River on May 8-13, 2011.

B. The aim of the school is to cover a wide range of topics associated with
thermal neutron scattering, including powder diffraction, stress analysis,
texture, reflectometry, and small-angle neutron scattering together with
the underlying theory associated with neutron scattering.

C. The theory will be presented in a way that should be understood by

people in any of these fields.

D. For more information, see the Canadian Institute for Neutron

Scattering’s Neutron Summer School.

29. Copernicanism

A. The expanding influence of Copernicanism through the seventeenth

century transformed not only the natural philosophic leanings of
astronomers but also the store of conceptual material accessible to
writers of fiction.

B. During this period of scientific revolution, a new literary genre arose,

namely that of the scientific cosmic voyage

C. Scientists and writers alike constructed fantastical tales in which

fictional characters’ journey to the moon, sun, and planets.

D. In so doing, they discover that these once remote worlds are

themselves earth-like in character.

E. Descriptions of these planetary bodies as terrestrial in kind

demonstrate the seventeenth century intellectual shift from the
Aristotelian to the Copernican framework.
30. Science and technology

A. It is a truism to say that in 21st century society science and

technology are important.

B. Human existence in the developed world is entirely dependent on some

fairly recent developments in science and technology.

C. Whether this is good or bad is, of course, up for argument.

D. But the fact that science underlies our lives, our health, our work, our
communications, our entertainment and our transport is undeniable.

31. $300-house

A. When Vijay Govindarajan and Christian Sarkar wrote a blog entry on

Harvard Business Review in August 2010 mooting the idea of a “$300-
house for they were merely expressing a suggestion.”

B. Of course, the idea we present here is an experiment,” wrote Prof

Govindarajan, a professor of international business at the Tuck School of
Business at Dartmouth and Mr Sarkar, a marketing consultant who works
on environmental issues an almost apologetic disclaimer for having such a
“far-out” idea.

C. Who could create a house for $300 and if it was possible, why hadn’t it
been done before?

D. Nonetheless, they closed their blog with a challenge: “We ask chief
executives, governments, NGOs, foundations: Are there any takers?”

32. The European Union

A. The European Union has two big fish problems.

B. One is that, partly as a result of its failure to manage them properly,

its own fisheries can no longer meet European demand.

C. The other is that its governments won’t confront their fishing lobbies
and decommission all the surplus boats.

D. The EU has tried to solve both problems by sending its fishermen to

West Africa. Since 1979 it has struck agreements with the government of
Senegal, granting our fleets access to its waters.
E. As a result, Senegal’s marine ecosystem has started to go the same
way as ours.

33. Vegetarian

A. They also like to eat peanut butter on graham crackers or celery sticks
top with raisins.

B. School’s administration is able to implement an all-vegetarian menu

with the support of the Coalition for Healthy School Food.

C. Vegetarians have lower rates of heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and

obesity than meat eaters do because of this approach, and studies
indicate that the earlier children in primary level are started on a healthy
diet, the better off they will be later in life.

D. Nutritious vegan diets are popular among the vegetarian are typically
high in fibre, low in saturated fat, full of vitamins and minerals, rich in
healthy plant protein, and completely free of cholesterol.

Answer: 4123

34. Heart Attack

A. Without the normal blood flow, it will cause muscle contraction.

B. When the clot is formed, it will stay in the blood vessels.

C. The clot in blood vessels will block blood flow.

D. Heart attack is the caused by the sudden blockage of a coronary artery

by a blood clot.

Answer: 4231

35. Study Abroad

A. Some students go overseas because they love travel.

B. Whatever the reason, thousands of students each year make their

dreams of a university education come true.

C. They don’t all have the same reasons for going or for choosing a
particular place to study.
D. They may choose a university because of its interesting courses or
perhaps because they like the country and its language.

E. All over the world students are changing countries for their university

Answer: 53412

36. CRM

A. The goal of a CRM system is simple: Improve business relationships.

B. When people talk about CRM, they are usually referring to a CRM
system, a tool that is used for contact management, sales management,
productivity, and more.

C. A CRM system helps companies stay connected to customers,

streamline processes, and improve profitability.

D. Customer Relationship Management is a strategy for managing an

organisation's relationships and interactions with customers and potential

Answer: 4321

37. Music and Language

A. Language can convey message

B. Especially written language

C. Music was conveyed orally only, until the 11th century when physical
instruments were invented to perform music.

D. It was hard to teach music.

E. But now it’s easy.

Answer: 12345

38. Fibers for clothing

A. The fibers are as strong and soft as wool and silk, but up to 30 times
B. Fibers suitable for clothing have been made for the first time from the
wheat protein gluten.

C. He says that because they are biodegradable, they might be used in

biomedical applications such as surgical sutures.

D. Narendra Reddy and Yiqi Yang, who produced the fibers at the
University of Nebraska in Lincoln.

Answer: 2143


Never has the carbon footprint of multi-national corporations been under

such intense scrutiny. Inter-city train journeys and long-haul flights to
conduct face-to-face business meetings contribute significantly to
greenhouse gases and the resulting strain on the environment. The
Anglo-US company Teliris has introduced a new videoconferencing
technology and partnered with the Carbon Neutral Company, enabling
corporate outfits to become more environmentally responsible. The
innovation allows simulated face-to-face meetings to be held across
continents without the time pressure or environmental burden of
international travel. Previous designs have enabled video-conferencing on
a point-to-point, dual-location basis. The firm's Virtu alive technology,
however, can bring people together from up to five separate locations
anywhere in the world - with unrivalled transmission quality.


Sound depressing, even apocalyptic? Well, it could be the future. If

government forecasts are right, about 20 years from now, two out of five
households will be single occupancy. And there is evidence the situation is
already deteriorating. According to a report, Social Isolation in America,
published in the American Sociological Review in 2006, the average
American today has only two close friends. Twenty-five per cent of those
surveyed said they do not have anyone to talk with about important
things---And yet, while some are declaring a crisis in our ability to make
friends, others are saying exactly the opposite. For example, MSN's
Anatomy of Friendship Report, published last November, suggests that
the average Briton has 54 friends -a spectacular rise of 64 per cent since


University science is now in real crisis - particularly the non-telegenic,

non-ology bits of it such as chemistry. Since 1996, 28 universities have
stopped offering chemistry degrees, according to the Royal Society of
Chemistry. The society predicts that as few as six departments (those at
Durham, Cambridge, Imperial, UCL, Bristol and Oxford) could remain
open by 2014. Most recently,Exeter University closed down its chemistry
department, blaming it on "market forces", and Bristol took in some of
the refugees The closures have been blamed on a fall in student
applications, but money is a factor in chemistry degrees are expensive to
provide - compared with English, for example - and some scientists say
that the way the government concentrates research funding on a small
number of top departments, such as Bristol, exacerbates the problem.


A Dog may be man's best friend. But man is not always a dog's. Over the
centuries selective breeding has pulled at the canine body shape to
produce what is often a grotesque distortion of the underlying wolf.
Indeed, some of these distortions are, when found in people, regarded as
pathologies. Dog breeding does, though, offer a chance to those who
would like to understand how body shape is controlled. The ancestry of
pedigree pooches is well recorded, their generation time is short and their
litter size reasonably large, so there is plenty of material to work with.
Moreover, breeds are, by definition, inbred, and this simplifies genetic
analysis. Those such as Elaine Ostrander, of America's National Human
Genome Research Institute, who wish to identify the genetic basis of the
features of particular pedigrees thus have an ideal experimental animal.


The contemporary ministerial staffing system is large, active and partisan

far larger and further evolved than any Westminster equivalent. Ministers'
demands for help to cope with the pressures of an increasingly
competitive and professionalized political environment have been key
drivers of the staffing system's development. But there has not been
commensurate growth in arrangements to support and control it. The
operating framework for ministerial staff is fragmented and ad hoc.


Alaska's Aleutian Islands have long been accustomed to shipwrecks. They

have been part of local consciousness since a Japanese whaling ship ran
aground near the western end of the 1,100-mile (1,800-km) volcanic
archipelago in 1780, inadvertently naming what is now Rat Island when
the ship's infestation scurried ashore and made itself at home. Since then,
there have been at least 190 shipwrecks in the islands.

In 2001 he received the SIUC Outstanding Scholar Award. In 2003 he

received the Carski Award for Distinguished Undergraduate Teaching from
the American Society for Microbiology. Mike’s research is focused on
bacteria that inhabit extreme environments, and for the past 12 years he
has studied the microbiology of permanently ice covered lakes in the
McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. In addition to his research papers, he
has edited a major treatise on phototrophic bacteria and served for over a
decade as chief editor of the journal Archives of Microbiology. He
currently serves on the editorial board of Environmental Microbiology.
Mike’s non-scientific interests include forestry, reading, and caring for his
dogs and horses. He lives beside a peaceful and quiet lake with his wife,
Nancy, five shelter dogs (Gaino, Snuffy, Pepto, Peanut, and Merry), and
four horses (Springer, Feivel, Gwen, and Festus).


In an often-cited study about counterfactuals, Medvec, Madey, and

Gilovich (1995) found that bronze medalists appeared happier than silver
medalists in television coverage of the 1992 Summer Olympics. Medvec
et al. argued that bronze medalists compared themselves to 4th place
finishers, whereas silver medalists compared themselves to gold
medalists. These counterfactuals were the most salient because they were
either qualitatively different (gold vs. silver) or categorically different
(medal vs. no medal) from what actually occurred. Drawing on archival
data and experimental studies, we show that Olympic athletes (among
others) are more likely to make counterfactual comparisons based on
their prior expectations, consistent with decision affect theory. Silver
medalists are more likely to be disappointed because their personal
expectations are higher than those of bronze medalists.


David Lynch is professor and head of education at Charles Darwin

University. Prior to this he was sub dean in the Faculty of Education and
Creative Arts at Central Queensland University and foundation head of the
University’s Noosa campus. David’s career in education began as a
primary school teacher in Queensland in the early 1980’s and progressed
to four principal positions before entering higher education. David’s
research interests predominate in teacher education with particular
interest in building teacher capability to meet a changed world.


Leonard Lauder, chief executive of the company his mother founded, says
she always thought she "was growing a nice little business." And that it is.
A little business that controls 45% of the cosmetics market in U.S.
department stores. A little business that sells in 118 countries and last
year grew to be $3.6 billion big in sales. The Lauder family's shares are
worth more than $6 billion. But early on, there wasn't a burgeoning
business, there weren't houses in New York, Palm Beach, Fla., or the
south of France. It is said that at one point there was one person to
answer the telephones who changed her voice to become the shipping or
billing department as needed. You more or less know the Estée Lauder
story because it's a chapter from the book of American business folklore.
In short, Josephine Esther Mentzer, daughter of immigrants, lived above
her father's hardware store in Corona, a section of Queens in New York

She started her enterprise by selling skin creams concocted by her uncle,
a chemist, in beauty shops, beach clubs and resorts. No doubt the potions
were good — Estée Lauder was a quality fanatic — but the saleslady was
better. Much better. And she simply outworked everyone else in the
cosmetics industry. She stalked the bosses of New York City department
stores until she got some counter space at Saks Fifth Avenue in 1948.
And once in that space, she utilized a personal selling approach that
proved as potent as the promise of her skin regimens and perfumes.


According to the literature, the history of vaccination can be traced back

to as early as the 7th century when the monks in India tried to immunize
themselves by drinking snake venom. The first vaccination was
inoculation with human smallpox, a practice widely carried out in ancient
India, Arabia, and China. This method of vaccination consisted of
collecting pus from a patient suffering from mild form of smallpox virus
infection and inoculating the sample to a healthy human, which later led
to a minor infection. This method was first introduced in England by a
Greek Named E. Timoni. However, this method had a risk of spreading
smallpox in the community and even worsening the health condition of
the person who received the inoculation. While the use of human
smallpox vaccine was controversial, E. Jenner came up with bovine
smallpox vaccine in 1796; this new method also faced controversy, but
continued to be universalized. Smallpox became a preventable disease by
injecting pus extracted from a human infected with cowpox virus. Jenner
named the substance "vaccine" after the Latin word "vacca" which means
"cow," and thus the process of giving vaccine became "vaccination".


A herbal is a book of plants, describing their appearance, their properties

and how they may be used for preparing ointments and medicines. The
medical use of plants is recorded on fragments of papyrus and clay
tablets from ancient Egypt, Samaria and China that date back 5,000 years
but document traditions far older still. Over 700 herbal remedies were
detailed in the Papyrus Ebers, an Egyptian text written in 1500 BC.
Around 65 BC, a Greek physician called Dioscorides wrote a herbal that
was translated into Latin and Arabic. Known as ‘De materia medica’, it
became the most influential work on medicinal plants in both Christian
and Islamic worlds until the late 17th century. An illustrated manuscript
copy of the text made in Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) survives
from the sixth century. The first printed herbals date from the dawn of
European printing in the 1480s. They provided valuable information for
apothecaries, whose job it was to make the pills and potions prescribed
by physicians. In the next century, landmark herbals were produced in
England by William Turner, considered to be the father of British botany,
and John Gerard, whose illustrations would inspire the floral fabric,
wallpaper and tile designs of William Morris four centuries later.


The last tourists may have been leaving the Valley of the Kings on the
West Bank in Luxor but the area in front of the tomb of Tutankhamun
remained far from deserted. Instead of the tranquillity that usually
descends on the area in the evening it was a hive of activity. TV crew’s
trailed masses of equipment, journalists milled and photographers held
their cameras at the ready. The reason? For the first time since Howard
Carter discovered the tomb in 1922 the mummy of Tutankhamun was
being prepared for public display. Inside the subterranean burial chamber
Egypt's archaeology supremo Zahi Hawass, accompanied by four
Egyptologists, two restorers and three workmen, were slowly lifting the
mummy from the golden sarcophagus where it has been rested -- mostly
undisturbed – for more than 3,000 years. The body was then placed on a
wooden stretcher and `transported to its new home, a high- tech,
climate-controlled plexi-glass showcase located in the outer chamber of
the tomb where, covered in linen, with only the face and feet exposed, it
now greets visitors.


Omniscience may be a foible of men, but it is not so of books. Knowledge,

as Johnson said, is of two kinds, you may know a thing yourself, and you
may know where to find it. Now the amount which you may actually know
yourself must, at its best, be limited, but what you may know of the
sources of information may, with proper training, become almost
boundless. And here come the value and use of reference books—the
working of one book in connexion with another—and applying your own
intelligence to both. By this means we get as near to that omniscient
volume which tells everything as ever we shall get, and although the
single volume or work which tells everything does not exist, there is a
vast number of reference books in existence, a knowledge and proper use
of which is essential to every intelligent person. Necessary as I believe
reference books to be, they can easily be made to be contributory to
idleness, and too mechanical a use should not be made of them.


Legal deposit has existed in English law since 1662. It helps to ensure
that the nation’s published output (and thereby its intellectual record and
future published heritage) is collected systematically, to preserve the
material for the use of future generations and to make it available for
readers within the designated legal deposit libraries. The legal deposit
system also has benefits for authors and publishers: • Deposited
publications are made available to users of the deposit libraries on their
premises, are preserved for the benefit of future generations, and become
part of the nation’s heritage. • Publications are recorded in the online
catalogues, and become an essential research resource for generations to

In these distant times the sun was seen to make its daily journey across
the sky. At night the moon appeared. Every new night the moon waxed or
waned a little and on a few nights it did not appear at all. At night the
great dome of the heavens was dotted with tiny specks of light. They
became known as the stars. It was thought that every star in the heavens
had its own purpose and that the secrets of the universe could be
discovered by making a study of them. It was well known that there were
wandering stars, they appeared in different nightly positions against their
neighbors and they became known as planets. It took centuries, in fact it
took millennia, for man to determine the true nature of these wandering
stars and to evolve a model of the world to accommodate them and to
predict their positions in the sky.


Opportunity cost incorporates the notion of scarcity: No matter what we

do, there is always a trade-off. We must trade off one thing for another
because resources are limited and can be used in different ways. By
acquiring something (Without acquiring something / having acquired
something / Contrary with acquiring something), we use up resources
that could have been used to acquire something else. The notion of
opportunity cost allows us to measure this trade-off. In most decisions we
choose from several alternatives. For example, if you spend an hour
studying for an economics exam, you have one fewer hour to pursue
other activities. To determine the opportunity cost of an activity, we look
at what you consider the best of these “other” activities. For example,
suppose the alternatives to studying economics are studying for a history
exam or working in a job that pays $10 per hour. If you consider studying
for history a better use of your time than working, then the opportunity
cost of studying economics is the four extra points you could have
received on a history exam if you studied history instead of economics.
Alternatively, if working is the best alternative, the opportunity cost of
studying economics is the $10 you could have earned instead.

Stars and the material between them are almost always found in gigantic
stellar systems called galaxies. Our own galaxy, the Milky Way System,
happens to be one of the two largest systems in the Local Group of two
dozen or so galaxies. The other is the Andromeda galaxy; it stretches
more than one hundred thousand light-years from one end to the other,
and it is located about two million light-years distant from us.


To learn the speech of alchemy, an early form of chemistry in which

people attempted to turn metals into gold, it helps to think back to a time
when there was no science: no atomic number or weight, no periodic
chart no list of elements. to the alchemists the universe was not made of
leptons, bosons, gluons, and quarks. Instead it was made of substances,
and one substance-say, walnut oil-could be just as pure as another-say,
silver-even though modern chemistry would say one is heterogeneous
and the other homogeneous. Without knowledge of atomic structure show
would it be possible to tell elements from compounds?


Team Lab's digital mural at the entrance to Tokyo’s Skytree, one of the
world’s monster skyscrapers, is 40 metres long and immensely detailed
but however massive this form of digital art becomes -and it's a form
subject to rampant inflation--Inoko's theories about seeing are based on
more modest and often pre-digital sources. An early devotee of comic
books and cartoons (no surprises there), then computer games, he
recognized when he started to look at traditional Japanese art that all
those forms had something in common: something about the way they
captured space. In his discipline of physics, Inoko had been taught that
photographic lenses, along with the conventions of western art were the
logical way of transforming three dimensions into two, conveying the real
world on to a flat surface. But Japanese traditions employed “a different
spatial logic”, as he said in an interview last year with that is
“uniquely Japanese”.

1. I think space travel will become affordable within the next century.

2. I am optimistic about the future of space flight.

3. Sales figures for last year were better than expected.

4. Let me give you an example to explain what I mean.

5. Students find true or false questions harder than short answers.

6. Organizational barrier is considered in various perspectives in academic


7. More research is needed before any definitive conclusion is drawn.

8. A (rise in)/ A (rising) temperature is changing the wildlife population.

9. Doing nothing is not always better than taking risks.

10. Students who attempt to go to the conference must register now.

11. Several candidates will be qualified as the greatest scientists in all


12. We study science to understand and appreciate the world around us.

13. There is an important difference between mass production and batch


14. Science library is currently located on the ground floor of the library.

15. Our courses help improve critical thinking and independent learning.

16. A good way to improve vocabulary is repetition.

17. Our new medical students must attend the talk about optional

18. Most of the students have not considered this issue before.

19. Modern art now does better than stocks as an investment.

20. Grants are available to those in their financial difficulties.

21. Commercial necessity was the reason given for the decision.

22. Authoritarian regimes were more common in the past than they are

23. The new law was harder to impose than the government thought.

24. Course work in exam will form part of the annual assessments.

25. The cotton industry purchased all its new cotton from abroad.

26. Political power only disappears when this stage has been completed.

27. We can use machines to scan brain activities as it happens.

28. Service animals have become a common feature of modern society.

29. Pets offer emotional support to sick and elderly people.

30. Dogs are able to provide assistance to people with disability.

31. Business people can experience both success and failure.

32. Being successful involves setting a goal and achieving it.

33. Organisation plays an important role in academic literature.

34. Research shows exercising makes us feel better.

35. New credit cards will soon use the finger press technology.

36. Please click the logo above to enter the site.

37. Strangely, people are impacted by spontaneously using statistics.

38. Radio is one of the most popular forms of entertainment throughout

the world.

39. The ways in which people communicate are constantly changing.

40. The article refers (to)/reflects/verifies/records a number of interesting


41. Architectural numbers vary in that interesting experiment.

42. Native speakers are exempt from the language tests in their own
43. The synopsis contains the most important information.

44. The (new) paper challenged many previously accepted theories.

45. Many graduates of journalism can get jobs in the communications


46. The qualification will be assessed by using a criterion reference to


47. Clinical placement in nursing prepares students for

professional/practical practice.

48. Animals raised in captivity behave differently than their wild


49. We can’t consider any increase in our prices at this stage.

50. I thought it was through the small meeting room.

51. If finance is a cause of concern, scholarships may be available.

52. The placement test of mathematics and statistics is offered every


53. This morning’s lecture on economic policy has been cancelled.

54. You are required to complete the research paper by Monday.

55. The aerial photographs were promptly registered for thorough


56. She used to be the editor of the student newspaper.

57. The city’s/cities/cities’ founders created a set of rules that became


58. Tribe’s vibe/work with each other to build up monolithic statues.

59. Ask a tutor if you require further assistance.

60. When workers ask for higher wages, companies often raise their

61. University departments carefully monitor articles and other

publications by faculty.
62. Free campus tours run daily during summer for prospective students.

63. The celebrated theory is still the source of great controversy.

64. Art students often display/exhibit their works on the university


65. While reconciliation is desirable, basic underlying issues must first be


66. Checking the website if you are looking for discounted textbooks.

67. Assignments should be submitted to the general/department office

before the deadline.

68. We study science to understand and appreciate the world around us.

69. Undergraduates pursue their interests (in stages) within specific

programs (programmes).

70. Most of the students have not considered this issue before.

71. The business policy seminar includes an internship with a local firm.

72. The toughest part of postgraduate education is funding.

73. The theme of the instrumental work exhibited more of a demure

compositional style.

74. The students were instructed to submit their assignments before


75. The evaluation forms will be reviewed by university personnel.

76. The teacher asked the group to commence the task.

77. It was four more years before the theory was fully developed.

78. The library holds a substantial collection of materials on economic


79. All of the assignments must be submitted in person to the faculty


80. Students have the options to live in college residences or apartments.

81. The nation achieved prosperity by opening its ports for trade.
82. The sociology department is highly regarded worldwide.

83. Those who seek for formal extension should contact their faculty for

84. The artists tied to conservative politicians earned their own roles
as/of critics.

85. Participants initially select from a range of foundation subjects.

86. The commissioner will portion the funds to/from all


87. That means that we have so many struggles in the labs.

88. Observers waited nervously and with bated breath for the concert.

89. We are looking at introducing new ways … engaging.

90. An undergraduate is required to do many projects.

91. The railways make long-distance travel possible for everyone.

92. Your lowest quiz grade has been omitted from the calculations.

93. Students are encouraged to monitor their own attendance.

94. Please click the logo above to enter the site.

95. The chemistry building is located near the entrance to the campus.

96. You can contact all your tutors by email.

97. Most of these features were part of the previous system.

98. Our professor is hosting the business development conference.

99. It is absolutely vital that you acknowledge all your sources.

100. They were struggling last year to make their service pay.

101. The same issue featured both the explanations and the problems.

102. Good research paper delivers practical benefits for real people.

103. Supply and demand is one of the (most) fundamental concepts in

104. The application process may take longer than expected.

105. All students are encouraged to vote in the forthcoming elections.

106. Scientists are always asking the government for more money.

107. The first assignment is due on the fourteenth of September.

108. There is an important difference between mass production and

batch production.

109. Science library is currently located on the ground of the library.

110. Our courses help improve critical thinking and independent learning

111. A good way to improve vocabulary is repetition.

112. Governments need to make solar energy more affordable to people.

113. Unusual (patterns) are making/make farming more difficult.

114. They developed a unique approach to training their employees.

115. The seminar provides an opportunity to exchange ideas with other


116. The university should … technology … to support learning.

117. Resources and materials are on hold at the library’s reference desk.

118. Teaching assistants will receive a monthly stipend for housing.

119. Behind the groups, there is a flat cart drawn by mules.

120. Mutually exclusive events can be described as either complementary

or opposite.

121. Your application for a research grant has been received.

122. Let me know if anyone/anybody struggles in the lab.

123. One function of the body fat is to keep (all) internal organs warm.

124. Our new medical students must attend the talk about optional
125. Several candidates were graded as the greatest scientists of all

126. Theater/theatre study courses encourage students to exercise


127. Farming methods around the world have greatly developed recently.

128. Mature students usually adapt to university life extremely well.

129. Undergraduates may participate in specific stages within the

program (programme).

130. The plight of wildlife has been ignored by developers.

131. The Industrial Revolution in Europe was driven by steam

Summarise Written Text:

1.Cow and grass

The co-evolutionaryrelationship between cows and grass is one of

nature's under-appreciated wonders;it also happens to be the key to
understanding just about everything about modern meat.

For the grasses, which have evolved to withstand the grazing of

ruminants, the cow maintains and expands their habitat by preventing
trees and shrubs from gaining a foothold and hogging the sunlight; the
animal also spreads grass seed, plants it with his hooves, and then
fertilises it with his manure.

In exchange for these services the grasses offer ruminants a plentiful and
exclusive supply of lunch. For cows (like sheep, bison, and other
ruminants) have evolved the special ability to convert grass— which
single-stomached creatures like us can't digest—into high-quality protein.
They can do this because they possess what is surely the most highly
evolved digestive organ in nature: the rumen. About the size of a
medicine ball, the organ is essentially a forty-five-gallon fermentation
tank in which a resident population of bacteria dines on grass.

2. Rosetta Stone

When the Rosetta Stone was discovered in 1799, the carved characters
that covered its surface were quickly copied. Printers ink was applied to
the Stone and whitepaper was laid over it. When the paper was removed,
it revealed an exact copy of the text but in reverse. Since then, many
copies or facsimiles have been made using a variety of materials.
Inevitably, the surface of the Stone accumulated many layers of material
left over from these activities, despite attempts to remove any residue.
Once on display, the grease from many thousands of human hands eager
to touch the Stone added to the problem.

An opportunity for investigation and cleaning the Rosetta Stone arose

when this famous object was made the centre piece of the Cracking
Codes exhibition at The British Museum in 1999. When work commenced
to remove all but the original, ancient material, the stone was black with
white lettering. As treatment progressed, the different substances
uncovered were analysed. Grease from human handling, a coating of
carnauba wax from the early 1800s and printers ink from 1799 were
cleaned away using cotton wools webs and liniment of soap, white spirit,
acetone and purified water. Finally, white paint in the text, applied in
1981, which had been left in place until now as a protective coating, was
removed with cotton swabs and purified water. A small square at the
bottom left corner of the face of the Stone was left untouched to show the
darkened wax and the white infill.


He is the man who has changed the world more than anyone else in the
past hundred years. Sir Tim Berners-Lee may be a mild-mannered
academic who lives modestly in Boston, but as the inventor of the World
Wide Web he is also a revolutionary. He is a scientist who has altered the
way people think as well as the way they live. Since the web went global
20 years ago, the way we shop, listen to music and communicate has
been transformed. There are implications for politics, literature,
economics — even terrorism — because an individual can now have the
same access to information as the elite. Society will never be the same.
The computer scientist from Oxford, who built his own computer from a
television screen and spare parts after he was banned from one of the
university computers, is a cultural guru as much as a technological one.
“It is amazing how far we’ve come,” he says. “But you’re always
wondering what the next is Crazy idea, and working to make sure the
web stays one web and that the internet stays open. There isn’t much
time to sit back and reflect.” He invented the web, he says, because he
was frustrated that he couldn’t find all the information he wanted in one
place. It was an imaginary concept that he realized.

4. Overqualified employees

If your recruiting efforts attract job applicants with too much experience—
a near certainty in this weak labor market—you should consider a
response that runs counter to most hiring managers’ MO: Don’t reject
those applicants out of hand. Instead, take a closer look. New research
shows that overqualified workers tend to perform better than other
employees, and they don’t quit any sooner. Furthermore, a simple
managerial tactic— empowerment—can mitigate any dissatisfaction they
may feel. The prejudice against too-good employees is pervasive.
Companies tend to prefer an applicant who is a “perfect fit” over someone
who brings more intelligence, education, or experience than needed. On
the surface, this bias makes sense: Studies have consistently shown that
employees who consider themselves overqualified exhibit higher levels of
discontent. For example, over qualification correlated well with job
dissatisfaction in a 2008 study of 156 call-center reps by Israeli
researchers Saul Fine and Baruch Nevo. And unlike discrimination based
on age or gender, declining to hire overqualified workers is perfectly legal.
But even before the economic downturn, a surplus of overqualified
candidates was a global problem, particularly in developing economies,
where rising education levels are giving workers more skills than are
needed to supply the growing service sectors. If managers can get
beyond the conventional wisdom, the growing pool of too-good applicants
is a great opportunity. Berrin Erdogan and Talya N. Bauer of Portland
State University in Oregon found that overqualified workers’ feelings of
dissatisfaction can be dissipated by giving them autonomy in decision
making. At stores where employees didn’t feel empowered,
“overeducated” workers expressed greater dissatisfaction than their
colleagues did and were more likely to state an intention to quit. But that
difference vanished where self-reported autonomy was high.


Here's a term you're going to hear much more often: plug-in vehicle, and
the acronym PEV. It's what you and many other people will drive to work
in, ten years and more from now. At that time, before you drive off in the
morning you will first unplug your car - your plug-in vehicle. Its big on
board batteries will have been fully charged overnight, with enough power
for you to drive 50-100 kilometers through city traffic. When you arrive at
work you'll plug in your car once again, this time into a socket that allows
power to flow form your car's batteries to the electricity grid. One of the
things you did when you bought your car was to sign a contract with your
favorite electricity supplier, allowing them to draw a limited amount of
power from your car's batteries should they need to, perhaps because of
a blackout, or very high wholesale spot power prices. The price you get
for the power the distributor buys from your car would not only be most
attractive to you, it would be a good deal for them too, their alternative
being very expensive power form peaking stations. If, driving home or for
some other reason your batteries looked like running flat, a relatively
small, but quiet and efficient engine running on petrol, diesel or
compressed natural gas, even biofuel, would automatically cut in, driving
a generator that supplied the batteries so you could complete your
journey. Concerns over 'peak oil', increasing greenhouse gas emissions,
and the likelihood that by the middle of this century there could be five
times as many motor vehicles registered world-wide as there are now,
mean that the world's almost total dependence on petroleum-based fuels
for transport is, in every sense of the word, unsustainable.


American English is, without doubt, the most influential and powerful
variety of English in the world today. There are many reasons for this.
First, the United States is, at present, the most powerful nation on earth
and such power always brings with it influence. Indeed, the distinction
between a dialect and a language has frequently been made by reference
to power. As has been said, a language is a dialect with an army. Second,
America’s political influence is extended through American popular
culture, in particular through the international reach of American films
(movies, of course) and music. As Kahane has pointed out, the
internationally dominant position of a culture results in a forceful
expansion of its language… the expansion of language contributes… to the
prestige of the culture behind it. Third, the international prominence of
American English is closely associated with the extraordinarily quick
development of communications technology. Microsoft is owned by an
American, Bill Gates. This means a computer’s default setting for
language is American English, although of course this can be changed to
suit one’s own circumstances. In short, the increased influence of
American English is caused by political power and the resultant diffusion
of American culture and media, technological advance, and the rapid
development of communications technology.

In such an environment, warfare is no longer purely directed against the

military potential of adversarial states. It is rather directed at infiltrating
all areas of their societies and to threaten their existences. The
comparatively easy access to weapons of mass destruction, in particular
relatively and low-cost biological agents, is of key concern. Both
governmental and nongovernmental actors prefer to use force in a watt
that can be characterized as “unconventional” or also as “small wars.”
War waged according to conventions is an interstate phenomenon. The
“small war” is the archetype of war, in which the protagonists
acknowledge no rules and permanently try to violate what conventions do
exist. The protagonists of the “small war” observe neither international
standards nor arms control agreements. They make use of territories
where they do not have to fear any sanctions because there is no
functioning state to assume charge of such sanctions or because the state
in question is too weak to impose such sanctions. This type of war does
not provide for any warning time. It challenges not only the external
security of the nation states and international community, but also their
internal safety.


When Christopher Columbus arrived at Hispaniola during his first

transatlantic voyage in the year A.D. 1492, the island had already been
settled by Native Americans for about 5,000 years. The occupants in
Columbus’s time were a group of Arawak Indians called Tainos who lived
by farming, were organized into five chiefdoms, and numbered around
half a million (the estimates range from 100,000 to 2,000,000). Columbus
initially found them peaceful and friendly, until he and his Spaniards
began mistreating them. Unfortunately for the Tainos, they had gold,
which the Spanish coveted but didn’t want to go to the work of mining
themselves. Hence the conquerors divided up the island and its Indian
population among individual Spaniards, who put the Indians to work as
virtual slaves, accidentally infected them with Eurasian diseases, and
murdered them. By the year 1519, 27 years after Columbus’s arrival, that
original population of half a million had been reduced to about 11,000,
most of whom died that year of smallpox to bring the population down to


What makes teaching online unique is that it uses the internet, especially
the World Wide Web, as the primary means of communication. Thus,
when you teach online, you don’t have to be someplace to teach. You
don’t have to lug your briefcase full of paper or your laptop to a
classroom, stand at a lectern, scribble on a chalkboard (or even use your
high-tech, interactive classroom “smart” whiteboard), or grade papers in
a stuffy room while your students take a test. You don’t even have to sit
in your office waiting for students to show up for conferences. You can
hold “office hours” on weekends or at night after dinner. You can do all
this while living in a small town in Wyoming or a big city like Bangkok,
even if you are working for a college whose administrative office is
located in Florida or Dubai. You can attend an important conference in
Hawaii on the same day you teach your class in New Jersey, logging on
from your laptop via the local café’s wireless hotspot or your hotel room’s
high-speed network. Or you may simply pull out your smartphone to
quickly check on the latest postings, email, or text messages from
students. Online learning offers more freedom for students as well. They
can search for courses using the Web, scouring their institution or even
the world for programs, classes, and instructors that fit their needs.
Having found an appropriate course, they can enrol and register, shop for
their books, read articles, listen to lectures, submit their homework
assignments, confer with their instructors, and receive their final grades-
all online. They can assemble virtual classrooms, joining other students
from diverse geographical locales, foraging bonds and friendships not
possible in conventional classrooms, which are usually limited to students
from a specific geographical area.


To understand the final reason why the news marketplace of ideas

dominated by television is so different from the one that emerged in the
world dominated by the printing press, it is important to distinguish the
quality of vividness experienced by television viewers from the “vividness”
experienced by readers. I believe that the vividness experienced in the
reading of words is automatically modulated by the constant activation of
the reasoning centres of the brain that are used in the process of
concreting the representation of reality the author has intended. By
contrast, the visceral vividness portrayed on television has the capacity to
trigger instinctual responses similar to those triggered by reality itself—
and without being modulated by logic, reason, and reflective thought. The
simulation of reality accomplished in the television medium is so
astonishingly vivid and compelling compared with the representations of
reality conveyed by printed words that it signifies much more than an
incremental change in the way people consume information. Books also
convey compelling and vivid representations of reality, of course. But the
reader actively participates in the conjuring of the reality the book’s
author Is attempting to depict. Moreover, the parts of the human brain
that are central to the reasoning process are continually activated by the
very act of reading printed words: Words are composed of abstract
symbols—letters— that have no intrinsic meaning themselves until they
are strung together into recognizable sequences. Television, by contrast,
presents to its viewers a much more fully formed representation of
reality—without requiring the creative collaboration that words have
always demanded.


A miner in the state of Chiapas found a tiny tree frog that has been
preserved in amber for 25 million years, a researcher said. If
authenticated, the preserved frog would be the first of its kind found in
Mexico, according to David Grimaldi, a biologist and curator at the
American Museum of Natural History, who was not involved in the find.
The chunk of amber containing the frog, less than half an inch long, was
uncovered by a miner in Mexico’s southern Chiapas state in 2005 and was
bought by a private collector, who loaned it to scientists for study. A few
other preserved frogs have been found in chunks of amber — a stone
formed by ancient tree sap mostly in the Dominican Republic. Like those,
the frog found in Chiapas appears to be of the genus Craugastor, whose
descendants still inhabit the region, said biologist Gerardo Carbot of the
Chiapas Natural History and Ecology Institute. Carbot announced the
discovery this week. The scientist said the frog lived about 25 million
years ago, based on the geological strata where the amber was found.
Carbot would like to extract a sample from the frog’s remains in hopes of
finding DNA that could identify the particular species but doubts the
owner would let him drill into the stone.

11. Ageing world

We live in an ageing world. While this has been recognized for some time
in developed countries, it is only recently that this phenomenon has been
fully acknowledged. Global communication is “shrinking” the world, and
global ageing is “maturing” it. The increasing presence of older persons in
the world is making people of all ages more aware that we live in a
diverse and multigenerational society. It is no longer possible to ignore
ageing, regardless of whether one views it positively or negatively.
Demographers note that if current trends in ageing continue as predicted,
a demographic revolution, wherein the proportions of the young and the
old will undergo a historic crossover, will be felt in just three generations.
This portrait of change in the world’s population parallels the magnitude
of the industrial revolution traditionally considered the most significant
social and economic breakthrough in the history of humankind since the
Neolithic period. It marked beginning of a sustained movement towards
modern economic growth in much the same way that globalization is
today marking an unprecedented and sustained movement toward a
“global culture”. The demographic revolution, it is envisaged, will be at
While the future effects are not known, a likely scenario is one where both
the challenges as well as the opportunities will emerge from a vessel into
which exploration and research, dialogue and debate are poured.
Challenges arise as social and economic structures try to adjust to the
simultaneous phenomenon of diminishing young cohorts with rising older
ones, and opportunities present themselves in the sheer number of older
individuals and the vast resources societies stand to again from their
This ageing of the population permeates all social, economic and cultural
spheres. Revolutionary change calls for new, revolutionary thinking, which
can position policy formulation and implementation on sounder footing. In
our ageing world, new thinking requires that we view ageing as a lifelong
and older person.

12. American Employees

American employees are paid $300 a year to sleep fame than seven hours
per night and they can record their sleep manually or through an
automatic wrist monitor, as sleeping affects daytime performance by
influencing employees’ alertness, which diminish productivity and leads to
financial loss accumulated to $63 Z billion a year, and similar policies
adopted to encourage people taking exercise.

13. Armed Police in NSW schools

Armed police have been brought into NSW schools to reduce crime rates
and educate students.
The 40 School Liaison Police(SLP) officers have been allocated to public
and private high schools across the state.
Organizers say the officers, who began work last week, will build positive
relationships between police and students. But parent groups waned of
potential dangers of armed police working at schools in communities
where police relations were already under strain.
Among their duties, the SLPs will conduct crime prevention workshops,
talking to students about issues including shoplifting, offensive behaviour,
graffiti and drugs and alcohol. They can also advise school principals. One
SLP, Constable Ben Purvis, began work in the inner Sydney region last
week, including at Alexandria Park Community School’s senior campus.
Previously stationed as a crime prevention officer at The Rocks, he now
has 27 schools under his jurisdiction in areas including The Rocks,
Redfern and Kings Cross.
Constable Purvis said the full–time position would see him working on the
broader issues of crime prevention. “I am not a security guard,” he said.
“I am not there to patrol the school. We want to improve relationships
between police and schoolchildren, to have positive interaction. We are
coming to the school and giving them knowledge to improve their own
safety.” The use of fake ID among older students is among the issues he
was already discussed with principals. Parents ‘groups responded to the
program positively, but said it may spark a range of community reactions.
“It is a good thing and an innovative idea and there could be some
positive benefits,” Council of Catholic School Parents executive officer
Danielle Cronin said. “Different communities will respond to this kind of
presence in different ways.”

14. Australia education

When Australians engage in debate about educational quality or equity,

they often seem to accept that a country cannot achieve both at the same
Curriculum reforms intended to improve equity often fail to do so because
they Increase breadth or differentiation in offerings in a way that
increases differences in quality. Further, these differences in quality often
reflect differences in students’ social backgrounds because the ‘new’
offerings are typically taken up by relatively disadvantaged students who
are not served well them. Evidence from New South Wales will be used to
illustrate this point.
The need to improve the quality of education is well accepted across
OECD and other countries as they seek to strengthen their human capital
to underpin their modern, knowledge economies. Improved equity is also
important for this purpose, since the demand for high level skills is
widespread and the opportunities for the low skilled are diminishing.
Improved equity in education is also important for social cohesion. There
are countries in which the education system seems primarily to reproduce
existing social arrangements, conferring privilege where it already
extreme, the capacity of schooling to build social cohesion is often
diminished by the way in which school’s separate individuals and groups.

15. Australian educational equity

Australians seem to accept that a country cannot achieve both

educational quality and equity at the same time, curriculum reforms fail
to improve equity, however, the need to improve the quality of education
is well accepted across OECD and other countries, improved equity is
important for social cohesion which is often diminished by separating
individuals and groups.
It seems that quality and equity in education cannot have both as equity
impedes quality, which it actually mistaken because some curriculum
merely improve differentiation required in quality, such as treating
students with various backgrounds accordingly, but quality and equity
improvement both stress on knowledge economies and social cohesion
but some countries are diminishing these advantages by separating
students into groups.

16. Australian indigenous food

In its periodic quest for culinary identity, Australia automatically looks to

its indigenous ingredients, the foods that are native to this country.
‘There can be little doubt that using an indigenous product must qualify a
dish as Australian notes Stephanie Alexander. Similarly, and without
qualification, states that’ A
uniquely Australian food culture can only be based upon foods indigenous
to this country, although, as Craw remarks, proposing Australian native
foods as national symbols relies more upon their association with ‘nature’
and geographic origin than on common usage. Notwithstanding the lack
of justification for the premise that national dishes are, of necessity,
founded on ingredients native to the country-after all, Italy’s gastronomic
identity is tied to the non-indigenous tomato, Thailand^ to then on-
indigenous chili-the reality is that Austrians do not eat indigenous foods
insignificant quantities. The exceptions are fish, crustaceans and shellfish
from oceans, rivers and lakes most of which are unarguably unique to this
country. Despite valiant and well-intentioned efforts today at promoting
and encouraging the consumption of native resource, bush foods are not
harvested or produced in sufficient quantities for them to be a standard
component of Australian diets, nor are they generally accessible.
Indigenous foods are less relevant to Australian identity today than lamb
and passionfruit, both initially imported and now naturalized.

17. Autism

Autism is a disorder characterized by impairments in communication,

social interaction, and repetitive behaviours. Over the past 40 years, the
measured prevalence of autism has multiplied roughly 10-fold. While
progress has been made in understanding some of the factors associated
with increased risk and rising prevalence, no one knows with certainty
what causes autism or what caused autism prevalence to rise so
precipitously. There is, however, a growing awareness among scholars
that focusing solely on individual risk factors such as exposure toxicants,
prenatal complications, or parental education is insufficient to explain why
autism prevalence rates have increased so stunningly. Social and
institutional processes likely play an important role. For example, changes
in diagnostic criteria and an influx of resources dedicated to autism
diagnosis may be critical to understanding why prevalence rates have
risen. Increased awareness and social influence have been implicated in
the rise of autism and a variety of comparable disorders, where social
processes mimic the effects of contagion. Studies have examined the
contribution of changes in diagnostic criteria and diagnostic substitution to
rising autism prevalence rates, but the importance of institutional factors,
resources for diagnosis, and greater awareness have not been
systematically assessed. The sociological literature on health and
inequality, however, provides substantial motivation for exploring how
individual- and community-level effects operate to shape the likelihood of
an autism diagnosis.

18. Benefits of honey

According to Dr. Ron Fessenden, M D, M.P.H. the average American

consumes more than 150 pounds of refined sugar, plus an additional 62
pounds of high fructose com syrup every year. In comparison, we
consume only around1.3 pounds of honey per year on average in the U.S.
According to new research, if you can switch out your intake of refined
sugar and use pure raw honey instead, the health benefits can be
What is raw honey? It’s a pure, unfiltered and unpasteurized sweetener
made by bees from the nectar of flowers. Most of the honey consumed
today is processed honey that’s been heated and filtered since it was
gathered from the hive. Unlike processed honey, raw honey does not get
robbed of its incredible nutritional value and health powers. It can help
with everything from low energy to sleep problems to seasonal allergies.
Switching to raw honey may even help weight-loss efforts when compared
to diets containing sugar or high fructose corn syrup. I’m excited to tell
you more about one of my all-time favourite natural sweeteners today.

19. Children watching TV

Why and to what extent should parents control their Children’s TV

watching? There is certainly nothing inherently wrong with TV. The
problem is how much television a child watches and what effect it has on
his life. Research has shown that as the amount of time spent watching
TV goes up, the amount of time devoted not only to homework and study
but other important aspects of li such as social development and physical
activities decreases. Television is bound to have it tremendous impact on
a child, both in terms of how many hours a week he watches TV and of
what he sees. When a parent is concerned about the effects of television,
he should consider a number of things: what TV offers the child in terms
of information and knowledge, how many hours a week a youngster his
age should watch television, the impact of violence and sex, and the
influence of commercials. What about the family as a whole? Is the TV set
a central piece of furniture in your home! Is it flicked on the moment
someone enters the empty house? Is it on during the daytime? Is it part
of the background noise of your family life? Do you demonstrate by your
own viewing that television should be watched selectively?

20. Cities

How can we design great cities from scratch if we cannot agree on what
makes them great ?None of the cities where people most want to live
such as London, New York ,Paris and Hong Kong comes near to being at
the top of surveys asking which are best to live in.
The top three in the most recent Economist Intelligence Units liveability
ranking, for example, were Melbourne, Vancouver and Vienna. They are
all perfectly pleasant, but great? The first question to tackle is the
difference between liveability and greatness.
Perhaps we cannot aspire to make a great city, but if we attempt to make
a liveable one, can it in time become great ?
There are some fundamental elements that you need. The first is public
space. Whether it is Viennas Ringstrasse and Prater Park, or the beaches
of Melbourne and Vancouver, these are places that allow the city to pause
and the citizens to mingle and to breathe, regardless of class or wealth.
Good cities also seem to be close to nature, and all three have easy
access to varied, wonderful landscapes and topographies.
A second crucial factor, says Ricky Burdett, a professor of urban studies
at the London School of Economics, is a good transport system.
Affordable public transport is the one thing which cuts across all
successful cities, he says.

21. Columbus

On October 12,1492 (the first day he encountered the native people of

the Americas), Columbus wrote in his journal: They should be good
servants. I, our Lord being pleased, will take hence, at the time of my
departure, six natives for your Highnesses. These captives were later
paraded through the streets of Barcelona and Seville when Columbus
returned to Spain.
From his very first contact with native people, Columbus had their
domination in mind. For example, on October 14,1492, Columbus wrote in
his journal, with fifty men they can all be subjugated and made to do
what is required of them. These were not mere words: after his second
voyage, Columbus sent back a consignment of natives to be sold as
Yet in an April,1493, letter to Luis de Santangel (a patron who helped
fund the first voyage),Columbus made clear that the people he
encountered had done nothing to deserve ill treatment.

22. Compulsory Voting in Australia

On October 12,1492 (the first day he encountered the native people of

the Americas), Columbus wrote in his journal: They should be good
servants. I, our Lord being pleased, will take hence, at the time of my
departure, six natives for your Highnesses. These captives were later
paraded through the streets of Barcelona and Seville when Columbus
returned to Spain.
From his very first contact with native people, Columbus had their
domination in mind. For example, on October 14,1492, Columbus wrote in
his journal, with fifty men they can all be subjugated and made to dc
what is required of them. These were not mere words: after his second
voyage, Columbus sent back a consignment of natives to be sold as
Yet in an April,1493, letter to Luis de Santangel (a patron who helped
fund the first voyage),Columbus made clear that the people he
encountered had done nothing to deserve ill treatment.

23. Cow and grass

The co-evolutionary relationship between cows and grass is one of

nature’s underappreciated wonders; it also happens to be the key to
understanding just about everything about modern meat.
For the grasses, which have evolved to withstand the grazing of
ruminants, the cow maintains and expands their habitat by preventing
trees and shrubs from gaining a foothold and hogging the sunlight; the
animal also spreads grass seed, plants it with his hooves, and then
fertilizes it with his manure.
In exchange for these services the grasses offer ruminants a plentiful and
exclusive supply of lunch. For cows (like sheep, bison, and other
ruminants) have evolved the special ability to convert grass-which single-
stomached creatures like us can’t digest-into high-quality protein. They
can do this because they possess what is surely the most highly evolved
digestive organ in nature: the rumen. About the size of a medicine ball,
the organ is essentially a forty-five-gallon fermentation tank in which a
resident population of bacteria dines on grass.
24. Diasporas

Diasporas -communities which live outside, but maintain links with, their
homelands-aee getting larger, thicker and stronger. They are the human
face of globalization. Diaspora consciousness is on the rise: diasporas are
becoming more interested in their origin, and organizing themselves more
effectively; homelands are revising their opinions of their diasporas as the
stigma attached to emigration declines, and stepping up their
engagement efforts; meanwhile, host countries are witnessing more
assertive diasporic groups within their own national communities,
worrying about fifth columns and foreign lobbies, and suffering outbreaks
of ‘diasporaphobia.’i
This trend is the result of five factors, all of them connected with
globalization: the growth in international migration; the revolution in
transport and communications technology, which is quickening the pace
of diasporas’ interactions with their homelands; a reaction against global
homogenized culture, which is leading people to rethink their identities;
the end of the Cold War, which increased the salience of ethnicity and
nationalism and created new space in which diasporas can operate; and
policy changes by national governments on issues such as dual citizenship
and multiculturalism, which are enabling people to lead transnational
lives. Diasporas such as those attaching to China, India, Russia and
Mexico are already big, but they will continue to grow, the migration flows
which feed them are likely to widen and quicken in the future.

25. House mice

According to new research, house mice (Musmusculus) are ideal

biomarkers of human settlement as they tend to stow away in crates or
on ships that end up going where people go. Using mice as a proxy for
human movement can add to what is already known through
archaeological data and answer important questions in areas where there
is a lack of artefacts, Searle said.
Where people go, so do mice, often stowing away in carts of hay or on
ships. Despite a natural range of just 100 meters (109 yards) and an
evolutionary base near Pakistan, the house mouse has managed to
colonize every continent, which makes it a useful tool for researchers like
Previous research conducted by Searle at the University of York supported
the theory that Australian mice originated in the British Isles and probably
came over with convicts shipped there to colonize the continent in the late
18th and 19th centuries.
In the Viking study, he and his fellow researchers in Iceland, Denmark
and Sweden took it a step further, using ancient mouse DNA collected
from archaeological sites dating from the 10th to 12th centuries, as well
as modern mice.
He is hoping just that in his next project, which involves tracking
the migration of mice and other species, including plants, across the
Indian Ocean, from South Asia to East Africa.

26. Human and animals

All non-human animals are constrained by the tools that nature has
bequeathed them through natural selection. They are not capable of
striving towards truth; they simply absorb information, and behave in
ways useful for their survival. The kinds of knowledge they require of the
world have been largely pre-selected by evolution. No animal is capable of
asking question or generating problems that are irrelevant to its
immediate circumstances or its evolutionarily designed needs. When a
beaver builds a dam, it doesn’t ask itself why it does so, or whether there
is a better way of doing it. When a swallow flies south, it doesn’t wonder
why it is hotter in Africa or what would happen if it flew still further south.
Humans do ask themselves these and many other kinds of questions,
questions that have no relevance, indeed make little sense, in the context
of evolved needs and goals. What marks out humans is our capacity to go
beyond our naturally defined goals such as the need to find food, shelter
or a mate and to establish human created goals.
Some contemporary thinkers believe that there are indeed certain
questions that humans are incapable of answering because of our evolved
nature. Steven Pinker, for instance, argues that “Our minds evolved by
natural selection to solve problems that were life and death matters to
our ancestors, not to commune with connectness or to answer any
question we are capable of asking. We cannot hold ten thousand words in
our short term memory. We cannot see ultra violet light. We cannot
mentally rotate an object in the fourth dimension. And perhaps we cannot
solve conundrums like free will and sentience.”

27. Labour comparative advantage

With an abundance of low-priced labour relative to the United States, it is

no surprise that China, India and other developing countries specialize in
the production of labour-intensive products. For similar reasons, the
United States will specialize in the production of goods that are human-
and physical-capital intensive because of the relative abundance of a
highly-educated labour force and technically sophisticated equipment in
the United States.
The division of global production should yield higher global output of both
types of goods than would be the case if each country attempted to
produce both of these goods itself. For example, the United States would
produce more expensive labour-intensive goods because of its more
expensive labour and the developing countries would produce more
expensive human and physical capital-intensive goods because of their
relative scarcity of these inputs. This logic implies that the United States
is unlikely to be a significant global competitor in the production green
technologies that are not relatively intensive in human and physical
Nevertheless, during the early stages of the development of a new
technology, the United States has a comparative advantage in the
production of the products enable by this innovation. However, once these
technologies become well-understood and production processes are
designed that can make use of less-skilled labour, production will migrate
to countries with less expensive labour.

28. Living in countryside

I knew it was a good idea because I had been there before. Born and
reared on a farm I had been seduced for a few years by the idea of being
a big shot who lived and worked in a city rather than only going for the
day to wave at the buses. True, I was familiar with some of the minor
disadvantages of country living such as an iffy private water supply
sometimes infiltrated by a range of Flora and fauna including, on one
memorable occasion, a dead lamb, the absence of central heating in farm
houses and cottages and a single-track farm road easily blocked by snow,
broken-down machinery or escaped livestock.
But there were many advantages as I told Liz back in the mid-Seventies.
Town born and bred, eight months pregnant and exchanging a warm,
substantial Corstorphine terrace for a windswept farm cottage on a much
lower income, persuading her that country had it over town might have
been difficult.

29. London

Who would have thought back in 1698, as they downed their espressos,
that the little band of stockbrokers from Jonathan’s Coffee House in
Change Alley EC3 would be the founder members of what would become
the world’s mighty money capital?
Progress was not entirely smooth. The South Sea Bubble burst in 1720
and the coffee house exchanges burned down in 1748. As late as Big
bang in 1986, when bowler hats were finally hung up, you wouldn’t have
bet the farm on London surpassing New York, Frankfurt and Tokyo as
Mammon’s international nexus. Yet the 325,000 souls who operate in the
UK capital’s hub have now overtaken their New York rivals in size of the
funds managed (including offshore business); they hold 70% of the global
secondary bond market and the City dominates foreign exchange trading.
And its institutions paid out £9 billion in bonuses in December. The
Square Mile has now spread both eastwards from EC3 to Canary Wharf
and westwards into Mayfair, where many of the private equity ‘locusts’
and their hedge fund pals now hang out.
For foreigners in finance, London is the place to be. It has no Sarbanes
Oxley and no euro to hold it back, yet the fact that it still flies so high is
against the odds. London is one of the most expensive cities in the world
to live in, transport systems groan and there’s an ever present threat of
terrorist attack. But, for the time being, the deals just keep on getting

30. Malaysia

Malaysia is one of the most pleasant, hassle-free countries to visit in

Southeast Asia. Aside from its gleaming 21st century glass towers, it
boasts some of the most superb beaches, mountains and national parks in
the region.
Malaysia is also launching its biggest-ever tourism campaign in effort to
lure 20 million visitors here this year. Any tourist itinerary would have to
begin in the capital, Kuala Lumpur, where you will find the Petronas Twin
Towers, which once comprised the world’s tallest buildings and now hold
the title of second-tallest. Both the 88-story towers soar 1,480 feet high
and are connected by a sky-bridge on the 41st floor. The limestone
temple Batu Caves, located 9 miles north of the city, have a 328-foot-
high ceiling and feature ornate Hindu shrines, including a 141-foot-tall
gold-painted statue of a Hindu deity. To reach the caves, visitors have to
climb a steep flight of 272 steps. In Sabah state on Borneo island not to
be confused with Indonesians Borneo you’ll find the small mushroom-
shaped Sipadan island, off the coast of Sabah, rated as one of the top five
diving sites in the world.
You can also climb Mount Kinabalu, the tallest peak in Southeast Asia,
visit the Sepilok Orang Utan Sanctuary, go white-water rafting and catch
a glimpse of the bizarre Proboscis monkey, a primate found only in
Borneo with a huge pendulous nose, a characteristic pot belly and strange
honking sounds. While you’re in Malaysia, consider a trip to Malacca. In
its heyday, this southern state was a powerful Malay sultanate and a
booming trading port in the region. Facing the Straits of Malacca, this
historical state is now a place of intriguing Chinese streets, antique shops,
old temples and reminders of European colonial powers. Another
interesting destination is Penang, known as the Pearl of the Orient. This
island off the northwest coast of Malaysia boasts of a rich Chinese cultural
heritage, good food and beautiful beaches.
31. Rosetta Stone

When the Rosetta Stone was discovered in 1799, the carved characters
that covered its surface were quickly copied. Printers ink was applied to
the Stone and white paper was laid over it. When the paper was removed,
it revealed an exact copy of the text but in reverse. Since then, many
copies or facsimiles have been made using a variety of materials.
Inevitably, the surface of the Stone accumulated many layers of material
left over from these activities, despite attempts to remove any residue.
Once on display, the grease from many thousands of human hands eager
to touch the Stone added to the problem.
An opportunity for investigation and cleaning the Rosetta Stone arose
when this famous object was made the centre piece of the Cracking
Codes exhibition at The British Museum in 1999. When work commenced
to remove all but the original, ancient material, the stone was black with
white lettering. As treatment progressed, the different substances
uncovered were analysed. Grease from human handling, a coating of
carnauba wax from the early 1800s and printers ink from 1799 were
cleaned away using cotton wool swabs and liniment of soap, white spirit,
acetone and purified water. Finally, white paint in the text, applied in
1981, which had been left in place until now as a protective coating, was
removed with cotton swabs and purified water. A small square at the
bottom left corner of the face of the Stone was left untouched to show the
darkened wax and the white infill.

32. Tree ring

Here’s how tree ring dating, known to scientists as dendrochronology

works. If you cut a tree down today, it’s straightforward to count the rings
inwards, starting from the tree’s outside (corresponding to this year’s
growth ring), and thereby to state that the 177th ring from the outermost
one towards the centre was laid down in the year 2005 minus 177, or
1828. But it’s less straightforward to attach a date to a particular ring in
an ancient Anasazi wooden beam because at first you don’t know in what
year the beam was cut. However, the widths of tree growth rings vary
from year to year, depending on the rain or drought conditions in each
Hence the sequence of the rings in a tree cross-section is like a message
in Morse code formerly used for sending telegraph messages; dot-dot-
dash-dot-dash in the Morse code, wide-wide-narrow-wide-narrow in the
tree ring sequence. Actually the tree ring sequence is even more
diagnostic and richer in information than the Morse code, because trees
actually contain rings spanning many different width, rather than the
Morse code choice between dot and dash.
Tree ring specialists (known as dendrochronologists) proceed by nothing
the sequence of wider and narrower rings in a tree cut down in a known
recent year, and also nothing the sequences in beams from trees cut
down at various times in the past. They then match up and align the tree
ring sequences with the same diagnostic wide/narrow patterns from
different beams.
In that way, dendrochronologists have constructed tree ring records
extending back for thousands of years in some parts of the world. Each
record is valid for a geographic area whose extent depends on local
weather patterns, because weather and hence tree growth patterns vary
with location. For instance, the basic tree ring chronology of the American
Southwest applies (with some variation) to the area from Northern Mexico
to Wyoming.

33. Twins

UCLA neurology professor Paul Thompson and his colleagues scanned the
brains of 23 sets of identical twins and 23 sets of fraternal twins. Since
identical twins share the same genes while fraternal twins share about
half their genes, the researchers were able to compare each group to
show that myelin integrity was determined genetically in many parts of
the brain that are key for intelligence. These include the parietal lobes,
which are responsible for spatial reasoning, visual processing and logic,
and the corpus callosum, which pulls together information from both sides
of the body.
The researchers used a faster version of a type of scanner called a HARDI
(high-angular resolution diffusion imaging) — think of an MRI machine on
steroids — that takes scans of the brain at a much higher resolution than
a standard MRI. While an MRI scan shows the volume of different tissues
in the brain by measuring the amount of water present, HARDI tracks
how water diffuses through the brain’s white matter — a way to measure
the quality of its myelin.
“HARDI measures water diffusion,” said Thompson, who is also a member
of the UCLA Laboratory of Neuro-Imaging. “If the water diffuses rapidly in
a specific direction, it tells us that the brain has very fast connections. If it
diffuses more broadly, that’s an indication of slower signalling, and lower

1. It is important to maintain a right balance of your work and other

respects of one’slife such as family and leisure sport. What is your opinion
about this? Discuss with appropriate examples.

2. Is it fair for universities to deduct students’ marks when their

assignments are overdue? How to solve this problem?

3. Design of buildings have positive or negative impact on people’s life

and work?

4. Experience is more effective and useful than books and formal

education. What is your opinion?

5. How widely of you think the problem spreads that people spend too
much time on work than their personal life and experience time shortage?
What problems will it cause?

6. Younger employees have more skills, knowledge and more motivated

than older employees. To what extent do you agree or disagree, support
your argument with your own experience.

7. The advanced medical technology expands human’s life. Do you think

it is a curse or blessing?

8. Study needs time, peace and comfort, whereas employment needs the
same thing. Someone says it is impossible to combine those two because
one distracts one another. Do you think this is realistic in our life today?
To what extent do you agree with it? Support your opinion with example.

9. Government promise continuous economic growth, but it’s actually an

illusion. Some people think that governments should abandon this. Please
talk about the validity and the implications.

10. Do you think cashless society is realistic and why? What are the
advantages and disadvantages? (use of credit card)

11. Governments and international institution are faced with many global
problems. What these problems could be? Measure?

12. Works of literatures are a waste of time for students today. Do you
agree or disagree? Use your own experience.
13. In social situations, some people believe that it is better to be a good
listener than a good talker. Do you agree or disagree?

14. Young people should not do things like driving or voting. Young
people under 25 years old are not responsible enough and lack of life
experiences. Discuss and give your opinion with examples.

15. City population has been growing rapidly. To cope with this problem,
should we rely on city planners or new policies?

16. Internet or media is bad for young people because they make the
young generation poor in communication and forming relationships. Do
you agree with this opinion? Please use examples or your personal
experience to support your idea.

17. Some people think school leavers should go to find a job rather than
university education. Others think the university education is essential for
professional development. What’s your opinion of these two views?

18.Technology allows us to have a useful and interesting life than in the

past. Do you agree or disagree?

19. Computer and online games should be banned to students in schools

as they have no educational value. What’s your opinion?

20. Workers and nurses should be paid more. What is your opinion?

21. Education is important as it teach ethics and life value as it teaches

us practical things for future employment. What is your opinion?

22. Creativity is inborn skill or can be developed through learning? Your


23. transportation vs build a new building

24. Most people with university degree can earn higher salaries than
those who not go to the university, so they should pay full cost of their
education. Your opinion.

25. moving from rural areas to big cities will provide more opportunities.
Your opinion.
26. Study needs time, peace and comfort, whereas employment needs
the same thing. Someone says it is impossible to combine those two
because one distracts one another. Do you think this is realistic in our life
today? To what extent do you agree with it? Support your opinion with

27. Government promise continuous economic growth, but it’s actually an

illusion. Some people think that governments should abandon this. Please
talk about the validity and the implications.

28. Governments and international institution are faced with many global
problems. What these problems could be? Measure them.