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Asep Ginanjar (1155030024) & Delia Afifah (1155030041) ,
VII A English Litearture
UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung
This study focuses on analyzing and contrasting sentence construction in British and
American English. This research aims to find several differences in both of language. The
data of this study have been collected from Harry Potter’s and the philosopher’s Stone
book. There are the differences of vocabularies and spellings found in British and
American English The book which has been written by J.k Rowling. Furthermore the
method to conduct this research is qualitative. These can be summarized as follows: The
points of differences are as follows: The two languages have different elements to
construct a sentence. The techniques of analyzing data are data reduction, data
presentation and conclusion. The data are analyzed by general theory of morphological

Keywords : contrastive analysis, American, British

Language is the mirror that reveals what is going on in human minds. It
distinguishes man from many other living creatures. It is the means that achieves
communication to serve different purposes among people. Also it is one of the most
important resources in transferring the human cultures from one generation to another.
Like English as an International language, there are two types of English that is well
known and that is used as a reference in the word which included in Indonesia, there are
British English and American English. Both of them have differences in the way they are
written or spoken, such as: spelling, pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammatical. In the
fact, the English learners will interpret English incorrectly in some aspects with the
differences. Fisiak (1981) argues that “there are six principal differences between British
and American English namely vocabulary, spelling, number, business letter, grammar and
pronunciation differences”. To decrease the problem, the writer uses the contrastive
analysis to analyze the problem of learning English vocabularies. Furthermore the
researcher interested to create this research because of some reason. First, the writer
wants to contribute to increase the English user or the learner’s comprehension about the
differences between British and American English and the last, to make them to be
consistent in using variations that have been followed.
Research Questions
1. How are the contrastive of vocabularies in American and British English?

The method of the research is qualitative research as Creswell (2009) states that
“qualitative method is a method which used and provided study and the application of
theories in every ways”. Besides that, the author combined and assembled the resources
from books in order to make complete decision in our paper. In the handbook of
qualitative research also describe qualitative research as involving “an interpretive
naturalistic approach to the world. This means that qualitative researchers study things in
their natural settings, attempting and the point of views.

Theoretical Foundation
This research applies several theories to analyze the data such as contrastive
analysis theory such as analyzes the differences between British and American English
vocabularies by using the theory of Lado (1957). There are three kinds of the differences
of vocabularies found in British and American English namely, words with the same
meaning in British and American English but different in technical term, words with the
same term in British and American English but different in meaning, words which have
two distinct meaning in British and American English.

Finding and Discussion

This chapter finding and the discussion in relation to the questions of the
research. This research tries to find out the differences word of similar preferences in
British and American English found of the novel entitled “Harry Potter and the
philosopher’s Stone” and it’s American version by JK. Rowling. Furthermore, it also
analyses some differences in spelling, pronunciation, and vocabulary aspect.

The data that have been analyzed in the research are the differences word of
similar references in British and American English, and the differences of British and
American English in spelling and pronunciation regard to the production of sounds and
the placing of stress, intonation of British and American English.

According to Darragh (2000:5) When a Briton and an American meet, even

though they are far from mutually unintelligible, each is soon aware of differences in the
speech of the other. The first differences of pronunciation tempo, intonation are
distinctive. Next, differences in vocabulary, and finally variation in spelling, these
differences are reflected in the way British and American English in the written form
such as novel.

In doing this research, the steps that are used in this analysis are categorizing data
and analyzing data to find the different word of similar references are found in the novel
entitled “Harry Potter and the philosopher’s Stone” and its American version. Before
categorizing the word into the spelling pronunciation, and vocabulary aspect, the writer
compares all of data about the differences of word in British and American English in that
novel to make the writer easier in analyzing data and categorizing word into the aspect of
spelling, pronunciation, and vocabulary.

These datum are presented through some tables in order to be more

understandable. The analysis itself concern about finding out either the different or
similar words in the novel. It also deals with the matter of finding out the word
differences of both language in spelling, pronunciation, and vocabulary.

The form of the different words that refer to the similar references or meaning are:
No British English American English References

1 Realise Realize Become fully aware of as a act, understand clearly.

2 Get-ups Getups Informal style or arrangement of dress, especially

an elaborate or unusual one

3 Dialling Dialing Call (a telephone number) by turning a dial or

using a keypad

4 Moustache Mustache A strip of hair left to grow above the upper lip

5 Living-room Livingroom A room in a house for general everyday use

6 Towards Toward Getting nearer to (a time or goal)

7 Goodbye Good-bye Used to express good wishes when parting or

ending a conversation

8 Lunch-time Lunchtime The time when lunch is eaten.

9 The baker’s The Bakery A place where berad and cakes are made or sold

10 Lot Bunch A number of things growing or fastened together

11 Learnt Learned Acquire knowledge of or skill in something

through study or experience or by being taught

12 Her lot Her crowd A large number of people gathered together

13 A sherbet lemon A lemon drop A flavored sweet effervescent powder eaten alone
or made into a drink

14 Dustbin lids Trash can lids A large container for household refuse

15 Motorbike Motor cycle A small, light motorcycle

16 Useful Handy Able to be used for a practical purpose or in

several ways

17 Ice-cream Ice cream A semi-soft frozen dessert made with sweetened

and flavored milk fat

18 Afterewards Afterward At a later or future time

19 Dining-room Dining room A room in a house or hotel in which meals are


20 Coloured Colored Wholly or partly or non-white descent

21 A roundbout a carousel A road junction at which traffic moves in one

direction round a central island to reach one of the
roads converging on it
22 The Cooker The stove An appliance for cooking food, typically
consisting of an oven, hob and grill

23 Got Gotten As past participles of gets, got and gotten both date
back to Middle English

24 Cine-camera Video The art of photography and camerawork in film-


25 Remote control Remote control Control of a machine or apparatus from a distance

aeroplane airplane by means of signals transmitted from a radio or
electronic device

26 Hamburger bars Hamburger A place where people pay to sit ad eat meals that
restaurant are cooked and served on the premises

27 The cinema The movies A cinema film

28 Holiday Vacation An extended period of recreation especially away

from home

29 Old jumper Old sweater A pullover or sweater or a pinafore dress

30 Favoured Favored An art of kindness what is due or usual

31 On to Onto The position onto written as one word is widely


32 Mint Pappermint An aromatic plant with two-lipped typically lilac

flower, several kinds of which are used culinary

33 The notes The Bills A brief written record of facts, topics, or thoughts,
used as an aid to memory

34 Barman Bartender A man serving behind the bar of pub

35 Gummy Toothless Viscious, sticky

36 Football Soccer Any of a number of forms of team game involving

kicking a ball, in particular

37 Three quarters Three-quarters Three of the four equal parts into which something
may be divided

38 Riff-raff Riffraff Disreputable or undesirable people

39 Hoover Vacuum A vacuum cleaner

40 The driver The conductor A person or thing that drives something

41 Trainers Sneakers A person who trains people or animals

42 Mid-air Midair A part of the air above ground level

43 Centre Center A point or part in the middle of something that is

equally distant from all of its sides, ends, or

44 Snake-like Snakelike A predatory reptile with a long slender limbless

supple body, many kinds of which have a
venomous bite

45 Armour Armor The metal coverings formerly worn by soldiers to

protect the body in battle

46 Cosy Cozy Comfortable, warm, and secure

47 Sporty lesson Gym A private club providing a range of facilities

designed to improve and maintain physical fitness

48 Chips Fries A small thin piece removed in the course of

chopping, cutting or breaking a hard material

49 Humbugs Peppermints Deceptive or false talk or behavior

50 The pudding The desserts The sweet course eaten at the end of a meal

51 Jelly Jell-o A similar preparation made with fruit or other with

fruit or other ingredients as a condiment

52 Mam Mom A mature woman

53 Tea Dinner The main meal of the day, taken either around
midday or in the evening

54 Criticising Criticizing Disapprovingly indicate the faults of

56 Queuing Lining up A line or sequence of people or vehicles awaiting

their turn to be attend to or to proceed

57 The lesson The classes A period of learning or teaching

58 The register The roll call A particular part of the range of a voice or

59 A trolley A cart A large wheeled metal basket or frame used for

transporting items such as luggage or supermarket

60 The divide The dividing An instance of dividing or being divided

61 The last rucksack The last backpack A bag with two shoulder straps which allow it to
be carried on the back, used by hikers`

62 Hullo Hello Used as greeting or to begin a conversation

63 Gawped Gawked Stare openly in a stupid or rude manner

64 Going Turning Move into a different position, especially so as so

face the opposite direction

65 Leant Leaned Be in or move into a sloping position

66 Sweets Candy Sugar crystallized by repeated boiling and slow


67 Flavoured Flavored The distinctive taste of a food or drink

68 Learnt Learned Acquire knowledge of or skill in trough study or

experience or by being taught

69 Set books Course book A textbook designed for use on a particular course
of study

70 Dinner time Dinnertime The main meal of the day, taken either around
midday or in the evening

71 Any time Anytime Variant of any time

72 Face to face Face-to-face Close together and looking directly at one another

73 Night-time Nighttime The time between evening and morning

74 Sing-song Singsong Having a repeated rising and falling rhythm

75 Dress-gowns Bathrobes A long, loose robe worn after getting out off the
bed or bathing

76 Hallowe’en Halloween The night of 31 October, the eve of All Saints’


77 Zig-zagging Zigzagging Take a zigzag course

78 Skywards Skyward Observe or monitor the sky, especially for

heavenly bodies or aircraft

79 Pitch Field An area of ground marked out or used for play in

and outdoor, team game

80 A rounders bat A short baseball bat A ball game similar to baseball, in which players
run round a circuit of bases after hitting the ball
with a cylindrical wooden bat, seoring a rounder if
all four bases are reached before the ball is fielded

81 Bad temper Bad mood Easily annoyed or angered

82 Toilets Bathroom A room containing a bath and useually also a

washbasin and toilet
83 Disused Unused The state off not being used neglect

84 Philosopher’s Sorcerer’s stone A mythical substance supposed to change any

stone metal into gold or silver, the discovery off which
was the supreme object of alchemy

85 For ever Forever For all future time

86 Goodbye Good-bye Used to express good wishes when parting or

ending a conversation

87 Revising Studying Learn intensively about something, especially in

preparation for a test

88 Lot Kind A great deal

89 Mad Nuts Mentally ill, insane

90 Well known Well-known Known widely or thoroughly

91 Furore Furor An outbreak of public anger or excitement

92 Tree-stump Tree stump The part of a tree trunk left projecting from the
ground after the rest has fallen or been felled

93 Tail-hair Tail hair From a Germanic base meaning ‘hairy tail”

94 Half life Half-life The time taken for the radioactivity of and isotope
to fall to half its original value

95 Memorise Memorize A structure or state established in memoru of a

person or event

96 Lookout Problem An unwelcome or harmful matter needing to be

dealt needing to be dealt with an overcome

97 Writing Copying A sequence of letters or symbols forming coherent


98 Snuff-box Snuffbox A small ornamental box for holding snuff

99 Around Across From one side to the other

100 Vapour Vapor A substance diffused or suspended in the air

101 Earwax Ear wax The protective yellow waxy substance secreted in
the passage of the outer ear

102 A lavatory seat A toilet seat A large bowl for urinating defecating into,
typically plumbed into a sewage system; a lavatory

103 The matron The nurse A women in charge or domestic and medical
arrangements at a boarding school or other

104 Drawn Tied Looking stained from illness or exhaustion

From the table above, the researcher found some different words in British and
American-English. These different words, then, can be divided into categories of
differences in spelling, pronunciation, and vocabulary

For the conclusion the contrastive in British and American English in Harry
Potter and The Philosopher’s Stone Novel can be identified by vocabularies. The data that
have been analyzed in the research are the differences word of similar references in
British and American English, and the differences of British and American English in
spelling and pronunciation regard to the production of sounds and the placing of stress,
intonation of British and American English.
Having done the analysis in the previous chapter the researcher makes conclusion
based on the analysis and the discussion of finding. These are words of British English
and American English was found in novel Harry Potter and The Philosopher’s Stone and
its American version.

Alan, Evision. 1983. Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary New York : Oxford University
Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research Design Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed
Methods Approaches. California: Sage Publication, Inc.
Darragh (2000). British or American English. New York: Cambridge
University Press.
Fisiak, J. (1981). Contrastive Analysis and the Language Teacher. Oxford: The
Pergamon Institute of English.
Lado, R. (1957). Linguistics across Cultures. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan
Rowling, J.K. (2002). Harry Potter and The Philosopher’s Stone’s Novel.
Gramedia Pustaka Utama
Tottie, G, (2002). An Introduction to American English. 1st ed. Malden, Ma:
Blackweell Publishers.