You are on page 1of 84

Mohammed Hashas’s book points to ways to break away from such a clash of

essentialized and inverted perceptions of Islam and Muslims by focusing on the


original thinking of European Muslim thinkers who are providing new theologi-
cal responses to address the specifics of European Muslims, therefore taking a
much needed distance from Middle Eastern and/or salafi religious discourses. His
work discusses the specificity of European Islamic thinking and emphasizes the
importance of considering it as seriously as we consider thinkers in the Middle
East or Asia.
Jocelyne Cesari, Georgetown University and University of Birmingham

In this meticulous and frequently brilliant study of the ideas, practices and prece-
dents of European Islam, Mohammed Hashas illuminates and engages intellec-
tual landscapes at the intersection of geography, theology, philosophy and
politics. This book deserves a wide readership. After the dust settles, and it
always does, The Idea of European Islam will remain on bookshelves and syllabi
for years to come.
Jonathan Laurence, Professor of Political Science, Boston College

In a serious effort to capture the contours and details of European Islam, Moham-
med Hashas provides an engaging account of several Muslim thinkers in Europe.
He provides a theory to discuss the content of Muslim moral philosophy, theo-
logy and politics in conversation with leading thinkers based in Europe and those
outside the continent in a search for solutions. Provocative as well as engaging.
Anyone interested in one of the most important questions regarding the future of
Europe in an age of migration and technological acceleration will find this to be
an important book.
Ebrahim Moosa, Professor of Islamic Studies, University of Notre Dame, USA
The Idea of European Islam

Suspicions about the integration of Islam into European cultures have been
steadily on the rise, and dramatically so since 9/11. One reason lies in the visibil-
ity of anti-­Western Islamic discourses of salafi origin, which have monopolized
the debate on the “true” Islam, not only among Muslims but also in the eyes of
the general population across Europe; these discourses combined with Islamo-
phobic discourses reinforce the so-­called incompatibility between the West and
Islam.
This book breaks away from this clash between Islam and the West, by
arguing that European Islam is possible. It analyzes the contribution that Euro-
pean Islam has made to the formation of an innovative Islamic theology that is
deeply ethicist and modern, and it clarifies how this constructed European
Islamic theology is able to contribute to the various debates that are related to
secular-­liberal democracies of Western Europe. Part I introduces four major pro-
jects that defend the idea of European Islam from different disciplines and per-
spectives: politics, political theology, jurisprudence and philosophy. Part II uses
the frameworks from three major philosophers and scholars to approach the idea
of European Islam in the context of secular-­liberal societies: British scholar
George Hourani, Moroccan philosopher Taha Abderrahmane and the Amer­ican
philosopher John Rawls. The book shows that the ongoing efforts of European
Muslim thinkers to revisit the concept of citizenship and political community
can be seen as a new kind of political theology, in opposition to radical forms of
Islamic thinking in some Muslim-­majority countries.
Opening a new path for examining Islamic thought “in and of ” Europe, this
book will appeal to students and scholars of Islamic Studies, Islam in the West
and Political Theology.

Mohammed Hashas is a Research Fellow at LUISS Guido Carli University of


Rome, Italy.
Routledge Islamic Studies Series

This broad ranging series includes books on Islamic issues from all parts of the
globe and is not simply confined to the Middle East.

22 The Teaching and Study of Islam in Western Universities


William Shepherd, Toni Tidswell, Paul Trebilco and Paul Morris

23 Muslim Active Citizenship in the West


Mario Peucker and Shahram Akbarzadeh

24 Refashioning Secularism in France and Turkey


The Case of the Headscarf Ban
Amélie Barras

25 Islam, Context, Pluralism and Democracy


Classical and Modern Interpretations
Yaser Ellethy

26 Young Muslim Change-­Makers


Grassroots Charities Rethinking Modern Societies
William Barylo

27 Da‘wa and Other Religions


Indian Muslims and the Modern Resurgence of Global Islamic Activism
Matthew J. Kuiper

28 A Genealogy of Islamic Feminism


Pattern and Change in Indonesia
Etin Anwar

29 The Idea of European Islam


Religion, Ethics, Politics and Perpetual Modernity
Mohammed Hashas

For more information about this series, please visit: www.routledge.com/


middleeaststudies/series/SE0516
The Idea of European Islam
Religion, Ethics, Politics and Perpetual
Modernity

Mohammed Hashas
First published 2019
by Routledge
2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN
and by Routledge
711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017
Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business
© 2019 Mohammed Hashas
The right of Mohammed Hashas to be identified as author of this work has
been asserted by him in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the
Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or
utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now
known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in
any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing
from the publishers.
Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or
registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation
without intent to infringe.
British Library Cataloguing-­in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloging-­in-Publication Data
Names: Hashas, Mohammed, author.
Title: The idea of European Islam : religion, ethics, politics and perpetual
modernity / Mohammed Hashas.
Description: New York, NY : Routledge, [2018] | Series: Routledge
Islamic studies series ; v. 29 | Includes bibliographical references and
index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2018014843| ISBN 9781138093843 (hbk) |
ISBN 9781315106397 (ebk)
Subjects: LCSH: Islam–Europe. | Muslims–Europe. | Islam and
politics–Europe.
Classification: LCC BP65.A1 H37 2018 | DDC 297.094–dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2018014843

ISBN: 978-1-138-09384-3 (hbk)


ISBN: 978-1-315-10639-7 (ebk)
Typeset in Times New Roman
by Wearset Ltd, Boldon, Tyne and Wear
To my parents
for their love and life of generous giving
Contents

Foreword xi
J ocelyne C esari

Notes on transliterations and style xiii


Acknowledgments xv

Introduction: from Islam in Europe to European Islam 1

Part I
Voices of European Islam 37

1 Bassam Tibi: cultural modernity for religious reform and


Euro-­Islam 39

2 Tariq Ramadan: from adaptive to transformative reform


and European Islam 74

3 Tareq Oubrou: geotheology and the minoritization of


Islam 117

4 Abdennour Bidar: self Islam, Islamic existentialism, and


overcoming religion 140

Part II
European Islamic thought and the formation of perpetual
modernity paradigm 163

5 Ontological revolution and epistemological shift in


European Islamic thought 165
x   Contents
6 Conceptualizing the idea of European Islam: Taha
Abderrahmane’s trusteeship critique for overcoming
classical dichotomous thought 186

7 Consolidating the idea of European Islam through


perpetual modernity paradigm 209

8 European Islam as a Rawlsian reasonable comprehensive


doctrine 234

Conclusion: from European Islam to Arab Islam 293

Index 301
Foreword
Jocelyne Cesari

In the conclusion of The Oxford Handbook of European Islam (2015), I argued


that if European Islam means the adjustment of Muslims’ practices to Europe’s
post-­Enlightenment values and norms such as human rights, rule of law, demo-
cracy, and gender equality, European Islam already exists. In fact, a plethora of
sociological and anthropological work shows that these adjustments are happen-
ing. At the same time, suspicions about the integration of Islam into European
cultures have been steadily on the rise and dramatically so since 9/11. One
reason lies in the visibility of anti-­Western Islamic discourses of salafi origin,
which have monopolized the debate on the “true” Islam not only among Muslims
but also in the eyes of the general population across Europe, hence reinforcing
the so-­called incompatibility between the West and Islam. In salafi thinking,
good Muslims are religiously conservative, wear the hijab, follow strict gender
separation, avoid promiscuity, and limit their relations with non-­Muslims or
Muslims who do not behave like them. In contrast, bad Muslims have been
“contaminated” by the Western lifestyle and values and, therefore, are in need of
purification. Although this discourse does not reflect the reality of Muslim reli-
gious practices, it nevertheless operates as an authoritative interpretation of
Islamic orthodoxy and influences Muslims’ identification with their religious tra-
dition. Thus, the “good” Muslim becomes an ontological category based on total
acceptance without critique of divine law, which is defined as immutable. As an
inverted image, the “good” Muslims in the eyes of Europeans are secular and
Westernized while the bad Muslims are doctrinal, anti-­modern, and virulent. In
other words, a distinction between radical, “bad” Islam and moderate, “good”
Islam has become a common political framing across European democracies. In
this sense, the clash is not between civilizations but between essentialized and
inverted perceptions of Islam and Muslims that reinforce each other.
Mohammed Hashas’s book points to ways to break away from such a clash
by focusing on the original thinking of European Muslim thinkers who are pro-
viding new theological responses to address the specifics of European Muslims,
therefore taking a much needed distance from Middle Eastern and/or salafi reli-
gious discourses. His work discusses the specificity of European Islamic think-
ing and emphasizes the importance of considering it as seriously as we consider
thinkers in the Middle East or Asia. Another virtue of the book is to show that
xii   Jocelyne Cesari
the ongoing efforts of European Muslim thinkers to revisit the concept of cit-
izenship and political community can be seen as a new kind of political theo-
logy, in opposition to radical forms of Islamic thinking in Muslim-­majority
countries. Only time will show if these new thinkers will diminish and invalidate
the religious legitimacy of salafism not only among some Muslims but also in
the eyes of European political elites.
Transliterations and style

Arabic terms are transliterated according to the International Journal of Middle


East Studies (IJMES) transliteration system. Frequently used words such as
Muslim, Muhammad (the Prophet), Qur’an, Sunna, shariʻa, hadith, fiqh, kalam,
falsafa, madhhab, umma, ijtihad, jihad, and imam appear without (more) diacrit-
ics; they also appear unitalicized, and in lower case, unless they are in a quota-
tion; unfamiliar concepts are transliterated. An apostrophe is used for the letter
hamzah. A superscript comma is used for the ‘ayn letter instead of cayn. The
exceptions in the transliterations that occur in this work are due to the different
styles used in the original citations, which cannot be changed here. For example,
“shariʻa” will be found written in four forms – “Sharia” (in upper case), “sharia”
(in lower case), “Shari’ah,” and “shari’a” (either in upper or lower case, besides
the apostrophe of the Arabic letter ‘ayn) – depending on the quotation;
“Shahada” will be found also written as “Ash-­Shahada” in some citations, and I
have opted for “al-­shahāda” for my use. “Scriptures,” “text,” “universe,” and
“man” (to mean humankind and both genders) can be found in both lower and
upper case, depending on the author using them in each chapter; I did not force
harmony here; in my own use I used lower case. “Jamal Eddine al-­Afghani” will
be found referred to as “Jamal Ed-­dine Afghani” or simply “Afghani,” depend-
ing on the original citations. Titles of books and sentences in Arabic do not start
in upper case, except for terms like kalam, falsafa, and fiqh that occur as titles of
(sub‑)sections. Proper names are not transliterated. The Arabic definite article
“al-” is kept even with shamsi initial letters.
All the translations from Arabic and French are the author’s, unless otherwise
indicated. Referencing notes and titles of books are provided in English, along-
side their originals in Arabic, French, or Italian. Original titles are provided in
brackets when they are first referred to, and the subsequent citations from these
titles are to the English translation, for ease of reference. The references list also
provides the non-­English original titles. Each chapter ends with its own refer-
ence list, and there is no final bibliography for the whole book; this way, each
chapter can be read independently from the others. The calendar used is the
Common/Current Era (ce) one, and not the Hijri (Islamic) one.
Abbreviations in the acronym format are not used. Instead, shortened titles
are opted for in Part I, where the focus is on one author and his texts throughout
xiv   Transliterations and style
the chapter. For example, Tibi’s Islam’s Predicament with Modernity: Religious
Reform and Cultural Change is abbreviated as Islam’s Predicament.
I also note that the family name of the philosopher Taha Abderrahmane is
Taha, and not Abderrahmane, which is his first name, but his books have been
signed as Taha Abderrahmane ever since their first publication, and so is he
referred to in public events. Since this is the case, and to maintain harmony in
references to his works, he is referred to here too as Taha Abderrahmane, and
not as Abderrahmane Taha.

Arabic and transliterated Roman characters

Consonants
‫’ ء‬ ‫ ض‬ḍ
‫ ب‬b ‫ ط‬ṭ
‫ ت‬t ‫ ظ‬ẓ
‫ ث‬th ‫‘ ع‬
‫ ج‬j ‫ غ‬gh
‫ ح‬ḥ ‫ ف‬f
‫ خ‬kh ‫ ق‬q
‫ د‬d ‫ ك‬k
‫ ذ‬dh ‫ ل‬l
‫ ر‬r ‫ م‬m
‫ ز‬z ‫ ن‬n
‫ س‬s ‫ ه‬h
‫ ش‬sh ‫ و‬w
‫ ص‬ṣ ‫ ي‬y

Vowels
Short: a, u, i for
Long: ā, ū, ī for
Doubled: iyy, uww for
Diphthongs: au/aw (ū), ai/ay (ī) for
Acknowledgments

This work owes a lot to many people who unfortunately cannot all be named
here. They know who they are. It started nine years ago at LUISS Guido Carli
University in Rome, where I have been granted three successive scholarships:
for a second MA in European Studies with a grant from the European Commis-
sion for Education and Culture (2008–2009); for a PhD in Political Theory with
a scholarship from the Department of Political Science (2010–2013), which cul-
minated in the long dissertation from which this book originates; and for a post-
doctoral research fellowship from the same department and university
(2014–2018), which has allowed for further research on the topic and revisions
of earlier findings. Without this institutional-­financial support, this project,
which includes other publications, would have been impossible. I am especially
grateful to the following people who, chronologically, have been momentous in
this nine-­year endeavor so far: Professor Giovanni Orsina, Professor Giuliano
Amato, Professor Sebastiano Maffettone, and Professor Francesca M. Corrao;
they have been great company, institutionally and intellectually. For the last
couple of years, working with professor Francesca Corrao and her team has been
a real joy – I thank her very much; I extend my thanks to Dr Renata Pepicelli, Dr
Simone Sibilio, Dr Donatella Vincenti, Odetta Pizzingrilli, Anthony Santilli,
Lorenzo Liso, Shahd Aly Gamil. Fruitful collaborations with Professor Carmela
Decaro and her team, especially with Dr Francesco Alicino and Dr Michele
Gradoli, were an added value. Other colleagues and friends in the university
have been lovely company over the years, and some of them read and com-
mented on earlier drafts of some of these chapters: Dr Christian Blasberg, Dr
Daniele Santoro, Dr Aakash Singh, Dr Domenico Melidoro, Dr Valentine
Gentile, Dr Federica Liveriero, Dr Cecilia E. Sottilotta, Dr Meysam Badamchi,
Dr Manohar Kumar, and Dr Silvia Cavasola.
Internationally, I have participated or have been invited to participate in
various seminars, workshops, summer schools, and conferences, and on each of
these occasions I shared my research and got enriching feedback from various
established scholars and young researchers. Encounters with various figures
sparked certain thoughts on some topics or concepts. Especially related to con-
versations on contemporary Islamic thought and my views on it, I thank Abdul-
lahi A. An-­Na‘im, Abdou Filali Ansari, Taha Abderrahmane, Sadeq Jalal al-­Azm
xvi   Acknowledgments
(d. 2016), Ebrahim Moosa, Massimo Campanini, Fred Dallmayr, Abdallah Seyid
Ould Bah, and Ridwan al-­Sayyid, among others, for their enriching discussions
and exchanges, which took place in different locations and times. I especially
thank four institutions for research fellowships, which allowed me to work more
on this book at different stages: the Babylon Center for the Study of the Multi-
cultural Society in Tilburg University in the Netherlands (July to September
2010); the Center for European Islamic Thought in the Faculty of Theology in
Copenhagen University (September 2011 to June 2012); the Leibniz-­ZMO
Zentrum Moderner Orient in Berlin (April to May 2017), with special thanks to
Dr Jan Jaap de Ruiter, Professor Jørgen S. Nielsen, and Dr Sonja Hegasy,
respectively, for their generous institutional welcome and exchange of ideas; and
the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies (January to March 2017) for its research
grant and fellows’ discussions on the topic. Dr Khalid Hajji (Secretary General
of the European Council for Moroccan Oulema in Brussels, and president of the
Brussels Forum for Wisdom and World Peace) has been very supportive of this
work as well, and I thank him warmly for our frequent discussions, and for his
suggestions, friendship, and company that I cherish a lot. Professors Safet Bek-
tovic (Oslo), Oliver Scharbrodt (Birmingham), Mohammad Fadel (Toronto),
Goran Larsson (Gothenburg), Dr Cédric Baylocq (Rabat-­Bordeaux), and Dr
Salima Bouyarden (Strasbourg-­Rabat) read earlier drafts of some chapters and
sent enriching comments; I am grateful to them all. Thanks go also to Nina zu
Furstenberg and Giancarlo Bosetti (of Reset Dialogues on Civilizations) for
having personally and institutionally encouraged some aspects of this project
since its beginnings.
Besides, I wish to thank and acknowledge the kind permission I received to
republish articles that appeared in journals during the past few years; these
articles have been revised to fit in with the overall aims of this book. I also thank
the anonymous referees and reviewers for their comments: “Reading Abdennour
Bidar: New Pathways for European Islamic Thought,” [Brill] Journal of Muslims
in Europe (JOME), vol. 2, no. 1 (Autumn 2013): 45–76; “Tareq Oubrou’s
Geotheology: Sharia of the Minority and the Secularization of European Islamic
Thought,” Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, vol. 34, no. 4 (2014): 1–21
(reprinted by permission of Taylor & Francis Ltd, www.tandfonline.com, on
behalf of the Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs); “Is European Islam Experi-
encing an Ontological Revolution for an Epistemological Awakening?” Amer­
ican Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, vol. 31, no. 4 (Fall 2014): 14–49
(reproduced with written permission by the publisher and copyrights holder: the
International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT)/Amer­ican Journal of Islamic
Social Sciences (AJISS)); “Taha Abderrahmane’s Trusteeship Paradigm: Spir-
itual Modernity and the Islamic Contribution to the Formation of a Renewed
Universal Civilization of Ethos,” [Brill] Oriente Moderno, vol. 95 (2015):
67–105; and the book chapter “Pluralism within European Islam: Secularizing
Theology, Sacralizing Modernity,” in Carmela Decaro, ed., The Legal Treatment
of Religious Claims in Multicultural Societies (Rome: LUISS University Press,
2015), 67–86.
Acknowledgments   xvii
I have a special group of friends in Rome; I thank every one of them for their
affection and company. Finally, without my family, my academic journey would
not have reached this stage. I am forever grateful to my parents, Fatiha and
Boubker, my sisters, Fouzia and Nassira, my brother, Hisham, and their partners
and kids, for their love and unfailing support. Hisham and his wife Latifa have
been so supportive of the family during my years of research absence; I cannot
thank them enough for their generosity. Hind has joined my family as my wife
in 2017, and she has been so kind in understanding the travels and distance
research requires; I thank her lovingly.
Introduction
From Islam in Europe to European Islam

European interaction with physical as well as virtual [i.e. imagined] Islam has
been very diverse. Muslims have been enemies and allies, foreigners and com-
patriots, Us and Them. Their civilization has been feared as aggressive and
expansionist, but also praised for its religious tolerance and its culture that has
produced great and innovative artists, scientists and intellectuals to which Europe
is indebted.
(Maurits S. Berger, A Brief History of Islam in Europe: Thirteen Centuries of
Creed, Conflict and Coexistence (2014))

The Iranian cultural theorist Daryush Shayegan (d. 2018) defines “grafting” –
which is a technique whereby tissues of two plants are joined to grow together –
as often an unconscious operation that aims at bringing together two unconnected
words to form of them a coherent body of knowledge, the way a grafted plant is
expected to give a new taste or flavor that is close, and thus coherent, with the
old original tastes or flavors of the two separate plants. Shayegan adds that graft-
ing tries to reconcile epistemologically two different paradigms, old and new,
and thus tries to make ideas that have no real counterparts in the real world fit in
with social facts. The result is that a new discourse emerges which attempts to
be integrated into, or grafted onto, the old, or a discourse which tries to integrate
the old into the new. In both cases, distortion happens. This is how Shayegan
starts his analysis of “Westernization” and “Islamization” in Islamic-­majority
societies.1 First, this cannot be a rule for all concepts, since the history of ideas
tells us that influence and confluence are natural phenomena in social life as in
theories of knowledge. Second, “European Islam” is one of the grafted concepts
in which at least two epistemologies try to find a new and coherent way of stand-
ing together in a non-­Islamic-majority context that is already “Western.” As will
be explored in this book, European Islam can be considered the fruit of conflu-
ences that world historian Marshall G.S. Hodgson might have included within
what he called the “Islamicate” – taken here to mean, with a slight modification,
the social and cultural complex, besides and/or irrespective of the religious one,
associated with Islam and Muslims even when found among non-­Islamic and
non-­Muslim complexes and domains.2 The “Islamicate” here refers to historical
2   Introduction
Islam, or what the Scottish scholar of Islam William Montgomery Watt called
the ectosoma of Islam.3 Or, by adjusting the argument of the historian of ideas
Shahab Ahmed (d. 2015) that Islam is a system of coherent contradictions,
because it enjoyed flexible interpretations according to time and space in “pre-­
modern” times, and fiqh law was not exclusive of other ways of life and discip-
lines however dominant it became,4 European Islam can be said to belong to this
plural tradition of being Islamic in a context where the religious or religion per
se can still express itself as being Muslim or Islamic, even when this appears a
contradiction in terms. This view may appear novel to those not familiar with the
classical plurality of legal theories and the intellectual diversity of what the
German Arabist Thomas Bauer calls “the culture of ambiguity” that enjoyed
difference for over a millennium.5
Though “it is impossible to understand Islam without understanding Islamic
law,” and “Islamic law is the central domain of Islamic ethical thought,” accord-
ing to the renowned Joseph Schacht and Kevin Reinhart respectively,6 European
Islam does not see itself as un-­Islamic if it does not centralize law (fiqh), not
only because Islamic legal theories were plural and have historically integrated
customary laws and various laws of the lands where they happen to be applied,
but also because such a symbiosis between the “sacred” and the “mundane” was
ethically oriented. Because Islam did not have a “Church,” i.e. a central sover-
eign authority that fuses sacred and mundane powers together, it was legal theo-
rists and jurists that ruled the intellectual public sphere, and in so doing they
could not have one voice, one law, or one interpretation; shariʻa law was never
applied in the same way all over the Islamic-­majority communities, nor was it so
even within the same cosmopolitan area, let alone within vast territories of
diverse “Islamic” empires.7 It was first of all an intellectual process, a heuristic
device, developed by civilian jurists to judge individuals and communities that
were governed by a homos moralis perspective of the “shariʻa ethic,” in Wael
Hallaq’s reading.8 The challenge European Islam raises – and also faces – is to
restore this compass of the homos moralis in a “secular age”9 ruled mostly by
secular law; it is a quest for what Hallaq refers to, in speaking of the task of
modern Muslims, as “Qur’anic cosmology” or “moral cosmology,” by which he
means that Muslims (need to) live deeply morally accountable and moral lives.10
To use a concept that may bring the point to closer understanding, one may
say that the islamicity of European Islam could be understood only with the
change that not only “solid modernity” but also, and now most importantly,
“liquid modernity” have brought to the interpretation of the individual, the com-
munity, space, and time.11 Because of the variegated meanings given to Islam in
the age of “uncertainty” of liquid modernity in particular, “the vocation of the
intellectuals,” as Zygmunt Bauman writes, still has a role to play in bridging the
gap between a past and solid (i.e. certain, clear, spacial) way of life and a new
and light (i.e. liquid, uncertain, cyberspherical, and global) way of a consumerist
life, in which classical concepts and values are at risk.12 As self-­proclaimed
speakers of their own Islamic tradition in a modern context of consumerist ideo-
logues, European Muslims, as committed intellectuals, are engaging with their
Introduction   3
tradition from this changing space and time of modernity. For them, European
Islam is not a “normative bricolage” – to borrow the phrase Peter O’Brien uses
in his critique of controversial European policies and public philosophies.13
Rather, it is a form of reconsidering their relation between this and the other
world to regain their subjective place in a cosmopolitan world instead of remain-
ing in the politics of identity confirmation, beyond classical Orientalism and
Occidentalism discourses; it is a form of reclaiming what the cultural critic
Hamid Dabashi calls “hermeneutics of alterity,” i.e. the sense of being in the
world as independent subjects, beyond the boundaries made by politics and
hegemonic power.14 European Islam belongs to a larger “discursive tradition” of
Islam, but it apparently is developing its new “discursive tradition” as well, in
the words of the anthropologist Talal Asad,15 in a “new transcultural space” in
the broad West, in the words of the sociologist Jocelyne Cesari.16 European
Islam for Muslim thinkers is about meaning, morality, and social justice. This is
about cosmic sovereignty and the place of man in it; as to political sovereignty,
it is in the hands of the state. This differs substantially from, say, Arab Islams
and political Islams, which are struggling to reach a renewed interpretation of
the place of religion in the political and spiritual-­religious realms.
This work raises and deals with this question: Is European Islam possible?17
The question was raised at the end of a presentation I delivered in a seminar
during my research stay at the Center for European Islamic Thought, at the
University of Copenhagen, on April 26, 2012. A colleague then asked me, fol-
lowing my own question that I had included at the end of the handout, “so, is
European Islam possible or not?” I replied: “Theologically, it is possible; politi-
cally, it depends!”18 I was aware that my answer could raise more questions on
why this was so. My answer could look more like that of a diplomat who prefers
ambiguity, or a religious scholar or believer who defends his own faith in light
of unwelcoming politics. By “politically, it depends!” I had the current status
quo in mind, that is, the diverse European political responses to Muslims’
demands and Islam’s presence. My answer was partly socio-­political, and not
theoretical. Now, in this work, I deal with texts, and I am bound by a theoretical
framework.
This book claims to present a new and different approach in the study of
Islam in Europe, or what will be referred to here as European Islam and Euro-
pean Islamic thought interchangeably. It argues that European Islam is possible
theologically and politically. It therefore contributes to the field of study of Islam
and Muslims in Europe from the perspectives of theology, political theology,
political philosophy, and ethics. Particularly, political theology simply means the
study of how theological concepts are reinterpreted and/or reclaimed to fit in the
constitutionally secular-­liberal politics and societies, which are different, mini-
mally or maximally, from the politics and societies which these theological con-
cepts come from or grew in originally – i.e. the broad Middle East. In common
parlance, these theological and theoretical concepts are “Islamic,” and these pol-
itics and societies are “European,” hence the grafted concept of “European
Islam.” This means that this exercise belongs to at least two major domains of
4   Introduction
thinking – Islam in Europe and Islam outside Europe, so as not to say Europe
and the Islamic world – which this work takes to be not intrinsically opposing
domains, but domains of controversy, different and intertwining. “European
Islam” and “European Islamic thought” are used interchangeably here to gener-
ally mean any discourse, concept, or idea that claims to be minimally or maxi-
mally Islamic and European in theory and/or practice, irrespective of the degree
of this affiliation to Islam and Europe. Though it is theoretical as it is mostly
presented here, the claims of this European Islam are endorsed by various
sociological-­anthropological works as well.19
This work studies European Islam using a triadic framework or axis that
grasps the comprehensiveness of a world religion like Islam: world–society–
individual. That is, this is a theoretical project that deals with theological con-
cepts for mundane (secular) and metaphysical (divine-­transcendent) purposes,
and European Islam will be analyzed to examine how it approaches the three
entities that form these three axes: (1) the cosmos or the world, (2) society or the
community as a whole, and (3) the individual as an agent that at the end inter-
prets religious teachings for social purposes and for existential questions that
involve her or his interpretation of the world. At this stage, it suffices to say that
“this” European Islam does the following: (1) on the world axis, it humanizes
the world through divinely willed inheritance for cosmic wellbeing, based on the
principle of fraternity; (2) on the society axis, it historicizes revelation through
practical fiqh, for social wellbeing, based on the principle of equality; (3) on the
individual axis, it rationalizes individual faith through the principle of ethical
liberty for individual wellbeing, based on the principle of liberty.
This work also studies European Islam as a category or subfield in con-
temporary Islamic thought for three main reasons. First, European Islam builds
on the Islamic intellectual tradition of religious rational disputes (kalam), espe-
cially that of the medieval Mu’tazila rationalist school, though this is not always
visible or stressed by the studied scholars, because the Mu’tazila gained a neg-
ative reputation among the dominant Ash’ari theological school and legal madh-
habs. European Islam aims at rationalizing ethics; that is why it focalizes ethics
and not law in the Islamic tradition; it centralizes “thin shariʻa,” instead of “thick
shariʻa.”20 Second, European Islam also builds on the heritage of the modern
Islamic reformist movements, and its revivalists who make what is known as the
Arab-­Islamic nahda (renaissance) that historians of ideas generally see as
ranging from the Napoleonic invasion of Egypt in 1798 and the rise of Muham-
mad Ali Pasha, followed by the modernization attempts in various parts of the
Arab world, to the 1930s, with differences in this period of time for other Islamic
countries and minorities.21 Third, it further continues the debate on the need for
rethinking the Islamic tradition, beyond the limitations of the pioneering nahda
revivalists, the way a new generation of critical reformists have been doing since
the so-­called postcolonial era, and especially since the 1967 Six Day War defeat
in the Arab world, and post-­1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran and the rise of polit-
ical Islam, to give two major examples of political events that have impacted
Islamic thought in the broad Middle East that is geographically not far from
Introduction   5
Europe. This era marks the beginning of the growth of a new generation of
scholarship that is critical and reformist.22 This generation has produced modern
and plural interpretations of the tradition, and European Islam belongs to this
renewed interpretative atmosphere in Islamic thought. That is why it is con-
sidered here that European Islam has intellectual links with three generations of
Islamic scholarship: (1) the classical rationalists, particularly with the Mu’tazila,
championed by figures like Qadi Abd al-­Jabbar (d. 1025); what will be referred
to as (2) the “early” reformists of the nahda, like Jamal Eddine al-­Afghani
(d. 1897) and Muhammad Abduh (d. 1905); and (3) the “late” reformists, or the
contemporaries, like Fazlur Rahman (d. 1988), Mohammed Abed al-­Jabri
(d. 2010), Fatema Mernissi (d. 2015), Muhammad Shahrur (b. 1938), Abdolka-
rim Soroush (b. 1945), Mohsen Kadivar (b. 1959), Hassan Hanafi (b. 1935),
Amina Wadud (b. 1952), Abdullahi Ahmed An-­Na‘im (b. 1946), and Taha
Abderrahmane (b. 1944), among many others.23 The scholarship of the contem-
poraries’ generation, to which European Islam is very close, constitutes what
some call “Islamic critical thought,” “progressive Islam,” or “critical Islam.”24
The scholars interpreting and defending European Islam differ in methodol-
ogy but do broadly agree with the general line of thought of the above genera-
tions in Islamic scholarship. That is why this work claims that European Islam
aims at “rationalizing ethics”; it introduces arguments that support the making of
an (Islamic) ethical theory that clearly differentiates between morality and law,
without denying the divine sources of moral ethics. Because of the “rationaliza-
tion of ethics” European Islam advances, in the footsteps of some earlier kalam
theology and other contemporary reformist voices, I call such advancement
“revisionist-­reformist” since it is not a radical breakthrough in Islamic thought;
it is, however, a “mild revolution” that does not aim at “killing” or “denying”
God, but at working out theologically grateful ways of cultivating this world,
without resorting to what is often referred to as divine law or divine prescrip-
tions. I refer to the Muslim Caliph, in the sense of “Muslim personalism”25 and
agency that opts for such an interpretation, as the “Muslim Prometheus” – who
does not need to kill God to get the torch of knowledge (i.e. sovereignty) from
Him; there is no tragedy here: it is a peaceful rebellion and mild revolution, with
substantial epistemological consequences, namely the rationalization of ethics
through an objectivist perspective. European Islam, therefore, continues a tradi-
tion but renews it as well. This is modern in Islamic thought; it is in this sense
that it is critical, progressive, and reformist. This rationalization of ethics leads
to the adoption of what might be referred to as the values of “legal modernity”
or “Euro-­modernity” and argues for them “from within,” for theological legiti-
macy. This step in Islamic thought is what is referred to here as “perpetual mod-
ernity,” in the sense that it does not satisfy itself with the achievements of
“Euro-­modernity” but keeps religious thought as a form of critique for perma-
nent awakening; it is only through this process that the divine remains a source
of liberation for human beings, liberation from objects and subjects. This libera-
tion theology is based on what will be introduced as “trusteeship critique” or
“trusteeship paradigm.” By adapting “thin shariʻa” as the form for being
6   Introduction
­ uropean politically and Islamic theologically, European Islam establishes itself
E
as a “reasonable comprehensive doctrine,” able to legitimately contribute to the
idea of “overlapping consensus” in constitutionally liberal societies from its doc-
trinal perspective. These concepts will be explained in due course.

On Islam in Europe: inlandish or outlandish?26


The literature carrying the labels “Islam” and the “West” is vast, and European
Islam as studied here tries to overcome this dichotomy and opposition in the
nomenclature, that is why this work too avoids these labels, and uses them only
for clarification when need be. European Islam as studied here considers itself
“Western” in the sense of being “modern,” and “not Western” when it comes to
certain values that may go against the doctrinal beliefs of Islam, which other reli-
gions share, too. This work focalizes Western Europe in particular and not the
West in general for three reasons. First, the scholars studied here are based in
Western Europe, and have used the terms “Islam in Europe” or “European
Islam” in their works as an answer to various challenges raised in these societies,
or what has become known as “the Muslim question.”27 Second, it is Western
Europe, and not the rest of Europe, that is studied here, because the challenge of
secularism-­liberalism is mostly experienced in Western European societies, to
which Muslims coming from outside try to adjust theologically and politically.
Muslims of the Balkans or of Russia are also European Muslims,28 but their
history and their institutional integration in their countries is different from the
current questions raised in Western Europe, and thus they are not focalized here.
This does not mean that Islamophobia does not reach these “indigenous Euro-
pean Muslims”; there is a “Platonic Islamophobia” even in the Eastern countries
where the Muslim minorities are hardly existent and visible.29 Third, it is
Western Europe, and not the West in general, that is focalized, because the broad
term “the West” is criticized by European Islamic thought as hegemonic and
political, and also not faithful to the past shared historical relations and contribu-
tions of the “Islamic world” to the renaissance of the Western world as a whole.
Moreover, Islam in North America, a major component of the so-­called West,
has its own context and dynamics, which appear different at certain levels from
their counterpart in Western Europe. Islam in America, for example, did not
experience historical antagonisms between “Christendom” and “Islamdom,” in
Hodgson’s terminology, antagonisms that still appear in the imaginary and popu-
list discourses of people around the Mediterranean and beyond. Amer­ican Islam
has its own characteristics.30 North America has been a multicultural melting pot
since its inception; society as a whole, especially in the USA, is religious, and its
secularism is moderate, while Western Europe has become multicultural only
post-­World War II, and its relationship with religion and the Catholic Church
has generally not been an easy story; it has been conflictual, that is why there
was a Reformation, and the birth of secularism as a concept of multiple interpre-
tations to overcome the conflict of the modern state and the Church.31 Islamo-
phobia in the US seems more political than cultural-­religious.32 However, for a
Introduction   7
general study of Islamic reformist thought in “the West,” with reference to
female scholars as well, the 2004 work of Jocelyne Cesari, When Islam and
Democracy Meet: Muslims in Europe and in the United States,33 remains pio-
neering. And if the meaning of the “West” is extended to include pre-­modern
Western times, then medieval Spanish/Andalusian Islam and Sicilian Islam
belong to the West as well.34
This differentiation aside, a particular narrative of “Islam vs. West” has re-­
emerged in recent times since the 1990s. Especially after the fall of the Soviet
Union, the “Islamic world(s)” have become the identity differentiator from the
liberal “West.”35 The famous thesis of the “clash of civilizations” of Samuel
Huntington, especially the clash of the Islamic with the Western civilization,
has not vanished.36 The famous British-­Amer­ican historian Bernard Lewis
speaks of a centuries-­old rivalry between the Christian world and the Muslim
world since the coming of Islam; this rivalry still exists, and is worrying, and
defeats and humiliations experienced by Muslims since the demise of the
Ottoman Empire in particular and the colonialism of Arab-­Islamic lands nurture
what he calls “generalized resentment” against the West.37 In Faith and Power
(2010) he writes that the withdrawal of Western dominion from Islamic soci-
eties may allow one to “hope that the long record of strife will at last come to
an end.”38 About the future of Islam in Europe, he raises a warning that its con-
sequences might be multiple: “The emergence of a population, many millions
strong, of Muslims born and educated in Western Europe will have immense
and unpredictable consequences for Europe, for Islam, and for the relations
between them.”39
On the other side stands another camp of contemporary historians who under-
line the interaction of these two major civilizations, and how at a certain histor-
ical period they had very close worldviews. The Amer­ican Richard W. Bulliet
speaks of an Islamo-­Christian civilization, and says, “The past and future of the
West cannot be fully comprehended without appreciation of the twinned rela-
tionship it has had with Islam over some fourteen centuries. The same is true of
the Islamic world.”40 Europe-­focalized, the Dutch Maurits S. Berger speaks of
five historical Europes and says that each had a particular interaction with Islam
and Muslims: Uncivilized Europe (700–1000), Crusading Europe (1000–1500),
Divided Europe (1500–1700), Powerful Europe (1700–1950), and Struggling
Europe (1950 to present). He describes this interaction as follows:

European interaction with physical as well as virtual [i.e. imagined] Islam


has been very diverse. Muslims have been enemies and allies, foreigners
and compatriots, Us and Them. Their civilization has been feared as aggres-
sive and expansionist, but also praised for its religious tolerance and its
culture that has produced great and innovative artists, scientists and intellec-
tuals to which Europe is indebted.41

The Danish historian-­sociologist Jørgen S. Nielsen speaks of four stages of the


Muslim presence in Europe. The first is the period of Islamic Spain and Muslim
8   Introduction
rule in Sicily; this was ended by the Reconquista in 1492, and the second by the
Normans in the early thirteenth century; the second stage dates to the spread of
the Mongol armies who later converted to Islam in the thirteenth century and left
Muslim communities like the Tatars in Russia, along with others between Poland
and Ukraine, in the Caucasus, and in the Crimea; the third records the Ottoman
expansion in the Balkans and Central Europe; the fourth is the current phase,
post-­World War II.42 Historical antagonisms and relations, however, are still har-
bored around the subject of the Muslims of Europe and European Muslims.
Europe seems to have forgotten, or not to have paid enough attention to, its
“indigenous Muslims”43 that inhabited its soil prior to 1945.

Limitations in studies of Islam in/and Europe


This complex relationship of the religion of Islam as carried out in history by
Muslims with the modern European world that is the heir of “Christendom” has
been studied in the post-­1945 period by at least three disciplines: (1) political
science, (2) sociology, and (3) anthropology.
Politically, much fusion and confusion has taken place over Islam in the broad
Middle East and Islam in Europe. There are various reasons behind this. The point
to stress, however, is that scholarship on the Middle East has given itself the
authority to speak of Islam in Europe, and ultimately of European Islam, with
much neglect of the socio-­political and historical situation between the two spaces
that requires different scholarly approaches, and also with much neglect of the
view that secular-­liberal society should juridically treat its “Muslim citizens” as
citizens first, irrespective of faith, color, or race; externalizing them becomes a
European problem, and not an “Islamic problem.” There is a justification given for
this by scholars in the field: many of the classical Orientalist and essentialist trends
have been passed on from Middle Eastern issues to issues of Islam and Muslims in
Europe. These trends have grown in intensity when merged with the securitization
approach adopted in most European countries, particularly since 9/11.44
Sociologically and anthropologically, two remarks need to be made. First,
current studies of Muslims in Europe have been built on Orientalist scholarship,
and that impacts research findings and perceptions. The sociology of Islam did
not develop as a discipline in contemporary Islamic societies until recently; it
did not attract much of the attention of early European sociologists either.45 With
such a void, scholars of Islam would depend a lot on classical and Orientalist
methodologies that could not be relevant in the study of contemporary Islamic
societies, and in understanding Muslim communities in Europe.46 Jocelyne
Cesari, Harvard scholar of the Islam in the West program, says that the current
anthropological and sociological studies have been influenced by Orientalist47
scholarship in their disciplines, and that has affected the current study of Islam
and Muslims in the West:

In the West, the study of Islam began as a branch of Orientalist studies and
therefore followed a separate and distinctive path from the study of
Introduction   9
r­ eligions. Even though the critique of Orientalism has been central to the
emergence of the study of Islam in the field of social sciences, tensions
remain strong between Islamicists and both anthropologists and sociologists.
The topic of Islam and Muslims in the West is embedded in this struggle.48

Current sociologists and anthropologists would not agree on such a statement,


because the last three to four decades have seen a remarkable growth in the liter-
ature, especially in Europe, as Cesari herself emphasizes, saying that this Oriental-
ist heritage lingers especially in the Amer­ican study of Islam.49 Her point, however,
makes more sense if it is linked with the next point she makes, that is, when the
socio-­anthropological data is used and looked at through an Orientalist lens, one
that is essentialist and normative, and when the data is especially read to reflect
certain classical stereotypes and biases, as is the case in the French non-­academic
essays, the media, and journalistic context.50 This is in line with what the French
scholar of Islam Maxime Rodinson (d. 2004) calls the “continuance of the past
impetus” in his critique of the classical Eurocentrist methodologies of studying
Arab-­Islamic societies.51 Sophia Rose Arjana speaks of the imagined picture the
West has of the Muslim man; she describes it as the “Muslim monster,” which has
a background in medieval times, before it reaches its peak in 9/11.52
Second, these two fields seem to have been influenced and guided by the
political rhetoric. Much of the fieldwork, for example, targets Muslim minorities
alone, and does not advance that level of academic inquisitiveness to other
minorities for a better understanding of the issue of religion in liberal societies in
this historical moment.53 The increasing study of Muslims in Europe, especially
after the 9/11 terrorist events, illustrates the fact that research on this particular
minority is not purely academic, but is also driven by the political context, and
some of the research conducted on Islam and Muslims in Europe is used by
political parties and ideologies when that suits them in political campaigns and
in the passing of certain laws (e.g. bans on the veil in schools and the full face
veil in the public sphere, and bans on minarets). Some critical researchers who
belong to these fields in particular have publicly denounced the exaggerated
focus on Muslims in Europe, especially when it is driven by the political dis-
course, which the media and right-­wing parties, for instance, (mis‑)use.54 This
mostly happens when the growing sociological data extrapolated from fieldwork
is misused by a particular political discourse and essentialist academic line of
thought that “externalizes” Islam and Muslims from their current Western
context and home.55 For example, the German Qur’anic scholar Angelika Neu-
wirth argues that the externalizing of the Qur’an from Biblical studies methodol-
ogies is done on purpose, for a “political exigency,” to externalize the Islamic
tradition from the European tradition, though it is part of it, since it belongs to
the Abrahamic tradition and is related to the Judaeo-­Christian traditions.56 The
Italian scholar of Islamic philosophy Massimo Campanini argues that Islam is
the religion of the West and part of its civilization, for theological similarities,
and the historical, cultural, and economic connections between Europe and
Islamic societies over the centuries.57
10   Introduction
Overall, Islam and Muslims in Europe are studied in one of three ways. One,
they are studied in light of Middle Eastern Islam, and geopolitics in the region.
Two, the emerging European Islamic thought is studied in isolation, without an
attempt to match it with recent general sociological-­anthropological findings in the
field, which will be briefly referred to below, and which give a different view of
how Muslims see themselves in Europe as European Muslims, and how their
various representative bodies seek integration into the institutions of their Euro-
pean states. Three, there is very little “intra-­comparative” work that is conducted
on European Islamic texts as a way of examining what they contribute to the
debate over the “Muslim question” from within both their theological tradition and
their political belonging to Europe, nor is there “inter-­comparative” work in which
European Islamic texts are compared with projects theorized in Islamic-­majority
societies to see where differences and/or similarities lie. Certainly there are minor
attempts in that comparative direction, but the ones most heard of are of two types:
(1) those that are either Islamophobic, by anti-­Muslims or ex-­Muslims, or highly
Eurocentric; and (2) the most conservative, and especially the violent fundamen-
talists and extremists.58 This work examines a thought in the making, which tries
to overcome such a binary and opposing representation of Islam in Europe.

Does European Islam think?


I distinguish between two major trends in the scholarship of Islam and Muslims in
Europe. This distinction is based on my question “Does European Islam think?”59
One trend or school sees that European Muslims – and by implication European
Islam – think, and are developing a line of thought, and the other trend recognizes
the agency of these Muslims but does not recognize that they can think about this
agency. The French political sociologist Olivier Roy represents the second trend,
while the Danish historian-­sociologist Jørgen S. Nielsen represents the first.
Roy writes in his short book Vers un islam européen [Towards a European
Islam] (1999) that there is no new theological input into Islam among Muslims
in Europe. He believes that there is no rethinking of the religious dogma among
Muslims in Europe. All he sees is the age of “post-­Islamism,” characterized,
among other aspects, by “individualization,” “privatization,” and “deterritoriali-
zation” without theological reinterpretations. I quote him at length:

We see then that the minority fact does not necessarily bring about a theo-
logical or jurisprudential aggiornamento but rather a disconnection between
the theological debate and the creativity of a religiosity which is centered on
the individual. […] It [i.e. individualized European Islam] is not a reformed
Islam because not only the dogma but also the corpus of interpreters and
jurists remain uncontested. […] European Islam is deterritorialized, deprived
of institutions that could impose norms. […] We are certainly wrong to wait
for a theological reform, or a theological voice, for the liberalization of
practices (like the veil, food, etc.) which would allow to [sic] the Muslims to
adapt to Occidental norms.60 [Emphasis added]
Introduction   11
According to Roy, the resurgence of Islam among Muslims in Europe, and in the
Islamic-­majority lands, is broadly anti-­intellectual, especially among fundamen-
talists and salafis. This is the case for religion in general in the twenty-­first
century.61 He calls this “sainte ignorance” (sacred ignorance).62 In Globalized
Islam (2004), Roy does not change his mind. He still views Islam in the West in
general as looking through Western lenses: “The issue is not Western versus
Muslim values. […] The debate occurs within a single ‘cultural’ framework: that
of the West.”63 Due to the fact that it works “within” the Western framework,
Roy then sees no Islamic theology being revisited or developed: “Islam in the
West is Western not to the extent it changes its theological framework, but
because it expresses that framework more in terms of values than of legal norms,
whatever the content of those values.”64 What Roy considers to be changing is
not the dogma, but simply the practice of believers – “What is changing is not
religion but religiosity” – and he reaches this conclusion since the “liberal think-
ers do not meet the demands of the religious market.”65 His conclusion then, as
quoted above, is that European Islam “is not a reformed Islam because not only
the dogma but also the corpus of interpreters and jurists remain uncontested.”
On occasion he says that these new forms of religiosity will be legitimized theo-
logically in the future, but up until now there has been no such process,66 though
he refers to engaged imams like Dalil Boubakeur of the Grand Mosque of Paris,
Soheib Bencheikh of Marseille, Hassan Chalghoumi of Seine-­Saint-Denis, or the
renowned public theologian Tariq Ramadan. Roy’s argument reads like Talal
Asad’s critical reading of Ernest Gellner’s description of Muslim actors in
Muslim Society (1981); they “do not speak, they do not think, they behave.”67
Roy’s actors do speak, but are unheard; they behave, but remain invisible. While
I do agree with certain sociological observations and findings of Roy, I do not
agree with his theoretical views on the subject; he fails to recognize a theoretical
and theological dynamic among European Muslims.68 My work on European
Islam is close to the socio-­anthropological findings of Jørgen S. Nielsen, and
other scholars who have a similar approach to these findings, like the pioneering
work of Felice Dassetto, in La Construction de l’islam européen [The Construc-
tion of European Islam] (1996), and that of Jocelyne Cesari, in When Islam and
Democracy Meet: Muslims in Europe and in the United States (2006). The latter
work is even closer to my theoretical investigations, since it examines a number
of important Muslim scholars and reformists based in both Europe and the US.69
At the time when Roy first wrote on European Islam in French, Nielsen was
doing the same, with a sociological work bearing the same title in the same year,
in English, Towards a European Islam (1999). In the main, Nielsen imbues his
sociological study of Muslims, mostly in Britain, with a historical touch.
Though, like Roy, he does not go into deep theological investigations into the
matter, he still sees “grounds for optimism” concerning the integration of
Muslims in Europe and Europe’s ability to respond positively to that process, if
it draws on its past heritage of pluralism and tolerance, away from “restrictive
and sometimes oppressive forms of nationalism.”70 In Muslims in Western
Europe (3rd ed., 2004), Nielsen sees the young Muslims born and educated in
12   Introduction
Europe as being influential in leading their community of believers, and in
giving shape to new forms of expressing and practicing Islam, forms, and prior-
ities “relevant to their European situation.”71
Nielsen notes that there is a lively intellectual debate going on within the
Islamic community, and less attention is given to it. He compares it to the form-
ative Islamic intellectual era: 

less [attention] is being paid to the internal debates taking place. Here there
is a range of philosophical and theological discussions, which in many ways
remind one of the debates which ranged among Islamic theologians in the
formative periods of the eighth–eleventh centuries.72

Nielsen believes that Muslims in Europe “are being watched” by their co-­
religionists in the Islamic-­majority countries, as if there were a shift in theologi-
cal balance. In the Foreword to Tariq Ramadan’s To Be a European Muslim
(1999), Nielsen states the following: 

The irony of the situation has become that living on the margins of the
Muslim world has taken European Muslims back into the theological centre.
In doing so they are being watched also from the geographical centre [i.e.
the Islamic-­majority societies].73 

For him, European Muslims “are asking fundamental questions about Islam”;
fiqh (which focuses on legal matters) is being questioned, and theology (which
focuses on morality) is being given more weight.74 Nielsen’s contention reflects
the claim of Richard W. Bulliet, who believes that “the edge in Islam, rather than
the center, has been where new things happen.”75 Bulliet believes that creative
elements that nurture traditional centers of authority grow up in the “edge,”
which is not the equivalent of the “margin” for him. This book explores Euro-
pean Islam, which is growing outside classical Islamic lands and majority soci-
eties, as a creative edge in this sense.

Speakers of European Islam: five criteria of selection


The emerging European Islamic thought requires a comparative and interdisci-
plinary approach, since the studied texts belong to different disciplines (inter-
national relations, theology, philosophy, ethics, and legal theory), and develop
different approaches to the subject under focus. Their background difference is
what this work uses to advance a part of its thesis, i.e. that European Islam
emphasizes ethics at the theological level, and social justice at the political level,
somewhat in the way kalam theologians did in the formative years of Islamic
thought. The selected scholars are as follows: the Syrian-­German Bassam Tibi
(b. 1944), the Swiss, of Egyptian descent, Tariq Ramadan (b. 1962), the
Moroccan-­French Tareq Oubrou (b. 1959), and the French Abdennour Bidar
(b. 1971). Each of the four calls for a particular version of European Islam. Tibi
Introduction   13
presents political justifications for “Euro-­Islam”; Ramadan presents both polit-
ical/public and theological justifications for “European Islam”; Oubrou is close
to Ramadan, though, as I read him, he tries to be even more theological; and
Bidar presents the philosophical and theosophic76 reading of European Islam.
This selection of Muslim scholars and their texts as a means to study Euro-
pean Islam is based on five criteria. First, the scholar should speak from the per-
spective of “declaration” and not “conjecture,” to use John Rawls’ terms.77 He
(or she) should have an Islamic background, and speak from within the religion
or doctrine studied, i.e. Islam. The fact that he is Muslim makes him more aware
of the issues Muslims in Europe in particular face. A non-­Muslim scholar or ex-­
Muslim could have equal awareness of the situation, or greater, but the point
here is to look for scholars that are engaged in discussing the matters of their
faith because they are seriously concerned with it, and not those who speak
about it or against it. The transformation of any moral or ideological view comes
from within the same tradition, and not from outside, even when the challenges
behind this transformation come from outside.
Second, the scholar should be living, or should have lived, in Western Europe.
Multicultural as it may seem, Western Europe’s policies toward religious minor-
ities, Muslims in particular, are not homogeneous and do not consider them
equal compared with its “native” religions. This makes Western Europe a par-
ticular secular and liberal case that challenges classical conceptions of religion,
including the “newly arrived” Islam. As it is required of Muslim religious
scholars/ulema to live or at least be well immersed in the daily issues that face
their co-­religionists, the same could be said of scholars and intellectuals not
trained in classical religious seminaries, but who still speak of the Muslim ques-
tion and Islamic adaptation in Europe.
Third, the intellectual biography of the scholar is taken into account, since it
impacts his intellectual itinerary. By intellectual biography, what is meant is the
way the personal or family background and the academic training of the scholar
have impacted his vision of Islam in Europe, and his thoughts on European Islam.
Without a consideration of the spacial-­temporal conditions in which the scholar
has developed his argumentation, his theses could be read out of their context, and
could be dangerously generalized about other situations and contexts of Islam and
Muslims. The context impacts the epistemological stance of the scholar.
Fourth, the public presence of the scholar is considered. In treating texts and
measuring their potential influence on the public and politics, considering their
public presence and circulation is important. This comparative work is not based
on fieldwork; it is theoretical, but its choice of the selected scholars stems both
from their presence on the ground and the potential impact they may still have in
the future on European Islamic thought, seeing that they are among the pioneer-
ing voices and advocates of “European Islam.” All the scholars selected here
have a presence in the public debate over Islam and Muslims in Europe,
­especially in their corresponding countries of origin and/or residence. Most of
them have an international audience as well, but of a varying size, as chapters
dedicated to each of them will show.
14   Introduction
Fifth, and despite their different backgrounds, the scholars studied here all
bring to the fore the ethical message of Islam and stress it in their version of
European Islam. As will be argued in this work, they all tend to rationalize
ethics, which classical rationalists like the late Muʻtazila school of thought,
mostly finding its culmination in the work of the renowned rationalist scholar
Qadi Abd al-­Jabbar (d. 1025), pioneered between the ninth and eleventh centu-
ries. Modern (“early”) and contemporary (“late”) reformist scholars based
mostly, but not in all cases, in the Islamic-­majority countries tend, too, by means
of their various approaches, to rationalize the divine message, à la Muʻtazila,
despite the fact that they do not mention this classical school by name, since it
has been tarnished and defamed by some orthodox scholars and political regimes
since the miḥna/crisis (“Inquisition-­like”) of the school in the ninth century.78
The selected scholars, then, do stress the ethical question in Islam in light of
not only the current socio-­political situation in Europe, but also the socio-­
political changes and challenges that the Islamic-­majority countries, mainly
those of the broad Middle East, have been facing for about the last two centuries.
They attempt to re-­ground the Islamic ethical message in the liberal-­secular
European context. It is here that the theological and the political substantially
intertwine. Because of the political pressure over the religious in Europe, and
equally because of the religious challenge of the political status quo, this work,
in various ways, builds historical links between the past and present in Islamic
thought, so as to better understand how European Islamic thought is trying to
present theological justifications for both its Europeanness and its islamicity in
the secular age.
This understanding of the contemporary socio-­political circumstances of the
debate over European Islam brings to the fore early socio-­political circumstances
that were raised especially during the reign of the third and fourth Caliphs,
Othman and Ali, which ultimately influenced the politico-­theological paths of
Islamic thought in general afterwards. The reference here is to the socio-­political
issue of who had the right to govern, on what basis, and the main theological and
political divisions that developed out of that feud: Sunnites, Shiʻites, Kharijites,
Murjiʻites, and later on Muʻtazilites, and Ashʻarites, to list these among other
sects and schools. That is to say, theological, and ultimately philosophical, dis-
putes flourish when the political situation is tense and requires “argumentation”
to find out theological justifications and political solutions to various issues. That
is the task the kalam legacy contributed to classical Islamic thought. Without
saying much here, kalam theology discussed issues that belong to the field of
what is known now as political theory and philosophy of ethics, besides issues
of divine nature (like the attributes of God).79 Aspects of kalam renewal in
Europe could be detected in European Islamic thought.
The current socio-­political situation of Islam in/and Europe does slightly
socio-­politically correspond to the early formative period that brought about
political and theological changes to the Islamic community. Still, and again
based on the previous historical notes, I contextualize my reading in the intellec-
tual labor in which Islamic thought has been engaged for nearly the last two
Introduction   15
c­ enturies, chiefly since the beginning of the Arab-­Islamic renaissance (nahda) of
the mid-­nineteenth century. Various reformist trends have developed since then,
but symptoms of return to the ambience of the formative intellectual debate,
which flourished mainly between the ninth and eleventh centuries, are very
visible. There is “revision” in the reform being advocated in contemporary
Islamic thought. European modernity opens space to Islamic thought to revise its
own past, and rethink its conception of religion in light of the modern changes
and challenges.
The age of kalam will not return in the same way as it first developed, but
some of its main themes are being revisited in contemporary Islamic thought.
The fundamentals of Islam, and the rebuilding of an updated understanding of
religion and recontextualization of the message of the Prophet Muhammad are
being heavily discussed, especially by critical Muslim scholars and philosophers.
European Islam is not immune to this debate. Though it may develop its own
path of understanding and practicing the message of Islam, European Islam, as I
will illustrate in this work, is part of the current debate, which in turn has its
roots in the formative era of Islam. European Islam in this sense, as I will recur-
rently mention, is both “revisionist” and “reformist.” It is revisionist since it
keeps relations with the founding sources; it is “reformist” since it tries to build
on them in the modern context.
As a matter of fact, this selection of scholars aims at making European Islam
speak to itself more dialectically for the sake of intellectually rigorous religious
dispute and argumentation (kalam), besides answering the criterion of what the
scholars have in common in raising Islamic reform for a European Islam. The
selected scholars hardly mention each other in their works, and when they do,
they do so without a thoroughly analytical argument that either supports or
refutes the others’ views. They are also not studied comparatively, nor is their
emphasis on ethics, for instance, examined using an ethical framework for ana-
lysis – which this work does.

What “this” European Islam does not include: reply to


five objections
Intellectual modesty has to be raised to avoid essentialisms and silencing of
other European Islamic voices. Do the scholars studied here represent European
Islam in all its varieties and possible versions? This research claims not to
represent but rather to present a version of European Islam; it is not all-­inclusive,
but it is not exclusive either. The arguments presented by the scholars and the
way I read them make my argument and the version of European Islam advanced
here inclusive of diverse voices, which may not be represented directly but can
still find their ideas hereby expressed and represented.
The previous five criteria of selection seem to exclude five main categories of
Islamic voices from the question of Islam and Muslims in Europe. The objec-
tions to such a methodological exclusion may be expressed as follows: (1) the
European Council for Fatwa and Research (ECFR) is referred to only in passing;
16   Introduction
(2) the Shiʻa voice, the second major sect of Islam after the Sunnis, is not
referred to at all in “this European Islam”; (3) the traditionalist non-­violent
salafis, as well as their small faction that call for violence or the establishment/
restoration of the “Islamic state” or the “Caliphate” are also not examined here,
as if there were no problem with their interpretation of Islam in Europe and
outside it; (4) in terms of gender representation, women seem absent; the studied
scholars are all males; (5) voices from other geographical parts of Western
Europe are not represented, either. Below I respond to each of these five
objections.
First, I do not make much reference to the ECFR, which was established in
Dublin in 1997 and is headed by the “global Mufti” Yusuf al-­Qaradawi,80 prim-
arily because it is an institution composed of a board of scholars who have
different approaches to Islam, and Islam in Europe, and hence a variety of views
is bound to be found within it. This is the case particularly because a lot of the
scholarly committee members are not European, or based in Europe, which leads
European Muslim scholars like Ramadan and Oubrou to consider the Council
more Arab than European.81 Moreover, though it publishes various texts on
Muslim codes of conduct, ethics, etc.,82 the Council has mainly remained tied
to  issuing fatwas (non-­binding legal opinions) instead of working out a thor-
oughly new reconsideration of the traditional sources in light of the European
context.83 Some of its published works call for new “civilizational fatwa” para-
digm (iftā’ ḥadārī),84 based on the modern geographical and political rapproche-
ment beyond the classical divisions of the abodes,85 and encourage Muslims to
undertake full and active participation in their European countries of residence
and citizenship.86 Most of these works, besides the specific themes they tackle,
also keep the tone of daʻwa/proselytization alive, but they stress that it should be
peaceful, based on Muslims ethical behavior, and within what the laws permit in
Europe.
Therefore, in my reading of the literature of the ECFR, I see that though it
tries to be more receptive and positively responsive to the problems Muslims
face in (Western) Europe, it still considers them a minority that has to protect
itself from melting into the mainstream society which is generally not religious,
or is religiously different. The ECFR indirectly claims authority over the
Muslims of Europe, and tries to keep them within the classical jurisprudential
premises of fiqh al-­aqalliyyāt (fiqh for the minorities); this fiqh does not speak of
a “European Islam,” nor does it defend it as a nomenclature or as a concept. For
this reason the texts of fiqh al-­aqalliyyāt do not fit into this study.87
Second, with regard to the Shiʻa, three particular points can be advanced here.
One, the Shiʻa are a minority within a minority in Europe, reflecting their status
within the Islamic-­majority societies and the faith as a whole. Most of the
Muslims in Western Europe are of Sunni origin, having migrated from North
Africa, the Middle East, sub-­Saharan Africa, and the Indian subcontinent; this
“Sunni migration” reflects, among other things, the situation of the countries of
origin post-­World War II, a situation of postcoloniality and economic need,
which led flows of people to migrate to Europe for economic reasons. Two, the
Introduction   17
Shiʻa have their own council in Western Europe, founded in 1993 in London as
Majlis-­e-Ulama and later enlarged to become Majlis-­e-Ulama-­e-Shia Europe.88
Third, the young Shiʻa diaspora of Iranian descent tend to be less religious or not
religious when they are outside their country of origin, often as a reaction to the
enforced religiosity they have faced in the Islamic Republic of Iran since the
1979 revolution. Their religious presence in Europe ranges from silence to invis-
ibility, as a form of “non-­islamiosity.”89 However, philosophers and scholars of
religion among the Iranian Shiʻa diaspora are mostly visible and active in North
America.90 Three, these factors may explain why the majority of scholars of
Islam in Europe are of Sunni and of Arab origins, although, as will be seen in the
following chapters, the scholars studied here try to overcome sectarian distinc-
tions by focusing on the essentials of religion.
Third, salafis91 generally do not claim that there are various Islams – Euro-
pean, Arab, Asian, etc. Politically, and theologically, they do not believe in such
divisions and nomenclature. They do not claim or defend the idea of European
Islam. They practice Islam in Europe, and broadly think of themselves as
“muhajirun” (migrants to un-­Islamic lands); they live Islam as they perceive it,
and hope to help others convert, or at least to guide their “deviant” co-­religionists
to their version of Islam. Moreover, many of their ideas are indirectly expressed,
and critiqued, by the studied scholars; Tibi for instance devotes a lot of space to
debunking all forms of salafism, while Ramadan critiques their literalist interpre-
tations of the Qur’an and the Sunna.
Fourth, the same applies to the question of gender representation, which this
study may appear to have missed; however, the scholars presented here defend
gender equality. There are ample examples of Muslim female activists, and
recently also some female religious leaders, in Europe, but they have not written
texts on Islam in Europe to engage with for the purposes of this work.92 Jocelyne
Cesari underlines this “weak” presence of Muslim female scholarship in Europe,
compared with its major visibility in the US, where Muslims in general, and
women in this case, represent an elite category of Muslim migrants; Cesari
names Asma Barlas, Amina Wadud, and Kecia Ali as examples of Muslim
reformist voices in the US.93
Fifth, as to whether geographical representation is considered in the selection
made in this study, it should be borne in mind that this is neither sociological nor
anthropological fieldwork; it is theoretical and thus able to be expanded to
various secular-­liberal societies of Western Europe, despite the variety of secu-
larism in each state. As to the fact that France dominates the debate, and its
internal controversies on the topic are also discussed throughout the “West,” that
is explained by the fact that the lines between the Church and the state have a
special history and laws, and have become an iconic representation of “radical
secularism” (French laïcité), to use Tariq Modood’s description.94 Besides, the
visible size of the Muslim population in the country (unofficially estimated to be
about five million) plays a role in magnifying the intensity of the “Muslim
question.”
18   Introduction
Book content
Part I of this book is synthetically descriptive. It introduces four projects of
European Islam. Chapter 1 is devoted to Bassam Tibi and his political justifica-
tions for Euro-­Islam. Tibi, now a retired political scientist, is an expert in inter-
national relations (IR), religious fundamentalism, and the Middle East. He
claims to be the first to use the term “Euro-­Islam,” at a conference in Paris in
1992. His reform agenda of “cultural modernity” and its version of Euro-­Islam
answers more the political needs than any call for in-­depth theological justifica-
tions for the debate of Islam in Europe. But since theological transformations are
often pushed for by socio-­political factors, Tibi’s voice remains important in the
field. His ideas, in the end, are defended by the three other scholars, too, but the
way they do so is significantly different. At a certain stage in this work, Tibi’s
approach is found to be immersed in what I refer to as “classical dichotomous
thought” that is radically secular.
Chapter 2 is devoted to Tariq Ramadan, who fills in the gap Tibi leaves
“unfilled” concerning the theological input for European Islam. Ramadan
pursued a literary-­philosophic education in his early university studies before he
moved to work on Islamic jurisprudence, which has become his major field of
expertise, and based on which he calls for “radical reform.” He is a prolific
writer, engaged scholar, worldwide lecturer, public intellectual, and theologian.
He is an icon for European Islam, and for the European Muslim youth. Among
the four studied scholars, Ramadan is the most visible and international. He tries
to find a middle way in which politics and theology work together for social
justice and political stability, based on ethics that feed both. He makes Islam
accommodative of the political context in which it grows. His theology is polit-
ical in the sense that it keeps abreast of human developments, without breaking
with the divine. At the same time, his political attitudes are theological, in the
sense that they find their justifications, and at times refutations, in the theologi-
cal. This chapter distinguishes between “early Ramadan,” who is more conser-
vative and in conflict with the “godless” Europe, and “late Ramadan,” who
reconciles faith and modernity through his version of European Islam and call
for a “radical reform agenda” that stresses ethics and considers the universe
another Book of Revelation, equal to the written Book of Revelation, the
Qur’an.
Chapter 3 introduces Tareq Oubrou’s legal and theological project. Oubrou
was born in Morocco, and went to France for higher education in biology, to end
up being a preacher and later on the director and imam of the Bordeaux Grand
Mosque and president of the Association of the Imams of France. He is a self-­
made theologian and public intellectual. Oubrou’s philosophy of religion tries to
re-­ground Islamic faith in a secular world where man’s anthropological life is
different from the classical religious life in which the first manifestations of
shariʻa were experienced during the Prophetic era. He proposes the seculariza-
tion of Islamic theology through the apparatuses of “geotheology,” and “shariʻa
of the minority.”
Introduction   19
Chapter 4 introduces Abdennour Bidar, a young French philosopher, who
completes the circle of the studied scholars from a different perspective.
Immersed in Western philosophy, Bidar opens out theosophically to the Islamic
tradition. Most important in his contribution to European Islam are his concepts
of “self Islam,” “Islamic existentialism,” the “immortality of man,” and the
“overcoming of religion.” Bidar’s approach stands among the most critical,
innovative, and challenging in the emerging European Islamic thought. His
approach merges the Sufi tradition and the philosophic one, and implicitly
answers some of the controversial political questions about religion in the
public  sphere in light of modernity’s three principles – liberty, equality, and
fraternity – which he sacralizes. He considers modernity a moment willed by the
divine.
As to Part II of this book, it evaluates the idea of European Islam described in
Part I, based on three major philosophical frameworks, two mostly theological
and the other mostly political, which the remaining three/four chapters syntheti-
cally introduce and critically engage with. While the previous part can be read in
any order, since each chapter is independent from the others, the chapters of Part
II are interconnected and replete with new concepts that build on each other, and
it is advisable to read it in the order in which it is written.
Chapter 5 centralizes the question of ethics that the four previous chapters
underline, and puts it in communication with the Islamic intellectual tradition,
past and present. For this reason, brief reference is made to three scholarly tra-
ditions in Islamic thought: (1) the medieval Muʻtazila; (2) the “early reform-
ists,” known as modernists, of the mid-­nineteenth and early twentieth century;
and (3) the “late reformists” or contemporaries. By highlighting the sources
and interpretations of ethics, the chapter brings to the fore the question of the
ontological and epistemological bond that characterizes Islamic thought in
general, as a way of examining whether this bond is the same, or whether it
has experienced some change or reinterpretation within European Islamic
thought, as studied here. An evaluative framework will be adopted to facilitate
such an understanding, namely that of the British scholar of Islamic philo-
sophy and ethics George Hourani (d. 1984) and his approach to reading ethics
in Islamic scholarship. The chapter finally argues that there is a mild onto-
logical revolution and an epistemological awakening that European Islam is
launching through the Muslim Prometheus imagery – following in the path of
earlier attempts in Islamic scholarship. This argument is presented as follows:
European Islam (1) “rationalizes ethics,” makes the individual and the com-
munity of believers as the guardians of the Qur’anic moral cosmology, and in
so doing it is (2) “revisionist-­reformist,” and (3) “traditional-­modern.” Euro-
pean Islam’s claims to defend human agency, the faculty of reason, and
endorsement of the values of modernity in light of religious ethics, without
denial of the divine, are the aspects that make it revisionist or traditional, and
thus continuous with previous debates in Islamic scholarship.
Chapter 6 introduces the framework of the Moroccan philosopher Taha
Abderrahmane (b. 1944) for further analysis of European Islamic thought from
20   Introduction
within the same tradition. The chapter explains further why I use his and not
some other framework; it is sufficient to say here that his project is both “unique”
compared with other reformist projects, and “comprehensive” of the various
aspects that European Islamic thought tackles; there is not such a coherent
ethical theory within contemporary Islamic scholarship that could have answered
these two major criteria. Briefly here, Abderrahmane proposes what he calls the
“trusteeship paradigm” as an ethical framework for renewal of Islamic thought.
In this chapter, I use what he refers to as “three innovative plans” for renewing
the understanding of the Qur’anic message of ethics in modern times: the
“innovative humanization plan,” the “innovative rationalization plan,” and the
“innovative historicization plan.” These plans allow for the birth of “spiritual
modernity.”
These three levels of analysis and potential innovation inspired the develop-
ment of a triadic axis I use in this work to further deconstruct European Islam
for a better understanding of its intellectual orientation and proposals. This
triadic axis contains the comprehensiveness of a world religion such as Islam; it
is as follows: (1) world axis, (2) social axis, and (3) individual axis. That is,
based on these axes, we will be able to understand how European Muslim
scholars interpret Islam to have a comprehensive view that gives a contextual,
i.e. European, meaning to the world, society, and the individual. The definition
given to European Islam at the beginning of this Introduction is the result of the
application of this analytical framework, and constitutes the gist of this work.
Chapter 7 consolidates this book’s analysis of European Islam as a modern
idea by integrating a second ethical framework of Taha Abderrahmane. This
framework is that of the “spirit of modernity,” or what he interchangeably refers
to as “spiritual modernity” and “Islamic modernity.” This second framework is
very relevant to our purposes because it critiques the Eurocentric version of
modernity, and especially its disregard for the role religious ethics can play; that
is why Abderrahmane builds a canon of concepts that reflect his overall vision of
the “trusteeship paradigm” and its permeation of various levels of human rela-
tions with each other and the universe, instead of the binary oppositions that
classical Euro-­liberalism and secularism are founded on. This book uses Abder-
rahmane’s three major concepts of modernity (i.e. the principles of majority,
autonomy, and creativity, besides other derivative pillars) in order to examine
the ethical elan that European Islamic thought centralizes. A major normative
exercise takes place in this chapter, because it not only introduces various new
concepts, but also goes back to using the triadic axes so as to always facilitate
the understanding of the theoretical advances European Islam makes. This way,
links are always made and further consolidated with the previous chapters.
Chapter 8 is a “thought experiment” for various reasons that will be
explained in due course. Here, it is enough to say that a different philosophical
framework is adopted in order to critically engage with the political ideas of
European Islam. This is the framework of “political liberalism,” and most par-
ticularly the “idea of overlapping consensus,” as developed by the Amer­ican
philosopher John Rawls (d. 2002). I say this chapter is a “thought experiment”
Introduction   21
first because it uses a framework that revisits the meaning of liberalism in the
“Western” tradition, and opens it up to the reality of the multicultural fact that
characterizes liberal societies such as those of Europe; this fact is mostly about
the resurgence of religion in the public sphere, and how to deal with it without
asking religious doctrines to change their dogmas; so, this chapter tries to
apply aspects of one of the most discussed liberal theories to the “Muslim
question” as studied and conceptualized here. This chapter is, second, a
“thought experiment” because it is based on a number of “founded assump-
tions,” a major one of which is that European Islam is considered here a com-
prehensive theological theory of the good, out of which the reasonable
European Muslim can contribute to debates in the public sphere for the preser-
vation of the liberal “well-­ordered society.” The second major assumption is
that European Islam seeks and defends social justice, which is originally a
classical “Islamic” value that correlates with the idea of justice in Rawls’
work. This chapter reads European Islam as a “reasonable comprehensive doc-
trine” that can retain its version of the good, which may be different from
majority-­society views, and can at the same time equally solidify “stability” in
the plural liberal society, without having to negate its theological/doctrinal
worldview. A politically liberal society in the Rawlsian sense allows “reason-
able” comprehensive doctrines to co-­exist, without converting them to one
version of the good, i.e. to classical liberalism of the Enlightenment that holds
one version of the good. The book concludes by reflecting on the potential
influence “this” European Islam can have on Arab Islam, in light of the various
levels of affinity Europe and the Arab world have, one of which is the migra-
tion of religious ideas around the Mediterranean through human migration
flows, and the confluences that this could bring about for both worlds.

Notes
  1 Daryush Shayegan, Cultural Schizophrenia: Islamic Societies Confronting the West
(New York: Syracuse University Press, 1997), 76–97.
  2 Marshall G.S. Hodgson, The Venture of Islam, vol. 1: The Classical Age of Islam
(Chicago and London: Chicago University Press, 1977), 59.
  3 Watt uses the biological terms “endosoma” and “ectosoma” to respectively refer to
the nucleus or the internal organism of religion, and to its outer or external aspects
and factors that impact its growth, expansion, and various interpretations and appro-
priations. William Montgomery Watt, Islamic Revelation in the Modern World (Edin-
burgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1969), 8–11.
  4 Shahab Ahmed, What is Islam? The Importance of Being Islamic (Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press, 2015), 109, 542–543.
  5 Bauer says that in his research over the years, he did not come across the execution of
the penal code (ḥudūd) in Islamic history except for the few cases during the first 30
years of governance of the Prophet and the early caliphs, and one case in the seven-
teenth century in the Ottoman Empire. Thomas Bauer, ṯaqāfat al-­iltibās: naḥwa
tārīḫin āḫar lil-­islām [The Culture of Ambiguity: An Alternative History of Islam]
(Beirut and Baghdad: manshūrāt al-­ǧamal, 2017), 324; the book is not translated yet
into English; it first appeared in German as Die Kultur der Ambiguität: Eine andere
Geschichte des Islams (Berlin: Insel Verlag GmbH, 2011).
22   Introduction
  6 Joseph Schacht, An Introduction to Islamic Law (1964; Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1983), 1; Kevin Reinhart, “Islamic Law as Islamic Ethics,” Journal of Religious
Ethics, vol. 11, no. 2 (Fall 1983): 186–203. The famous Hungarian scholar of Islam
Ignaz Goldziher (d. 1921) gave importance to law in defining Islam but mostly central-
ized the political role and vision-­prophecy of Muhammad in defining the future of
historical Islam as a reference for later generations, especially the period of Muhammad
in Medina; he says “Islam proper was born in Medina: its historical aspects took shape
here.” In Introduction to Islamic Theology and Law, trans. Andras and Ruth Hamori,
introd. Bernard Lewis (1910; Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1981), 9.
  7 Wael B. Hallaq, The Origins and Evolution of Islamic Law (Cambridge and New
York: Cambridge University Press, 2005); Abdullahi A. An-­Na‘im, Islam and the
Secular State: Negotiating the Future of Shariʻa (Cambridge, MA, and London:
Harvard University Press, 2008); Khaled Abou El Fadl, Reasoning with God:
Reclaiming Sharia in the Modern Age (Lanham, MD, and New York: Rowman & Lit-
tlefield, 2014); Ahmed Fekry Ibrahim, Pragmatism in Islamic Law: A Social and
Intellectual History (New York: Syracuse University Press, 2015).
  8 Wael B. Hallaq, An Introduction to Islamic Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 2009); Wael B. Hallaq, The Impossible State: Islam, Politics, and Modernity’s
Moral Predicament (New York: Columbia University Press, 2013), 138.
  9 Charles Taylor, A Secular Age (Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard University
Press, 2007).
10 Hallaq, The Impossible State, 83.
11 Zygmunt Bauman, Liquid Modernity (Cambridge: Polity, 2000).
12 Zygmunt Bauman, Does Ethics Have a Chance in a World of Consumers? (Cam-
bridge, MA, and London: Harvard University Press, 2008), 25.
13 Peter O’Brien, The Muslim Question in Europe: Political Controversies and Public
Philosophies (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2016), 23.
14 Hamid Dabashi, Being a Muslim in the World (New York: Palgrave Macmillan,
2013), 3–6, 158.
15 Talal Asad, “The Idea of an Anthropology of Islam,” Occasional Paper, Georgetown
University Center for Contemporary Arab Studies (1986), 14–15.
16 Jocelyne Cesari, When Islam and Democracy Meet: Muslims in Europe and in the
United States (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004), 5.
17 For the format of the question, I am inspired by the Indian-­Pakistani poet-­philosopher
Muhammad Iqbal’s seventh lecture, entitled “Is Religion Possible?” in his seminal
work The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (London: Oxford University
Press, 1934). Iqbal adopts the question format from Immanuel Kant’s “How is Meta-
physics in General Possible?” (1783), found in Paul Carus, ed., Kant’s Prolegomena
to Any Future Metaphysics (Chicago, IL: Open Court Publishing Company, 1912),
1–163. The Iranian philosopher Abdolkarim Soroush delivered a lecture in Harvard in
1996 using the same question format: “Is Fiqh Possible?” Soroush, The Expansion of
Prophetic Experience: Essays on Historicity, Contingency and Plurality in Religion
(Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2009), 96.
18 Overall, I take theology to mean the “contemplation and study of religion” (tadabbur
in Arabic) in both physical and metaphysical matters, and politics to mean the “man-
agement of world affairs” (tadbīr); Taha Abderrahmane, rūḥu addīn [The Spirit of
Religion] (Beirut and Casablanca: al-­markaz al-­ṯaqāfī al-ʻarabī, 2012), 509.
19 A distinction can be advanced and developed, which I do not intend to pursue now; it
may go as follows: European Islam may be more sociologically, anthropologically,
and/or politically based; it feeds on lived Islam as well as the policies European states
adopt to cater to Muslims’ needs. As to European Islamic thought, it is theologically
theoretically oriented; it bases its theoretical claims on the Islamic tradition and on the
realities on the European soil in different fields, like philosophy, the arts, literature,
music, sports, business and finance, medicine, environment, space.
Introduction   23
20 “Thick shariʻa” is the entire scope of religious creed, worship, rituals, and laws,
whereas “thin shariʻa” refers more to the message’s spirit and principles and not to the
exact laws prescribed in the context of seventh-­century Arabia. See Jan-­Erik Lane and
Hamadi Redissi, Religion and Politics: Islam and Muslim Civilization (Surrey and
Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2009), 277–283. Thick and thin concepts in ethics were first
coined by the British moral philosopher Bernard Williams (d. 2003).
21 Albert Hourani, Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age, 1798–1939 (1962; Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1983); Charles Kurzman, ed., Modernist Islam,
1840–1940: A Source Book (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002).
22 Charles Kurzman, ed., Liberal Islam: A Source Book (Oxford and New York:
Oxford University Press, 1998); John L. Esposito and John O. Voll, eds., Makers of
Contemporary Islam (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001);
Ibrahim Abu Rabi‘, Contemporary Arab Thought: Studies in Post-­1967 Arab Intel-
lectual History (London: Pluto, 2004); Massimo Campanini, Il pensiero islamico
contemporaneo [Contemporary Islamic Thought] (2009; Bologna: Il Mulino, 2016);
Abdou Filali-­Ansari, Réformer l’islam? Une introduction aux débats contemporains
[Reforming Islam? An Introduction to Contemporary Debates] (Paris: La Décou-
verte, 2005); Rachid Benzine, Les nouveaux penseurs de l’islam [The New Think-
ers of Islam] (Paris: Albin Michel, 2008); Shireen Hunter, ed., Reformist Voices of
Islam: Mediating Islam and Modernity (New York and London: M.E. Sharpe,
2009).
23 Briefly here, by “early reformists” I mean the avant-­gardists of renewal as well as lib-
eration movements who were working within the framework of a classical shariʻa
paradigm, including its legal prescriptions, in the nineteenth and early twentieth cen-
turies. By “late reformists” or “contemporaries” I mean the 1960s generation onwards;
these reformists go beyond the classical shariʻa paradigm by integrating modern
methodologies from disciplines like philosophy, theology, literary criticism, histori-
cism, history of ideas, political sociology, sociology, and anthropology in their study
and revision of the Islamic tradition in general and the scriptures in particular (i.e.
Qur’an and Sunna). This generation of scholars expands the meaning of shariʻa
beyond legal prescriptions and fiqh, and opens new pathways in Islamic thought
which are more critical, progressive, and open. For more, see: Mohammed Hashas,
“On the Idea of European Islam: Voices of Perpetual Modernity,” PhD Diss. (LUISS
Guido Carli University in Rome, 2013), 330–398.
24 Irfan Ahmad, Religion as Critique: Islamic Critical Thinking from Mecca to Market-
place (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2017). This approach is in
line with a similar idea expressed by Muhammad Qasim Zaman, Modern Islamic
Thought in a Radical Age: Religious Authority and Internal Criticism (Cambridge and
New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012); Adis Duderija, The Imperatives of
Progressive Islam (New York: Routledge, 2017); Dilyana Mincheva, The Politics of
Muslim Intellectual Discourse in the West: The Emergence of a Western-­Islamic
Public Sphere (Eastbourne: Sussex Academic Press, 2017).
25 Mohammed Aziz Lahbabi, Le Personalisme musulman [Muslim Personalism] (Paris:
Presse Universitaire de France, 1964).
26 Stefano Allievi, “The International Dimension,” in Brigitte Maréchal, Stefano Allievi,
Felice Dassetto, and Jorgen Nielsen, eds., Muslims in the Enlarged Europe: Religion
and Society (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2003), 449–488.
27 Phikhu Parekh, “European Liberalism and the Muslim Question,” ISIM Paper, no. 9
(Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2008): 5–37; Peter O’Brien argues that the
“Muslim question” – like the “Jewish question” before it – is fundamentally a Euro-
pean problem that goes back to the nineteenth century: it is European centrist under-
standings of liberalism, nationalism, and now postmodernism that make Islam and
Muslims appear the problem; he sees that the problem is within the same Western
civilization, and not with Islam; The Muslim Question in Europe.
24   Introduction
28 Hisham A. Hellyer, “When the ‘Other’ Becomes ‘Us’: The Future of Muslims and
Islam in Europe,” Comparative Islamic Studies, vol. 2, no. 1 (2006): 67–78; Hisham
A. Hellyer, Muslims of Europe: the “Other” Europeans (Edinburgh: Edinburgh
University Press, 2009), 1–12; Amir Mirtaheri, “European Muslims, Secularism and
the Legacy of Colonialism,” European Journal of Economic and Political Studies
EJEPS, vol. 3 (2010): 73–86; Xavier Bougarel, “Balkan Muslim Diasporas and the
Idea of a ‘European Islam,’ ” in Tomislav Dulić, Roland Kostic, Ivana Macek, and
Jasenka Trtak, eds., Balkan Currents: Essays in Honour of Kjell Magnusson, Uppsala
Multiethnic Papers, no. 49 (Uppsala: Centre for Multiethnic Research, Uppsala
University, 2005), 147–165; Xavier Bougarel, “The Role of Balkan Muslims in Build-
ing a European Islam,” EPC Issue Paper, no. 43 (Brussels: European Policy Centre,
2005), 1–15; Fikret Karčić, The Other European Muslims: A Bosnian Perspective
(Sarajevo: Center for Advanced Studies, 2015).
29 Górak-Sosnowska Katarzyna, ed., Muslims in Poland and Eastern Europe: Widening
the European Discourse on Islam (Warsaw: University of Warsaw Faculty of Oriental
Studies, 2011), 18; Egdunas Racius, Muslims in Eastern Europe (Edinburgh: Edin-
burgh University Press, 2018).
30 Paul M. Barrett, Amer­ican Islam: The Struggle for the Soul of a Religion (New York:
Picador, 2006); Abdullahi A. An-­Na‘im, What Is an Amer­ican Muslim? Embracing
Faith and Citizenship (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014); Jane I. Smith and
Yvonne Y. Haddad, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Amer­ican Islam (Oxford and New
York: Oxford University Press, 2015).
31 José Casanova, “The Secular, Secularizations, Secularisms,” in Craig Calhoun, Mark
Juergensmeyer, and Jonathan van Antwerpen, eds., Rethinking Secularism (New
York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 54–73.
32 Mahmood Mamdani, “Good Muslim, Bad Muslim: A Political Perspective on Culture
and Terrorism,” Amer­ican Anthropologist, vol. 104, no. 3 (2003): 766–775; Good
Muslim, Bad Muslim: America, the Cold War, and the Roots of Terror (New York:
Three Leaves Press/Doubleday, 2005).
33 Cesari, When Islam and Democracy Meet, part III.
34 A recent historical work in this direction is that of Muhammad Mojlum Khan, Great
Muslims of the West: Makers of Western Islam (Markfield, LE: Kube Publishing Ltd,
2017). Mojlum Khan collects a list of important Muslim caliphs, philosophers, scien-
tists, artists, and poets, males and females, that contributed to the flourishing of
“Western Islam” and Western Islamic culture at the time. Routledge Critical Concepts
in Islamic Studies Series produced a four-­volume set on a variety of themes and topics
related to Islam in the “modern” West: David Westerlund and Ingvar Svanberg, eds.,
Islam in the West, 4 vols. (Abingdon: Routledge, 2010).
35 In this work, I use both “the Islamic world” and the “Muslim world” interchangeably,
though I differentiate between the two – a differentiation I could not introduce in this
book. In the Arabic language, it should be the “Islamic world” because the adjective
“Muslim” refers to (the faith of ) human beings, and “Islamic” to the things that these
human beings make or shape. Moreover, and seeing that the current “Islamic world”
is not dominantly governed by “Islamic law,” nor was it fully so before, though it
may be governed by the “Islamic worldview” in general, including customary laws,
etc., it may be more correct to use “Islamic world” to refer to pre-­modern, pre-­
Western modern times, say before 1798 (the year of the Napoleonic invasion of Egypt
and the birth of “modern” ideas in the classical “Islamic world”) or at least to the
world before 1924 (the date of the end of the Islamic Ottoman Caliphate) and the birth
of nation states in most of the vast “Islamic world.” The “Islamic world” post-­1924,
and especially post-­World War II, is politically different and divided, and it is intel-
lectually erroneous to consider it a homogeneous world. Geographies and regional
blocs or political unions are more accurate now as the basis for naming than religious
labels that reflect “Western” power balance and its intellectual tutelage.
Introduction   25
For a chronological genealogy of the idea of the “Islamic or Muslim World” see
the recent work of Cemil Aydin, The Idea of the Muslim World (Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press, 2017).
36 Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order
(New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996).
37 Bernard Lewis, Europe and Islam (Washington, DC: AEI Press, 2007), 20; Bernard
Lewis, Islam and the West (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993).
38 Bernard Lewis, Faith and Power: Religion and Politics in the Middle East (Oxford
and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010), 36.
39 Ibid., 38. In an interview in 2012, after the so-­called Arab Spring protests, Bernard
Lewis expressed a somewhat changed perspective, and a possible rapprochement
between the two civilizations of “Christendom” and “Islamdom”: 
There is still a confrontation, there is no doubt about that. But I think confronted
with the modern world or with the rest of the world, I think people are becoming
aware that the Western and Islamic civilizations have more in common than apart.
It was a German scholar, C.H. Becker, who said a long time ago that the real
dividing line is not between Islam and Christendom; it’s the dividing line East of
Islam, between the Islamic and Christian worlds together on the one hand and the
rest of the world on the other. I think there is a lot of truth in that.
Amina Chaudary, “Face to Face with Bernard Lewis,” Islamic Monthly, June 17,
2012, http://theislamicmonthly.com/face-­to-face-­with-bernard-­lewis/.
40 Richard W. Bulliet, The Case for Islamo-­Christian Civilization (New York: Columbia
University Press, 2004), 45; Albert Hourani, Islam in European Thought (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1991).
41 Maurits S. Berger, A Brief History of Islam in Europe: Thirteen Centuries of Creed,
Conflict and Coexistence (Leiden: Leiden University Press, 2014), 239.
42 Jørgen S. Nielsen, Towards a European Islam (London and New York: Palgrave
Macmillan, 1999), 1–2.
43 Hisham A. Hellyer, “When the ‘Other’ Becomes ‘Us’,” in Bekim Agai, Umar Ryad,
and Mehdi Sajid, eds., Muslims in Interwar Europe: A Transcultural Historical Per-
spective (Leiden: Brill, 2015).
44 Some works that fall within this category and deal with “political Islam” and “radical-
ization” include: Gilles Keppel, The War for Muslim Minds: Islam and the West
(Cambridge: Belknap, 2004), chapter 7; Abdulkader H. Sinno, ed., Muslims in
Western Politics (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2009),
chapters 8–12; Tahir Abbas, ed., Islamic Political Radicalism: A European Per-
spective (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007), parts I and II; Michael
Emerson and Richard Youngs, eds., Political Islam and European Foreign Policy
(Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies, 2007), chapter 10; Samir Amghar,
Amel Boubekeur, and Michael Emerson, eds., European Islam: Challenges for Public
Policy and Society (Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies, 2007), part A,
chapters 1–3; Jocelyne Cesari, “The Securitisation of Islam in Europe,” Challenge
Research Paper, no. 14, Brussels Centre for European Policy Studies, 2009, 1–14.
45 Tugrul Keskin, ed., Sociology of Islam: Secularism, Economy, and Politics (Reading:
Ithaca Press, 2011), 1–20. On the conception of civility, power, and knowledge in
Muslim societies, see Armando Salvatore, The Sociology of Islam: Knowledge, Power
and Civility (Malden, MA, and Oxford: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2016). Ali Shariati,
On the Sociology of Islam, trans. Hamid Algar (Berkeley, CA: Mizan Press, 1979),
chapters 6 and 7; Max Weber’s “sociology of religion,” for instance, does not give
much space to Islam. Weber developed an interest in Islam not as a religion but as an
antithetical element to capitalism.
46 For a clearer idea of what I mean, see Gabriel Marranchi, The Anthropology of Islam
(Oxford and New York: Berg, 2008), chapters 3 and 6; Nissim Rejwan, The Many
26   Introduction
Faces of Islam: Perspectives on a Resurgent Civilization (Gainesville: Florida Univer-
sity Press, 2000), part IV.
47 There is no need to state that Orientalism here is meant in its Saidian sense, i.e. the
body of knowledge produced by the “West” about especially the Arab-­Islamic East
from a centrist, hegemonic, and biased angle; Edward Said, Orientalism (New York:
Pantheon Books, 1978).
48 Jocelyne Cesari, “Islam in the West: From Immigration to Global Islam,” Harvard
Middle Eastern and Islamic Review, vol. 8 (2009): 148. Cesari coordinates a major
web portal on Islam in Europe: www.euro-­islam.info.
49 Ibid., 159.
50 Ibid.
51 Maxime Rodinson, Europe and the Mystique of Islam, trans. Roger Veinus (1980;
London and New York: I.B. Tauris, 1987), 99–104.
52 Sophia Rose Arjana, Muslims in the Western Imagination (Oxford and New York:
Oxford University Press, 2015).
53 The Swedish theologian Goran Larsson calls for studying Muslims as any other
minority, and proposes comparative religious studies for a better, unbiased, under-
standing of religiosity among Muslims, and Islam in the modern world. Goran Larssen,
“The Study of Islam and Muslims in Europe: A Critical Evaluation” (review essay),
2008: http://imiscoe.socsci.uva.nl/publications/workingpapers/documents/Commentsby
GoranLarssonGoteborgUniversity.pdf.
54 Over the last seven years, I have taken part in a number of workshops and conferences
around Western Europe, and I have noticed that there is a growing tendency among a
number of scholars to agree on “finishing” with studying Islam as a security issue/threat
for Europe, and to distance themselves from the political and media rhetoric. Birgitte
Schepelern Johansen and Riem Spielhaus found out that polling of Muslims in Europe
is often flawed methodologically; among the findings of their work, which studies a
number of polls produced in various European countries, are the following: the manner
in which questions are posed by the pollers (sociologists) focuses on particular “contro-
versial” issues of religious practices (like violence, terrorism, and polygamy); some-
times the informants are not given choices in answering questions, and are bound to
answer “yes” or “no” though the question may have other answer options; some confu-
sion of religious sects and names is detected, which shows lack of knowledge on the
religion that is being investigated; moral issues of religion are hardly investigated; and
focus is put on the issues that are politically and “mediatically” controversial; Brigitte S.
Johansen and Riem Spielhaus, “Counting Deviance: Revisiting a Decade’s Production
of Surveys among Muslims in Western Europe,” Journal of Muslims in Europe, vol. 1,
no. 1 (2012): 81–112. On the media representation of Muslims in Europe, see for
example Wasif Shadid and Pieter S. van Koningsveld, “The Negative Image of Islam
and Muslims in the West: Causes and Solutions,” in Shadid and van Koningsveld, eds.,
Religious Freedom and the Neutrality of the State: The Position of Islam in the Euro-
pean Union (Leuven: Peeters, 2002), 174–196; for a specific country sample, see
Andreas Zick and Jörg Heeren, “Muslims in the European Mediaspace” (London: Insti-
tute for Strategic Dialogue, German Report, 2011), www.strategicdialogue.org/Muslim_
Media_Report_-_German_Academic2.pdf.
55 Jocelyne Cesari, Why the West Fears Islam: An Exploration of Muslims in Liberal
Democracies (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013).
56 Angelika Neuwirth, “Orientalism in Oriental Studies? Qur’anic Studies as a Case in
Point,” Journal of Qur’anic Studies, vol. 9, no. 2 (2007): 115–227; for more on this
see the introductory chapter of Angelika Neuwirth, Nicolai Sinai, and Michael Marx,
eds., The Quran in Context: Historical and Literary Investigations into the Quranic
Miliu (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2010), 1–25.
57 Massimo Campanini, L’Islam: religione dell’occidente [Islam: Religion of the West]
(Milano: Mimesis, 2016), 9.
Introduction   27
58 A fundamentalist (usūlī in Arabic) is classically one who goes back to or refers to the
fundamental sources of the tradition (Qur’an, Sunna, and consensus) and to the Salaf,
the companions of the Prophet and their successors. Now, “fundamentalist” is often
used as an equivalent to “radical” and/or “violent extremist.”
59 I treat this in detail elsewhere: Mohammed Hashas, “Does European Islam Think?” in
Niels Valdemar Vinding, Egdunas Racius, and Jorn Thielmann, eds., Exploring the
Multitude of Muslims in Europe: Essays in Honour of Jørgen S. Nielsen (Leiden:
Brill, 2018), 35–49. Khalid Hajji, a scholar and a figure of institutions in the field of
Islam in/and Europe, warns that labels like “European Islam” may be used for
different purposes: “The Risks and Challenges of Europeanizing Islam,” Sharq
Forum, December 7, 2015, www.sharqforum.org/2015/12/07/the-­risks-and-­
challenges-of-­europeanizing-islam/.
60 Olivier Roy, Vers un islam européen [Towards a European Islam] (Paris: Esprit,
1999), 89, 90, 91.
61 Olivier Roy, Globalized Islam: The Search for a New Ummah (New York: Columbia
University Press, 2004), 31, 35.
62 Olivier Roy, La sainte ignorance: le temps de la religion sans culture [Sacred Igno-
rance: The Age of Religion without Culture] (Paris: Seuil, 2008), 189.
63 Roy, Globalized Islam, 335–337.
64 Ibid., 31.
65 Ibid., 30–31.
66 He says: “Theological aggiornamento is not a prerequisite for the emergence of a
liberal Islam in practice but will probably be able to give it theological legitimacy
after the fact.” Secularism Confronts Islam (New York: Columbia University Press,
2007), 98–99. This is reiterated in a recent article, where Roy says that the Muslims’
new forms of religiosity “will soon [sic] or later produce their own theological updat-
ing.” In “Secularism and Islam: The Theological Predicament,” International Spec-
tator: Italian Journal of International Affairs, vol. 48, no. 1 (2013): 18.
67 Asad, “The Idea of an Anthropology of Islam,” 8.
68 Jytte Klausen conducted 300 interviews with Muslim association leaders, politicians,
businessmen, and intellectuals in seven European countries (Sweden, Denmark, Neth-
erlands, Great Britain, France, and Germany) between 2003 and 2005, and arrived at
the conclusion that there is an emerging European Islam. In her data analysis, and in a
comment on Roy, she sociologically states what I am arguing for in this work theor-
etically theologically. She says 
I have more fundamental disagreements with Roy. He sees no evidence of any
serious rethinking of religious dogma among European Muslims. I am convinced,
on the contrary, that a “European Islam” is emerging upon a new epistemology of
faith and a new hermeneutics of textual interpretation.
Jytte Klausen, The Islamic Challenge: Politics and Religion in Western Europe
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), 204–205.
69 For example, in La Construction de l’islam européen: approche socio-­
anthropologique [The Construction of European Islam: A Socio-­Anthropological
Approach] (Paris and Montreal: L’Harmattan, 1996), Felice Dassetto recognizes a
“growing new Islamic rhetoric” – meaning a religious discourse that tackles theologi-
cal matters – which makes of Western Europe “a land of Islam.” In Discours musul-
mans contemporains [Contemporary Muslim Discourses] (Louvain-­la-Neuve:
Éditions Académia, 2011), he includes Europe as a field which is experiencing diverse
Islamic intellectual dynamisms. Jørgen S. Nielsen is an important figure amid a
network of scholars on Muslims in Europe who has edited a journal and a yearbook
on Muslims in Europe since 2009; e.g. Oliver Scharbrodt, Samim Akgonul, Ahmet
Alibasic, Jørgen S. Nielsen, and Egdunas Racius, eds., Yearbook of Muslims in
Europe, vol. 9 (Leiden: Brill, 2017). Overall, this research network and its findings
28   Introduction
are in line with the idea that there is a European Islam that expresses itself differently,
as socio-­anthropological and institutional data shows in the various issues and edi-
tions of the journal and yearbook. See also Cesari, When Islam and Democracy Meet,
op. cit.; Cesari, ed., The Oxford Handbook of European Islam (Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2015).
Some more scholarly affinities include the works of Stefano Allievi, Brigitte
Maréchal, Thijl Sunier, and John R. Bowen, to name but a few: Stefano Allievi,
Musulmani d’Occidente: Tendenze dell’Islam europeo [Muslims of the West: Trends
in European Islam] (Roma: Carocci, 2002); Brigitte Maréchal, Stefano Allievi, Felice
Dassetto, and Jorgen Nielsen, eds., Muslims in the Enlarged Europe: Religion and
Society (Leiden: Brill, 2003); John R. Bowen, Can Islam Be French? Pluralism and
Pragmatism in a Secularist State (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010).
The Europeanization of Islamic representative bodies and the normalization of
their integration within their European context is well chronicled in the historical-­
sociological work of Jonathan Laurence, The Emancipation of Europe’s Muslims: The
State’s Role in Minority Integration (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press,
2012); and Mario Peucker and Rauf Ceylan, eds., Muslim Community Organizations
in the West: History, Developments, and Future Perspectives (Wiesbaden: Springer,
2017). As to dealing with Islam in the West in general from a theoretical perspective,
with reference to works written by scholars of Muslim background in philosophy,
theology, politics, psychoanalysis, and literature, this is especially done recently in
these two works: Chi-­Chung Yu, Thinking between Islam and the West: The Thoughts
of Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Bassam Tibi and Tariq Ramadan (Bern: Peter Lang, 2014);
Dilyana Mincheva, The Politics of Muslim Intellectual Discourse in the West: The
Emergence of a Western-­Islamic Public Sphere (Eastbourne: Sussex Academic Press,
2017).
70 Nielsen, Towards a European Islam, 10.
71 Nielsen, Muslims in Western Europe, 3rd ed. (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press,
2004), 172.
72 Nielsen, “The Question of Euro-­Islam: Restriction or Opportunity?” in Aziz Al-­
Azmeh and Effie Fokas, eds., Islam in Europe: Diversity, Identity, and Influence
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 34.
73 Nielsen, “Foreword,” in Tariq Ramadan, To Be a European Muslim (Leicester:
Islamic Foundation, 1999), xi–xiv.
74 Ibid., xi–xiv.
75 Richard W. Bulliet, The Case for Islamo-­Christian Civilization, 139–141; Bulliet,
Islam: The View from the Edge (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993).
76 By “theosophic approach” I mean “theological philosophy” or “rational theology,”
and not only the Eastern and Islamic mystic tradition. I clarify my note when intro-
ducing the work of Bidar.
77 The terms are types of “justification” that a particular doctrine is compatible with the
concept of the political. Reasoning from a “declaration” position is a view conveyed
by a believer, from within; that is, he belongs to this doctrine, as is the case with a
Muslim believer or scholar who gives justifications for the compatibility of his reli-
gion with the political concept of “justice as fairness.” As to reasoning from “conjec-
ture,” it is carried out from outside, by someone not believing in or a member of this
doctrine, as is the case with a non-­Muslim scholar who presents Islam as compatible
with the concept. John Rawls, “The Idea of Public Reason Revisited,” University of
Chicago Law Review, vol. 64, no. 3 (Summer 1997): 765–807.
78 This form of inquisition that the school went through was a reaction, a result, since the
political regime aimed at establishing the Muʻtazila tenets, especially the idea of the
“createdness of the Qur’an,” by force, and after about three decades, the dominant
Ashʻari school came back and retaliated by fully marginalizing it. Since then, the
Ashʻaria, which adopts Divine Command Theory in approaching reason and revelation,
Introduction   29
has dominated the Islamic thought and political regimes that govern most Muslim-­
majority countries. This may be the reason that majority Muslim scholars have ever
since avoided affiliating themselves to the rationalist Muʻtazila for fear of being called
“apostates” or “deviants.” However, resort to this rational tradition has attracted schol-
arly attention for the last two centuries of search for reform and change.
79 There is a tendency to see kalam differently from Christian theology; the latter deals
mainly with the attributes of God and salvation, and the former, kalam, includes both
theological and philosophical debates; it does not deal only with issues of divinity and
salvation, it also deals with secular issues that general (secular) philosophy deals with.
That is, the mutakallimūn, practitioners of kalam, were both theologians and philo-
sophers. When I say “Islamic theology,” then, I mean kalam, with its rational tradi-
tion. With this definition I follow the views of George Hourani’s Reason and
Tradition in Islamic Ethics (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press,
1985), Majid Fakhry’s Ethical Theories in Islam (Leiden: Brill, 1991), and Mariam
Al-­Attar’s Islamic Ethics: Divine Command Theory in Arabo-­Islamic Thought
(Oxford and New York: Routledge, 2010). More on kalam in Chapter 5.
80 Jakob Skovgaard-­Petersen and Bettina Graf, eds., The Global Mufti: The Phenomenon
of Yusuf al-­Qaradawi (New York: Columbia University Press, 2009).
81 In 2011, for example, the 38 members of the scholarly committee were from the fol-
lowing countries: Qatar, Lebanon, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Mauritania, Egypt, Kuwait,
UAE, Pakistan, Germany, Norway, Belgium, UK, Ireland, France, Spain, Bosnia-­
Herzegovina, Switzerland, Netherlands, USA, and Canada. The European Council for
Fatwa and Research, December 2017, www.e-­cfr.org/en.
82 Two texts are well read on minority jurisprudence ( fiqh al-­aqalliyyāt): Yusuf Al-­
Qaradawi, fī fiqh al-­aqalliyyāt al-­muslima [On the Jurisprudence of Muslim Minor-
ities] (Nasr: Dār Al-­shurūq, 2001); Taha Jabir al-­Alwani, Towards a Fiqh for
Minorities (London and Washington, DC: International Institute of Islamic Thought,
2003).
83 The issuing of fatwas is done in a scholarly manner; scholars study the issues raised
by ordinary Muslims, in light of the traditional sources, and in consultation with Euro-
pean Muslim experts in the field concerned, e.g. health, economy, family issues. In
one case of a woman who converted to Islam, but whose husband remained non-­
Muslim, and the question of whether she should stay with him or ask for divorce, the
Council discussed the case for two years, and at the end it issued a fatwa allowing the
woman concerned to stay with her non-­Muslim husband to protect the family from
division. Alexandro Caeiro, “Transnational Ulama, European Fatwas, and Islamic
Authority,” in Martin van Bruinessen and Stefano Allievi, eds., Producing Islamic
Knowledge: Transmission and Dissemination in Western Europe (London and New
York: Routledge, 2011), 121–141.
84 Abdel Majid Annajar, fiqh al-­muwātana li al-­muslimīna fī ūrupā [Citizenship Juris-
prudence for Muslims in Europe] (Dublin: ECFR, 2009), 77–88.
85 Abdullah Ben Youssef Al-­Judai, taqsīm al-­maʻmūra fī al-­fiqh al-­islāmī wa aṯaruhu fī
al-­wāqiʻ [World Division in Islamic Jurisprudence and its Actual Impacts] (Dublin:
ECFR, 2007), chapters 3, 4, and 5.
86 Hussam Shaker, muslimū ūrupā wa al-­mushāraka assiyāssiya [Muslims of Europe
and Political Participation] (Dublin: ECFR, 2007), chapters 1, 7, and 8; Faysal
Mawlawi, al-­muslimu muwātinan fī ūrupā [The Muslim as a Citizen in Europe] (n.p.:
al-­ittiḥād al-­’ālamī lil ‘ulamā’ al-­muslimīn, 2008), chapters 3 and 4.
87 Jasser Auda, trained in al-­Azhar and now based mostly between Europe and Canada,
is charting a different approach compared with his colleagues in the ECFR; his latest
works demonstrate a closer consideration of Europe as an Islamic land, and not as a
land of minority presence, though he does not use terms like “European Islam”: Jasser
Auda, Maqasid al-­Shariah as Philosophy of Islamic Law: A Systems Approach
(Herndon, VI, and London: IIIT, 2016); Jasser Auda, ed., Rethinking Islamic Law for
30   Introduction
Minorities: Towards a Western-­Muslim Identity, n.d., www.jasserauda.net/new/pdf/
kamil_fiqh_alaqalliyaat.pdf.
88 Majlis-­e-Ulama-­e-Shia (Europe), https://majlis.org.uk; the Turkish/Anatolian Alevis,
who are of Shiʻite origin, are religious, and have found ways to receive recognition in
Germany where they make up a large community; Krisztina Kehl-­Bordogi, “Alevis in
Germany On the Way to Public Recognition?” ISIM Newsletter, 8/01, (n.d.), 9,
https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/bitstream/handle/1887/17497/ISIM_8_Alevis_in_
Germany_On_the_Way_to_Public_Recognition.pdf?sequence=1. The work of the top
Iraqi Shiʻite cleric Marje Ayyatollah Ali al-­Hussaini al-­Sistani (b. 1930) has a wide
circulation among some Shiʻa Muslims in the West, which reflects the hierarchy of
religious authority in the Shiʻa tradition, which the Sunnis do not have; he urges them
to obey the laws of the countries they reside in: A Code of Conduct for Muslims in the
West (n.p.: Freebooks, 2012). Part I of the book focuses on migration (hijra) to non-­
Islamic lands.
89 Reza Gholami, Secularism and Identity: Non-­Islamiosity in the Iranian Diaspora
(London and New York: Routledge, 2015).
90 These scholars do not necessarily speak as Shi‘a religious scholars, but as scholars of
Islam (with a Shi‘a background); prominent names include: Seyyed Hossein Nasr,
Omid Safi, Hamid Dabashi, Ziba Mir-­Hosseini (between the UK and US), Nader
Hashemi, Reza Aslan, Abdolkarim Soroush, and Mohsen Kadivar; the last two are in
(self-)exile, for their critique of the regime of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
91 For the categories of salafis, see Roel Mejer, ed., Global Salafism: Islam’s New Reli-
gious Movement (New York: Columbia University Press, 2009). For violent or
militant salafism, see Frazer Egerton, Jihad in the West: The Rise of Militant Salafism
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011).
92 For example, the academic work of the Pakistani-­British scholar Mona Siddiqui does
not fit the theme of this work; her biography, however, may be part of a different
genre of study of texts written by European Muslims; My Way: A Muslim Woman’s
Journey (London and New York: I.B. Tauris, 2015). Other female activists and
leaders of mosque congregations in Europe, like Halima Krausen in Germany and
Sherin Khankan in Denmark, have not yet left us relevant and abundant texts to study.
93 Cesari, When Islam and Democracy Meet, 173.
94 Tariq Modood, “Moderate Secularism and Multiculturalism,” Political Studies Associ-
ation, Politics, vol. 29, no. 1 (2009): 71–76. For the debate on French secularism and
“French exceptionalism” read, for instance, Maurice Barbier’s article, which was
translated into a number of languages, “Towards a Definition of French Secularism,”
Le Débat, no. 134, March–April 2005, www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/IMG/pdf/0205-
Barbier-­GB.pdf; Talal Asad, “Trying to Understand French Secularism,” in Hent de
Vries and Lawrence E. Sullivan, eds., Political Theologies: Public Religions in a
Post-­Secular World (New York: Fordham University Press, 2006), 494–526.

References
Abbas, Tahir, ed. Islamic Political Radicalism: A European Perspective. Edinburgh:
Edinburgh University Press, 2007.
Abderrahmane, Taha. rūḥu addīn [The Spirit of Religion]. Beirut and Casablanca: al-­
markaz al-­ṯaqāfī al-ʻarabī, 2012.
Abou El Fadl, Khaled. Reasoning with God: Reclaiming Sharia in the Modern Age.
Lanham, MD, and New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2014.
Abu Rabi‘, Ibrahim. Contemporary Arab Thought: Studies in Post-­1967 Arab Intellectual
History. London: Pluto, 2004.
Agai, Bekim, Umar Ryad, and Mehdi Sajid, eds. Muslims in Interwar Europe: A Tran-
scultural Historical Perspective. Leiden: Brill, 2015.
Introduction   31
Ahmad, Irfan. Religion as Critique: Islamic Critical Thinking from Mecca to Market-
place. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2017.
Ahmed, Shahab. What Is Islam? The Importance of Being Islamic. Princeton, NJ: Prince-
ton University Press, 2015.
Al-­Alwani, Taha Jabir. Towards a Fiqh for Minorities. London and Washington, DC:
International Institute of Islamic Thought, 2003.
Al-­Attar, Mariam. Islamic Ethics: Divine Command Theory in Arabo-­Islamic Thought.
Oxford and New York: Routledge, 2010.
Al-­Judai, Abdullah Ben Youssef. taqsīm al-­maʻmūra fī al-­fiqh al-­islāmī wa aṯaruhu fī al-­wāqiʻ
[World Division in Islamic Jurisprudence and its Actual Impacts]. Dublin: ECFR, 2007.
Al-­Qaradawi, Yusuf. fī fiqh al-­aqalliyyāt al-­muslima [On the Jurisprudence of Muslim
Minorities]. Nasr: dār al-­shurūq, 2001.
Al-­Sistani, Ayyatollah Ali al-­Hussaini. A Code of Conduct for Muslims in the West. n.p.:
Freebooks, 2012.
Allievi, Stefano. Musulmani d’Occidente: Tendenze dell’Islam europeo [Muslims of the
West: Trends in European Islam]. Roma: Carocci, 2002.
Allievi, Stefano. “The International Dimension.” In Brigitte Maréchal, Stefano Allievi,
Felice Dassetto and Jorgen Nielsen, eds., Muslims in the Enlarged Europe: Religion
and Society. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2003, 449–488.
Amghar, Samir, Amel Boubekeur, and Michael Emerson, eds. European Islam: Challenges
for Public Policy and Society. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies, 2007.
An-­Na‘im, Abdullahi A. Islam and the Secular State: Negotiating the Future of Shariʻa.
Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard University Press, 2008.
An-­Na‘im, Abdullahi A. What Is an Amer­ican Muslim? Embracing Faith and Citizen-
ship. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.
Annajar, Abdel Majid. fiqh al-­muwātana li al-­muslimīna fī ūrupā [Citizenship Jurispru-
dence for Muslims in Europe]. Dublin: ECFR, 2009.
Arjana, Sophia Rose. Muslims in the Western Imagination. Oxford and New York:
Oxford University Press, 2015.
Asad, Talal. “The Idea of an Anthropology of Islam.” Occasional Paper. Georgetown
University Center for Contemporary Arab Studies (1986): 1–22.
Asad, Talal. “Trying to Understand French Secularism.” In Hent de Vries and Lawrence
E. Sullivan, eds., Political Theologies: Public Religions in a Post-­Secular World. New
York: Fordham University Press, 2006, 494–526.
Auda, Jasser. Maqasid al-­Shariah as Philosophy of Islamic Law: A Systems Approach.
Herndon, VI, and London: IIIT, 2016.
Auda, Jasser, ed. Rethinking Islamic Law for Minorities: Towards a Western-­Muslim
Identity. n.d., www.jasserauda.net/new/pdf/kamil_fiqh_alaqalliyaat.pdf.
Aydin, Cemil. The Idea of the Muslim World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Press, 2017.
Barbier, Maurice. “Towards a Definition of French Secularism.” Le Débat, no. 134,
March–April 2005, www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/IMG/pdf/0205-Barbier-­GB.pdf.
Barrett, Paul M. Amer­ican Islam: The Struggle for the Soul of a Religion. New York:
Picador, 2006.
Bauer, Thomas. ṯaqāfat al-­iltibās: naḥwa tārīḫin āḫar lil-­islām [The Culture of Ambigu-
ity: An Alternative History of Islam]. Beirut and Baghdad: manshūrāt al-­ǧamal, 2017.
Bauman, Zygmunt. Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity, 2000.
Bauman, Zygmunt. Does Ethics Have a Chance in a World of Consumers? Cambridge,
MA, and London: Harvard University Press, 2008.
32   Introduction
Benzine, Rachdi. Les nouveaux penseurs de l’islam [The New Thinkers of Islam]. Paris:
Albin Michel, 2008.
Berger, Maurits S. A Brief History of Islam in Europe: Thirteen Centuries of Creed, Con-
flict and Coexistence. Leiden: Leiden University Press, 2014.
Bougarel, Xavier. “Balkan Muslim Diasporas and the Idea of a ‘European Islam.’ ” In
Tomislav Dulić, , Roland Kostic, Ivana Macek, and Jasenka Trtak, eds., Balkan Cur-
rents: Essays in Honour of Kjell Magnusson, Uppsala Multiethnic Papers, no. 49.
Uppsala: Centre for Multiethnic Research, Uppsala University, 2005, 147–165.
Bougarel, Xavier. “The Role of Balkan Muslims in Building a European Islam.” EPC
Issue Paper, no. 43. Brussels: European Policy Centre, 2005.
Bowen, John R. Can Islam Be French? Pluralism and Pragmatism in a Secularist State.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010.
Bulliet, Richard W. Islam: The View from the Edge. New York: Columbia University
Press, 1993.
Bulliet, Richard W. The Case for Islamo-­Christian Civilization. New York: Columbia
University Press, 2004.
Caeiro, Alexandro. “Transnational Ulama, European Fatwas, and Islamic Authority.” In
Martin van Bruinessen and Stefano Allievi, eds., Producing Islamic Knowledge: Trans-
mission and Dissemination in Western Europe. London and New York: Routledge,
2011, 121–141.
Campanini, Massimo. Il pensiero islamico contemporaneo [Contemporary Islamic
Thought]. Originally Published 2009. Bologna: Il Mulino, 2016.
Campanini, Massimo. L’Islam: religione dell’occidente [Islam: Religion of the West].
Milano: Mimesis, 2016.
Casanova, José. “The Secular, Secularizations, Secularisms.” In Craig Calhoun, Mark
Juergensmeyer, and Jonathan van Antwerpen, eds., Rethinking Secularism. New York:
Oxford University Press, 2011, 54–73.
Cesari, Jocelyne. When Islam and Democracy Meet: Muslims in Europe and in the United
States. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
Cesari, Jocelyne. “Islam in the West: From Immigration to Global Islam.” Harvard
Middle Eastern and Islamic Review, vol. 8 (2009): 148–175.
Cesari, Jocelyne. “The Securitisation of Islam in Europe.” Challenge Research Paper, no.
14. Brussels Centre for European Policy Studies, April 2009, 1–14.
Cesari, Jocelyne. Why the West Fears Islam: An Exploration of Muslims in Liberal Demo-
cracies. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
Cesari, Jocelyne, ed. The Oxford Handbook of European Islam. Oxford: Oxford Univer-
sity Press, 2015.
Chaudary, Amina. “Face to Face with Bernard Lewis.” Islamic Monthly, June 17, 2012,
http://theislamicmonthly.com/face-­to-face-­with-bernard-­lewis/.
Dabashi, Hamid. Being a Muslim in the World. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
Dassetto, Felice. La Construction de l’Islam européen: approche socio-­anthropologique
[The Construction of European Islam: Socio-­anthropological Approach]. Paris and
Montreal: L’Harmattan, 1996.
Dassetto, Felice, ed. Discours musulmans contemporains: diversité et cadrages [Con-
temporary Muslim Discourses: Diversity and Orientations]. Louvain-­la-Neuve: Édi-
tions Académia, 2011.
Duderija, Adis. The Imperatives of Progressive Islam. New York: Routledge, 2017.
Egerton, Frazer. Jihad in the West: The Rise of Militant Salafism. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2011.
Introduction   33
Emerson, Michael, and Richard Youngs, eds. Political Islam and European Foreign
Policy. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies, 2007.
Esposito, John L., and John O. Voll, eds. Makers of Contemporary Islam. Oxford and
New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
European Council for Fatwa and Research. Website, www.e-­cfr.org/en.
Fakhry, Majid. Ethical Theories in Islam. Leiden: Brill, 1991.
Filali-­Ansari, Abdou. Réformer l’islam? Une introduction aux débats contemporains [Reform-
ing Islam? An Introduction to Contemporary Debates]. Paris: La Découverte, 2005.
Gholami, Reza. Secularism and Identity: Non-­Islamiosity in the Iranian Diaspora.
London and New York: Routledge, 2015.
Goldziher, Ignaz. Introduction to Islamic Theology and Law. Trans. Andras and Ruth
Hamori. Introd. Bernard Lewis. Originally published 1910. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
University Press, 1981.
Hajji, Khalid. “The Risks and Challenges of Europeanizing Islam.” Sharq Forum,
December 7, 2015, www.sharqforum.org/2015/12/07/the-­risks-and-­challenges-of-­
europeanizing-islam/.
Hallaq, Wael B. The Origins and Evolution of Islamic Law. Cambridge and New York:
Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Hallaq, Wael B. An Introduction to Islamic Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 2009.
Hallaq, Wael B. The Impossible State: Islam, Politics, and Modernity’s Moral Predica-
ment. New York: Columbia University Press, 2013.
Hashas, Mohammed. “On the Idea of European Islam: Voices of Perpetual Modernity.”
PhD Diss., LUISS Guido Carli University, Rome, 2013.
Hashas, Mohammed. “Does European Islam Think?” In Niels Valdemar Vinding,
Egdunas Racius, and Jorn Thielmann, eds., Exploring the Multitude of Muslims in
Europe: Essays in Honour of Jørgen S. Nielsen. Leiden: Brill, 2018, 35–49.
Hellyer, Hisham A. “When the ‘Other’ Becomes ‘Us’: The Future of Muslims and Islam
in Europe.” Comparative Islamic Studies, vol. 2, no. 1 (2006): 67–78.
Hellyer, Hisham A. Muslims of Europe: The “Other” Europeans. Edinburgh: Edinburgh
University Press, 2009.
Hodgson, Marshall G.S. The Venture of Islam, vol. 1: The Classical Age of Islam.
Chicago and London: Chicago University Press, 1977.
Hodgson, Marshall G.S. Rethinking World History: Essays on Europe, Islam, and World
History, ed. Edmund Burke. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University
Press, 1993.
Hourani, Albert. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age, 1798–1939. Originally published
1962. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
Hourani, Albert. Islam in European Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Hourani, George. Reason and Tradition in Islamic Ethics. Cambridge and New York:
Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Hunter, Shireen, ed. Reformist Voices of Islam: Mediating Islam and Modernity. New
York and London: M.E. Sharpe, 2009.
Huntington, Samuel P. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New
York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.
Ibrahim, Ahmed Fekry. Pragmatism in Islamic Law: A Social and Intellectual History.
New York: Syracuse University Press, 2015.
Iqbal, Muhammad. The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam. London: Oxford
University Press, 1934.
34   Introduction
Johansen, Brigitte S., and Riem Spielhaus. “Counting Deviance: Revisiting a Decade’s
Production of Surveys among Muslims in Western Europe.” Journal of Muslims in
Europe, vol. 1, no. 1 (2012): 81–112.
Kant, Immanuel. “How is Metaphysics in General Possible?” (1783). In Paul Carus, ed.,
Kant’s Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Chicago, IL: Open Court Publishing
Company, 1912, 1–163.
Karčić, Fikret. The Other European Muslims: A Bosnian Perspective. Sarajevo: Center
for Advanced Studies, 2015.
Katarzyna, Górak-Sosnowska., ed. Muslims in Poland and Eastern Europe: Widening the
European Discourse on Islam. Warsaw: University of Warsaw Faculty of Oriental
Studies, 2011.
Kehl-­Bordogi, Krisztina, “Alevis in Germany On the Way to Public Recognition?” ISIM
Newsletter, 8/01 (n.d.): 9, https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/bitstream/handle/1887/17497/
ISIM_8_Alevis_in_Germany_On_the_Way_to_Public_Recognition.pdf?sequence=1.
Keppel, Gilles. The War for Muslim Minds: Islam and the West. Cambridge, MA:
Belknap, 2004.
Keskin, Tugrul, ed. Sociology of Islam: Secularism, Economy, and Politics. Reading:
Ithaca Press, 2011.
Klausen, Jytte. The Islamic Challenge: Politics and Religion in Western Europe. Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 2005.
Kurzman, Charles, ed. Liberal Islam: A Source Book. Oxford and New York: Oxford
University Press, 1998.
Kurzman, Charles, ed. Modernist Islam, 1840–1940: A Source Book. Oxford and New
York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Lahbabi, Mohammed Aziz. Le Personalisme musulman [Muslim Personalism]. Paris:
Presse Universitaire de France, 1964.
Lane, Jan-­Erik, and Hamadi Redissi. Religion and Politics: Islam and Muslim Civiliza-
tion. Surrey and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2009.
Larssen, Goran. “The Study of Islam and Muslims in Europe: A Critical Evaluation.”
(review essay), 2008, http://imiscoe.socsci.uva.nl/publications/workingpapers/documents/
CommentsbyGoranLarssonGoteborgUniversity.pdf.
Laurence, Jonathan. The Emancipation of Europe’s Muslims: The State’s Role in Minority
Integration. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012.
Lewis, Bernard. Islam and the West. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Lewis, Bernard. Europe and Islam. Washington, DC: AEI Press, 2007.
Lewis, Bernard. Faith and Power: Religion and Politics in the Middle East. Oxford and
New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Majlis-­e-Ulama-­e-Shia Europe. Website, https://majlis.org.uk.
Mamdani, Mahmood. “Good Muslim, Bad Muslim: A Political Perspective on Culture
and Terrorism.” Amer­ican Anthropologist, vol. 104, no. 3 (2003): 766–775.
Mamdani, Mahmood. Good Muslim, Bad Muslim: America, the Cold War, and the Roots
of Terror. New York: Three Leaves Press/Doubleday, 2005.
Maréchal, Brigitte, Stefano Allievi, Felice Dassetto, and Jorgen Nielsen, eds. Muslims in
the Enlarged Europe: Religion and Society. Leiden: Brill, 2003.
Marranchi, Gabriel. The Anthropology of Islam. Oxford and New York: Berg, 2008.
Mawlawi, Faysal. al-­muslimu muwātinan fī ūrupā [The Muslim as a Citizen in Europe].
n.p.: al-­ittiḥād al-­’ālamī lil ‘ulamā’ al-­muslimīn, 2008.
Mejer, Roel, ed. Global Salafism: Islam’s New Religious Movement. New York: Colum-
bia University Press, 2009.
Introduction   35
Mincheva, Dilyana. The Politics of Muslim Intellectual Discourse in the West: The Emer-
gence of a Western-­Islamic Public Sphere. Eastbourne: Sussex Academic Press, 2017.
Mirtaheri, Amir. “European Muslims, Secularism and the Legacy of Colonialism,” Euro-
pean Journal of Economic and Political Studies EJEPS, vol. 3 (2010): 73–86.
Modood, Tariq. “Moderate Secularism and Multiculturalism.” Political Studies Associ-
ation, Politics, vol. 29, no. 1 (2009): 71–76.
Mojlum Khan, Muhammad. Great Muslims of the West: Makers of Western Islam. Mark-
field, LE: Kube Publishing Ltd, 2017.
Neuwirth, Angelika. “Orientalism in Oriental Studies? Qur’anic Studies as a Case in
Point.” Journal of Qur’anic Studies, vol. 9, no. 2 (2007): 115–127.
Neuwirth, Angelika, Nicolai Sinai, and Michael Marx, eds. The Quran in Context: Histor-
ical and Literary Investigations into the Quranic Miliu. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2010.
Nielsen, Jørgen S. Towards a European Islam. London and New York: Palgrave Macmil-
lan, 1999.
Nielsen, Jørgen S. Muslims in Western Europe. 3rd ed. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University
Press, 2004.
Nielsen, Jørgen S. “The Question of Euro-­Islam: Restriction or Opportunity?” In Aziz
Al-­Azmeh and Effie Fokas, eds., Islam in Europe: Diversity, Identity, and Influence.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007, 34–48.
O’Brien, Peter. The Muslim Question in Europe: Political Controversies and Public
Philosophies. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2016.
Parekh, Phikhu. “European Liberalism and the Muslim Question.” ISIM Paper, no. 9.
Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2008.
Peucker, Mario, and Rauf Ceylan, eds. Muslim Community Organizations in the West:
History, Developments, and Future Perspectives. Wiesbaden: Springer, 2017.
Racius, Egdunas. Muslims in Eastern Europe. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2018.
Ramadan, Tariq. To Be a European Muslim. Foreword Jørgen S. Nielsen. Leicester:
Islamic Foundation, 1999.
Rawls, John. “The Idea of Public Reason Revisited.” University of Chicago Law Review,
vol. 64, no. 3 (Summer 1997): 765–807.
Reinhart, Kevin. “Islamic Law as Islamic Ethics.” Journal of Religious Ethics, vol. 11,
no. 2 (Fall 1983): 186–203.
Rejwan, Nissim. The Many Faces of Islam: Perspectives on a Resurgent Civilization.
Gainesville: Florida University Press, 2000.
Rodinson, Maxime. Europe and the Mystique of Islam. Trans. Roger Veinus. Originally
published 1980. London and New York: I.B. Tauris, 1987.
Roy, Olivier. Vers un islam européen [Towards a European Islam]. Paris: Esprit, 1999.
Roy, Olivier. Globalized Islam: The Search for a New Ummah. New York: Columbia
University Press, 2004.
Roy, Olivier. Secularism Confronts Islam. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.
Roy, Olivier. La sainte ignorance: le temps de la religion sans culture [Sacred Ignorance:
The Age of Religion without Culture]. Paris: Seuil, 2008.
Roy, Olivier. “Secularism and Islam: The Theological Predicament.” International Spec-
tator: Italian Journal of International Affairs, vol. 48, no. 1 (2013): 5–19.
Said, Edward. Orientalism. New York: Pantheon Books, 1978.
Salvatore, Armando. The Sociology of Islam: Knowledge, Power and Civility. Malden,
MA, and Oxford: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2016.
Schacht, Joseph. An Introduction to Islamic Law. Originally published 1964. Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 1983.
36   Introduction
Scharbrodt, Oliver, Samim Akgonul, Ahmet Alibasic, Jørgen S. Nielsen, and Egdunas
Racius, eds. Yearbook of Muslims in Europe, vol. 9. Leiden: Brill, 2017.
Shadid, Wasif, and Pieter S. van Koningsveld. “The Negative Image of Islam and
Muslims in the West: Causes and Solutions.” In Shadid and van Koningsveld, eds.,
Religious Freedom and the Neutrality of the State: The Position of Islam in the Euro-
pean Union. Leuven: Peeters, 2002, 174–196.
Shaker, Hussam. muslimū ūrupā wa al-­mushāraka assiyāssiya [Muslims of Europe and
Political Participation]. Dublin: ECFR, 2007.
Shariati, Ali. On the Sociology of Islam. Trans. Hamid Algar. Berkeley, CA: Mizan
Press, 1979.
Shayegan, Daryush. Cultural Schizophrenia: Islamic Societies Confronting the West.
New York: Syracuse University Press, 1997.
Siddiqui, Mona. My Way: A Muslim Woman’s Journey. London and New York: I.B.
Tauris, 2015.
Sinno, Abdulkader H., ed. Muslims in Western Politics. Bloomington and Indianapolis:
Indiana University Press, 2009.
Skovgaard-­Petersen, Jakob, and Bettina Graf, eds. The Global Mufti: The Phenomenon of
Yusuf al-­Qaradawi. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.
Smith, Jane I., and Yvonne Y. Haddad, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Amer­ican Islam.
Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.
Soroush, Abdolkarim. The Expansion of Prophetic Experience: Essays on Historicity,
Contingency and Plurality in Religion. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2009.
Taylor, Charles. A Secular Age. Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard University
Press, 2007.
Watt, William Montgomery. Islamic Revelation in the Modern World. Edinburgh: Edin-
burgh University Press, 1969.
Westerlund, David, and Ingvar Svanberg, eds. Islam in the West, 4 vols. Abingdon:
Routledge, 2010.
Yu, Chi-­Chung. Thinking between Islam and the West: The Thoughts of Seyyed Hossein
Nasr, Bassam Tibi and Tariq Ramadan. Bern: Peter Lang, 2014.
Zaman, Muhammad Qasim. Modern Islamic Thought in a Radical Age: Religious Author-
ity and Internal Criticism. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University
Press, 2012.
Zick, Andreas, and Jörg Heeren. “Muslims in the European Mediaspace.” London: Insti-
tute for Strategic Dialogue, German Report, 2011, www.strategicdialogue.org/Muslim_
Media_Report_-_German_Academic2.pdf.
References

Introduction: from Islam in Europe to


European Islam

Ahmad, Irfan. Religion as Critique: Islamic Critical


Thinking from Mecca to Marketplace. Chapel Hill: University
of North Carolina Press, 2017.

Ahmed, Shahab. What Is Islam? The Importance of Being


Islamic. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2015.

Al- Alwani, Taha Jabir. Towards a Fiqh for Minorities.


London and Washington, DC: International Institute of
Islamic Thought, 2003.

Al- Attar, Mariam. Islamic Ethics: Divine Command Theory in


Arabo- Islamic Thought. Oxford and New York: Routledge,
2010.

Al- Judai, Abdullah Ben Youssef. taqsīm al- maʻmūra fī al-


fiqh al- islāmī wa aṯaruhu fī al- wāqiʻ [World Division in
Islamic Jurisprudence and its Actual Impacts]. Dublin:
ECFR, 2007.

Al- Qaradawi, Yusuf. fī fiqh al- aqalliyyāt al- muslima [On


the Jurisprudence of Muslim Minorities]. Nasr: dār al-
shurūq, 2001.

Al- Sistani, Ayyatollah Ali al- Hussaini. A Code of Conduct


for Muslims in the West. n.p.: Freebooks, 2012.

Allievi, Stefano. Musulmani d’Occidente: Tendenze


dell’Islam europeo [Muslims of the West: Trends in
European Islam]. Roma: Carocci, 2002.

Allievi, Stefano. “The International Dimension.” In


Brigitte Maréchal, Stefano Allievi, Felice Dassetto and
Jorgen Nielsen, eds., Muslims in the Enlarged Europe:
Religion and Society. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2003,
449–488.

Amghar, Samir, Amel Boubekeur, and Michael Emerson, eds.


European Islam: Challenges for Public Policy and Society.
Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies, 2007.

An- Na‘im, Abdullahi A. Islam and the Secular State:


Negotiating the Future of Shariʻa. Cambridge, MA, and
London: Harvard University Press, 2008.
An- Na‘im, Abdullahi A. What Is an Amer ican Muslim?
Embracing Faith and Citizenship. New York: Oxford
University Press, 2014.

Annajar, Abdel Majid. fiqh al- muwātana li al- muslimīna fī


ūrupā [Citizenship Jurisprudence for Muslims in Europe].
Dublin: ECFR, 2009.

Arjana, Sophia Rose. Muslims in the Western Imagination.


Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Asad, Talal. “The Idea of an Anthropology of Islam.”


Occasional Paper. Georgetown University Center for
Contemporary Arab Studies (1986): 1–22.

Asad, Talal. “Trying to Understand French Secularism.” In


Hent de Vries and Lawrence E. Sullivan, eds., Political
Theologies: Public Religions in a Post- Secular World. New

York: Fordham University Press, 2006, 494–526.

Auda, Jasser. Maqasid al- Shariah as Philosophy of Islamic


Law: A Systems Approach.

Herndon, VI, and London: IIIT, 2016.

Auda, Jasser, ed. Rethinking Islamic Law for Minorities:


Towards a Western- Muslim Identity. n.d.,
www.jasserauda.net/new/pdf/kamil_fiqh_alaqalliyaat.pdf.

Aydin, Cemil. The Idea of the Muslim World. Cambridge, MA:


Harvard University Press, 2017.

Barbier, Maurice. “Towards a Definition of French


Secularism.” Le Débat, no. 134, March–April 2005,
www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/IMG/pdf/0205-Barbier- GB.pdf.

Barrett, Paul M. Amer ican Islam: The Struggle for the Soul
of a Religion. New York: Picador, 2006.

Bauer, Thomas. ṯaqāfat al- iltibās: naḥwa tārīḫin āḫar lil-


islām [The Culture of Ambigu

ity: An Alternative History of Islam]. Beirut and Baghdad:


manshūrāt al- ǧamal, 2017.

Bauman, Zygmunt. Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity, 2000.

Bauman, Zygmunt. Does Ethics Have a Chance in a World of


Consumers? Cambridge,
MA, and London: Harvard University Press, 2008. Benzine,
Rachdi. Les nouveaux penseurs de l’islam [The New Thinkers
of Islam]. Paris: Albin Michel, 2008. Berger, Maurits S. A
Brief History of Islam in Europe: Thirteen Centuries of
Creed, Conflict and Coexistence. Leiden: Leiden University
Press, 2014. Bougarel, Xavier. “Balkan Muslim Diasporas and
the Idea of a ‘European Islam.’ ” In Tomislav Dulić, ,
Roland Kostic, Ivana Macek, and Jasenka Trtak, eds., Balkan
Currents: Essays in Honour of Kjell Magnusson, Uppsala
Multiethnic Papers, no. 49. Uppsala: Centre for
Multiethnic Research, Uppsala University, 2005, 147–165.
Bougarel, Xavier. “The Role of Balkan Muslims in Building a
European Islam.” EPC Issue Paper, no. 43. Brussels:
European Policy Centre, 2005. Bowen, John R. Can Islam Be
French? Pluralism and Pragmatism in a Secularist State.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010. Bulliet,
Richard W. Islam: The View from the Edge. New York:
Columbia University Press, 1993. Bulliet, Richard W. The
Case for Islamo- Christian Civilization. New York: Columbia
University Press, 2004. Caeiro, Alexandro. “Transnational
Ulama, European Fatwas, and Islamic Authority.” In Martin
van Bruinessen and Stefano Allievi, eds., Producing Islamic
Knowledge: Transmission and Dissemination in Western
Europe. London and New York: Routledge, 2011, 121–141.
Campanini, Massimo. Il pensiero islamico contemporaneo
[Contemporary Islamic Thought]. Originally Published 2009.
Bologna: Il Mulino, 2016. Campanini, Massimo. L’Islam:
religione dell’occidente [Islam: Religion of the West].
Milano: Mimesis, 2016. Casanova, José. “The Secular,
Secularizations, Secularisms.” In Craig Calhoun, Mark
Juergensmeyer, and Jonathan van Antwerpen, eds., Rethinking
Secularism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011,
54–73. Cesari, Jocelyne. When Islam and Democracy Meet:
Muslims in Europe and in the United States. New York:
Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. Cesari, Jocelyne. “Islam in the
West: From Immigration to Global Islam.” Harvard Middle
Eastern and Islamic Review, vol. 8 (2009): 148–175. Cesari,
Jocelyne. “The Securitisation of Islam in Europe.”
Challenge Research Paper, no. 14. Brussels Centre for
European Policy Studies, April 2009, 1–14. Cesari,
Jocelyne. Why the West Fears Islam: An Exploration of
Muslims in Liberal Democracies. New York: Palgrave
Macmillan, 2013. Cesari, Jocelyne, ed. The Oxford Handbook
of European Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.
Chaudary, Amina. “Face to Face with Bernard Lewis.” Islamic
Monthly, June 17, 2012, http://theislamicmonthly.com/face-
to-face- with-bernard- lewis/. Dabashi, Hamid. Being a
Muslim in the World. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
Dassetto, Felice. La Construction de l’Islam européen:
approche socio- anthropologique [The Construction of
European Islam: Socio- anthropological Approach]. Paris and
Montreal: L’Harmattan, 1996. Dassetto, Felice, ed. Discours
musulmans contemporains: diversité et cadrages
[Contemporary Muslim Discourses: Diversity and
Orientations]. Louvain- la-Neuve: Éditions Académia, 2011.
Duderija, Adis. The Imperatives of Progressive Islam. New
York: Routledge, 2017. Egerton, Frazer. Jihad in the West:
The Rise of Militant Salafism. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2011.

Emerson, Michael, and Richard Youngs, eds. Political Islam


and European Foreign Policy. Brussels: Centre for European
Policy Studies, 2007.

Esposito, John L., and John O. Voll, eds. Makers of


Contemporary Islam. Oxford and New York: Oxford University
Press, 2001.

European Council for Fatwa and Research. Website, www.e-


cfr.org/en.

Fakhry, Majid. Ethical Theories in Islam. Leiden: Brill,


1991.

Filali- Ansari, Abdou. Réformer l’islam? Une introduction


aux débats contemporains [Reforming Islam? An Introduction
to Contemporary Debates]. Paris: La Découverte, 2005.

Gholami, Reza. Secularism and Identity: Non- Islamiosity in


the Iranian Diaspora. London and New York: Routledge,
2015.

Goldziher, Ignaz. Introduction to Islamic Theology and Law.


Trans. Andras and Ruth Hamori. Introd. Bernard Lewis.
Originally published 1910. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
University Press, 1981.

Hajji, Khalid. “The Risks and Challenges of Europeanizing


Islam.” Sharq Forum, December 7, 2015,
www.sharqforum.org/2015/12/07/the- risks-and-
challenges-of- europeanizing-islam/.

Hallaq, Wael B. The Origins and Evolution of Islamic Law.


Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Hallaq, Wael B. An Introduction to Islamic Law. Cambridge:


Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Hallaq, Wael B. The Impossible State: Islam, Politics, and


Modernity’s Moral Predicament. New York: Columbia
University Press, 2013.

Hashas, Mohammed. “On the Idea of European Islam: Voices of


Perpetual Modernity.” PhD Diss., LUISS Guido Carli
University, Rome, 2013.

Hashas, Mohammed. “Does European Islam Think?” In Niels


Valdemar Vinding, Egdunas Racius, and Jorn Thielmann,
eds., Exploring the Multitude of Muslims in Europe: Essays
in Honour of Jørgen S. Nielsen. Leiden: Brill, 2018, 35–49.

Hellyer, Hisham A. “When the ‘Other’ Becomes ‘Us’: The


Future of Muslims and Islam in Europe.” Comparative
Islamic Studies, vol. 2, no. 1 (2006): 67–78.

Hellyer, Hisham A. Muslims of Europe: The “Other”


Europeans. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2009.

Hodgson, Marshall G.S. The Venture of Islam, vol. 1: The


Classical Age of Islam. Chicago and London: Chicago
University Press, 1977.

Hodgson, Marshall G.S. Rethinking World History: Essays on


Europe, Islam, and World History, ed. Edmund Burke.
Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Hourani, Albert. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age,


1798–1939. Originally published 1962. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1983.

Hourani, Albert. Islam in European Thought. Cambridge:


Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Hourani, George. Reason and Tradition in Islamic Ethics.


Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Hunter, Shireen, ed. Reformist Voices of Islam: Mediating


Islam and Modernity. New York and London: M.E. Sharpe,
2009.

Huntington, Samuel P. The Clash of Civilizations and the


Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.

Ibrahim, Ahmed Fekry. Pragmatism in Islamic Law: A Social


and Intellectual History. New York: Syracuse University
Press, 2015.

Iqbal, Muhammad. The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in


Islam. London: Oxford University Press, 1934. Johansen,
Brigitte S., and Riem Spielhaus. “Counting Deviance:
Revisiting a Decade’s Production of Surveys among Muslims
in Western Europe.” Journal of Muslims in Europe, vol. 1,
no. 1 (2012): 81–112. Kant, Immanuel. “How is Metaphysics
in General Possible?” (1783). In Paul Carus, ed., Kant’s
Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Chicago, IL: Open
Court Publishing Company, 1912, 1–163. Karčić, Fikret.
The Other European Muslims: A Bosnian Perspective.
Sarajevo: Center for Advanced Studies, 2015. Katarzyna,
Górak-Sosnowska., ed. Muslims in Poland and Eastern Europe:
Widening the European Discourse on Islam. Warsaw:
University of Warsaw Faculty of Oriental Studies, 2011.
Kehl- Bordogi, Krisztina, “Alevis in Germany On the Way to
Public Recognition?” ISIM Newsletter, 8/01 (n.d.): 9,

Mincheva, Dilyana. The Politics of Muslim Intellectual


Discourse in the West: The Emergence of a Western- Islamic
Public Sphere. Eastbourne: Sussex Academic Press, 2017.

Mirtaheri, Amir. “European Muslims, Secularism and the


Legacy of Colonialism,” European Journal of Economic and
Political Studies EJEPS, vol. 3 (2010): 73–86.

Modood, Tariq. “Moderate Secularism and Multiculturalism.”


Political Studies Association, Politics, vol. 29, no. 1
(2009): 71–76.

Mojlum Khan, Muhammad. Great Muslims of the West: Makers of


Western Islam. Markfield, LE: Kube Publishing Ltd, 2017.

Neuwirth, Angelika. “Orientalism in Oriental Studies?


Qur’anic Studies as a Case in Point.” Journal of Qur’anic
Studies, vol. 9, no. 2 (2007): 115–127.

Neuwirth, Angelika, Nicolai Sinai, and Michael Marx, eds.


The Quran in Context: Historical and Literary
Investigations into the Quranic Miliu. Leiden and Boston:
Brill, 2010.

Nielsen, Jørgen S. Towards a European Islam. London and New


York: Palgrave Macmillan, 1999.

Nielsen, Jørgen S. Muslims in Western Europe. 3rd ed.


Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2004.

Nielsen, Jørgen S. “The Question of Euro- Islam:


Restriction or Opportunity?” In Aziz Al- Azmeh and Effie
Fokas, eds., Islam in Europe: Diversity, Identity, and
Influence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007,
34–48.
O’Brien, Peter. The Muslim Question in Europe: Political
Controversies and Public

Philosophies. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2016.

Parekh, Phikhu. “European Liberalism and the Muslim


Question.” ISIM Paper, no. 9.

Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2008.

Peucker, Mario, and Rauf Ceylan, eds. Muslim Community


Organizations in the West:

History, Developments, and Future Perspectives. Wiesbaden:


Springer, 2017.

Racius, Egdunas. Muslims in Eastern Europe. Edinburgh:


Edinburgh University Press, 2018.

Ramadan, Tariq. To Be a European Muslim. Foreword Jørgen S.


Nielsen. Leicester:

Islamic Foundation, 1999.

Rawls, John. “The Idea of Public Reason Revisited.”


University of Chicago Law Review, vol. 64, no. 3 (Summer
1997): 765–807.

Reinhart, Kevin. “Islamic Law as Islamic Ethics.” Journal


of Religious Ethics, vol. 11, no. 2 (Fall 1983): 186–203.

Rejwan, Nissim. The Many Faces of Islam: Perspectives on a


Resurgent Civilization. Gainesville: Florida University
Press, 2000.

Rodinson, Maxime. Europe and the Mystique of Islam. Trans.


Roger Veinus. Originally published 1980. London and New
York: I.B. Tauris, 1987.

Roy, Olivier. Vers un islam européen [Towards a European


Islam]. Paris: Esprit, 1999.

Roy, Olivier. Globalized Islam: The Search for a New Ummah.


New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.

Roy, Olivier. Secularism Confronts Islam. New York:


Columbia University Press, 2007.

Roy, Olivier. La sainte ignorance: le temps de la religion


sans culture [Sacred Ignorance: The Age of Religion
without Culture]. Paris: Seuil, 2008.

Roy, Olivier. “Secularism and Islam: The Theological


Predicament.” International Spectator: Italian Journal of
International Affairs, vol. 48, no. 1 (2013): 5–19.

Said, Edward. Orientalism. New York: Pantheon Books, 1978.

Salvatore, Armando. The Sociology of Islam: Knowledge,


Power and Civility. Malden, MA, and Oxford: John Wiley &
Sons Ltd, 2016.

Schacht, Joseph. An Introduction to Islamic Law. Originally


published 1964. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983.
Scharbrodt, Oliver, Samim Akgonul, Ahmet Alibasic, Jørgen
S. Nielsen, and Egdunas Racius, eds. Yearbook of Muslims
in Europe, vol. 9. Leiden: Brill, 2017. Shadid, Wasif, and
Pieter S. van Koningsveld. “The Negative Image of Islam and
Muslims in the West: Causes and Solutions.” In Shadid and
van Koningsveld, eds., Religious Freedom and the
Neutrality of the State: The Position of Islam in the
European Union. Leuven: Peeters, 2002, 174–196. Shaker,
Hussam. muslimū ūrupā wa al- mushāraka assiyāssiya [Muslims
of Europe and Political Participation]. Dublin: ECFR,
2007. Shariati, Ali. On the Sociology of Islam. Trans.
Hamid Algar. Berkeley, CA: Mizan Press, 1979. Shayegan,
Daryush. Cultural Schizophrenia: Islamic Societies
Confronting the West. New York: Syracuse University Press,
1997. Siddiqui, Mona. My Way: A Muslim Woman’s Journey.
London and New York: I.B. Tauris, 2015. Sinno, Abdulkader
H., ed. Muslims in Western Politics. Bloomington and
Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2009. Skovgaard-
Petersen, Jakob, and Bettina Graf, eds. The Global Mufti:
The Phenomenon of Yusuf al- Qaradawi. New York: Columbia
University Press, 2009. Smith, Jane I., and Yvonne Y.
Haddad, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Amer ican Islam.
Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.
Soroush, Abdolkarim. The Expansion of Prophetic Experience:
Essays on Historicity, Contingency and Plurality in
Religion. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2009. Taylor, Charles.
A Secular Age. Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard
University Press, 2007. Watt, William Montgomery. Islamic
Revelation in the Modern World. Edinburgh: Edinburgh
University Press, 1969. Westerlund, David, and Ingvar
Svanberg, eds. Islam in the West, 4 vols. Abingdon:
Routledge, 2010. Yu, Chi- Chung. Thinking between Islam and
the West: The Thoughts of Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Bassam Tibi
and Tariq Ramadan. Bern: Peter Lang, 2014. Zaman, Muhammad
Qasim. Modern Islamic Thought in a Radical Age: Religious
Authority and Internal Criticism. Cambridge and New York:
Cambridge University Press, 2012. Zick, Andreas, and Jörg
Heeren. “Muslims in the European Mediaspace.” London:
Institute for Strategic Dialogue, German Report, 2011,
www.strategicdialogue.org/Muslim_
Media_Report_-_German_Academic2.pdf.
1 Bassam Tibi: cultural modernity for
religious reform and Euro-Islam

Tibi, Bassam. The Crisis of Modern Islam: A Preindustrial


Culture in the Scientific- Technological Age. Trans. Judith
von Sivers. Salt Lake City: Utah University Press, 1988.

Tibi, Bassam. Islam and the Cultural Accommodation of


Social Change. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990.

Tibi, Bassam. “Islamic Law/Shari‘a, Human Rights, Universal


Morality and International Relations.” Human Rights
Quarterly, vol. 16, no. 2 (May 1994): 277–299.

Tibi, Bassam. “Les conditions d’un ‘euro- islam’ ” [“The


Conditions of a “Euro- Islam’ ”]. In Robert Bistolfi and
Francois Zabbal, eds., Islams d’Europe: integration ou
insertion communautaire? [Islams of Europe: Integration or
Communitarian Insertion?]. Paris: L’Aube, 1995, 230–234.

Tibi, Bassam. Arab Nationalism between Islam and the


Nation- State. Originally Published 1980. Houndmills:
Palgrave Macmillan, 1997.

Tibi, Bassam. The Challenge of Fundamentalism: Political


Islam and the New World Disorder. Berkeley: California
University Press, 1998.

Tibi, Bassam. Islam between Culture and Politics. Hampshire


and New York: Palgrave and Weatherhead Center for
International Affairs Harvard University, 2001.

Tibi, Bassam. “Muslim Migrants in Europe: Between Euro-


Islam and Ghettoization.” In Nezar Al Sayyad and Manuel
Castells, eds., Muslim Europe or Euro- Islam: Politics,
Culture, and Citizenship in the Age of Globalization. New
York and Oxford: Lexington Books, 2002, 31–52.

Tibi, Bassam. “A Migration Story from Muslim Immigrants to


European ‘Citizens of the Heart?’ ” Fletcher Forum of
World Affairs, vol. 31, no. 1 (Winter 2007): 147–168.

Tibi, Bassam. Political Islam, World Politics and Europe.


New York: Routledge, 2008.

Tibi, Bassam. Islam’s Predicament with Cultural Modernity:


Religious Reform and Cultural Change. New York and London:
Routledge, 2009.

Tibi, Bassam. Islam and Global Politics: Conflict and


Cross- Civilizational Bridging. New York and Oxford:
Routledge, 2012.

Tibi, Bassam. Islam and Islamism. New Haven, CT: Yale


University Press, 2012.
2 Tariq Ramadan: from adaptive to
transformative reform and European Islam

Al- Murrakushi, al- Bashir Isam. al-‘almana min al- dākhil


[Secularization from Within]. Cairo: markaz tafakkur lil
buḥuth wa al- dirāsāt, 2016.

Baum, Gregory. The Theology of Tariq Ramadan: A Catholic


Perspective. Toronto: Novalis Publishing, 2006.

Berman, Paul. The Flight of the Intellectuals. Melbourne:


Scribe Publications, 2010.

Bovenkamp, Ellen van de. “La popularité de Tariq Ramadan au


Maroc” [“Popularity of T.R. in Morocco”]. Unpublished PhD
Diss. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 2017.

Buruma, Ian. “Tariq Ramadan Has an Identity Issue.”


February 4, 2007, www.nytimes.

Cent minutes pour convaincre. Tariq Ramadan vs. Nicolas


Sarkozy. France 2 TV Program, November 20, 2003,
www.youtube.com/watch?v=HIC_ehonCJY.

Favrot, Lionel. Tariq Ramadan dévoilé: Enquête sur ce


islamiste qui sévit dans les banlieues [Tariq Ramadan
Unveiled: Investigation on this Islamist who Ruins the
Banlieues]. Lyon: Lyon Mag’ hors série, 2004.

Fourest, Caroline. Brother Tariq: The Double Speak of Tariq


Ramadan. Trans. Ioana Wieder and John Atherton. New York:
Encounter Books, 2008.

Furstenberg, Nina zu. Chi ha paura di Tariq Ramadan?


l’Europa di fronte al riformismo islamico [Who is Afraid
of Tariq Ramadan? Europe in the Face of Islamic Reform].
Venice: Marsilio, 2007. Hamel, Ian. La vérité sur Tariq
Ramadan: vers un lobby musulman en Europe? [Truth about
Tariq Ramadan: Towards a Muslim Lobby in Europe?]. Paris:
Favre, 2007. Khiari, Sadri. Sainte Caroline contre Tariq
Ramadan: le livre qui met un point final à Caroline
Fourest [Saint Caroline against Tariq Ramadan: The Book
that Puts an End to Caroline Forest]. Montreuil: La
Revance, 2011. Landau, Paul. Le Sabre et le Coran: Tariq
Ramadan et les Frères musulmans à la conquête de l’Europe
[The Sword and the Quran: Tariq Ramadan and the Muslim
Brothers Conquesting Europe]. Monaco: Rocher, 2005. March,
Andrew F. “Who’s Afraid of Tariq Ramadan?” Amer ican
Prospect 2, 2010, http:// prospect.org/article/whos-
afraid-tariq- ramadan-0. March, Andrew F. “Law as a
Vanishing Mediator in the Theological Ethics of Tariq
Ramadan.” European Journal of Political Theory, vol. 10,
no. 2 (April 2011): 177–201. Ramadan, Tariq. Les musulmans
dans la laϊcité [Muslims in Laϊcité]. Lyon: Tawhid, 1994.
Ramadan, Tariq. Aux Sources du Renouveau Musulman:
d’al-Afghani à Hassan al- Banna [To the Sources of Islamic
Revival: From al- Afghani to Hassan al- Banna]. Paris:
Bayard Editions, 1998. Ramadan, Tariq. Muslims in France:
The Way towards Coexistence. Leicester: The Islamic
Foundation, 1999. Ramadan, Tariq. To Be a European Muslim:
A Study of Islamic Sources in the European Context.
Leicester: The Islamic Foundation, 1999. Ramadan, Tariq.
Islam, the West, and the Challenges of Modernity.
Leicester: The Islamic Foundation, 2001. Ramadan, Tariq.
Musulmans d’Occident: construire et contribuer [Muslims of
the Occident: Building and Contributing]. Lyon: Tawhid,
2002. Ramadan, Tariq. Entre l’homme et son Coeur: la voie
de l’unique [Between Man and His Heart: The Way of the
Only]. Lyon: Tawhid, 2004. Ramadan, Tariq. Western Muslims
and the Future of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
2004. Ramadan, Tariq. “An International Call for Moratorium
on Corporal Punishment, Stoning and the Death Penalty in
the Islamic World.” April 5, 2005, www.tariqramadan.com/
spip.php?article264. Ramadan, Tariq. In the Footsteps of
the Prophet: Lessons from the Life of Muhammad. Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 2007. Ramadan, Tariq. Radical
Reform: Islamic Ethics and Liberation. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2008. Ramadan, Tariq. Quelques lettres du
coeur [Some Letters from the Heart]. Lyon: Tawhid, 2008.
Ramadan, Tariq. “Lettre ouverte à mes détracteurs aux Pays
Bas” [“Open Letter to my Detractors in the Netherlands”],
August 18, 2009, www.tariqramadan.com/Lettre- ouverte-a-
mes-detracteurs.html#forum39215. Ramadan, Tariq. What I
Believe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Ramadan,
Tariq. The Quest for Meaning: Developing a Philosophy of
Pluralism. London: Penguin, 2010. Ramadan, Tariq. Islam:
The Essentials. London: Pelican Books, 2017. Taddei,
Frederic. “Tariq Ramadan vs. Caroline Fourest.” Ce soir ou
jamais, France 3 TV program, November 16, 2009,
www.youtube.com/watch?v=rPRNhRZGLjw. Zemouri, Aziz. Faut-
il faire taire Tariq Ramadan? [Should Tariq Ramadan Be
Silenced?]. Paris: L’archipel, 2005.
3 Tareq Oubrou: geotheology and the
minoritization of Islam

Abdelkrim, Farid and Noureddine Farssi, eds. “Tareq Oubrou,


un imam dans tous ses états” [“Tareq Oubrou: An Imam in
All Situations”]. November 2012: www.youtube.
com/watch?v=-Wqqz28ye1U.

Babès, Leila and Tariq Oubrou. Loi d’Allah, loi des hommes:
liberté, égalité et femmes en islam [Law of God, Law of
Man: Liberty, Equality, and Women in Islam]. Paris: Albin
Michel, 2002.

Baylocq, Cédric and Michael Privot. “Islam and Critical


Thought: An Interview with the French Imâm and Theologian
Tareq Oubrou.” March 24, 2013, http://iqbal.hypotheses.
org/842.

Baylocq, Cédric. “Les Frères Musulmans, du global au local”


[“The Muslim Brothers: from the Global to the Local”]. In
Bernadette Rigal- Cellard, ed., Religions et
Mondialisation: exils, expansions, résistances [Religions
and Globalization: Exile, Expansions, and Resistance].
Bordeaux: Bordeaux University Press, 2009, 341–355.

Baylocq, Cédric. “Tareq Oubrou, un imam de France” [“Tareq


Oubrou: An Imam of France”]. Gironde: Production
Périphéries, Cenon, 2004, http://iqbal.hypotheses.org/833.

Baylocq, Cédric. “Questions de pratiquants et réponses


d’imam en contexte français” [“Questions of Observing
Believers and Responses of an Imam in a French Contexte”].
Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée, vol. 124
(November 2008): 281–308. Bowen, John R. Can Islam Be
French? Pluralism and Pragmatism in a Secularist State.
Princeton, NJ, and Oxford: Princeton University Press,
2010. Brooke, Steven. “The Muslim Brotherhood in Europe and
the Middle East: The Evolution of a Relationship.” In Roel
Meijer and Edwin Bakker, eds., The Muslim Brotherhood in
Europe. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012, 27–50.
Caeiro, Alexandre. “An Imam in France: Tareq Oubrou.” ISIM
Review, vol. 15 (Spring 2005): 48–49. Cesare, Jocelyne,
Alexandre Caeiro, and Dilwar Hussain, eds., “Islam and
Fundamental Rights in Europe.” European Commission –
Directorate General Justice and Home Affairs, Final Report
October 2004. Crone, Manni. “Sharia and Secularism in
France.” In Jørgen S. Nielsen and Lisbet Christoffersen,
eds., Sharia as Discourse: Legal Traditions and the
Encounter with Europe. Surrey and Burlington, VT: Ashgate,
2010, 147–148. Hashas, Mohammed. “Abdolkarim Soroush: The
Neo- Muʿtazilite that Buries Classical Islamic Political
Theology in Defence of Religious Democracy and Pluralism.”
Studia Islamica, vol. 109, no. 1 (2014): 147–173. Hashas,
Mohammed. “Tareq Oubrou’s Geotheology: Sharia of the
Minority and the Secularization of European Islamic
Thought.” Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, vol. 34, no.
4 (2014): 1–21. Khosrokhavar, Farhad. “Reformist and
Moderate Voices in European Islam.” In Shirin Hunter, ed.,
Reformist Voices of Islam: Mediating Islam and Modernity.
Armonk, NY, and London: M.E. Sharpe, 2009, 247–266.
Laurence, Jonathan. The Emancipation of Europe’s Muslims:
The State’s Role in Minority Integration. Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press, 2012. Le Bars, Stéphanie.
“Tareq Oubrou: ‘Les musulmans doivent adapter leurs
pratiques à la société française’ ” [“Tareq Oubrou:
‘Muslims Have to Adapt their Practices to the French
Society’ ”]. Le Monde, October 15, 2009,
www.lemonde.fr/societe/article/2009/ 10/15/tareq-
oubrou-les- musulmans-doivent- adapter-leurs- pratiques-a-
la-societe- francaise_1254356_3224.html#ens_id=1245449.
Oubrou, Tareq. “Introduction théorique à la charia de
minorité” [“Theoretical Introduction to Sharia of the
Minority”]. Islam de France, no. 2 (1998): 27–41,
http://oumma. com/Introduction- theorique-a- la-chari.
Oubrou, Tareq. “La sharî’a de minorité: réflexions pour une
intégration légale de l’islam” [“Sharia of the Minority:
Reflections for a Legal Integration of Islam”]. In Franck
Fregosi, ed., Lectures contemporaines du droit islamique:
Europe et Monde Arabe [Contemporary Readings of Islamic
Law: Europe and the Arab World]. Strasbourg: Strasbourg
University Press, 2004, 205–230. Oubrou, Tareq. L’Unicité
de Dieu: des noms et attributs divins [Oneness of God:
Divine Names and Attributes], vol. 1/10. Paris: Bayane,
2006. Oubrou, Tareq. Profession imam [The Imam as a
Vocation]. Interview with Michaël Privot and Cédriq
Baylocq. Paris: Albin Michel, 2009. Oubrou, Tareq. Un imam
en colère: intégration, laïcité, violences [An Imam in
Anger: Integration, Laïcité, Violence]. Interview with
Samuel. Lieven, Paris: Bayard Press, 2012. Ramadan, Tariq.
Radical Reform: Islamic Ethics and Liberation. Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 2009. Schwartzbrod, Alexandra.
Interview with Oubrou. “Cette affaire va laisser des
séquelles” [“This Affair Will Have Aftermaths”]. March 23,
2012, www.liberation.fr/ societe/01012397757-cette-
affaire-va- laisser-des- sequelles.

Soroush, Abdolkarim. The Expansion of Prophetic Experience:


Essays on Historicity, Contingency and Plurality in
Religion. Trans. Nilou Mobasser, ed. Forough Jahanbakhsh.
Leiden: Brill, 2009.
Yüksel, Edip, Layth Saley al- Shaiban, and Martha Schulte-
Nafeh, Quran: A Reformist Translation. USA (online):
Brainbow Press, 2007.

Yüksel, Edip. Manifesto for Islamic Reform. USA (online):


Brainbow Press, 2008, www. brainbowpress.com.

Zemouri, Aziz. Faut- il faire taire Tariq Ramadan? [Should


Tariq Ramadan Be Silenced?]. Paris: L’archipel, 2005.
4 Abdennour Bidar: self Islam, Islamic
existentialism, and overcoming religion

Bidar, Abdennour. “Lettre d’un musulman européen: L’Europe


et la renaissance de l’islam” [Letter from a European
Muslim: Europe and the Rebirth of Islam]. Esprit (July
2003),
www.esprit.presse.fr/archive/review/article.php?code=8361.

Bidar, Abdennour. Un Islam pour notre temps [For an Islam


of Our Age]. Paris: Editions du Seuil, 2004.

Bidar, Abdennour. Self Islam: histoire d’un islam personnel


[Self Islam: The Story of a Personal Islam]. Paris:
Editions du Seuil, 2006.

Bidar, Abdennour. L’islam sans soumission: pour un


existentialisme musulman [Islam without Submission: For An
Islamic Existentialism]. Paris: Albin Michel, 2008.

Bidar, Abdennour. L’islam face à la mort de Dieu: actualité


de Mohammed Iqbal [Islam Face to Face with the Death of
God: Mohammed Iqbal Revisited]. Paris: Editions Bourin,
2010.

Bidar, Abdennour. Comment sortir de la religion [How to


Overcome Religion]. Paris: La Découverte, 2012.

Bidar, Abdennour. “Lettre ouverte au monde musulman,”


Huffpostmaghreb, January 9, 2015,
www.huffpostmaghreb.com/abdennour- bidar/lettre-
ouverte-au- monde-m_1_b_6443610. html.

Bidar, Abdennour. Plaidoyer pour la fraternité [The Case


for Fraternity]. Paris: Albin Michel, 2015.

Hashas, Mohammed. “Reading Abdennour Bidar: New Pathways


for European Islamic Thought.” Journal of Muslims in
Europe (JOME), vol. 2, no. 1 (Autumn 2013): 45–76.

Iqbal, Muhammad. The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in


Islam. London: Oxford University Press, 1934.

Iqbal, Muhammad. “Piyam i Mashriq,”


http://iqbalwebcontest.com/data- themes.htm.
5 Ontological revolution and
epistemological shift in European Islamic
thought

Abderrahmane, Taha. al-‘amal al- dīnī wa tajdīd al-‘aql


[Religious Practice and the

Renewal of Reason]. Casablanca and Beirut: al- markaz al-


thaqāfī al-‘arabī, 1989.

Abderrahmane, Taha. su’ālu al- akhlāq: musāhamatun fī al-


naqd al- akhlāqī li al- ḥadātha

al- gharbīyya [The Question of Ethics: A Contribution to


Ethical Criticism of Western

Modernity]. Casablanca and Beirut: al- markaz al- thaqāfī


al-ʻarabī, 2000.

Abderrahmane, Taha. ḥiwārātun min ajli al- mustaqbal


[Dialogues for the Future]. Beirut:

dār al- hādi, 2003.

Akhtar, Shabbir. The Quran and the Secular Mind: A


Philosophy of Islam. Oxford and

New York: Routledge, 1998.

Al- Attar, Mariam. Islamic Ethics: Divine Command Theory in


Arabo- Islamic Thought. Oxford and New York: Routledge,
2010.

Al- Jabri, Mohammed Abed. naqd al-‘aql al-‘arabī IV:


al-‘aql al- siyāsī al-‘arabī [Critique of Arab Reason III:
Arab Political Thought]. Beirut: Center for Arab Unity
Studies, 1990. Al- Jabri, Mohammed Abed. Arab- Islamic
Philosophy: A Contemporary Critique. Trans. Aziz Abbassi.
Austin: University of Texas Press, 1999. Al- Jabri,
Mohammed Abed. naqd al-‘aql al‘arabi IV: al-‘aql al-
akhlāqī al-‘arabī – dirāsa tahlīlīyya naqdīyah li nuthum
al- qiyam fī al- thaqāfa al-‘arabīyya [Critique of Arab
Reason IV: Arab Ethical Reason – An Analytical and Critical
Study of Value Systems in Arabic Culture]. Beirut: Center
for Arab Unity Studies, 2001. Al- Marzouki, Abu Ya‘rib.
falsafatu al- dīn min manthūr al- fiqh al- islāmī
[Philosophy of Religion from an Islamic Perspective].
Beirut: Dār al- Hadi, 2006. Arkoun, Mohammed. L’Humanisme
arabe du IVe/Xe siecle: Miskawayh, philosophe et historien
[Arab Humanism in the 4th/10th Century: Miskawayh,
Philosopher and Historian]. Paris: Vrin, 1984. Bektovic,
Safet. Islamic Philosophy: Classical Problems and Modern
Trends. Copenhagen: ANIS, 2012. Bidar, Abdennour. Comment
sortir de la religion [How to Overcome Religion]. Paris: La
Decouverte, 2012. Fadel, Mohammad. “The True, the Good, and
the Reasonable: The Theological and Ethical Roots of
Public Reason in Islamic Law.” Canadian Journal of Law and
Jurisprudence, vol. 21, no. 1 (2008): 5–69. Fakhry, Majid.
Ethical Theories in Islam. Leiden: Brill, 1991. Fakhry,
Majid. Averroes – Ibn Roshd: His Life, Works and Influence.
Oxford: Oneworld, 2001. Ghaly, Mohammed. “The Journal of
Islamic Ethics: A Pressing Demand and a Promising Field.”
Journal of Islamic Ethics, vol. 1, no. 1–1 (2017): 1–5.
Goldziher, Ignaz. Introduction to Islamic Theology and Law.
Trans. Andras and Ruth Hamori. Introd. Bernard Lewis.
Originally Published 1910. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
University Press, 1981. Hanafi, Hassan. mina al-‘aqīda ilā
a- thawra, III: al- insān al- mutaʻayyal (al-‘adl) [From
Creed to Revolution vol. 3: The Just Man]. Beirut and
Casablanca: al- markaz al- thaqāfī al-ʻarabī, 1988.
Hanafi, Hassan. Islam in the Modern World: Religion,
Ideology, and Development. Vol. 1. Cairo: Anglo- Egyptian
Bookshop, 1995. Hanafi, Hassan. Islam in the Modern World:
Tradition, Revolution, and Culture. Vol. 2. Cairo: Anglo-
Egyptian Bookshop, 1995. Hashas, Mohammed. “Reading
Abdennour Bidar: New Pathways for European Islamic
Thought.” Journal of Muslims in Europe (JOME), vol. 2 no. 1
(Autumn 2013): 45–76. Hashas, Mohammed. “Abdolkarim
Soroush: A Neo- Mu‘tazilite that Buries Classical Islamic
Political Theology.” Studia Islamica, vol. 109 (2014):
147–173. Hourani, Albert. Arab Thought in the Liberal Age,
1798–1939. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
Hourani, George. Reason and Tradition in Islamic Ethics.
Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Iqbal, Muhammad. The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in
Islam. London: Oxford University Press, 1934. Izutsu,
Toshihiko. Ethico- Religious Concepts in the Qur’an.
Originally Published 1959. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-
Queen’s University Press, 2002. Johnson, David. “A Turn in
the Epistemology and Hermeneutics of Twentieth Century
Uṣūl al- Fiqh.” Islamic Law and Society, vol. 11, no. 2
(2004): 233–282. Kant, Immanuel. “How is Metaphysics in
General Possible?” In Paul Carus, ed., Immanuel Kant’s
Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Chicago, IL: Open
Court Pub. Co., 1912, 1–163.

Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Pure Reason. Trans. and ed.


Paul Guyer and Allen Wood. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1998.
Lahbabi, Mohammed Aziz. Le Personalisme musulman [Muslim
Personalism]. Paris: Presse Universitaire de France, 1964.

Lane, Jan- Erik and Hamadi Redissi. Religion and Politics:


Islam and Muslim Civilization. Surrey and Burlington, VT:
Ashgate, 2009.

Leaman, Oliver. Islamic Philosophy: An Introduction. 2nd


ed. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2009.

Martin, Richard and Mark R. Woodward, with Dwi S. Atmaja,


eds. Defenders of Reason

in Islam: Muʻtazilism from Medieval School to Modern


Symbol. Oxford: One

world, 1997.

Masud, Muhammad Khalid. “Iqbal’s Approach to Islamic


Theology of Modernity.” Al- Hikmat, vol. 27 (2007): 1–36.

Moosa, Ebrahim. “Islamic Ethics?” In William Schweiker,


ed., The Blackwell Compan

ion to Religious Ethics. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell


Publishing, 2005,

237–243.

Moosa, Ebrahim. “Ethical Landscape: Laws, Norms and


Morality.” In Jeffrey T. Kenney

and Ebrahim Moosa, eds., Islam in the Modern World. London


and New York:

Routledge, 2014, 35–56.

Rahman, Fazlur. Islam. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1966.

Rahman, Fazlur. Major Themes of the Qur’an. Minneapolis,


MN: Bibliotheca Islam

ica, 1980.

Rahman, Fazlur. Islam and Modernity: Transformation of an


Intellectual Tradition.

Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.

Ramadan, Tariq. Islam, the West and the Challenges of


Modernity. Leicester: The Islamic

Foundation, 2001.

Ramadan, Tariq. Radical Reform: Islamic Ethics and


Liberation. Oxford: Oxford Univer

sity Press, 2009.

Schacht, Joseph. An Introduction to Islamic Law. Oxford:


Clarendon Press, 1965.

Schmidtke, Sabine, ed. The Oxford Handbook of Islamic


Theology. Oxford: Oxford

University Press, 2016.

Troll, Christian W. Sayyid Ahmad Khan: A Reinterpretation


of Muslim Theology. New

Delhi: Vikas Publishing House, 1978.

Viersen, Harald. “The Ethical Dialectic in al- Jabri’s


‘Critique of Arab Reason.’ ” In Zaid

Eyadat, Francesca M. Corrao, and Mohammed Hashas, eds.,


Islam, State, and Mod

ernity: Mohammed Abed al- Jabri and the Future of the Arab
World. New York: Pal

grave Macmillan, 2018.

Watt, William Montgomery. Islamic Philosophy and Theology.


Originally Published

1962. New York: Routledge, 2017.

Watt, William Montgomery. The Formative Period of Islamic


Thought. Originally Pub

lished 1973. Oxford: Oneworld, 1998.

Winter, Tim, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Classical


Islamic Theology. Cambridge:

Cambridge University Press, 2008.


6 Conceptualizing the idea of European
Islam: Taha Abderrahmane's trusteeship
critique for overcoming classical
dichotomous thought

Abderrahmane, Taha. al-‘amal al- dīnī wa tajdid al-‘aql


[Religious Practice and the

Renewal of Reason]. Casablanca and Beirut: al- markaz al-


thaqāfī al-‘arabī, 1989.

Abderrahmane, Taha. tajdīd al- manhaj fī taqwīm al- turāth


[Renewing the Method of

Assessing the Tradition]. Casablanca and Beirut: al- markaz


al- thaqāfī al-ʻarabī, 1994.

Abderrahmane, Taha. hiwārātun min ajli al- mustaqbal


[Dialogues for the Future]. Casa

blanca and Beirut: al- markaz al- thaqāfī al-‘arabī, 2000.

Abderrahmane, Taha. su’ālu al- akhlāq: musāhamatun fi al-


naqd al- akhlāqī li al- ḥadātha

al- gharbiyya [The Question of Ethics: A Contribution to


Ethical Criticism of Western

Modernity]. Casablanca and Beirut: al markaz al- thaqāfī


al‘arabī, 2000.

Abderrahmane, Taha. al- ḥaq al-‘arabī fi al- ikhtilāf al-


falsafī [The Arab Right to Philo

sophical Difference]. Casablanca and Beirut: al- markaz al-


thaqāfī al-ʻarabī, 2002. Abderrahmane, Taha. al- haq al-
islamī fī al- ikhtilāf al- fikrī [The Islamic Right to
Intellectual Difference]. Casablanca and Beirut: al- markaz
al- thaqāfī al-ʻarabī, 2005. Abderrahmane, Taha. rūḥu al-
ḥadātha: nahwa al- ta’sīs li ḥadātha islāmiyya [The Spirit
of Modernity: An Introduction to Founding an Islamic
Modernity]. Casablanca and Beirut: al- markaz ath- thaqāfī
al-ʻarabī, 2006. Abderrahmane, Taha. rūḥu addīn [The Spirit
of Religion]. Beirut and Casablanca: al- markaz al-
thaqāfī al-ʻarabī, 2012. Abderrahmane, Taha. bu’s al-
dahrāniyya: al- naqd al- i’timānī li faṣl al- akhlāq ‘an
al- dīn [The Misery of Secularism: Trusteeship Critique of
the Separation of Ethics from Religion]. Beirut: al-
shabaka al-‘arabiyya li al- abhāth wa al- nashr, 2014.
Hashas, Mohammed. “Islamic Philosophy III: The Question of
Ethics: Taha Abderrahmane’s Praxeology and Trusteeship
Paradigm.” Reset Dialogues on Civilizations, November 17,
2014, www.resetdoc.org/story/the- question-of- ethics-taha-
abderrahmanespraxeology- and-trusteeship- paradigm/.
Hashas, Mohammed. “Taha Abderrahmane’s Trusteeship
Paradigm: Spiritual Modernity and the Islamic Contribution
to the Formation of a Renewed Universal Civilization of
Ethos.” Oriente Moderno, vol. 95 (2015): 67–105. Soroush,
Abdolkarim. The Expansion of Prophetic Experience: Essays
on Historicity, Contingency and Plurality in Religion.
Trans. Nilou Mobasser. Ed. Forough Jahanbakhsh. Leiden:
Brill, 2009.
7 Consolidating the idea of European
Islam through perpetual modernity
paradigm

Abderrahmane, Taha. al- ḥaq al-‘arabī fi al- ikhtilāf al-


falsafī [The Arab Right to Philosophical Difference].
Casablanca and Beirut: al- markaz al- thaqāfī al-ʻarabī,
2002.

Abderrahmane, Taha. al- haq al- islamī fī al- ikhtilāf al-


fikrī [The Islamic Right to Intellectual Difference].
Casablanca and Beirut: al- markaz al- thaqāfī al-ʻarabī,
2005.

Abderrahmane, Taha. rūḥu al- ḥadātha: nahwa al- ta’sīs li


ḥadātha islāmiyya [The Spirit of Modernity: An
Introduction to Founding an Islamic Modernity]. Casablanca
and Beirut: al- markaz ath- thaqāfī al-ʻarabī, 2006.

Habermas, Jürgen. “Modernity: An Unfinished Project.” In


Maurizio P. D’Entrèves and Sheila Benhabib, eds., Habermas
and the Unfinished Project of Modernity: Critical Essays
on the Philosophical Discourse of Modernity. Cambridge, MA:
MIT Press, 1997, 38–55.

Hashas, Mohammed. “Taha Abderrahmane’s Trusteeship


Paradigm: Spiritual Modernity and the Islamic Contribution
to the Formation of a Renewed Universal Civilization of
Ethos.” Oriente Moderno, vol. 95 (2015): 67–105.
8 European Islam as a Rawlsian reasonable
comprehensive doctrine

Bilgin, Fevzi. Political Liberalism in Muslim Societies.


Oxford and New York, Routledge, 2011.

Browers, Michaelle and Charles Kurtzman, eds. An Islamic


Reformation? New York and Oxford: Lexington, 2004.

Bulliet, Richard W. Islam: The View from the Edge. New


York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

Bulliet, Richard W. The Case for Islamo- Christian


Civilization. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.

Chebel, Malek. Manifeste pour un islam des lumières: 27


propositions pour réformer l’islam [Manifesto for an Islam
of Enlightenment: 27 Propositions to Reform Islam]. Paris:
Hachette, 2012.

Dabashi, Hamid. Being a Muslim in the World. New York:


Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

Duderija, Adis. The Imperatives of Progressive Islam. New


York: Routledge, 2017.

Esack, Farid. Qur‘an, Liberation and Pluralism: An Islamic


Perspective of Interreligious Solidarity Against
Oppression. Oxford: Oneworld, 1997.

Fadel, Mohammad. “The True, the Good and the Reasonable:


The Theological and Ethical Roots of Public Reason in
Islamic Law.” Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence,
vol. 21, no. 1 (2008): 5–69.

Fadel, Mohammad. “Muslim Reformists, Female Citizenship and


the Public Accommodation of Islam in a Liberal Democracy.”
Politics and Religion, vol. 5, no. 1 (2012): 2–35.

Fadel, Mohammad. “Political Liberalism, Islamic Family Law,


and Family Law Pluralism.” In Joel A. Nichols, ed.,
Marriage and Divorce in a Multicultural Context:
Reconsidering the Boundaries of Civil Law and Religion.
Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012,
164–199.

Haidar, Hamid Hadji. Liberalism and Islam: Practical


Reconciliation between the Liberal State and Shiite
Muslims. New York and Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan,
2008.
Hallaq, Wael B. The Impossible State: Islam, Politics, and
Modernity’s Moral Predicament. New York: Columbia
University Press, 2013.

Hanafi, Hassan. Islam in the Modern World: Tradition,


Revolution and Culture. Vol. 2. Cairo: Anglo- Egyptian
Bookshop, 1995.

Harvey, Ramon. The Qur’an and the Just Society. Edinburgh:


Edinburgh University Press, 2017.

Hashas, Mohammed and Jan Jaap de Ruiter. “Young Muslims in


the Netherlands: Understanding Tariq Ramadan.” In Martina
Topic and Srdjan Sremac, eds., Europe as a Multiple
Modernity: Multiplicity of Religious Identities and
Belongings. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing,
2014, 149–193.

Hashemi, Nader. Islam, Secularism and Liberal Democracy:


Toward a Democratic Theory for Muslim Societies. New York:
Oxford University Press, 2009.

Iqbal, Muhammad. The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in


Islam. London: Oxford University Press, 1934.

Kalin, Ibrahim. “Does Islam Need Enlightenment?” August 27,


2009, www.todayszaman. com/columnist- 185246-does-
islam-need- enlightenment.html.

Kukathas, Chandran. The Liberal Archipelago: A Theory of


Diversity and Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
2003.

Kymlicka, Will. Liberalism, Community, and Culture. Oxford:


Oxford University Press, 1991.

Kymlicka, Will. Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory


of Minority Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Leaman, Oliver. An Introduction to Classical Islamic
Philosophy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
March, Andrew. “Liberal Citizenship and the Search for an
Overlapping Consensus: The Case of Muslim Minorities.”
Philosophy and Public Affairs, vol. 34, no. 4 (2006):
373–421. March, Andrew. “Reading Tariq Ramadan: Political
Liberalism, Islam, and ‘Overlapping Consensus.’ ” Ethics
and International Affairs, vol. 21, no. 4 (Winter 2007):
399–413. March, Andrew. Islam and Liberal Citizenship and
the Search for Overlapping Consensus. New York: Oxford
University Press, 2009. March, Andrew. “The Post- Legal
Ethics of Tariq Ramadan: Persuasion and Performance in
Radical Reform: Islamic Ethics and Liberation.” Middle East
Law and Governance, vol. 2 (2010): 253–273. March, Andrew.
“Law as a Vanishing Mediator in the Theological Ethics of
Tariq Ramadan.” European Journal of Political Theory, vol.
10 no. 2 (April 2011): 177–201. Mincheva, Dilyana. The
Politics of Muslim Intellectual Discourse in the West: The
Emergence of a Western- Islamic Public Sphere. Eastbourne:
Sussex Academic Press, 2017. Modood, Tariq.
Multiculturalism, 2nd ed. Originally Published 2007.
Cambridge, and Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2013. Mohammed
Arkoun, The Unthought in Islamic Thought. London: Saqi
Books, 2002. Nozick, Robert. Anarchy, State, and Utopia.
New York: Basic Books, 1974. Parekh, Bhikhu. Rethinking
Multiculturalism: Cultural Diversity and Political Theory.
2d ed. Originally Published 2000. Basingstoke: Palgrave
Macmillan, 2006. Parekh, Bhikhu. Europe and the Muslim
Question: Does Intercultural Dialogue Make Sense?
Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press- ISIM, 2007. Qutb,
Sayyid. Social Justice in Islam. Trans. John B. Hardie.
Introd. Hamid Algar. Originally published 1949. New York:
Islamic Publications International, 2000. Rawls, John. “The
Idea of an Overlapping Consensus.” Oxford Journal of Legal
Studies, vol. 7, no. 1 (1987): 1–25. Rawls, John.
Political Liberalism. Originally Published 1993. New York:
Columbia University Press, 1996. Rawls, John. “The Idea of
Public Reason Revisited.” University of Chicago Law Review,
vol. 64, no. 3 (Summer 1997): 765–807. Rawls, John. A
Theory of Justice. Rev’d ed. Originally published 1971.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999. Roy,
Olivier. Globalized Islam: The Search for a New Ummah.
Originally Published 1994. New York: Columbia University
Press, 2004. Tampio, Nicholas. Kantian Courage: Advancing
the Enlightenment in Contemporary Political Theory. New
York: Fordham University Press, 2012. Taylor, Charles.
Multiculturalism: Examining the Politics of Recognition.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994. Taylor,
Charles. A Secular Age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Press, 2007. Wolfson, Harry Austryn. The Philosophy of the
Kalam. Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard University
Press, 1976. Yavuz, Hakan. Toward an Islamic Enlightenment:
The Gulen Movement. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Zaman, Muhammad Qasim. The Ulema in Contemporary Islam:
Custodians of Change. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University
Press, 2002. Zaman, Muhammad Qasim. Modern Islamic Thought
in a Radical Age: Religious Authority and Internal
Criticism. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University
Press, 2012.
Conclusion: from European Islam to Arab
Islam

Afsaruddin, Asma. Contemporary Issues in Islam. Edinburgh:


Edinburgh University

Press, 2015.

Akhtar, Shabbir. Islam as Political Religion: The Future of


an Imperial Faith. London

and New York: Routledge, 2011.

Asad, Talal. “The Idea of An Anthropology of Islam.”


Occasional Paper. Georgetown

University Center for Contemporary Arab Studies (1986):


1–22.

Aslan, Reza. No god but God: The Origins, Evolution, and


Future of Islam. New York:

Random House, 2005.

Bayat, Asef. “The Coming of a Post- Islamist Society.”


Critique (Fall 1996): 43–52.

Bayat, Asef. Making Islam Democratic: Social Movements and


the Post- Islamist Turn. Stanford, CA: Stanford University
Press, 2007.

Blunt, Wilfred Scawen. The Future of Islam. London: Kegan


Paul, Trench, 1882.

Bulliet, Richard W. Islam: The View from the Edge. New


York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

Campanini, Massimo, L’Islam: religione dell’occidente


[Islam: Religion of the West]. Milano: Mimesis, 2016.

Cesari, Jocelyne. When Islam and Democracy Meet: Muslims in


Europe and in the United States. New York: Palgrave
Macmillan, 2004.

Cesari, Jocelyne. The Awakening of Muslim Democracy:


Religion, Modernity, and the State. New York: Cambridge
University Press, 2014.

Corrao, Francesca. Islam, Religion and Politics. Rome:


LUISS University Press, 2017. Dassetto, Felice. La
Construction de l’islam européen: approche socio-
anthropologique [The Construction of European Islam: A
Socio- Anthropological Approach]. Paris and Montreal:
L’Harmattan, 1996. Esposito, John L. The Future of Islam.
Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Esposito, John L. and Ibrahim Kalin, eds., Islamophobia:
The Challenge of Pluralism in the 21st Century. Oxford and
New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Göle, Nilüfer.
Islam and Secularity: The Future of Europe’s Public Sphere.
Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2015. Hashas, Mohammed.
“Can European Islam Be Inspiring to the Arab World?” Reset
Dialogues on Civilizations, April 16, 2014,
www.resetdoc.org/story/can- european-islam- be-inspiring-
to-the- arab-world/. Hashas, Mohammed. “Does European Islam
Think?” In Niels Valdemar Vinding, Egdunas Racius and Jörn
Thielmann, eds., Exploring the Multitude of Muslims in
Europe: Essays in Honour of Jørgen S. Nielsen. Leiden:
Brill, 2018, 35–49. Kermani, Navid. God Is Beautiful: The
Aesthetic Experience of the Quran. Originally Published
2007. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2015. Küng, Hans. Islam:
Past, Present, and Future. Trans., John Bowden. Originally
published 2004. Oxford: Oneworld, 2007. Mojlum Khan,
Muhammad. Great Muslims of the West: Makers of Western
Islam. Markfield, LE: Kube Publishing Ltd, 2017. Mokrani,
Adnane. Leggere il Corano a Rome [Reading the Qur‘an in
Rome]. Rome: Icone Edizioni, 2010. Nielsen, Jørgen S.
Towards a European Islam. London and New York: Palgrave
Macmillan, 1999. Roy, Olivier. Vers un islam européen
[Towards a European Islam]. Paris: Esprit, 1999. Sachedina,
Abdulaziz. The Islamic Roots of Democratic Pluralism.
Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. Said,
Edward. “The Clash of Ignorance.” Nation, October 4, 2001,
www.thenation.com/ article/clash- ignorance/. Sardar,
Ziauddin. The Future of Muslim Civilization. London: Croom
Helm, 1979. Sardar, Ziauddin. Reading the Qur‘an: The
Contemporary Relevance of the Sacred Text of Islam. Oxford
and New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Siddiqui,
Mona. How to Read the Qur’an. London: Granta Books, 2007.
Todd, Emmanuel. Who Is Charlie? Cambridge: Polity Press,
2015.