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Research in common speech refers to a search for knowledge. Research is an art of scientific and

systematic search for pertinent information on a specific subject. Some people consider research

as a movement, a movement from the known to the unknown, a voyage of discovery. It is an

original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge, for its advancement. Research refers to

the systematic method consisting of enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting

the facts or data, analyzing the facts and reaching certain conclusions, either in the form of

solution(s) towards the concerned problem or generalize some theoretical formulations.

Aim of research

The main aim of research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered

yet. To confirm the reliability of the existing knowledge and to find deviation of the existing


Objectives of research

The objective of a research is to acquire and advance knowledge through intensive study of the

original text of the selected topic or literary work, Thus the objective of research is:-

To explore a phenomena

To produce some new knowledge

To discover new invention /design

To discover some solutions to solve the past problem if any

To produce some new policies

To create certain hypothesis



Fundamental Research (pure or even theoretical research). It is a research for knowledge sake

.Not be of any immediate need or application of the new knowledge; nor conducted for any

immediate gain or problem solving. Done out of curiosity, or to build a theory to get more

complete understanding of world .Greatest research experiments and expeditions fall in this

category of research .Mostly conducted in academic and related research centers.

Applied Research: Conducted to solve any immediate problem of theory or practice at hand

is known as applied research. It is of practical nature. Most of the research in industry,

business, military and government departments is of applied or practical nature. “Deals with

human and societal problems in the hopes of finding solutions to real-world problems.” –

Doesn’t postulate theory but try to find answers for specific time, place and context.
Action Research: Focused on the immediate application and not on the development of theory.

It has placed its emphasis on a real problem in a local setting. Its findings are to be evaluated in

terms of local applicability. It is simply a form of self- reflective enquiry it is a scientific

procedure for finding out a practical solution of current problem. The practitioner can only

study his problem. The focus is to improve and modify the current practices. The individual and

group problems are studied by action research.


Descriptive (Ex post facto) vs Analytical: Descriptive Research includes surveys and fact-

finding enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of this is the description of the state of

affairs as it exists. The researcher has no control over the variables; he can only report what has

happened or what is happening. Researchers try to discover causes. In Analytical Research, on

the other hand, the researcher has to use facts or information already available, and analyze

these to make a critical evaluation of the material

Applied vs Fundamental: Applied Research finds a solution for an immediate problem facing a

society or an industrial/business organization. The central aim of this is to discover a solution

for some pressing practical problem. Not rigorous or flexible in application of the conditions,

whereas Fundamental Research is mainly concerned with generalizations and with the

formulation of a theory.

Quantitative vs Qualitative: Quantitative Research is based on the measurement of quantity or

amount. Applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity. Expression of a

property or quantity in numerical terms is possible. Helps in precise judgement, knowing trends

or changes over time and comparing trends or individual units. Qualitative Research, on the other
hand, is concerned with qualitative phenomenon, i.e., phenomena relating to or involving quality

or kind. For instance, when we are interested in investigating the reasons for human behavior

(i.e., why people think or do certain things), this research aims at discovering the underlying

motives and desires, using in depth interviews for the purpose. Thus, helps analyze the various

factors which motivate people to behave in a particular manner or which make people like or

dislike a particular thing.

Conceptual vs. Empirical: Conceptual research is related to some abstract idea or theory

(for thinkers and philosophers).and relies on literature. Whereas empirical research relies on

experience or observation alone, i.e., data based research.

Capable of being verified by observation or experiment and the experimenter has no control over


Research process
Defining Research Problem: - Research problem is a question that the researcher wants to

answer or a problem that the researcher wants to solve. Steps to be followed:-

Selection of a research area- selection of broad topic from personal experience literature
previous research theories which has significance for nursing profession.

Reviewing the literature and theories

Delimiting the research topic-proceed from general area to more specific topic for study

Evaluating the research problem- valuation for its significance researchability and

Formulating the statement of research problem- in declarative or interrogative format

Initial Literature Review: - Summary and synthesis of key sources within specific conceptual

categories. Can be argumentative interrogative historical methodological systematic theoretical

.Requires 4 basic steps like –

Problem formulation- which topic is being examined and its component issues

Literature search-finding materials relevant to the subject being explored.

Data evaluation-determining literature that contributes understanding for the topic

(abstract journals, bibliographies, conference proceedings, primary and secondary

sources, etc.)

Analysis Of Interpretation –discussing the findings and conclusions of pertinent


Setting and Fixing Hypothesis: - Hypothesis is a prediction of what will be found at the

outcome of a research project and is typically focused on the relationship between two different
variables studied in the research. It’s an educated guess about a relationship based on

theoretical or scientific evidence .Can be two types:-

Null hypothesis- Factor A has no effect on B (no statistical significance)

Alternative hypothesis (directional or non-directional) – Factor A effects B (has statistical


Research Design:-It is a ‘blue print’ specifying the method for gathering & analyzing the data

.A outline that specifies the sources and types of info relevant to the study .A plan that satisfies

the objectives of the study and the hypothesis to be tested .also includes the time and cost

budget acc. to the study .3 Types- Exploratory ,casual ,descriptive .

Collection of Data and Analysis of the Collected Data: - The actual study begins with data

collection .provides info. Needed to answer the research question

Data analysis requires a no. of related operations such as establishment of categories: Coding,

Editing and Tabulation.

Interpretations & Reporting:-Interpretation is the process of making in the in the sense of

numerical data that has been collected, analyzed and presented (statistical data analysis)

Researcher has to prepare the report of what has been done by him.

Writing of report includes: the preliminary pages, the main text, and end matter.

Characteristics of Research

1. Empirical. Research is based on direct experience or observation by the researcher.

2. Logical. Research is based on valid procedures and principles.

3. Cyclical. Research is a cyclical process because it starts with a problem and ends with a problem.

4. Analytical. Research utilizes proven analytical procedures in gathering the data, whether

historical, descriptive, and experimental and case study.

5. Critical. Research exhibits careful and precise judgment.

6. Methodical. Research is conducted in a methodical manner without bias using systematic

method and procedures.

7. Replicability. The research design and procedures are replicated or repeated to enable the

researcher to arrive at valid and conclusive results.