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Malaria - General Facts

❖ Parasite​:
➢ Cluster: Protozoan
➢ Classification:
■ Primarily ​Plasmodium falciparum
■ Also ​ ​P. vivax, ​P. malariae
​ , ​ P. ovale, and ​P. knowlesi
➢ Images of parasites in cells
❖ Vector/Transmission​:
➢ Primary transmission vector to humans: bites from infected female mosquitoes
among several species in the​ A ​ nopheles genus
➢ Primary hosts: ​ ​Anopheles mosquitoes
➢ Secondary hosts: Humans and other vertebrates
❖ Life Cycle​:
➢ Life cycle diagram
❖ Epidemiology/Distribution​:
➢ World distribution​ of malaria incidence rate
➢ High-risk demographics:
■ Pregnant women, children, and travelers from areas without malaria
❖ Diagnosis​:
➢ Primary symptoms:
■ Fever, chills, sweats, headache, myalgias, cough, nausea, vomiting,
diarrhea, back pain and dizziness
■ Onset of symptoms 7-30 days after bite from infected mosquito
❖ Prevention​:
➢ Insecticide treated nets
https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/malaria_worldwide/reduction/itn.html
➢ Personal protection (including protective clothing and insect repellent)
➢ Pro​phylaxis for travelers
➢ Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy
➢ Future vaccine
❖ General Resources for More Information:
➢ 2015 WHO World Malaria Report
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/200018/1/9789241565158_eng.pdf
➢ CDC Malaria Page
https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/index.html
Malaria - Medical Facts
❖ Pathophysiology​:
➢ Red blood cells (RBCs) change their structure, biochemistry, and mechanics
when infected with malaria, altering their deformability and fragility
❖ Diagnosis​:
➢ Primary tests (thresholds):
■ Microscopic analysis of thick and thin peripheral blood smear
■ Rapid Diagnostic Tests
❖ Treatment​:
➢ Medication:
■ artemether and lumefantrine
■ IV quinine for severe malaria
❖ Control​:
➢ Insecticide residual spraying:
https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/malaria_worldwide/reduction/irs.html
➢ Larval management:
https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/malaria_worldwide/reduction/vector_control.html
❖ Medical References for More Information:
➢ http://www.cdc.gov/dpdx/malaria/index.html