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MAiNUAL HEBREW GRAMMAR
FOR THE USE OF BEGINNERS.

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MANUAL HEBREW GRAMMAR FOR THE USE OF BEGINNERS. ^cconb cUitian cnlargeb anb improbeb^ ANDOVER PRINTED BY GOULD AND NEWMAN1834. BY J. SEIXAS. .

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of Hebrew. all By a careful and frequent reading of the Bible. and the \23 present arrangement of the best Lexicons in regard to terations suggested are inexpedient. reading. are. enabled in a short time and with trouble. I believe. follow. The rules. more copious rules by exercises and by a full table of the Accents. the order which I have found most advan- tageous -and satisfactory to my pupils. but I must here say. of representing and llj by sh. and with the aids of oral to instruction as given to my classes. As trifling as these lessons may appear to many.PREFACE. the al- . the order of naconversant with He- or perhaps I should say. and Also a table of the characteristics of the conjugations in the future tense and in the participles has been added of anomalies at the end has received some accessions. Some years' experience as a teacher. the singular arrangement of the rules. I would express my gratitude . I have ob- what these sheets will set forth. and also For the kind notice which he was pleased to take of the Manual. but although I do not follow the order of philosophy. it has cost me sever- al years' labor to collect and arrange them. this Those who read work I will doubtless wonder to at. brew. have concluded publish a second edition enlarged. At the request of many friends I who have used the to first edition of my Manual Hebrew Grammar. in This edition is enlarged by translating . that according to my views of the Hebrew language. and the favorable I opinions of those whom have had the pleasure of teaching. to read with much pleasure and satisfaction. of pronouncing p like qu . convince me that with proper attention to the following rules. with tained the necessary helps before me. or find fault with. additions are designed to facilitate the acquisition less indispensable. and make assistance from the living teacher The lessons and though comparatively few and brief. have expressed their entke approbation of the plan here pursued. Others also. and the list spelling. A reviewer in the Christian Examiner suggested the expediency of giving to n and n iu the sound of th . sufiicient to give an easy and rapid insight into the general formation of the language. as it seems me. and 125. any one desirous become acquainted little with this language may be . yet ture .

* I liope to beginner have also in manuscript. which deem sufficiently copious for a who is already acquainted with Hebrew. June. The portions included in brackets with the exceptions of the examples. has been my strongest inducement to undertake it. first Since publishing the edition of this I Grammar. tlie printers and pub- m . OC/^ The time required in a course of Hebrew instruction as given by me. * This lishers. one lesson of about an hour being given each day. which mand for them. very useful and convenient and can be procured of the printers and the pubhsher of this divine favor. is six weeks. through paring this Manual will not prove to have been spent in vain. I teristics have published on a single sheet. I I have published a Chal- dee Manual of twenty pages. to benefit others - A desire and promote the best of all studies — the study of the Bi- ble. I humbly hope. Syriac is and Arabic Manuals. Gould and -Newman. the conjugations. should be thoroughly committed memory. that the time devoted to pre- work. little have printed when there a sufficient de- work can be obtained from Messrs. J. SEIXAS. the characThis Tabular View^ is of all .IV PREFACE. A few short rules and notes are repeated in some instances for the purpose of refreshing tlie memory of to the learner as he proceeds. 1834. Instead of printing some thirty or forty pages of Paradigms.

5i5 oo. vk C ( (auleph) not heard in reading as s au. POWERS OF THE LETTERS AND VOWELS. 3 ^ "n b g d sounds au " •' Vowels. V z n kh D t Final letters ^ „. no. if it have a vowel. etc. sound the vowel . o b I D ] tl m n s 3 D £ p p k "1 r to 5 . . In ca?ise. n h 1 T a mjar. S e.HEBREW ALPHABET.

Long. (auleph) not sounded if it sound the vowel. have a voivel. 4 5 6 Kau mets Tsa ree or — Kholem 7 8 9 Finals. 2 3 3 Vowels. AND VOWELS.HEBREW ALPHABET NAMES 1 i{ OF THE LETTERS . Shoo rek 10 20 30 n 1 40 50 60 70 80 5 Y 90 100 200 300 400 .

i^rj •* These dots ( : ) are called p^iSS e. '3i>is for "liays . "I^T etc. a Dagesh follows it. All the other marks above and below words are tonic accents. Ss'ttJ^i for Ssrsi '''' . QNT riNi . other letters would take a simple one § 5. tan^n . -ain»n'^. the small point in n final is called 3Iappik . 2. for Dagesh. 51SD. it is tonic . V>N^3 V>'$^' see § 7. ( Cr^b^tJ .T. See § 6. khem. Matheg . rra. S5. -penult syllable of a verse. Silluk is both a pause and tonic accent.| . (4) * note) for as ^'na for b^'» for b-^a . we sometimes find another accent .J . * note. Maccaph follows . r. hsd.GENERAL REMARKS. ti'lo it falls on the ultimate or . "^'^^ > ~^^ . a-khol.Dh "'S'l for -ID See § 56. Note.provided such letter have no vowel under it. Dp/^2 ^k^l . Kaumets is long. etc. X A silent Shevau is understood (implied) under the last letter of every word. signifies stop as Cs . When this occurs between a KaumeLs and Shevau. as ( Crini?!? ). and is not a quiescent. with the letter is § 4. called Metheg. 'ii. etc. The . Note ed ( 2. N^hN NSnN . but nV^s If Metheg is the 07ibj accent on the word. ) When Silluk. . as '^3\'n khonnanee for''"'3 :. are accented on the last . but the vowel which precedes them usually length. as ph^'] Qi>a-ip^. Dagcsh .tvph for nni'V . (see for § 66. § 1. it is call: pi^a which i. . some stress.*^ other cases. § 2. as i2~T^JN. See § 41. as n'^Uii^'n^ N"ja> n-T^. n^r^N") f^Nnni . as ?NB3 for sistoi nrnj?' for t npns . * Maccaph and Metheg are Euphonic accents . take composite Shevau . This mark ("'or ) is placed over words in this grammar to show the acwords without it (or some other mark). or them. it shows that the it is (okh-lau) /ood. nr?2i?. A horizontal stroke between words is called Maccaph* which is serves to connect § 3. When 'n. N'i)in § the syllable with . do not admit Dagesh. '^"i3-yi> A perpendicular line as placed under a letter . "it^': . N n n S" are called Gutturals n . 4. tilj'iii' t Short Kaumets o in note or not) : can be distinguished from the long one in the following ways 1. gutturals (although not confined to any particular point- ing) commonly take a composite Shevau when . When "bSN 3 a Shevau (expressed or implied) or . it without an accent intervening as '^b^JJ a-Jchol-khau.b^^f > a-khol. In a few cases Metheg is found Note 1. . '"' Letters which are not gutturals sometimes . ened as a compensation rj-^a. Note. ^ Instead of Metheg. . as rt's'-ft (au-khe-lau) she a<e. : yi. . . 1. Me- theg. The small point found in the centre of a letter is called . as n^p . ^V'^. in all euphonic. § cented syllable syllable. should be read with with Shevau. these. end of a verse.

'jhb 'ii shul-kJiaun. i- or l'~ at the end read auv. § 63.. ^b^N a-khol-khau. . 13.") is sounded. the second one marks the tone but if both accents are alike. inlsNbJa . . . "^iStt t)-i. *]a. After a long vowel which has a pause or tonic accent on as . — nw . . on ac- count of the Dagesh. as ^1^2 yab-dal. 1. Note 59. V j and See 2. nn'. t^N. tadsha. va-yasht. niJ2''3. a-loy). unless there be a NiJ3"7ri Dagesh V^''"} in the letter over Shevau . . for sV::^^ . . 5"^^. as tt^Sji ' ^^^^^ "i'3>'''l When two ' • • / . Note 2. silent and pronounced. Jib' rtijbrj * r\rpj>J. vnx . then theirs* marks it . yar. ^rir^.'l5. SlobiN a-khol-khem* as I'ii-s 'in . for nilT^b . "I"'***. "'^'p {Ico-va). . ^s^s-'i. "^32.. nrn'^-D .T ?. Of course no quiescent can have a vowel. nSN . Note 1. !^""i''"4'. i is sounded.a-?/ai^-. § 6. . (^Simple). is (:). Note sooy). . etc. 3. or nUJ^. See § 66. are with vocal Shevau. .'r^'x (tsivvau). n5^ yaft. i^iDS {kau'ti'i {goy) ^ (ne-suy). r7'l3^ gnob- dauh. rT'-iiN-ia. iVa 1. although the Shevau is silent.. it . . ^!l¥. {sJiort). . 1 in =1^3. 3. C^p^n. are with vocal Shevau. . . ^irN. S3s. because a !. Of Shevau § 7. ^"i!l' I'^^'^b. In such forms as "i^N {a-lay. yet the letters over are not properly quiescents. 4. Inj^^. . the following thus 5 : N in nivpi\'n3 N'^a ..3':i . Such forms "^nni. NVJi . or Some s/tori is which a dagesh tDi-i3=tn5.^n . ers . word as N^'l va^in ^"IS. nniJT^!: . !TiN?p .. nin""? see § 61. ' of two kinds viz. N^^. V^^i. t:"«nbN. (4). sha-let. . and in such forms as ni'n". r^'}h. nan^n § 23. ^3^ : N a-naukh-noo. and _ (with- When it follows the vowels -. Tl'l'n^ shom-rau.''§ Dagesh is implied in . letters '^iJiN (called Quiescents) are silent in forms like . vbi*.-li'j TiS. "T^yo . different accents are on a word. . fl^^ri •a. ^j^S".8 Exceptions. :] nx m "^nN aut. f^^. e.> . . N'l^ '^IP^ yik-rau. — nw .! i^'^l. vowels become long when they stand before a guttural in when they stand for a long vowel as criS for Vna='^:?ia '^-fr) for yi-L-i=yn-i T'r|>!: for vpn (i-ins) . In such forms as TT^n^ it nin'. SOi^V. Ks'^n •< . Kaumets being long in these examples. p"^!] . of the See § 41. N=irt. "fiJ-it. n^""^ . The . and a /ejo oth- i. a-j^n ^'li. ^ . out '^ following). ^ in "^q"*?:.priT. "^nroj^ . Note implied. Ti in ^^:vS» ^^^r t3irtft. ^n"]!. ."12 hir-kee-ang. I^b^i* au-khal-tcm. TDs^ .I when the last point of a at. nb/ii^JO menv- Inip^ mik-va. ^-"n. p-. ^Vs {a-lamj. r^i. T^bN. 2'iri for t tsris for . a-hje). pinkos/".'m'^Ki is {mits-voth). Shevau simple Shevau is silent. it is At the end.

) provided always that the word following. IN"!'^'^ . (see § 23. m^"iUn?3 mak-she-both. Shevau 1.). 4. Vp?- ) ha-lc-loo. and '^p. For Dagesh •2 . When it follows a long vowel that has not the tone =1 upon ."^ . as it is 'l"^"l3'] yish-me-gnoo. as "^blp^ for "^^^33 .^ yit-pe-roo. aa lyja'ip". "^'. (for Dagesh lieve.n \. Under a letter in which there a as TiT^ tsiv-ve-khau or tsivv'k/iau. 2 follows a shevau implied under n under b and *1 . Tisr.) b see § 56. "^"ID it . . for -iN^r: 4. ^N~i"] for This and No. or ac. ph. forte. yish-me-gnoo.3~bi? . technically called n53 H^ia These six letters generally take a Dagesh when they begin a the second clause or sentence. (see silent . At the beginning of a word as tN") ve-im or vHm. 2 begins a sentence. P)"")"! > with silent shevau . when they are loithout Dagesh. cented on the penult or ante-penult as lb =)~!^^!:^^ . ^bblr: . TjD'^a ba-ra-khe-khau. 3. In the middle of a word if another one follow it. falls iz'^'k'^'^ yo-tsc-ecm. After a vicarious short vowel.T for ^-i. Metheg is is omitted as V^jI/j for -J2 . if After another one. not pronounced as !^~}2" dibbart. kh. Under a letter followed by a similar one. "'ribbj^ kau- 5. shevau .- is pronounced. 'H^Titee-re-oo. nb")b' ''"it^ has been omitted by all recent grammarians. small print) . Ni:n <a-<sc-oo. an accent » upon the Metheg'd syllable. but . (for ''fBl^ mip-pe-na. gh. When . Note 1. th e. Some sound § 56. as Tlh'^n hdu-ye-tau or hau-y'thau. see This Dagesh is called Dagesh &w«. the second one end the word. dh. talt. as "^w::! hi-ne-nee. 3. or follow a silent Shevau either expressed or implied ^ thus : N~>2 n''"^w\n2 where the first . these letters bh.) . "'""^t for '^n'^T "iN'^ri . 6. i. Also § 56. ^s/^Ttt . can be known only by a knowledge of gram- mar.) . iu This rule (I be- Of the letters n^SI^S § 8. . (see silent shevau 3. ^-ii". D'^f?. 7. i^pny gnau-the-kau. After a long vowel that has a tonic accent. Note 1. . 'b~n.n'^T nNn":} for rjNi'T 12t!72n . Pronounced Shevau. "^yjS^ oo-she-na.9 4. This is done that both letters may be heard in reading. be a monosyllabic. 2. "i^lT^n for See § 59. . Dagcsh expressed or implied ]5^~ hal-le-ban. (but see 2. 1.

* a C^j is t always hard. S D ^^ "^S gnee. gau* dau. etc. n. ga. mail. "^i^ ee. zu. to. S 1 ^. 2 5 "^ ba. N S T u. as iai oo-bo. da. see § 6. EXERCISE Simple Syllables. { Hii au.t S 5 bi. i. etc. in '5?. in 6jf . not voo. sho. n khau. fau. . 15^ oo.. 'a often answers for the vowel . IT).15^ 2. 2 5 bo. see etc. -ja yiA:. ^{ 6. pau. Kholem . 12 6. D y gnau. as es m. tsee. i{ etc. na.10 EXAMPLES FOR SPELLING. au. see § 6. § 6. ito ito so.t etc. § II M t in full. rj D 7 13 kau. go. HN ^{3 a.^. gno. gi. etc. kho.|| D ^„. sau. lau. tsau. n'itt (mosha) t =n 6m. N2 bau. ^ il hau. J5". point over v and na) r= sa'r . ii a. zau. hull. T bo. 2 5 bau. etc. see § 6. 12 boo.iia is . as sir Cso- at the beginning of a word pronounced oo. i^ I. •!> yau. ] 3 nau. see § 6. S The 1 HJi o. vau. tau. etc. bu. see S 5. etc. . ^o min. etc.

" Jl (( ha. g.pok (pokK). a. Sound the consonants not aub. V^ bdl.ri]. 4. . * m "^iJ ro. Simple Shevau. 1. 1. ''S ba. (see § 6. tik (tikh). * note. {«{ " "^D a. Compos- nounced Shevau. t. etc. it is sounded like a in hat . fa. etc. J? JJ[ a. ^ D shau. Of Simple and Composite Shevau. j? ka. etc. as D. Composite (compound) Shevau. 6. sau. ok (alcK)^ shak {shakIi).* " " etc. . etc. * Patlakh is sounded like a in father or silent Shevau . before the vowels . etc. ma. J9 Shevau. etc. t. n kho. n S see S 6. '!]ri. ^• e. 7. ka-ddsh or kdd-ddsh. yam. ta. *?. bau. 6. S '^ pe or p etc. . na. See § Pro " >} a. ve or v'. nook {nookh). ?. lauk Qaukh). Rules for Reading. is « not to be sounded ke ^^_. "^-g^p. always (JbaukK)^ 5? gne. but when a Dagesh (expressed or implied) follows it.11 kau. are pronounced bank i« 6. as 3 3 . tau. t See p. i\^^. be or b'. etc. t nx: ni2 3 na. Note). See Rule 5. auk. Jcau. Also § 56. See ite p. etc. a. see § 6 1 \2) rau. r^^.. etc. '^ID.

The vowel Shooreh {^) \s a dot in the letter Vnuv ( 1 the Vauv ( T ) however. and proneedinjf towards the left. (or rather. i^l-N e-lo-ah. the vowel must be pronounced i^"'j5'^ before the consonant. Vs'i'pjhlr'T and some e. Hl'^'] . 4. When n . i. The <5> last letter without a vowel. In. not roo-kha. not a-lauyv n"'^N'n3 b'ra-sheet or he-ra-sheeth.to sona. * The dot over to and id is often used for the vowel Kholem. b'so. except the last one of a word. n^"M mo-sha . 2? . Vri hau-yoo. in number. are often lengthened out to fill the Ihie. Note. as n^"] roo-akh. . and spotted or dotted letters. thus ^& 3r? Note 9. as i'"7 dang. V. Note up 1. 'S ends a syllable is sounded like ng . t Dagesli/orte (see § 56. See § 56. yik-kau-voo . iJOCS.2. The vowel ( T ) Kliolem ( T or ~ ) is a point either over the rigid of other letter . '^r'lifcj:. to it . . which are few ^"^DSyniT others. (here N and are tvii/iout a vowel . ''ip ko-vd. not voo-mee inn io-hoo. not ran-kee-gna Q.12 2. suspended. see 0. bo-hoo. 4. "ll'73. not e-lo-hd. it distinguishes the letter and stands for Kholem. or n ends a word. not liau-yoov. n. Q. . yeng-shan. i. are to be regarded as fancies or errors. "^ia or. syllable) unless always sounded. The sent.) doubles the letter in which it is found. rau-kee-dng. as s. t It must be remembered that Hebrew is read beginninff at the right hand.\ ye-ho-vau. CN-l^i-. Such forms as the following. ) . inverted. it answers two purp S'c. unless . not yegn-shan. it No letter. viz.' and also the preceding Sections. e. not dagn.'a's. b. to following Exercises will be ' sufficient for the pre- exemplify the foregoing Rules for Reading. must be sounded. ^'^j^^T. 3. is not to be sounded as "^T^n oo-mee. with enlargedy diminished. it When '\'4''-<'.. as in the following examples . the letter vauv ^n's or over the left of ""in ( T ) some as Cinn te-hom. forms like town are to be read re-mos. . is is the last letter of a word). united to the preceding letter such be a quiescent. is Tl'^Yi kho-shekh or kho-shek* it It will be re- collected that vauv not to be pronounced unless have a vowel ii^'ln'^ after or wider it. n though of a word without a vowel. ^ip". .'^. have a vowel belonging as VrN > a-lauv. not to-hoov . lis bosk. 5. The : letters !>5 J—i N.

2. Also § 7. u in hut. khart etc.13 EXERCISE Mixed Syllables. EXERCISE 3. kbit ^n khuf etc. 1 § 5. TWO SYLLABLES. — SIMPLE AND MIXED. A simple and mixed syllable.2. etc. 4. 1l2^ nnin h^ipi au-mar bau-kh^r gau-dal ek-kobt bil-modt g6f-reet§ dal-tott "7152^^ rT^lS^ 1^11 "l^n ItV] dau-rash m"n!?M n'lH '^'^^! '^')!~['^ hau-dar vau-h^'b hav-votf zik-raum n^T zau-bat khad-ra p^n khau-iak etc. Dagesh forte doubles the letter and consequently makes a mixed syllable 56. or according to some.^ im bin Si^ ub* bun gur niS badtj bad gal ben p "15 p "l5 ]'^i nnin bart n/^j^ ^Q'n 'J35 gesh del gid gasht dalt dam bar zar ^^^^ n^ ]" r|T dib bin zif dun hul nb l in "IT on hem DT zem ^H Dt n^H ri"]T halt zum zart ^n khag nn khem DH etc. see § t (i See See § 7. 2. etc. Note. . qj^ af 1:3 K^. * t u In full . Pl-in etc. el ]!: n. . Two mixed lllpii syllables.1.

1SD3 "flDp^ mik-nat kas-po. note. sec Rule 7. 4. For the (she). * last syllable (lek). and a and T\ by German Jews. !?[ For the last syllable !D. (S "i who desire 3 D n) when wndag- esh'd. the Begad kefat (Beghadh Kethis Indeed very few persons observe distinction when reading. syllable vaj-yo-mer. t note. short vowels.14 In the foregoing Exercises to no distinction has been made with regard phath) letters § 8. For the 2. 6. 5. 2. Simple Shevau. 4. see § 1. n'JStD she-mauh. (mer). 5. * note. ye-dash-she-na. For the last syllable (mauh). For the last lable (na). 2. Pronounced Shevau. first (ma). § For the syllable see § 7. 6. 6. syllable "^ph ma-lek. For the second 2. third syllable 3. p. 4. ( ^")^&{ au-me-roo. For the first (vay). Also Rule 2. For the For the 7. see see p. For the horizontal mark ~ ) between these two words. i\ to aspirate these letters viz. see p. see last syllable * note.* Those. For the second third 4. (kau). EXERCISE n'Qi^'^il 4. see Rule p. see Exercise 1. syllable (ar). see (tse). Note. are referred to § 8. 1. For the second syllable (dash). For the first made in 5 syllable (au) and the perin '' This distinction is and S by Spanish Jews. see Rule !r]!2*1^'D^ Also Exercise ma-ar-tse-kau. syl- see § Pronounced Shevau. syllable (yo). 7. 1. . § ilSuS'l"' Also Exercise 1. t note. however. also p. see § 2.

i^^ a-lay (a-lye). ("Jl"^) gnau-von. ''IS goy. J15'_ gna-von. see § 7. a-lauv. m ill. For the 2. Also § 56. ^^ 5. ]^^^ b^n. see § syllabic J 3. i. Pronounced Shevaii. ^ip ko-va. a bh. See § Note ji:^ 1.). c. second (me). i gh.15 pendicular stroke. in T gnoz-zee. 2. nin". 4. ^riri to-hoo. See § 6. 'I'lIJD '^^^i^ a-lauy (a-!oy). H^S tsiv-vau (Rule t note). fi^lS bau-rau. Psalm 29. 12 ban. See § 6. n^'d^nS l"n5wV!:^_ be-ra-sheet. m2t:_ mits-vot. l>i"j:^ da-sha. when they are toithout Dageah. nlH roo-akh (Rule ^"^J^_ Y^^ oo-ban. "Dp^ yau-kom. 1. 4. ne-suy. . see § '^iIP Note 2. For Dagesh Note. Note 1. 6. "^^DID kau-sooy. t dA. 4. "^3 kol. T^DJJ au-beey. D'^riV^J e-lo-heem. two dots ( ) at { the end. Dinri te-hom. '^DS pe- na. Jlin"! ye-ho-vau. See § 5. nfi^^nn ta-rau-a.* 10 9 's V 6 5 4 3 18 17 IG 15 14 13 12 11 28 27 2G 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 t)']^-!?:^ nin^ n^nn "jinnn-^i^ n'^trrb:?. wi^A letters and vowels. '\^)>J^^ a-lee. *^2. ma. 115^ or. Note 1. ^^^12^ le-mee-no. Inn^n hau-ye-tau. see Rule t note. me-lak-to. Vip 29 • The learner must not forget that he is at liberty to sound s iA. and the 3. B pA. For the perpendicular mark under 2.

^ip t^iD3 J n^^i/^^ '!]^. etc. that in addition to the voiv- every word the Hebrew Bible has either one or two accents* As the learner sliould be cautious not to it mistake an accent for a vowel. list will be proper to give a distinguish them.|P iT-iti -i5&5 nirp ^^'l^^ n^i^t] !?^n^ nin^ ^ip iVs i^::^rinT ni-i:. however. so that he may * Some words. 43 ye-ho-vau et dr-zd hdl-le-bau-non.52. etc.»?'"i^s S7. It c/5.) sho-bdr 41 d-rau-zeem 42 vd-ye-shdb-bdr 41 § 7. of the accents here.rn^. :^'.i n-d.pTi fd7. § 2) . which have a Maccaph (see very frequently drop their accents . must be noticed in here. 1. . as "SV instead ot'nV foUowin^ them. pissb nin^ 1 2 3 4 5 C 7 Miz-mor le-dau-vid 8 9 10 hau-hoo 11 la-ho-vau V2 be-nd 13 d-leem 14 Imu-hoo la-ho-vau kau-bod vau-gnoz hau-boo la IG 17 la-ho-vau IS ke-bod 20 she-mo hisk21 W kol 26 22 td-khd-voo 23 la-ho-vau 24 be-hdd-rdt 25 kd-desh ye-ho-vau gndl hdm27 23 29 md-yim 30 dl hdk-kau-bod 31 hir-gneem 32 33 ye-ho-vau 34 gndl md-yim 35 rdb30 heem 37 kol ye-ho-vau 38 bdk-ko-dkh 39 kol ye-ho-vau 40 bd-hau-daur (see kol small ye-ho-vau print.i ni^\^ !:bin^ nin"..16 35 34 33 32 31 30 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 jQ'i^qwvjn-]^ it33 "jindi "jiDn'^^ ^. nin*] Dd_^.".

Those accents which have their names opposite to them are the principal stops. Rebeeana: IK 9 Note on Y 3. the syllable Most of these accents are placed which is to be accented.17 Athnaukh Note l. JK 2^ 3 . The letter i< is used to show the position of the accents. Kauton r 2( ik Segoletau Note 2.

For further particulars respecting the accents see ^ 41. nin'j^ ^r.i nin. Note. Soph pausook ( J ). and accents. vowels. ^ina^ nin*.18 S } fi{ Silluk ( ' ). ivith letters. Psalm 29.^ . !?ip^ i^i i^.. jfs'i "iinD ni'n^^ inn t^^h^ ^ds nin^'^ n^in'^b inn inn ttiJip-nn^ina nin^!? iinndn i^d ^ins t n^n-i n"inn tiiDnVn ^Ti^^-ni^ n'in-' nin*^' ^ip nnn nin^-^ip ^ip "ind^^i cnnwx nn'^ nin*^ tC'iriM-i-p i^n Tindi :dws li^nb ^55?-i:2n ai'^p-i^i ninnb niin m'n^-!:ip nn^i^ !:\n.^'^^ ' J ty_^ in^t] n'in^' '^''n.?'Mni Tiiny^ ^^pll ^"i^t^'i ^3^1 Hjp t nbi^b ^^^3 nin"] np_^.

among.19 DIVISION OF [§ cals 9. against. etc. a contraction of tD td See §§ 60. now. for. through. A Seven radical can never become a servile (see § 39).] which are • The learner need only Ilalics. ( U3 ). when. on account comparison of of of. on. n This prefix usually takes Tsar ee (••). with their respective significations. . at. by means of etc. 68. is " Who. in. from. etc. when. since. this. who. near. when See § UO. even. n . etc. according to. that. yet. ). by. . throughout. on. they follow. which. etc. through. by. because.* '\12 1 signifies From. commit the under. 7 To. nor. is upon. in. The rest of the letters are called radicals. in because they are used for many purposes the language. ID " " As. on account witli). but a radical a servile may become when found in the liooL of the above serviles are called to Prefixes. which. then. or. of. also § 4. THE ALPHABET. O. that. over. " 12 In. as to. to. significations of the Prefixes printed in t s . And. a con- traction of ntdN[ See §§ 64. . through. of. but. V or -1 . n 1 " " The. so. to. (perhaps p a contraction of 7J< See § 71. for. out of. before. that. because they are often prefixed words . like. 71. with. it is followed by the letters . (12 in is at. etc. Is The Hebrew Alphabet Serviles. divided Into Radi- and 2b'D^ nd'Q irT^fi^ are called serviks. because they Ibrm the roots of words.

^ words is generally a verb of the 3d pers. m </je c/oMc?. or at the beginning.Nn2. !in3? T'\^t\life.c. See Preface. as he made. '^na from the mountain. see^/. «s. The syllables i^ . (J'IT) from ^"1". "^23 according to. from IjPil ID'^ « thing. nud rest (sabbath).3 land or earth. 3. .hi'3. 3!''i't "^W herb. a garden. 1723 ?tA. n "^ at the beginning or end. from 135 he enclosed. * The See t § 10. like. 2.N3 in the ns-. 3. The Heemantive i1. Nouns are generally derived from verbs* viz. are sometimes joined to the prefixes for euphony.20 Note.') one or more of the following scrviles I'^nD^J^Jl. Examples etc. By from changing their vowels. h^Sl and the power. from TDd . '^•7 J3 /ro?7«.i2 . praeter Indicative it commonly contains three letters and is pointed with ( -r ) under the first. from from i5i/ tV^Tl . etc. as n'^dN'^3 in the beginning. or 1 is inserted. as i733 "^13 «5. according for T\VTV3 CJ"?!^.* as j^d'^^ grass.j: in three ways. [§ 10. ""C . (technically call- ed) Heemantive. masc. from ppH. 'j:y2 . root of all . * note. By adding {to a perfect or imperfect verb. See §§ 59 —64 inclusive. giving y*!i. and (-) under the second radical. as -iWS he said. spirit. OF NOUNS. tico ( When a root t ends in n or K enclosed it is pointed with are t ) . tlT'S in the day. dropping one (seldom two^ of the radical (root) 'j^ letters. "ID*^ . Also § 15.^ to the east. *i/> <^^ in. nsn ^ ' he sate n» V ^ '' The examples in brackets not to be committed. beast.e. from e?. 1. The Article (in) is frequently supplied after some of the life a- bove Prefixes'. from D\25'. '•13 m. for t3"i'n2 for . he divided. D"i:^.cm«g-. /iA.* as an enclosure. <o. to the time^ y"i. became green. sing. pn « law. "^Q^.. for ]23>. ^'^"^ it flourished.a u'orc?. i^ letters are commonly added thus: D or )2 '^ at the end. . "Di: . "^T .t "lp3 morning. etc.

A perfect verb consists of three letters.Jem.21 Note 1. r\''-2^in^z ri n ri— phir." Gender and Number of Nouns. masC' m'-ixa n_ D'^— n^r: beast of—. Vn's a occur . fc'i"' garden. [§11. 2. afflicted. ajourney he journeyed. was born. destruction. See §25. Ae sinned.\"^) <t«o The Examples are not to be committed. from nS'o he Note 3. from i^S and V^\ 2: •n-^hl^j^'a darkness of Jehovah. rule " " " 7je r«?erf. horse. Sl|!p?3 rib'<ij72'a^ a a collection " collected. plur. field. irs. -nanVw flame of Jehovah i. * ''DUJ (ti".4. construct. Examples of Heemantive Nouns. was strong.^=ST' Jer. The following terminations exhibit the Gender and Number EXAMPLES. fern. ^55 /aces tJ")!"^?. from and )» . jnnttt&nn^t i-'DTj a song naj i-'D: (properly *173T ) Ae saw^.] (D''_ ) D'^n dual. il'^j'nz cattle life. lights. as Vns he pitched a tent. from VtiS a tent. lightning. " " " " as Nt3h n'^^ JJj?"] D^'tlj Ae begot. <c7ti. o/— . DNIStl In'ibin sm a generation on expanse tranquillity primitive . sea monsters. yrwiV affliction n"j3 ?i. D_ ^''m seas. i. from " " " DHS "^^n ( tlljn ) n^n "^"IB ''j^ a beast Ae Z?verf. ^ a year. T\^ii{ a woman. fl'^l-anV'i ( ?:. Some nouns Some are pointed like verbs . 31 . tl^'^i!? mpN wife of—. t3". '"'o ^2/^5. ^— 0*11.jem. verbs are derived from nouns . r\^JZ'^ . Note repeated. . thick darkness r.e. "^2 a sons </ — of. as ni seldom one. death' s-shade. ^^n he ran about. e. raasc.y tlij? i'U. ri— sing. of nouns. 8: 6. a (Z«2/. Vi: Compound nouns ri as nija'^i: the shade of death. ^WnS ft . const. /<e y''pn aib'ii (ft) spread out. from Vi. plur. Vt"iS Some nouns are «Voti.ia «< ?oas /je /te fruitful. . he lived in peace. eyes o/.* t\ ri*] TS^- sing.n:'43 two years. ) Vy\'^2 without profit. Cant. . C50 ft ^a a father.l afoot etc. an imperfccl one of two.

instead of '''133 etc. instead of "''ntos. as nii'iny from 10. of both genders. :3N {a father. hi'' {a day. ments. 16: 3. * (a son). termination. Some nouns and adjectives which are absolute have the termina- tion of the construct.73 probably stands for Cs^a stringed (musical) instru- a string. and '^:?. n"'2). and vice versa . n^DO a multitude . 'D'^t]iJ2'3 construct •'nitta ( 8. is illp^ etc. rarely iN ) . nouns fathers. Nouns n"'-- or nn. small print is "^SJi Sometimes a noun the Genitive implied . in T^-."«a). "'_ Note . l^^^ ""Ts ) ninN (a sister). in their derivative forms. "vZilp~bib rrilntj purifi- cation of all holy things. in the absolute. women. and fem. "'^S (a ii«o toients m^s Di'^tts icorrfso/<rM<A. constr.liixn {head. Some nouns have Ql"^) as Q'^T^^ . as Ps. and vice versa. both forms of the plural m'3'a3 . and 0173") (from days.^ afterwards . ti'^PQ for tJ-'Iina or fiTirs from rn£ 6.* as i. n33 See 10 below. and plur. plur. as "^jibh toindows. 9. ri">-in:^ ni'^ba from n^iaba The following nouns. 2. (a brother.. 1.")T' those who go doicn to etc. ''73"*3"43a those who put their trust in . take a fem. "'qN . fiB {a mouth). "JS "^^.! (a house. it into tl_ in the construct as tnip73 the collection . constr. fore. in See § 17. form their plurals by ni' . this frequently applies to the sing.) .) -. C'iJN'^) t]"'». 45: 9. ''^'^ A few duals and plurals end in . nouns ending . ". 2. ) hands. •»5i-l . ''|!E^ '^'llnN after. '^n'^'TN for y"5Nn '^1"''7N . Note.^ ) (a city). is The or Plural of D". are anomalous: constr. of — . to the pit . Feminine sing. the absolute form 4. "liPf^ those . See 11. ( . from 5. T\\'3_ . constr. hN . const. etc.u3) years. l^"'^'?.'!'. n5 (a daughter). change T\:ip. isto (Ps. ^ii e. "'S^TUn perhaps "^^^y. ending in . . r\']h{a house.22 Exceptions. as Some masc. "^rsb be- on account of because. fi'^tt waters. him . are plurals. Q'^D/iJ and (from n. plur. . "^hN (waters.. .. and with Kaumets "^a^'lN . n"'\I33 miN 7. "^ll^"^ those ivho go down i^ "^Cin the trusters in him. 3. 'naa) from ^733 The dual forms 'd'^hv heavens. who rise early in the morning ^N "'7. qas Di-133 o/si^ »er. wh . 6.

plur. as the tent. '?. Tlfi"! to (blood) ) to the house. towns. fiorarf *inN {one.^ From we find ^C^ten for C^. these are Chaldaic forms. and the Dual and Plur. scales. See above. end y^-. Names of Females.'_ instead t of DST^ . In a very few cases SiV?'?. as VnNSfia for vni:::^ from rii£3 Exceptions to Gender. winds.". plur. "JV instead of C.* See § Note 3. (« woman). is Absolute. . 3. Note IIF note. See § 14. ij'^J!^ a fountain. is The son of this t very uncertain. 12. Sing. voce § 12. first). constr. H-cichel. Note Note 3. 1.! (looman. rah (from T\1T^12*diT\ H")^. help. have the form of the Dual. a pair of shoes.i [§ 13. earth.^s-^. "jTN the ear. n^Jlfi^ to Jl'D'^'l^^ towards Egypt. 11. nrjI^VJ'' deliverance. D"^/.J a n suffixed to »l!2*1fi< a noun of place.] and from n. In a few words DN is used for rri (fern. a stranger. C]!-!. JniB4< Dtl [a father-in-law). plur. feminine though of a masculine termination 'D''}vlT2 as \>Tri spirit. Ci''"]^^ So also we have .iii . Forms like ny-i . to be Examples are not committed. towards the land. QN a mother the Egypt.33 Nouns ending in "»_ often form their masc. foot^ ^^ a hand. 5"'_.) . icifej np/itt . Paragogic letters are occasionally attached to nouns. 2. and objects double by nature or custom.j. fi'^. jewel). nrT^ll to JYob. cities. '. plur. HQiJ (a woman). and a few others. (a hand) comes rea- esi.i_ .23 vessel. as '^'^.^53 y)l ^^*c <^y^. small type. a nation. ri3i*^ towards the heavens. CP"Ln2 (mid-day). are rare in the construct state. 'J3 and 133 a son. as'l'jT'ln a heast. countries. proper names of places. . fnh to to and mnn to the moimtaln.^. "^ia by adding D. JirT^S (constr. signifies to This IS Of n LOCAL. . and or towards .tt . 14. n"i. TN73 a pair of C^nna two rivers. Jl!2ji3!l to the south. H changed into n). ^fl^^ MaZion. 13. 11J''N (a man). 'jn"'12 Zion. sometimes ends in in N_ instead of . The Fern. \vr\ the wind. * nn5 Cri Dedan.

.V'\'^'0 hishooTcs suffix. the 2d persons Sing. ia) an n their masc. "^"T^i*?.) ending in n. hringeth ^S'^j down.'2>?5 a fountain. as t3".. ^i is changed into n as riUJN awoman. as i^'^'j* my See enemy. n D. When the above suffixes are. m *!] . They are called Suffixes or Postfixes. your Once. 0\ n ID) r_ i_ ^n i "^_ Od*' "i and are sometimes /ler {its'). wife. Examples. your masc. When suffixes are added to nouns (fem. will distinguish the . 2. to which attached is plural . and are Inseparable pronouns. ^"»n^ . the noun .) which are joined end of nouns and sup- ply the places of pronouns possessive. nn'i"i< his wife. the Note.n^ hands.24 DERIVATIVE PRONOUNS. the D of D^_ and '^'^i!) omitted . a 5on. ' our r a i3'. "^rivZJN (not '^rj^^) '"^V . "^ft^N thy wife. appended to dual and plural D"'is nouns (masc). coalesces with the pronoun. pronouns (§ 67. glorious. Notes 1. * is JnSNb^ a work. thy hands. wife. and or !:j Plur. See § 73.). •^3 thy fern. V inhabiting. however between the noun and the plural 1. § 73. [§ 14.children. ISD a hook //?-?/ masc. etc. I'n'^h : as 6casf. fern. paragogic . 2. "^ and 1. Note. ''2'^'is or my enemies the plur. (fern. or ( '\VQi^\')2 his work. These are parts "^ ov fragments of the Primitive "iDN! . fi'^^Dp hoo1cs. it "> When this suffix has the vowel (-) ^ ) before "'a'^'s it. noun as tinj^pa ^/im. from X^a child. "iiia (1") Note (masc). being to the changed into .) fas from ^3 from ^DHDNl.

whose middle radical is i or i (see § 28 tip to arise. instead of "f . After rri (fern.:^ But this is particles take his brother. was afraid. active participle Kal of these verbs has the (construct N'^. here "^ seems to be superfluous. the root of nearly all praeter active Indicative. from nh2iii73 : a family m'32 daughters. thus. t]i<'^ he JJi"^p he call- saw.25 Note suffix . ed. See ^ 75. The root generally consists of three (. P^otes 1. he said.'" [§ 15. and is pointed with Kaumets and its (-) is Pattakh. by him.^. A few roots have and (••) (Kaumets and Tsaree) . i T!l . N'^. from ni<"ia.) Note. verbs final Kholem. sing.* viz. are used forV^^ Vt« iy . See § 67. plur. -.* (. before their suffixes like plur. lO. See § 71. Praeter and Future: the English Present expressed by a Participle. N'^/' ) he feared. ''ns even. ivas filled. 3. Imperative is : and and two tenses . '" 'Z'^^' ^*'*'- In Poetry iVy upon. and J^i?. ^Vs unto. from n!:. words. Some nouns and tiji as n5< thy father. sia ^050. ys^J he was pleased. Praeter Tense. not always the case.take the suffix n_. iTiN ^'<h'S^ upon."3 '" consider. Infinitive.. Note rj 4. as nilF:^ his (its) leaf.'] ) same form as the fearing. as nV^ ^3'^ he (it) filled. 1^ or with as 'n'QiS5 two (t) Kaumets when last letter or fl . NbJ3 he is filling. p'lS he divided. as intransitive. The . and a very he kw take (^ are was able- These commonly root and (~) {Kaumets and Kholem). § 11.) letters . and are called verbs final Tsaree.. In Hebrew there are but three moods. '^'niis thy daughters See § 73. tatt/rom. Indicative. •'^s to me. ^y^ and 'Tpt] he went. 3.^ The tive persons and gender of the praeter. The third person masc. ^^V. JlTl he was. the personal pronouns are called Sufformatives ' These fragments of • The ways the Infinitive root of verbs as . nouns .v)ith. instead of Nouns ending in M. are made by suffixing to the root the following fragments of the primi- pronouns. is almost al- 4 . -pi.')'? her appear- ance.) a "^ is generally placed before the as DH'^n'iils^^b as to their families. is OF VERBS.

^. number. in the future tense .t ^ he visited. it. twice. ' -^V. [or 'i^tTi^. them masc] (^ §11 or 1 they shall or will. for sriKP or ^rtfrCO '}'i'^t)'n'^ they shall lack. See § 22. and gender.) are appended to th€ root to exhibit the persons. § "] paragogic . Letters. let us.) TP. ]- J'l) n_ ^12T>23 _ I^S 1 //le?/ common. or wilt fem.26 Singular. is common at the end of ? . ivill.B ri. lis Note. it. let them fem. as they produced^ "^STJ} produce ye. ^/^ Cri (triDn) (ti^'1 ]n fem. as ^inwn yc shall die. t These are paragogic endings. also ye Imperative. ye or ^/ley shall. [§ 16. (n_ ( n^) ) ( — ( ^t^f^iiS she* thou masc. 5. Singular. the suffixed fragments Sufformatives. let * All the conjugaliotis receive the sufformatives in the same way.S § 66. 1P. let me. thus. VERBS.) n n ] n n ^pj — thou fem. thou shall masc. ilD . '^p^ i. they imre frvilful^ ^ 6e ye JruitfuQ it prefixed to a praeter tense often converts into the future. D " let her . Future Tense. lye s/ia// 2/e or will. *' "^' (t tin ^n ) n. Alt the conjugations receive the above pronouns in the same manner.. he shall or " will. T?. may he. n n ^ " " masc. Paragogic once. 1] we ye masc. [{. . ( {KaT). » ( n_ ) n_ n_ §] ) ^ n she n thou shall ^ / 5/ia// or Plural. / Plural. I The prefixed fragments are called Praeformatives. The following fragments of the primitive pro- nouns (see § 67. let (Jl— ) n_ n T *^ ' him.

See § 49. either before or after this. n^7. Pual. sing. There are a kw. Hophal. '^isjn '?)3?: . regulai~*<!I 'n'^jrik. ted by the species of verb and conjugation pth*. Some- times * active or reflexive. often throws it back into the <§ as IpS"] he shall visit. their last radical as VbaN from b^N ]i<"iJ . . n_ is paragogic 3 times. Note. masc. Note the : The above pronouns are called Praeformatives and Suf| note. Note. Some verbs double their first and' last radicals. :s>i'tj Some double ]Zy-\ from ^y-j .* as 1j?£i he visited^ nt3_ J^T he Jeared. b^Nf"*.. viz. nuJn from nn'ij. See preceding page The in Praeformatives exclude (characteristic) of Niphal. from nno J«'nn ^ir^. future tense. Pluriliteral verbs.27 Note praeier . of the Fut. pth.T 2. 5. and he visited. See § 45. as ^DDD'Ti. is fro™ ^^1 • from nc. 2. . Ji_ paragogic very common in the 1 pers. formatives. Some double ~)»"!^tj. Note Note 3>\yyuJ . Hoph. . from ii^lS . ^ibn3 (reg- ularly nlrh':) for ^33 from ^ba riN-ipJ* and nhpN The Kal. and . and the (characteristic) of Hiph. and . and Hithpael.3 b^b^? from b=13. I'^pn^ i«i2 . some their first and second from ]:Niy from as b3b. I'ahn . na?. their second and third radicals. rri)'jn. I'ayN. . Hith- Kal is active . bs'N (for b^NiN). etc. . P^^ ( ) 5 Mom. nu:yN . riN'T. is Note 3. from riNT N'l''^. ^pS'". See 23. 'n:^^'q'p . Kal. of the Imperative. are not to be committed in The Examples any case. 1. he diedy from n^!Q see §§ 28. niiil . 6.. i>tt35>ri>yn . . is .:. (iiS he came. See § 58. Hiphil. nf^i from from S'lJ^ N3n from |n'. and . nS-lDN for ^i:3N. as Si^rlOpN I will kill. sing.. 2.iDh Names and Significations of the Conjugations. n'^c'^D"' is as "^^i^hp from "(JiD. and plur. with the Note. 1.. 17. . NDND from N^a . ^5*^5. 54. for b'tS^N m:3^j for "jaVa. Piel. Also § 98. pers. D2Dh73 from . Niphal. punctuation of the above praeformatives . in Imperative rt72^p amg T\y4y. from "jn. . from D'lp: ri'itti^ 4. T prefixed to a. Niphal it is is passive . as {Kal) 'ipS'^ . .2 .. no. as 1|?&3 he was visited.). [§ pael.

7. below. Dp in . ipttfiiin for — srin . Hithpael both active and passive as 1|?£nn he he visited himself. 39. . nb:^n. is D'^pS'nn'D Participle.* as ^tppDJl he killed are very rare.nn t . Piel k Pual.] viz. [ (a) (6) All roots are in Kal D . lie down. as ^t^pri he was caused and to kill. nDd^n nn . '!|V»iri»l walked continually. Is Hiphil causative . m Hithpael . The second radical commonly takes a Dagesh in this conjugation.] and "^^pSn»l occur). (d) * _. ^ PDpD was killed. CMi-iN for Cttiins* . (It is sometimes like is Kal in signification). Recapitulation.) always assimilated it . the same organ follows as 13'^n for for n^'nnn * -ifi^ri for iriDnri . The n when characteristic (with but one exception. as . see 6. . as b^'D'ptl he caused ed. Dpn (e) it was established is nb^T] once . is Hophal to . as 'I'^pSn he caused to visit. a letter of .f . .n. and note Hiphil. 4. he prefixed is Niphal 6. Hophal to visit. Judges 19: 22. ilptJJl ' it water- Hisnn.28 For 3. . '^l^nH he was ('I'TpSriln blessed. S^IDH was made n'^DiTI . (not always) inserted deto kill. For (c) Piel "^ I I and Pual see I below. Dssn for criarri flD-7n for ssT. ^I'it] — nn prefixed ntl and himself. ']t] or n prefixed he . See is below. See §§ 38. 7. The characteristic n is often assimilated when other letters follow it as N5i3n for i«S3nn -Bin for nasnn. passive of Hiphil (cZ) as 1'p_pT\ he was caused 5.N52Dn and . . 7pp as he killed. - M prefixed.

. ^Ijio (rarely like . which the root indicates as "Vtinn ^^ pretended from from n^h. . send thou. Peculiar forms. ti73riri (with n characteristic assimilated) thou wilt show thyself upright. S2& > from S3& i VViy . rriDS (from nD3 ). (with tl^'O ( (^•l) IJTlS he commanded him).] (i>. ( ^y . > 6tc. "I"j3ni7l thou wilt show thyself pure. for bm See § is the second radical a Guttural h M N . . ) lasi'i.!l * Piel and Pual have the same ieMcrs as Kal. .i ^0 comfort. The Dagesh characteristic of these conjugations is occasionally omitted even when the See § 4. 122. are from Cflp. "i?» C»j. ed to be holy. C». TiTl he commanded. instead of commonly takes Tsaree under ':]'73 . !^5. Piel Is active. etc. DShnn he acted cunningly. ^na ) "iNs '^nN . it as . it is characterised by in a Kheerek under the .'2 from "j^a . . TSnnl^ thou wilt show thyself 7nerciful. in Pie! . as tJ'^j? to send. n^js . . Din ( Dh ). n:^n . PIEL.c/Mc?ec? . when I gather. or 'i . ^a . ) . 'irOJD for ^Dt2D and ^nn (-^nn ) When esh is e2. . is. t With prefix. ia"is . t ' ' ' ' Verbs iy . and in this ( 'r]'nS case thej^r5< radical he blessed. t^sin (instead of . .2! V?S . from liDU. he consecrated.i ii^n . nps . 7^5 ny? from .) . and c»j. "l!l'^(l3'^) he spoke* ii}p)2 . to be sick. for ni:£. 5»ri from ajifi . Exceptions. rtViJ (h!p"*j) ^o . brj?. n*"!! JlVp ) he sent he preserved alive. 12^^) '""^^. forms are like T^}^^ (i?'^^ ) . (""^23) speak thou. The make ( Infin and Imper. bless thou. . second radical is neither a Guttural nor -1 . . "i^JS. pis etc. ^~^. with ) suffix i")3na ichen I spoke. into Pattakh or Kaumets holy. Apocopated forms. Piel are formed by changing the vowel Khee. from D»Pi. r\Vp.ip. fii^'^'o . from T^ia .. 'j^ . from ni'i ) t?p . but different tjozce^s. "^Z'j "^tfji . yja is n^y n^iy . once 44. and a Dagesh the second radical as J^'ip he caussuff. nan^i in speaking. or do that. In-jj?. Dag- asy^S. Qn. (Hosea 9) ^i^h Imper. D^h . (in- stead of -. and yy have the following forms . .29 The general meaning of Hithpael . etc. t note. iJiya in ' my gathering. [6. Other . S'^j^ is for T\'3U 4 . '^!. etcj See § 4. t^-i from Ci-i . and is generally causative or inten- sive of firsts Kal . to represent one's self to be. ^^? "1^35 ). rek or Tsaree of the first radical. etc. mNV?3 (ntS>» "^Sh ) . ^"n^ ?o 6: 6/ess.

30 PUAL. C'^iNil''!! who are going * The participles \nall the conjugations take the Ibrmsof nouns or adjectives. from n»2-5' he made. S*^-.) usually (but not always) changed . "jwia . see the following small print. Pual is the passive of Piel a . ni^.] [ The Article ( n ) prefixed to a participle denotes who.) ^^ ^«^ was ^^^^^^ ^em. n_ or n_. S'nt iri"^ (from nh? "bm ^?3 al . p/wr. b^iy )r^in.[y etc. moving. ""ri'^ and ^"^D he was iVS ^^c?/ are finished . into Kholem ) . . (n3lT. he was blessed. nipa^in is ) which is creeping. TT^^ making.£ . Hiphil. See §44. and Hithpael . he who spills. that. T}3 ^^T . ni )2 distinguishes the participles in Piel. Verbs i:s> (^V) and S^:s!' have forms like the following in Pufittip . .i^HP^^ . ^fb'lnri that is go- ing .] is nbs ). 1D12^^ creeping. plur. pours out. doing. AND IMPERATIVES. Exceptions are like PARTICIPLES. from tDDtD Fem. Hophal. . See § Note. "7^ spoiled. Pual. When vowel. '^DUJ '^^tj . Til (J^HT) seeding. n. ^JliX). . Sili&n which surrounding. [ 7. t^as washed. . as the first letter of a root has a it Kholem (1 "") for its usually indicates the present particiyielding. etc. dSu: 4. masc. DHD is CH") . it is characterised by a Kibboots Jirsf. from yiT. (from etc.. C7jiT . in fem. . as . as UJld'^rj (fem. When (not ^'na the second radical a Guthiral or ^ the Kibboots of the /rs< radical . producing. INFINITIVES. moving Plur. (in few cases short Kaumets) under the in and a Dogesh (not always) the second radical (see Tipb^ preceding page *note). singulars end in in . 3:210 (not often like iao) from 330. masc. . which. ^Dyja j<-j'p. [§ 18. (^?y. from DSJd /le is . (^'^^i). ple Kal. Vri'l (Vm . ) /tc (I'V^^) he born.* n_.. judging. as ^'^p he was made holy. horn 1^121. . did.

e. bringing (from ^13 tablishing (from Q^p el. The participles The prefixes a in all the conjugations take tiie S V » I'y^ari when he heard. "ji^J plur. * t are often prefixed to the Infinitives in all the conjugations. <^«2/ thou. m" plur. desirable. See § 81. ). i. When the second letter of the root has 5). It rek ( 1 ) or Kibboois nlHfiJ blessed.. See §§ 33. as to the making. nii!35? to do. indicates the 5? or Imperative Kal Tbs? (^DJ'b) ^0 as ^XtiU^ (with prefix pHi'^b t) JlilS!^. eating. from and iSD. as 'n'I'nS ) (ni55)'(fem. n_ n_ fem. t^iyJh_ to make. Avith suffix ^0 e«^ /^ee^ e. lovely. nthna ) brooding. desired . (from :''^t). These are similar to the Latin . thou eatest. thus. he is blessed.* Hiphil ^'5~na walking (from rjbn . do thou . to come . : to the root 'jTS as T3n. Q''_. The other persons of . a blessed one. . you eat ")53>j5 ""1^^!. VD&jt/oefl/. 1D!d!:5&^ to eat you. ti'^-. When the second letter of a root has a Shoo( ). ^03. ^"l^N* forms of nouns or adjectives. J<"'3a causing ). '^y'l^ from i<2::j .* i. The Participle Niphal prefixes . Hithpa- With "^ paragogic '^"'E"4J53. those going out the knowers of. are distinguished by sufformatives *^''C'^ thus ') : ''_. 'llDT iST ""i5T remember thou. V^i^ i.1?3 (fem. masc. ). in making. . thou as fem. See § 81. Piel b"'?^^ causing to divide (from btl^ ?''ht'3 seeding ). as "ittsV to say. ^•^^'^'a frovi seeing.e.. as '^"1535^ say thou. it a Kholem Infinitive (i ") or short Kaumets (see § . fern. or ni plural*] [§ 20. ^^ain from rj»I^ . nnl^Nl. saying. serve. being n_. al . ye masc. cultivate. •'Sip'i'' S->. construct forms ''i*::^ the goers out of. to rule . i.) cursed. Hiphil. be ye fruitful. . '^^'B ..] [§ 19. 'D'^p^'a es). the Imper. to the root.e. to iTjbSNl make. "^DN: thy .* All the participles ^3 beyond Niph- are formed by prefixing .31 out. 'n'^3:73 etc. those knowing* from (With "^ epenthetic and parago- gic. indicates the passive participle 'TjInS ("^nil Kal. 49. Geirun'ds. T\ or n fem. ?1>7.

Of [§ 22.] it into in the construct. ^Tl (from he lived. T^pi^) and thou shalt eat . the fem.. generally 0*^3^. 40. See Exceptions. Nouns ending see § 11. §§ 31. sufFormatives are appended in the same tions . (7). 2. Note. as '"lat-n i^win Niphal. as HDiS return ye. state. throughout.. ^Vt?)! "iVajj. in this Final D of the Dual and Plural Jl is dropped to 1*1. Also § small print. il3 ( 1 T ']) y^ fem. ^in^^pn (Hlph. il riilJNl^ the wife in of not Jl'lIJJ^. Piel n3TSn n^jTsn from ^ts) + Hipliil. Construction. QnS^ the is of Egypt. § 11. ^^p^ the waters faces ^^352n waters "^12 of the flood. is of course in the Genitive case. ^lYTlp "^"Ti I destroyed. shall live. etc. In the other conjugations. and § 30. signifying When as two nouns come together different things. change (2).U^1^Tl ^2^ of the expanse. or H. small print. shall be. 1 CoNVERsivE OF THE Praetcr. 3. [§ 21. the faces U^tib^ Hli the of God. . The 1 . '^Hl and he T^n they were. This 1 frequently changes the tone syllable. see 17. The second noun I. often changes the Praeter tense into a Future . See § 6G.32 say y^. ^^^^52 of the waters. of ^^^1 and they established.. Infin. Also § 66. must commonly be placed bespirit '^DS tween them. from For the Imp. "^Vt. "J 1). ) ^T\y\p^ and I will destroy . as rhpj^ thou hast eaten. prefix 1 ( 1 . . {Construct state). changed in- n_. Qlp) / have ^n^^pni conjuga(for and I will * Tliese establish. 6. of. as '^pS sons of not Tlltl beast of in not n'^H.^] manner to other . or of the.

li^'SiTltl^ conversive as nV. .^l) (ind a vapour icent up. Note 1. (7). iSlbm and (for nfi^. ^ni^ ^^.n". See § 66.' t as ' The serpent 5 . as l^^si'^ (l^wSt'^ ) he shall divide. . is which "precedes ihe future.y. When follows n the Dagesh is always omitted as TJ'J "] . nV3 is rjcjn-) nf{n". as H^y^ii.<. The positive degree of course. (or particle )12)'. generally back Into the praeter . is T takes hide. Note final 3. i.). Nn\\T and I was afraid. '^ri^T and it (he) was .) follows. *153>S^1 and he said. &i"l^_1 and he saw J^nn iinnl (from hin). Pattakh lengthened (see §4. so that it &(ii!!)D!2 cannot be forgiven * 1 . ( N^hNT and I hid. i.J '2T]^12 in comparison of e. shall be.e. bDNT and I ate . .1. ^V?.") ^V?":i (from ) . ) he shall see. fix )2 The Comparative may be known by in the preall. (7). see the ex- amples above. I shall . small print.! [§ 24. Shevau vocal in these examples. When 6.")"] she went'. § 50. more than gold. This it frequently draws back the tone and shortens the vowel also often causes verbs M? to lose their Ti. Note ^'awme^s.] (from r\Vl in"'. I. prefixed to an Infinitive. isfnn she shall ^o. l£y^12 plH^ one!' sweeter than honey 'two are better ^ni^n"'!^ than This ative .33 Of [§23. so that he could not see.] Comparative Degree. more comparison of gold. any adjective. he (it) ) . 2. See §66. l^i^ (n. as pS'D than. )^\ ]^\l (from JlDS). b^^iy^ he shall ^"nD^I and 5^1 . say. nii<"lQ is from to see. i^N b^N j I shall eat.T (from mz). prefixed to 2i Ill-h future teme. often denotes a negnot to he forgiven i. In a few cases the Comparative expresses the Superlative was crafty VsW above all. Dagesh being implied See §7. "^QN (for iTOuNN ) -i^"wNi * ] occurs for 1 2 Sam.e. . he divided. throws it *] CoNVERSivE OF THE Futurc. above all.l "5*1 t (= TJ?. as 1Z . sometimes attached to the word nVs'. Also '^ 50. ^« (a guttural cannot take Dagesh. Nn\\ I shall fear. . 1: 1 10.] .i^^') i::-..

i. By a synonymous word . ii<12 va7it very exceedingly i. See § 10. See'§§ 55.^* Superlative Degree. ^'i^l2 "^STl and they pre- ii<12 ii<)2 ^"lD5 By repetition. an abject slave. 'a mighty hunter nin"] before the Lord' i. from irom rUT). ' * The adjective is sometimes omitted.)] VERBS [ it ri^. (making). (a. from riD^. By 'ik'a very. . e. 3. The Superlative is made 1st. 10: 10. ^'iX53 ii^iyii highest degree. [§ 25.34 from looking^ so that he could not look . ^nijf ^3D3? By using a jiame of the Deity j as ^fi< cedars of God i.e. my greatest inheritance. to JTll^. (seeing). great city. as ^'1253?. as Is. m)3b (nW) suffix number. 1. e. iii12^ as m't: DID . i'^n T\m (with prefix 'and Dni^na. is § 26. so as not go doiun . do. 2. as ik'a DID very good they multiplied exceedingly. ni'^^ nii<"l (niiaj'!?) (ni. vailed exceedingly much." their gods tV'ii-i-to ' ^ . to see. a great hero of the chase. a truly D'^npi^p ^bil^^ 1^^^ a great city before God i. Verbs whose Infinitive last radical all Jl .e.N-l'?) to to make. t\^np^from pursuing. U^lpZ « ^erin the of servants e. 95. often change into nl in the of conjugations. as '^'pbu riDtt the por- tion of my inheritance 4. exceedingly. from going down. best.) and toie. (yiGie sixong) in comparison of those of Jerusalem. good good I IDS' e. loftiest cedars.

n^to>' JiiDJ' /AoM (fem. ^T\^'6 for ^n'^5Ip from nVjJ The Imperatives of these verbs are formed thus. 5eY ^^oi«.''5' ''^i") plur. I^n 88. 55. 'i']?! and'^'^n. .woM? * ?^0M.) be thou. A. T -r before •J {they) . etc. g^* "ntp Dip ^J"! *^^^ ^^0^ i^?? (^^ft ) ^0 ^^ g^^ from ^?^ </if?e//. made. fem. she {it) was^ from Jl'Tl JTinSS opened. 53. '!]^ ""^!p go '^^^I thou. It 35 and first Verbs whose radical D or "^ often drop in the Imperative and . See §§ 3. In some cases the omitted as m'ti for n''' fi . sit. to T It these verbs. *! suffixed to these verbs. ( Jl ) is suffixed . Dn^toS? ye have done^ from '^ '^n'^Jil. the radical n is changed into . i ny^ is (n. is n (thou). n^^"^? fem. 4. Qri jn (^e). as 'TH35? they did. fem.) ^055^ c?owe. '^toS? Tit^V niX") make. from •^^^J"}? "^. in paragoglc and omitted firifi^l). ye. ID (we).35 2. 'T) When f/ie?/ (/). r\'ZW to dwell. ^1^.^li:) . "^B^hp^ from nn^D^!* ^ n is generally dropped 1&}-). and in the Infinitive^ ( iflfi^^^ they postfix n as go him. 'int). X Anomaly. made. 5 (^'i^. regard. n'^5^'1 (with . from i^SS'' . Jl>{^ to go and in to went)-. as Tl'^toS? I have done.). VERBS [§ 27. Cn\vi"] . 52. See S 53. from from DUJ"^. 13^>«-] from rtwX'] he saiv . fem. When the third pers. A.wot«?. . T^n..n3. the radical is changed O she into (it) ri as nn'^iTI . do thou. HpS ^wrw 'is. plur. is /^oz<. or n3 (^e or fem.l^' (5^?. n^S redeem thou. ^&^"] Jl3^^i"] . ^. fern. i^V do . Infinitive. Jl . from nSS. See §§ 4. when he !«:£ go thou.]' . see thou.

inip:). Verbs which have letters in a middle (second) have but two the praeter tense is Kal he the Infinitive (which has the root. Note.b^ ) from M. .d Ps.. t A j'la . ^51^. . 1 or tlie doubled radical has been dropped and when a Daoesh follows tiie Praeformative.) etc. 12 ^Sl he measured. innj?. is a '^ or 3 . ni!3 nn^5 (with n paragogic. if it has second it letter. See §§83. from uJT (Ps. a verb DS. ^nydi and ^nrjj nd^. ^13. . . radical 13? and 1 h for . Infin. 4. ^vi ( S v:. niXia Is and mi'^ fromi«it:D. roots as lose one of their radicals in conjugating thus. Dib (D^ii)) ni53. These are such . 7. lost its letter. "Tin. as ). by restoring what lost. ii\a liftnp.) thou sojournedst.!:) (Is. etc. Dnt^ip ye placed.t] * few exceptions occur here like are conjugated like rcffw/ar verbs. In!] they died. ni:>.] OF DEFECTIVE VERBS. from Dip. S lias been dropped . dl possess thou. it is a 1 . nid (n^d). from ]ri3 4) for n3n . It often lias dom fi ) . . you form the perfect root.] for N'I. if it has lost its is third (last) is a H hence. [§ 29.. nn "nn once njn .-* See §§ 44. 84. but see § 30. pS Tl^qY. The Hj? verb njPP Ae ^ooA: conjugated like (nrjj'? ) ^«A:e ^Ao?/j Infinit. . i (selbeen dropped when a Kaumets (-r ) is under it. 90. "m "d^ approach. as three letters) ) considered as (not i^13 ^Ti'U'^ ) Dp (once 40: D5<p ) he arose.pardo?i. 1D-/Dp_ (not I placed. whicli happens that when a Tsarce ( •• ) is under the Praeformative. Infin.36 ili'l and Infin. it If a root has lost hs first letter. nm r\tip_ frorii (nd". hd: (lift 91. 8: in "in give thou. appointed. ni"n . IS'S went. . we arose. up) occurs VERBS [§ 28. 54. (ntlpb Infinitive with suffixes. nyi . Ac placed.

* note.tce thou. Note ning) and If a verb (root) drop tico letters. from iri*l «wc? D1il3.. letter. from 5<D^1 and he brought. from S^DD p^l flwc? /ie 6z«7^^ made. J note. tl1!S. from njPb 'jn.. n par- nn ( ~riri) etc. Examples. TJ^J^I and he went. in form howev- peculiar as it respects the Dagesh. 1113 . are .wezt'. D\D^1 and he placed. from er is 1. •^n*] it shall be. t\^T\ he (it) was. fromJiS*^. from '^'DW 'b'n^T: Hoph.). ^iDfi^ i^^'2. gave. See § 51. Also § 23. he placed. TV^y-. left. Sec § . 2. D3!. from ^33. as . {vom from -|S^ future etc. verbs have their second radical repeated {doubled).). and he formed. . below. they often lose such last See Note 3.2 and he smote them. i^D bba . as As some . A. always prefix b . . 3D^ lib. &{'n^1 and he saw. from ")i^? (S 31.37 Note. etc. from ^lll ^^^^ ^^ to knoiv. See § 15. ^Di^ from 5:|D^ NSin etc. Note Note as ^3u3^} 3. and nVjpq from bbpj is bnnHiph. "IIS^I etc. (at the hegin- as TS'l and they smote. "^Pn^ T\Thz 1. from 330 PlQii'^ from q!)i>. from J't^^l «wfl? he planted. this innS^I and he placed him. hj>^2 nn|i!: etc. 17. and they subsided. from T T and it was. from JlJ^n . come from See § 42. ^ip (i^hp !-iftn ( ) ^^. of bbn dO'^ . When hp hj^rn . they are (at the end) . iVj? . from "33 Note ag. from See § 15. from "iWJl!: to cause to shine. 6. . ""JT^I ^?ll and he made. It is frequently necessary to double the second radical . ri2?^?l ^/ie knowledge of. Xy^Hp from 5'"!"' (§ 27). H'lD. IS'^I «?«</ Ae com- manded.ofbbh.

[ 1 1 i^. from tiart bbh. from njPS from . . ilrhr! .* See § 99.from DD72. from b?N "'^nTn (fut. .) the Praeformative takes the vowel (••) Tsaree.! or 1 1 l^n distinguish the Infin. ^^2. Anomalous is Aina. . as fiN'^an . ^aSri from . riNnn it When radical is N n n . as shall be seen. See § 53. imph'es that the . the future tense. from ih'^ . Note.] Anomaly. as tiaiJ . Qly^"' Note D^'ip. vlSw^ the from dSS first . for iina See § Gl. their i. also be thou watchful. thus : Uin"*'] "1)^. y'3.1 and "ijV?. Vx*iJ3 etc. of this conjuga) tion . . (§ 51. fi^'lp'] shall be called "^1^^ let them be gathered. . in A dot (Dagesh) in the first radical of a is verb omit.=. .^ In a very few cases "^ may be inserted as CiiiJ"' from Infin. . . (these cannot receive Dagesh. and it was corrupt. •jDj-.cn to ) be separated. for' etc. nntim filled. (with prefix t]N"]3n3 ( to be created them i. . . Seldom must N be pre^zcc? . -n^W i^bn .38 Note from ^{^a . '^)2^^ care. from Hip awe/ it . also to be separated e. Piel) Note and ujn-. btin from from T^3. . for rTisinnV etc. and y^il? J etc. in^S"] nn^ . Infinitive and Imperative.. Iwrij^l from "^^'^ .] Infit'^n (or ni<-|2n): Zib^n" NiriN . . ^1?. n^y^i . being created Tisri 1"i. i' . (2). be watchful. * for ^ZJT^m Sometimes .n from "liD. D of Niphal it ted as ^np^) it shall be divided. • .). JlDn^Sni and thej were opened. OF IVIPHAL. isri UJ=)-n from )D^i from iiD "iD'TtN . n'iV'OJ ~2n2 . or ^ . H^"^. from . "5''^. as 532 he went.i'' from N:2^ . ]:3^ T\^. from &?b3 5. from nntJ. 4. b'DtH'' — ini'"-' . its The prefixes s s V sometimes exclude n characteristic and take asVcJs^for ^ttisns nisn^. Some verbs require N for a third radical . i^!:52m was from i{^^. e. [§30. 6. 073. being separated. Ch^S vowel . and Imper. take ^~ip. Verbs "S in the future Kal have ^ico forms. from njN as !:"'Dri Hiph. 1?3 they restrained. i characteristic remains in the Infinitive . Citt'n diprt from fiip.

{Infinitive and Imperative. "'"^^IH '^T'^'^n "'h^n etc. and Imper. § 33. bring out. verbs Tih excepted. f^J^P. irifii i«z7/i /im. i^«7/i. 'Tlit with me. Pl'in from ns"! see § 50. Tjliii (T|ri&{) thee. as and "rh^Ti from 1^^* .] Infinitive and Imperative Kal.^H. of Hophal and Hithpael have the same forms as the Praeter. . T^^. 15 Sn for n32 but even these are doubtful. Dlil^ etc. ^"^^Jl to (for J^S'^n or ^iSin see § 51) cause come. D^in and '0^3 n from UnD. 1 . irji^ //icwi. T|n&i ) thee. See § 99. Peculiar forms. ntpK fromHtJD. Anomalies. This particle '^zii^ is found joined to all the suf- fix-pronouns.39 OF [§ 31. Apocopated. DpniJ it?27/i you. See § 71. from i. nn&< her !r]n&t ( (it). i^t:n and . and niSS . from b^^ » 3"'D"'rt . .the verb 1^i<. Hophal Imper. In- from ti53 b"'b'^rt . and Imper. un from '2r)h T\'0\ ^in from . . !n is etc. [§32. 3td?l and ^^'^tl cause return e. DDJl from DHD is n ^i'h^r] or in is used when the verb defective in "^ .] ns: . (Tli^i ) . from i^iy. . as me. . him (it). is defective in as ^^^T\ to to cause to shine. etc. / HIPHIIi. from 7113. finitive rrisri from niT . Infinitive The short Kaumets which is distinguishes the and Imperative frequently placed under the * The Infin. Driii with them.. nii:j:jrT . nC)''rt from nu. used when. as nasttJn.)* this conjugation 51 The Infin. ni^ ("ni^ f ) accusative. 1lb}p_ and niV^n from T\by. etc. of may be distinguished bj the vowel (-) Pattakh under acteristic char- ^ as ^'^'^!3o to cause to divide. occurs but twice. . restore .

This D is merely euphonic. dS'DDS in their journeying. for '^DDDH from IDH. 49. for ^"D^iii^.(7). etc. Fern. call. n33'^i^_ not she (it).sn ye or they shall eat. is 5^ . overthrow me. .. Of § 35. sense. thou wilt crown him. about !l3*p!Dri it. it is D Epenthetic. i3Dp^. Roots beginning with ^ . See § 97. See § 97. ni^hp_T\ ye or they shall finish. In . etc.* 13^1'' he teach him. See § 97. Hl^^ preserve thou. . preserve ^3"l!DT remember us. ^33^3^% IWnn:^^ '13^1. frequently fi«{'s drop it in pers. my overthrowing '^DDH pity me. for "l^J^N*. as IHDptinJ^. (7). i. ^T]^ I shall tarry . . thou shalt finish for nf Dn will ?l3??wNn thou shalt eat 13"1tJ!S'in for n^Di^r] . Epenthetic as JlJinnn under. it. nijat: See §§ 48.. n [ * Interrogative. and Imper. D When called a dagesh'd . she is not . and adds nothing to the (7).eic. n prefixed to a word is usually Interrogative n3Vr. Sometimes the Dagesh is omitted. take suffixes. it.40 first radical when the Infin. the two (Aushall lephs) coalesce eat. comes before a suffix or it. "^iDDJl to '^i41j?!Il when I call . '^^i<^'p we . 13np it. in one as ^5^ ( 7lD5< once pDiit ^Tij^ ) / ^)2ii 1 will say. § 36. Verbs whose the first first radical fut. sing. when they journeyed. or paragogic (It) . e. affix. or her the Jem.etc. as H'lIIlJ'P Jbi' to cultivate tll'Q tli/ to watch it . take {him) n3np take {her) from Hj^^ . . and DHi^ I shall love. With H parag. our calling. etc. ^y^plD me . 33ipni<. § 34.

root • n^M'n "iMnri. whether not? ^'?j?n whether they had abated. 2. Dagesh. the verbs being the future form. Dip before was.41 as ( '^iDDfiJ %^i5 ) "iM'n am (I) keeping (my brother ?) whether •j!qn (n^S&<)/ia5^ (thou eaten) fiiVn is there Jrom? from? of? not? is. IJ^IJl r!n>^ nSlUfl whether is is there one blessing to thee e. have you one blessing ? its there shall a blessing? nnp^lSSn shall whether as to cry? '^^. Dip in before it grew.. [ § 38. The n for characteristic of Hithpael tlj is transpos- ed as when either of the letters \3 D commences a for-iMriij. § 37. . Nb"] and wilt thou not S^'ipn Nbn. I'BTim b^Tpn . it it changes H^^i'] into the praeter . not yet).iT] tense.fi<il I go? byintl 1} is i eat? ntDiTIin used before a Guttural with Jtawwef5. HauJn . from 77p is n used before a simple or composite Shevau.• nPNri . comes before a future as n'^. Note watch? Nirjjri . to return) ? shall I certainly bring back ? (see § 46.T is there t]ib\^ for dib^n . or a Guttural as ^7 ? i. it is very seldom used as QriNli whether in is you . or D"lp it (before.) . ^'DSi^ri have ? /.e. omitted as PIN is it so 7 for Pl^ri for 'J-'N nSN art thou ? for . "I'^ld'' T>* then Ac sm/2^.^] Note 1. When T^^ {then). HITHPAEL. In a few cases the Interrogative . as whether to cause to return (D'^iZJii ) i. NiaiJ shall I pardon? for not 7 for T^NH Particles before Futures. {I shall cause .

(5) (6) (8). § 41. inV^smn (for n ). (Jer 2d plur. linjn^H bow down. yourselves bow thyself down. ^ • : IT. ' -. • ' (=!iint2nn) for ' ^ n : account of the guttural with Kaumets. fut. . from y-^-^. participle (e) Hi^inp^q for Hi^^^ntj. 4!J: but one exception to this rule. J Kauton Rebeeang. 3.i:n ' IT '. This is done on Note 3. [§ 39.. . Note 2. Note Verbs 13? "3? . . see § 59. for for 3?32n^. 99. 1^3 nninDr:. : fi:gipnr]. is placed un- der the second radical as ip^'^j^nn (for n ) . p'^tJSD 3?St:::<:'] ive will justify ourselves. as and he bowed himself down. • • -.* See § 17. . See §§ 98. The verb JiriilJ (he bowed down.) becomes 'inrid'^1 nind in this conjugation (see § 53. A . generally form their Hithpael thus (]'^2). a corrupt reading for is D'^inriilli/^ In Chaldee and Sjriac. These accents are also called Disjunctives. etc. praeter 5-if. PAUSE AND OTHER ACCENTS. cal in this few words take Segolc (instead of Pattakh) under the first radiconjugation as ip'nnsn (=inttn. T sometimes chang- ed into ^ 1. rilinritlin'P (with prefix and suffix "^rT^inri^tlS 1'^ when I bow myself they or ye shall down). ii The . HinrilDfi^ I will etc.-\ " See § .'from D^p etc. fcm.] § 40. 100. •' . linritli'^l (2) ) . Note 2. ^ .* 100. !iVri3nn 11' . and i?".' • • s-intiM IT . IT• .. . See §§ 98. In a very few instances KJieerck (instead of Pattakh) . worshipped.' • • : ITV : . . from TlS . from tavj is t There o) nautavjrin Imper. ^ Scgoletau . 99. Silluk i^ Sopjh pausook. yi^ii-inri. rT^inSntSJln //ioM/i«5if etc. Dan. cnsns IT' '.42 for i?3&rin. in ratlin is Dn'^inrillJ^D (participle plural) . Jhod.] with the * and t notes. roots p^^ and ^yi. viz. J< principal pause accents are ti ii Jlthnaukh. When D.nn ) for in^ninn future Chini. as 12 begins a root the loe H is transposed and changed into IDT^tiSH prepared ourselves with p'^^SHS. etc. - The letter s is used to show the position of the accents. 2: 9. ' ^ . (TV -. Infin. i2-i3nr|. ''IPiri'jiil and they bowed down. § 66. ana'. . (3).

names of the these are either disjunctives or conjunctives. s « ^)2^ T?12 Talshau or Teleeshau Ketanna. i^l2 Tebeer.T Ma-a-reekh or Merkau. *'^^^{ 'i Tlb^ Tirtsau. The following Table exhibits the forms. {not Azlau). *nm *1^J< *1^>5 Tl^^ Pauzare or Pauzare Gaudole. . 3. is must be recollected (in this ta- be accented in every instance '?|75D ble.' Mehoopaukh or Mahpakh. -IpiJ '^J^p / '. and are all tonic. 'Vjhh Zaukaph Gaudole. situations. or Garshayim. and * note.43 Note. See §§ 2. All the accents are ionic except Maccaph and Metheg.p. Tarsau. Those accents marked by a (*) are Disjunctives. *TQ!^ Shena Gereesheen. 112^ -1~ T 'n^^ Shofaur Holakh or Munaukh.tJ. '^b^ Gereesh or Garesh. or Geraushayim. :• y. Dargau. - *nV52 f^. Note 1. : Tlie accents which are found below the words are as follows *n^ft< *n5:fi« i::>l2 Tarkhau or Tifkhau. The words that l5Di< to I^Qi^ and TjP'D are here employed to exIt hibit the position of the accents. *i7'n Yeteeb. and other accents . and always on theirs/.'-1*. Azlau (not Kadmau). Zarkau. '^bl2 I r\l2^ J.) on the /a*^ syllable.- n^fij Tj^p. The *-l&i{ nbfii following are placed above the words. or Teleeshau Gedolau.

viz. they can be distinguished by their position. Peseek. 5. As notes of music 2. and some are always on the last syllable. Note 2.44 *"^'D^^ Kadma or Pashtau. 3. with the * note. "1J2X ")"Q&< Holakh with Mehoopaukh. the^. -marks the emphasis alike. Note 4.) the emphatic s yllab le . It will Note 1. some. tx but. For the accents Mstheg (l) Maccaph (") see §§ 2. Zarkau with M^^reekh. 1. sec §§ with the * note. it. ns"iN ar'tscm. to the tone (accented) syllable . however. TD&5 Zarkau anterior. 1]7^ Tera Kadmeen. whether the tone bo there or These accents are used in the various synagogues. Zarkau with Mehoopaukh. or Merkau Khe- 'TDt^ Shalshaleth. as Q"'W ma'yim. the last . and 3. *l^ii 3)-r Tera Tangma. I^i^ Yauraakh or Y^rakh. are always on ihn first. O fool a u. When a word has two accents : alike. To divide the text into its different members. or )53i< Munaukh or superior. 3. Tera Khootreen. or Legarma. aslnttsi"! vay-yo-me-roo' . . * I *)^_fi< Pausek. Note 2. *ia&t — -1 Kama Holakh T Faurau. flHP^i Note . when . All the accents (excepting Maccaph and Metheg) are tonic. ' . is There but one found in the same hne with the word . be seen that although several of the accents have the same and form. To determine (in most cases. they are jiot marks i jf^ au-nau etc. etc. There axe four accents which are found both above and below the words at the same time viz. Most of the accents are confined not. The following are not of so common occurrence as the foregoing. n^X Mehoopaukh "llDi< with M^^reekh. 3. . I'Di^ Mehoopaukh Mahpakh superior.

TECHNICAL NAMES OF VERBS OR NAMES OF THE VAKI0U3 CLASSES OF DEFECTIVE VERBS.^^b55. or in the margin. for ^f}rih nn (with n paragogic Hfh ) . etc. ''doubled. indicates that there is another reading to be preferred. CniS she t3fin'n3: nn":3 forrinnui tir". is called "|b . and b for the third letter. as )1?T^ . called aiJiS written. Note verbs 2. ihs ^i. frequently drops its first and last radicals S standing for the Jirst. siiTri. The word in the text . The word i-ip ( i-ij. for TilRtm . a Dagesh after S/ioorek.. " " " " b h " " " " second " " third " 1. § 42. "^ A verb " ''S is a verb whose /rs< radical is . .^) i. rmn (utm) is dis- mayed. etc.h\2:n for tipinhuirr . said to be ifian'a it. etc. " M. " ^ " 'l''n.n^to. for "^nnhs: fi^3 for Pin^D: . e. may be found either at the bottom of the or the letter 'p. i(.d and .etc. as for Ti^S I concluded (a covenant). ''Pa I died.. riJi^U .^12. njj-. ) which stands on is the left of the marginal reading. at the bottom of the page. etc.etc. A small circle over a word thus.'' nnD. " " " " Note because it The its verb hj?^ to take.n!?5. is as rrnS. A word with an . signifies read. 2 enlarged. are called nb because the n radical assimilated before another D . . called a verbis. p-ilta nns toin pnsit. which is contrary to analogy. ". Sometimes this circle is denotes some "peculiarity i. Par- adigm (Model) ^ y'B he wrought (I thus.y^5. " " is ri. asterisk over is also points to the foot of the page ( as t-^iaii-iS the note to which.etc.45 Note G. their The different species of defective verbs take names from the 3d 2d 1st letters contained in the ancient . &<-JS." 01^. b .etc.e. DS " " " D. . h rh tih 1. Verbs ending in n. which page.. as Ji">ttJi{")lIl which. it sometimes loses The verb friD to give. because a verb .

and Hithpael. (i e.. Kal of Clip. and . an epenthetic or %. Kal DXD .etc. ). 3 is Note. b . iiD . Praet. for nna (iifina) ). IS^ and lbb'7. is commonly formed from riiw. 5D (and iiD from ) he surrounded. "1525^ . ceding page. . Sometimes they . VERBS WITH A GUTTURAL. are exceptions. nn3 as . 19: 14) trig is from fittn. "j^. Piel. "^ri^p I placed. JiJnrt -lit^ . or compensative of Dagesh. J^^l^^] ) . and Tib ii^l is » Q and i<b 32 and nb ^n"* is and nb N"i3 is li> and Nb . the one preSee iy and SV on pre. In some cases the ^rs^ radical dagesh'd to show the absence of the third. because they as- (or lose) their "Jib. Ihiy from 'nYvd: ''n /jc ??'««/. as ip'T from Tip . Note.) in the praeter Kal placed. ceding them. viz. . f also a verb e. 5^^ . siu . 13N2 > tiN3 1N2 (once INi 1373t3 (Ps. 'J'^3. The last is future of all the conjugations also verbs iy . of these . from ilD 'n:'373T ^STT^n (three . is epenthetic .* . Hiph. . and ai-i . See Lexicon be?.e. The Praeformative sometimes takes tin'^N (Ps. t:»ip. from Nl'a See . etc. <§ 43. "'ni'ir'7 . from . VERBS § 44. as n?7a . from or Note rtti3 is 4. . and -liT . ^'0 from ( s/*e lived. verbs.46 thou didst die. they retain their middle radical (or its substitute). " " " " " " 2d 3d " " " " nn^ etc. G. frombb'^. of tiip n3"'aipFi is yeov '7'] ? they shall stand. Verbs ending "J in "} are called verbs . the MS^iui . n^ (with rt paragogic T\t^4) ^f^oii hast nn^ (nnnuj Note similate 3. (h) as h. insert See § i 17. and Til'?:] from QTgt . i. b n^U3. times li^n) from CQn. A verb 'B Guttural 5? is one vphose 1st radical is a Gutt'l . GROUND-FORM OF THE FUTURE TENSE. tj^innri. § from ni\y tinN3 . as Tii2D I swrounded. Tsaree "^ bpN from bbp. from CTOT pj^I^. for 1335 from we considered. from . etc. etc. we lodged. tiiia . =152 before another one for 1333 as ^sb' "Jl^ . rtnij is a verb . or fidcrum. risij. also 7. Q7:'i'-| D/g-i-j . "^nia'^pri /es^a6/«5/«et?. from CHiD or W^p ^73^ from '0)y-\ . | note. These verbs often have but two letters Qil) lie they lose their middle radical. 153"! and =l2n and ^in from i^-j "^2^ . C75-ipnrn from dip-. y doubled.t . are like ti73Tp Bti'n . 54. * These two examples are yy i. Pual. 64: 7) occurs for l73ri the either epenthetic. <§> 45. for placed. . ^a . Nd "'B (d guttural) .

. . retained in the fu- as tTii'rr] from 1-^1 .e. "^ad . t3"'to4< . S"':2n S'laia nsn ::&» . 5^'iJiri': from 'lb"'b"'n". 99. All the participles beyond Niphal (excepting verbs ly and yy in Hiphilt). "'i'n (ronnee) The forms These See § . as shall etc. Pual pr a cter. 100. * t 5? DOUBLED. etc. The ground-form of Hithpael future (and in general. etc. from bb^ . Hiphil . sometimes it . '7'n. X When "^ribs {not) comes before an . small print. I'ps^ . See § 100. "T'N^. is In difew examples however. n-is". t3ip =1721 do SD. plur.47 their respective Infinitive construct (see . as Ciprr Cpu . as ^^. assurance. . the pi^aetcr. etc.* n"'4<in. VERBS ^ plur. is retained as m'3'iip^72 (participle 3d pers. Note 2. 91. tic In the future tense the of Niphal. fem. M of Hiphil 5>"A}. !13'^2D iitaiiS'i'. Infinitives coming before Futures of the same Root. iniaSP .'. the .) for m':>2ip72 See §§ 98. as "ips . N12 . This frequently takes place in the praetcr a.nd . as hVij nbttJTa Tl\'^^.^n. Ni:n . Piel ^5~i. ). ). ("^D*. §§ p^ 90. are formed from their respective Infinitive ( . MpAaZ. ^ib fem." ti'i'a HsJ he has greatly triumphed. t are formed from the praeier ' 100. See §§ 98.^ N^j^. etc. > ^tc. the Infin.i3"5N t^^"^?^ / It tt>ill greatly multiply . Infinitive. iss. 100. participles The ture which take 72. §§ 98. Imper.* note) ("laD). dn^itoan . . . TiEH (n-)Er| ). 1213'*^ t2S"i23''_2 and he would ahoays judge. thou mayest freely eat . torn in pieces. i/'«>/«27. and with Kal Injijutim. or y\T\l2T\ certainty. (in . . 'd''\d .) is Pid. 47. of action. See §§ 98. characteristic. 99. fiT'i t2~ be silent. hV-y. See § 17.l3N signifies continuance I will greatly especially bless thee. 'l^sil'^! a-re peculiar. In one instance the n of Hophal .^^.T and con- tinued going {to go^ and returning (to return). These are formed . and the n characteris- of Hiphil. plur. fem. Infinitive in these cases marks intensity. and Infinitive. § 46. and Hithpael.:3i< b'^'^nn. Hophal. b-^-^i^ ^1^!. 3 Note. .^ 11. as (Kal) ns. . the preposition b is prefixed to the former as ~b5N ""^^^b to not eat i. nssD":. nbTU^ ^"la P^c/. .^ ^brtn-. ^t*. . 6. niJ2 ye b^Nn bbN TilT^I Vn he shall surely !]'n2i he. Kal) thus dD twn =173*" thou. also omit ii See § 16. it when the future precedes as nTvliT Nlii. . not to eat. (/i'aZ) m73rn m'72 thou shall surely die. . The . qnta he was surely . are omitted. ^a?.

fern. Niphal 1if2j\ii."J"! p) . as HJ^in: from "jnS. njptl D72n . raif. PARAGOGIC § 49. Hophal. '':yailj Aear me. !Tli£3 . seldom occurs in the Praeter . ^^"T^l Hiphil of . llVi^^ deliver thou. as masc. . tiNI"] and ni<'°)'. !i73">pN to sin. Note ral 1. Hi» .blilcowi- commend thou . . Paragogic ti is found in the first person singular and plu- of all the conjugations except Pual. nnna^ etc. 5)pth. it indicates the Imper. at the Imperative.. nS") to lie . sing. and nairtN ?ove. '^z^'Sii'ii ask ye me. Note llVQp^X'l 2. ii2'. The following are a few of the examples without Kholem or short Kaumets and py2£ nbiS Imp. iit^b/aN from db'D. from yT' . i^-ra . future . Future tense N'lpN. with suff. from QJon . Infin. . Q3ii 6e mse. . -t^ -w ' . IrTJ^^TT) preserve thou. Kal. and Hithpael. Imperative nyyo^T] . . fTi^iSN (Kethib once niSN ). pth J«-)P he strong. sing. nhD^D from ns" etc. and plur. end of the second pers. t:it. VERBS IMPERATIVE AND INFINITIVE. Hiphil. y^N. etc. "^pi. etc. singular *^ as !iNnn and nriNnn Kal of Nis T T T T It Note 3. (nN'^p <o ). D'd'21 n^!^^ . as Piel . etc. 94. p^T "'p^'ra. etc. iihp /aA:e </ioz< approach thou from ^^3. JlCpN gather thou. rt3n^ere /Aom from Hj^b ilj'^a consider. and . See §§ 87. . It is twice found in the third pers. ni^ (for (i-^b ) to multiply^ . from nns. ^a/.'7 in^Vj return thou. and twice in the second pers. it is rTi's> (tl parag. Infinitive with prefix and suffix '''liSlna . napsN from tipa. and the pers. ~ — t' T». . Piel . '^:i^)>'n'p hear ye me. Infinitives are rarely like DiibTa DN-ip . Jlb^h etc. 'is. nripN for hpN . tll'^UJpll Aear fAow.48 sing thou. to be dry. 'ni>Jj'<D and W:D\p hear thou. . Jceep thou. masc. sing. bNUJ ash thou. f^ib go thou from ^b^ SiiUJ 5i< <AoM from i'4i^. 96. . ^p?T i<D-) . open thou. etc. tlN'ipi* for nDab2 let us make brick. to fear. Ti'J^^z from 5>d'. plur. auj <o transgress. . or Injin. I-T^ t:it.iT. ^•^ <o appease. ti^a know thou from if^"* from from "jns . . r\'^'2'] iS'n tib:£ nWe prosperously. . cry thou. with n parag. liariN foye ?/e. future 'vDin .) mahe hare. Kal. . fo S2«^ with prefix trys when lifted up. rtiritX . ^3ph down fern. is'n .Hi'^ '"^' '2 remove. It has been said (§ 20). § 48.] and plur. . HJZ'^p arise thou. that when the second radical takes Kholem in the or short Kaumets. plur. for pb3 ns>13 ni>nN . from npb . hpl: take thou. Inl^'^'ljin save fAoM 2>u3|]' !Tl"^Nri enlighten thou from "ilN etc. Tiyz-^^^ for StoUJJ^. regard thou from 1^3 . as i>»u: hear thou. This often occurs first n. See §§ 90.

Hithpael verbs in three ^tt"^ i . l^. nn?in and . . ~ti)5'^. 5^^^ ^DnN .l ). n'lb'rt from lb^ * .. ^^.. "^D"^ from ii^ VERBS § 51.. ne:. at:.. il. 'j"'S. n^N . .T. . j do not change •Jitt'n . ^'lin. . . verbs only. Tbl'rt from iby. ^i?. bDirt . etc. JTiN . Vh/^'l 7 . Future auJI"" (rarely like a^a. as "J^a'-iJ hear ye for nj^'^^UJ ^'""'^ and ]N^-). ^'°'" .! ) ibp.N] . nO. as Niphal Futures ^~y\'2 from N'^^ . from atj. from nbh b^n-^ for nkan-. nsPi .. S'^'ia from ative S>n^ S-i?. -Dri} (from TiTTD). . from Snt:: . (atsn ^'•?^~ Keri. riN^l DN^l and J<n\} from nnj? Nn^T from Tn':}. once T^^Trt TiJ^^ or Tiilh from -)^^. Pinh for ^is'iJn. "^^2 2>n\i /Z^/p/«7.1 > ^"i^. S'ltn for fgr iia-) Jj b^'n for . Hiph. and /n/?n. b^."i!n for N^. . . for N:!». !T7]nn . ^nnrt i<-)!i . " "J .. APOCOPATED FORMS. Iifin.^ . •'ri'. nsiniri . :>n=in (once bsi'' S'n'fln). ^^t' • ^1'''5^n from no. is used for in: ye. Participle N'^liia Imper. NJZin ) Future N'^ltr (once NJZ'in (apoc. See § 23. ^S. found without for conversive. ^'aZ.5 tain > ^V^"'? .! » ~^^. ^tij? .^l] '^^1. Imper- I'nD. Future rro^'' Irtni'n . etc. tX^^TiH (apoc.. .^n from "^d. are from nn^ . from dip . § 66.'.' Nnr . bfil.. their ^ These verbs generally change 3>^i3 from . yr^niri . F?<<?<re uV"'^''!!^ . "^^ *-'^^' for r. they ). are exceptions. nSW or . x^li etc. . Hiphil . ..IP h73*"'. PzW.p for ilSN^p coZ/ ye. ait3"'n ^V''^"'"'. Dm ( Dtl ) for ri&rr . from tin. ."'*"'). ) (Kethib -lU'in for -iiain).Yl' ^'ri-7. Niphal t^n for riq^i from nt:: ."! Kal future • la-.. MVnnri . ^{^i'') . nr ?. lnN'7 etc. ^'^!'. Note also }12 3. Two verbs re- in Niphal as n-i.^'n) N'^itin..Jj Hiphil. ] . . .?. "i Most of the foregoing forms are Imperative Piel ative see above. nni2 .. . .': "^'F?. ii^-in. into 1 in Niphal. into in Hiphil as tiV'^V^'^n p'^STi 'T'W^n . > p^-. . "i'""^^ from 'y\'2. from Jiba HitJipael b^. The -i !!.?. V"'V?.^T. t!"'=:''"> tl'^SlN. PzW.] (frofn fiinb ). h"'3'i!^ (apoc.^ nw. bs^r^i bai3 ^b:3=li and from bs^. •JN. Hithpael . praeter . ^Vh^^ ^^'^ ^^^^^ . IP. e. § 50.* i.i ('7"!r. from N::. (7). nap . Hophal from b^^ baiiX. nui for n|)^ . tl=>h) from ns. etc.•. b^':!.h?3'. •> . and {in three verbs only) . Vis. The forms niirt . rTi V .49 Note 4. ^mT! (rarely like ^'d'ri ). (t!?. Impertip. For Hiph. they .

she lifted up. etc. . See § 80. nii^S is Cp he arose. i^DS (""^DS couerecZ. comers. lion: (Ezek 23: 48) is for inois Nipkal. 27: 15 nin-^JD root Wuj . exaltation. or the Rabbinic Nithpael with n assimilated. linbnTanrt nbnannb .50 Peculiar forms. Q^TSJ? those rising up . n^ijt'n .etc. See § 80. 21: 16). ri'^p . as T'bh (for ^r::tU)they trusted. masc. See VERBS § 54. . nD2 from np^ 2. MN2 (participle IiNS).o ("'?n:^^ Gen. . n^NS inhuj . D^ ""^Til «H(/ despised (of) 6?/ people. The The Ti^Sribri'D nouns derived from them. ^"'nN. '^N2 ) they are coming."!"5?» /»ip. pride. enlighten. for ""^Ta tinOh. plur. : A {e-w roots (verbs) end fo in a Mappik'd n as nas . . (2) The verbs r. nbni . ) also Prov. as n:3^ rrina nia verbs height. and Nb often imitate each other as ^iS'^D'nn from ND^ § 96. fem..15'. . their In into "^ before ^ (ye or very seldom before . "53 etc. rT53 shine. See §40. plur.. rj (h). come from nrib nns nnx3 .Tn. The praeter. . are from nn'J .'. . 21:8 ^33: (for -isr): or ^S3n. an enemy). <o desire.e. ('^T2~'\'T2 ) fZesp«se(?. '). nnb li^ . their 1 ("') .. forgiven from ^{ir)D N is sometimes changed into'^. ^^:53 etc. . These is are conjugated like regular verbs. Verbs Nb occasionally from Nb73 •^liUS . retain n and (sometimes) Mappik . 11X3 (nau-voo) for 1^X3 mfrvU . postfixes n in the Infinitive. as ?7n^2 (onceNlTjia) . Note. rrsni . Q'^Nls (const. TibT: 'ibs ^bs from Nb3. as (•'TiD3 ) 1. <o 5e /tig'A. VERBS rh § 53. root "^Dv See Deut. . lose their . as Tiktt from Nittt . fo Note The verb i^'ip meet. Note Verbs !ib . is coming. come ye. . nanttD'T . and the active participle Kal of these verbs. rran n!n73 nJib . . to lift up. omit as N3 he came. i/<ei/). and (I) Verbs hb sometimes change ii s/«e. . See § 27. and also in the participles {Kal) Active and Passive "JT^Dh^. with Moppfc J1. fT^bli! sAe revealing. plural t3^!l3^ m'Hla^ . rising up (i. 88. is .^1^ 1?. ) she trusted. iiN-i . Also §§ 84. N . VERBS § 52. '^''h'^ n\5-. fem. 89. fem. rti<D and .. Fut.

Infinitive . DAGESH FORTE. 15^ for . B^^^ bn *i3:ri3 : Tl^Hi for mr:N .e injj: n:o=ii5 . . 1"'nN come ^e. Note. (participle . . for ^n^-:. as lnT~?ltt (mazza). Infinitives are like ribs iba rTi'ba . my enemies. t3\anhu3a. INipfi. fem. fem. IDN for =lSJi . It shows the omission of a from ytj: . ^'^n l^.":~ M3''n"*p . arise thou. n^UJi . N2 go thou. '^\v imU '^'^rt drink ye. (c). 2>a''. Dagesh forte doubles the letter in which it is placed. The uses of Dagesh/or^e are the following letter "jni". see § 17. for nhp-' 2. Also § 97. niV^. afflicters. nn:g "J^b . It is sometimes Co?j^'Mnc<«t. etc. Nl'z . It frequently marks 2 Epenthetic . VERBS rh§ 55. . to go.T-n72 t]n|?a for tl'^b'^ari for tl-. those See § 82. to arise. ^N"1 seeye. § 95. '^'^s-ntoy. V\M2 roots N13 and ta are from n^D and T13 . . from in: JiT^ for lr. Tap l^n^ we died. '^^1^ thy enemies. "^^/d? answer mc. JiN'^ see Tj'^ri. ^5>D1 ^Ntiri . Pual. See § 26. Itip". tl2"'N'^ nnui drink thou. "i^D". ) nn7j she died. fem. This compensation etc. of -iNiU l:'. as hp"] for npb"^ from t^p!?. § 56. 6. with suff. 4. . . See Note. r"D"l Aea? Mom for i^S'^- See / § 26. m*^|5 . fem.) and Imperative co- incide in form as Qlp . n.:"' future is Niph. It is . "^QJ? up (against) me i. is formed thus. n?3 he died. etc. thou. fem. . is sometimes neglected. ''Wp Ae w/jo rises </iose 1-ising up (against) me. once MpF (for ^lib' it . 5. i:? answer ye. i. eic. (once 1'^!'3 • rji nilrj plur.:i^ ^««^^ ^^'''"^ P'"r- ''"'t. (n^nn) from nw ). . (7). for S'OD-. Jib o TiSbrt'^ etc. my enemy. 3. is dying. nnp 'JTJ ^20 for ^nno nan: for .. ). » with is T 1''hi inquire ye. See §§ 44. . With ( '^73p^ ) suffixes. The etc. fem. rriti.51 (enemies). ascend thou ''^Si . see § 35. e. fem. n^t flowing from :nT n'O QTp. 4. (which is the root of these verbs. one of the characteristics of Piel. 28.nu3 for ff^nVi) iriN for PijN This dagesh also called Compen- sative. tarried. 5. 6c <7<om (thou shalt be). 1. The Imperative Kal of these verbs . 7. and Hithpael. "^"l!^ ("^1^ ) ^V afflicting thee. e. as . 1. No. fem.^\Ubn or . \y'n. 76.

. rT^y- ni /bwr^/j . See § 16. t note. GUTTURALS. inyN \'z^^_ inn. letter in ) Note. . theycffifraine is D'ri'^J co?is<. NUMERALS. ri""3U3 second.«/m'ne of ^tlN D'^ \il3 (^zf'o) is (construct "ihN is nhN (nhN j ) .). See page . 'nm^ . (3) "*— The Ordinal numerals . § 57.r}y3'2J sevenfold. com> pounded nn5>3 .ri"'rUJ third. •':nt . (4) The . (5) In using the letters of the alphabet to denote numbers. they letter. (6) Sometimes the numbers are repeated as ti'yzyh "nyyp two (by) W^\U ^l^'^Ui seven (by) seven . which ronnee. and are used ad- verbially as C". HTan . as ujb^ (^b'p) are three. of the Deity. termination. irtNn ifsNb . it occurs . sive.\"i3 {masc). rrmD for niii:. § 58. n73b' ''?3'>23 NjN for .Jirst. Theye.. (10 and 6) to avoid using for tico letters name Some write VO (9 and 7) of the name il]rT^ to avoid using a N stands two. D^^'ilJn ninety. doubles it.: ""bhS . n"'. in-wNt etc. thus . iD-icirn . . for 'Ibn-^j or 'bS'43 no^): for nD''i? forte etc. fii?i . and vice versa: as CIS miJi^U three sons. as t3''nUJ2> twenty. etc. commonis ly give to their preceding r-i'^'sii . viz. Note.) is both cardinal ) and ordinal. Shevau . as ''"iy"'ViJ ''riD fem. . etc. nay. 2. (from <2Co). (1) Cardinal numerals from 3 to 10 are masc. construct of CJUJ . with a fern. Di'ily^Tp thirty ^"^Jn nine. as read as written tlj^p"^^ ''3"1 (=''. . masc. made by adding . 6. etc.. n"i. 'iFinll . etc. Dagesh if always doubles the yikkakh . to the Cardinals a". ) ten. the Gutturals take Composite Shevau. ThN {one. Cardinals sometimes have a Dual form. td (9 and 6) for T^ is used for n"' (10 and 5) . Should a simple Shevau follow ihe Guttural. iVn'^T . increases them tenfold.3 \23bilJ three daughters. or n'^_ {fern. the vowel with which . The . dual is "^"iXD femi- nine ^nuj D"^- added to ^^riV ("lii:?.52 5. It is ">i:ip:o sometimes Euphonic . iaisicn . this is done . nj?^. '3J"'=*i fern. as fon23-tp72. theu the com- . n^ a contraction of nirr. 1000.dt See § 5. prn^ Note [>\X}\l 4. (2) » The termination !:''_ added to the cardinals from 3 to 9 inclu. fem. H 2000. When . f^n/jj the const.

* vau-Kaumets . it commonly takes Kaumets . Gesenius thinks that n ( -In ) is a contraction of Vn whicii he takes to be the original form of the Article. the heavens. The Dagesh . loses its Shevau. M and fi . is -1 ^ ( I ^ ). * The Hebrew . See C6. follows.J^72. East. This Dagesh ^\'^^P.* . etc. 1^-^'^ ' '"^""r^'^v ' '^2. as also in the preceding Note pronounced. ^''^yJi and t3"^i. as Note.. :>. asnih-iir: ^tl")?^!! J (I) Its proper vowel is Pa^^a/cA with a Z>a^es7« following l:"'b2-. or the vowel with which Shevau X''-^> is comand as ^15^2 . 'nria etc. "^ When a G-iittural or follows. Note as OTp". small print.Sisn etc. as y cn^ and yDh. Kaumets or She. (as the Greek) often uses its Jlrticle as a Pronoun. Prefix §60. « contraction of "JQ . * . l-ihn § inn (n'nnn Vl^n .^' . -^airl '^3'!!'?^ > ^^^> 1- small print. 2. and Vll*'?. tilhr! the wafers. . etc. for S"ip^ 'i^12from {to) the is . ^ . as bya yn^^. -'j^pT: it . . 1.5B pound vowel pounded . 'I'^iT^a. the proper pointing of this Prefix D'^. (2) . sometimes omitted. j'ly a . y h» liJN-ia commonly takes J^saree.*rt . etc. ^t-ita- It generally has PaUakh befoi'e the gutturals etc. 3. (1) ^/jcerei" with a Z> o^cs/t (compensative of ]) following. commonly ^^^ § omitted ''• when or J2 follows n . Cases like tl'^^'^'lC^ri are is very rare. "itya and -ili?2 .2f. HT^b . §59.^ ti'i'iin^^i.. . as Jilip^ . ^>Y.p^. The Shevau here. ti'^'ti^'nn .''^"!^! 5 f^^l'iN"! Some of the foregoing examples occur with both forms . Note (2) 2. ti''n«» -^^12 nniST^T: .'2 as V\'r\hi2 (for nhn . C'iib^ . See § 18. ti\'-\VT\ ). When a Guttural or . Exceptions. as taVi (3) It usually takes Segole before a guttural with as n'»'^nn . The prefixes b 3 2 often exclude the is article and take "^ its pointing . "'hn . Article n . anija /row ma?i. see § 61. He also supposes that the Arabic article is derived from the Hebrew Vn •)S< . .M • PUNCTUATION OF THE ARTICLE (n) AND PREFIXES. "JTO ) /rom un- der.:! . .

. c^na. see §63. with Shevau . Sometimes the Article remains. following forms are peculiar.. take Shevau as riN*^b buJTab ni'^ln^ t'lDS. for StiNb .- See § 63. they take Kheereh. . "^I^N? . pK3 iVipAa? . ^'in!:. See § 62. haT72nb . Shevau . for niN'^b for niN-irtl: ) Hiphil ?'^X2Tpb for ^"^a'^jrib a'ntiS (Niph. they take the heavens. "{i'^n'^S for "ii-in^. . (1) The proper pointing of form is is Shevau. ni^1":5-:b or •'tt'^3 •'la-'a from di"" . »V . 'iD'^b . etc. as as i MN") . as V\'Ci'rib. Kheerek etc. as yin73 . vf^liW] Sometimes the Absolute. etc. which is read "'fiNtt . 5>*'p->b . Prefixes 3 3 7. state retains the Shevau . for D'^QUilna . See § 63. C"i. "'p'^iNb Ps. n-^n^. is . Cirib^S. C")auJ5 im . l^b .\b 151^3 Y'^. (4) Before an accented syllable they commonly take Kaumets "J^bb . (1) . §61. ""snN'b "^aiNS . s^n^V. t3"'. DT'JjS. etc. few examples occur with Kheereh before Ciha. ^toi"b etc. . as nyv^b'^b for . its pointing. etc. § 63. etc. the pointing of these. tj^^i'ih^.* (5) Before •'(':) ^l^V^ZJ^'b . Pattakh however.g. . They generally take . i^^!T'?.h^ . 136. for ^l^vj^ is peculiar. 'n^ai^b The iribNb. Peculiar is riltTjr. .b. also. . (4) Note 2.N^ . 3). J WKi^ . as t")aiari2.S . . . when a guttural (with Shevau) follows. tJ^^rfbi^V. before a simple ..'^?. are for "'irrt3 "^-ih^ . etc. once as Wn'^b . nnNb Nib . . e. as liiiihb (once ''i'lw^b . (3) Before a Composite Shevau they take the vowel with which > Shevau nib\N. .54 Pi. Prefix 1 "i § * 62. They . as nu. d"^Jibi<b. 'inNa'. . the guttural . biysins n"''nrTlr. ^•^rt^. (2) When they expel the Article or the n characteristic of Niphal and Hipliil Jw^mYiwe. Viyss etc. ni'lr. i:?b ^i<lb etc. [li).b5N3. as n''\L'N'i2 ti'nnb . T\^''irn Fl'ni?: and a few others. pronounced nin'^^.23 . is compounded. This is done to avoid the concurrence of two Shevaus at the beginning of a word. ti'^byb . . DTfbNa. nnb and nn^ . 'j'iniJS. ^"l^. Sn''3 V^Na . The Const.tna D^hlr^s . .

it S XD S . ''i-lNS. \nni . as int!) rinto i) . .') . . takes the vowel with which Ti^'^^X > Shevau compounded as "'rNi . uiNT tj-t' "^liNT . .'. in the latter . rtfln'. for Ditt'^ti. .3 • ""i^^l ^-. on the Eloheem. 1 Note 1. viz. ^ 60. nfrfT. and t])'^.as]ni. iTt The is construct forms are like . (i. is > See § 61. uia^Ui (uia-vlii ). "'S'nN. but see (3) below.) and is pronounced Eloheem adonauy. "'n''"] =l^nT . (5) For the punctuation of ^ Conversive (of the Praeter and Future §§ 22. which they have before the word "'ilN . of Ti (4) a hook. thus : iiVrTia . . n follows. . tenses) see Of the words nirT^.!. Ado-nauy by the Hebrews. *:. h or . 23. (2) Generally before the letters ple Shevau. day o( Atonement ("inss tii'') ). ni'n^b (3). »>? iO>i ''^•^?' "'^1?^?. The word ?i. . rfin (3) When an accent (generally a disjunctive one^ follows. cowsf. d:iDT . . Before CinVi* and ijns (which lose their pointing under S. "^ (without a vowel). ^nni. ish") .i . ^h] . r3i:=i. . etc. rfni . (This is derived from a tradition that this name ought not to be pronounced by any one except the High priest ( bilA "{^2). with the vowels of bTj^N . (3). and always before a sim- takes ^S/ioore^S. See (3) below. ''n the p/wr. it often takes • Kaumets. nnilT'l ^-li-^i 'r'sh"") •M£^'^^ ci"'i''T'i rr'm . When el the Prefixes are appended to TtiTti they take the ."^^^y etc.nt . Shevau . 'j"'nn.) 1 takes Tsareein the /ormer case. See § 61. aa Dn"'^:^"] . : . f»' J"t' .are wreusuaZ. ". same vow. tan^'^nT . Exceptions. a appended thus 'n'JTTyr:^ See § 61. and then only once a year. . as Cin'VtJ. not a guttural. read as prefix if written ^:nN3 is . •^psi. ui'^i^'j . i5'-iSn for ii-isi . e. fi"!-) . it takes Kheerek (rarely Segole) for irrmrT^T . 135: 5). a composite Shevau follows. nci. ^"^1 . T)"''] .:. and Pattakh. etc. See § 61. nnn"'3 . then j takes Shoorek. "sn^T . : ''pNl The (2). E.'' ^'•*^- Note 2.55 ll:*":. ^12h^ DsSct 'I'^vi ns^l . When . Forms like flS^STNl (Ps. are for ^:nNb. "'^'7. (3). tt' t'JvVt' ^t' ATT' ."Iv?. 1^1 ). If the letter over the composite .[tT^ {Jehovah) is pronounced ''iTJt (Lord) § 63. r!|5 'il . as iriai . ^yi t' (for I't' . lyi^ . ^iJ3?l . it When is . (3). "^m. g. but when it precedes the word "^^'tn it is then pointed fTi'ln^. pronounced '^3 TNa See ""DnN^ .

. 2. S' . Pattakh.!^"'] • Pattakh r\:fjy25. With prefix ^ !Tl'tT:ui. ^9^ ""s^^. Note. f> See page .5. (Ps. Note 1. is increased. beginning at Pattakh Furtive. 'J^T^?. and n .T . for D'^r7>N>. This . .•!-:' T • . as nps'^ T^RS"! (see (5) below). ]3 C^ia said to .V ft . . etc. sometimes omitted di . stead of syllables h^n . or a Pattakh furtive added as S-tJi". vowel is said to fall away or be it. nib'j*. . .p. . $66. (1) The vowels are changed or dropped when the word . 5. is in such forms as RhV-V ' ^5^'?? 5 ^'^^ ^*15''^ > VOWEL CHANGES. T : ' br^p'. § 65. IT ' -• X 'it •. . n'. 68: 21) is pronounced .* See § 64. 5?»"^. Other examples (with T IT guttural following). D'^rib^b. chap. ^6-2) . (with prefix is ia ) ^:33U. and with prefixes . ni'aVlJ ^ttJN'n'vU . Eccles.'^ .j^3. . or y^^"-. napj rins^i h"^ii s^^. verse 7. b^^ .•' Note. the Hebrews put "ii for njn^.' '^bt^p?. as iTJlT^'^ (read "'ilNiip ). dropped. Note its 2.2 The Dagesh :'-. .^"!' Uncommon forms. when takes the place of cor- responding one. 5>^j5^ 5>i3 f-:i'bN h--^^^ which cannot occur The vowel which furtive in Hebrew. . as HlobuJVi! which (are) (see § 68) hy Solomon . read "'DnNtiJ .j^^ . .^j r!"^. V'z'S''^ or 53. T^zyn . tlVfT'^. t25 This is a contraction of the Relative pronoun ^i?iiN! N is omitted and 1 is assimilated . ^•^p. (3). tyzlTz . pn ••pn . .56 The form See § 61. . ^^5 . instead of H^ib^pb "^^^t 'naj^UJ . is a Pattakh placed under j/?naZ . n'^oa rj'^X 57. . when another one takes place which does not correspond with * In writing. for . precedes . 12. .^ which we waited . fl . it See § 11. must either be changed into . t3M"i5 and DHT?) This prefix occurs tiventy-onc times. as llTn etc. N2:733 t3\\i£a: ••T li^s ITlpS ' T :IT ' .'2 C^na. 10. its A A vowel is be changed. ^3"'*=i. in. Prefix § 64. bs iV? and ribs.

See (8) below . -]3 . ^3. nsba?^ . . 5n3-^\ naso-': iip^. n\r\ -ih n^-ij nia ^in .T". 1. '*!)' ^h. n^p:q ' 115] -a^n pitl .p ^-^Ip' ^^'^ '^^ occurrence of two Shevaus at the 6eo-««nmo' of a word can never take §4. ^-larf! for '^T^. B. nnps. generally . cp:. ^^. tl''?. is ^in. ^^rr. suffix state etc. The following changes take place in the vowels on account of other accents. •jiii. 1. m:33~i72 . Sometimes both forms occur (4) as "iSir. '^'?^^. and -i:£— ~\ The Gutturals and when they exclude Dagesh. as 12'^ . seldom Segole) takes the place of the Jirst vowel. more of . become 'li'r. V'lNjV'iNn. ^np^:-. See The dot found in n final is al ways -Wa^^iA: . . Jiby .). . I'-y?. ]^. bin^ -b'13 n. Tips. 8 . ^1^^ . as fiy . -jpT i^ . off tti^' pause accents uj-ri for * In a as . tlie vowels . etc. slwrtcn. Wi ll'" n:£h. i]^? . ^?':r^2l. rT^T. rr^a. lengthened on account of the Article (n) .^nn .* . ^n'z for . Cib"'73N for Db-^TaN few cases S and n are found with Dagesh § 7. Peculiar which in the construct becomes Note. -liC^ . pbni >-. as "^75^ . Whenever a vowel is dropped . ^b ^i. *?in'^2 .57 N. ^n-.-i73.? ^''1^ > etc. -. -in. ^^'f^T^i ~]J^' f^^^. : as ii-SiS'i'' . n:. construct state and Maccaph generally (but not always) drop. See the above examples. ^^h (T. n-jps. bi<ann p-N^nn (5) bN'a for -Crcnrt for -D-:. .n . -1:3 . See ^ 21. ^i. nsp. is (3) Sometimes a vowel C2>rT . "»: . Slievau takes its place when Zwo vowels fall away '''13 "^^"1?. '\-:v^. 'jp. (2) place. 'jiSs'iJ'. const.p^j. . as ^)33 12. or change.*. change of vowels §41. Gutturals usually take Composite Shevau. see § 1. * note. also Tsaree .\l tr. "?3. 'S'itt. i^p. .s23 "'3.).? Enn See § 4. The . * note. as '^^a for ']"^a . nns^o. > ""13 "i?. for . etc.a ii:p53 . one or -icy . The .Tt<i:7:n. ""ps. n:. nb^y ni73.} for libll '.\j] . lengthen the vowel which precedes them rj-n? . (6) as'jnnpD"'. Pattakh. ri'::y . JiN-i"' .Ci"i2n 'Ti'iJ:. rriip plur.'. . rr^N . Ta. nNi*^ ^Ni:73n. n3T53. "):i:^73"iJn. ^"13 for for p'rn:. See The . (bs iVs n^'-i . inn: -lU. .*^: ("':9 Spi5 -ips . '"^^^'n for ""iJSS'J t-Pi . occasions a change of vowels as di^l^T > Til 73 "ism. § 7. the Pause and (sometimes) S^N . . etc. D""i^t .2. "jS . is sometimes changed into PattaJch on account "iDri for -irri . tone-syllable is sometimes removed on account of] paragogic without a . nit n-jz .i3. fza . . . 'Tj-iri "'1^'^ j Q'. (fulls away) as in some of the foregoing K/ieerek {sometimes examples. ^Sp^s-:. .

and lb . .). ). ed or changed. :nDDNi PiDDN). (in pause h. for Dp'T ^ai<«n See § 22. 'rjm ^n^ . . the vowels for ( . (in pause. "^ish "^lin. /owe-sy//a6/c is removed on account of wionosy?. short vowels are commonly lengthenfall . Plpn] .—jnsri >iDn for nisri . See (5) above. as n. 'IS "^HD . '^'i'^^'l.n5".''hb ""hb . . naN"" (naN"") ). the particle !:N and *) conversive and these commonly change . lahles. ''3-. (9) Verbs b guttural. u3-b"^2": for ) bi^is'^ CT^-ins'^^n for inD'J . ncbtX . "^^sin "Dsn '^. . "^a^^ nny nn>.Nnrt . CVJ 5>-iT etc. ^Vs ^Vs ^3 ^3 ^V ^b . ^y\'^ '^>^^I (*3\- (51"'""'). PRIMITIVE PRONOUNS.58 (7) Sometimes the . in many cases end in Pattakh ^l2jk''l as h^D-. . nttN'T § 23. as D"'/3 . "•a-^N . "'Irn '^Vn siS^y. . 5>-it.]iNnn for Pli. when pause and (sometimes) other accents upon n:£-|N them. —ish 'isn . h^^?^ (nbiiJa See § 65. rarely. ^^^?'^^ ''ni|7 . Pronouns. (8) In Nouns. i'l^-. Note 3. (^n^^". . •-i:s? 'i'i2>. riCDNT . N3 . PiDn-bN PiD-in-bN for . ^n ). t note. \TibN "il-i-ibN..cp'T.:r!.

lit) . . <§) 68. Uncommon SlT forms.^. whose . "^53 Who. which. ntri and ni<>n the same. Suffixes united to Prefixes and Particles.- See § 9. 1. Note 2. M^nri Cli'3 on that day. T^rt . what. Note. whose. Interrogative Pronouns./^r/ec/e. riiSfr 69. nV^^H. o7ar. 'n12 . JiT^tl . Relative Pronoun.^ •^t^'. these. what why . once what. with. "it . and 7>iil the same.. iriT and Tt are sometimes relative. The forms Article is usually attached to them. etc. sing. by. thing.' ^'^. that. whom.^ » "'sh^a iliHa . {I'D What. and plural. Demonstrative Pronouns. The pronouns of the 3d person are often used zs demonNinn V-^tiTi that land.3 "^i^l^j occur without any additional signification. (iJ32 ) 3 ^^ in. <§> 70. this. ^Tjrj . what whom. »^^.59 Note stratives . § 71. person. that* With the Jrticle. etc. those* With the . . {he ivho). as an adverb how. The tisnb l^i^'^ ^''7^'. ^ HT. "li3iS! who. fiJin t]"'73'3 in those days. =1T .

D?^b " them. t . rii< ^"«> ^^^^ ~nit« Aer. " them fern. '^RX it. t:3nN •jnnij ( ]rir\iii 1^^ '^*«^j (Q3niN) you. t {= ^2i^:'a) from etc. See § 97. ( ^7273 ) ^7373 ^7372 ^3 7373 thee. Tynik^ (i^^Oi* «i2nN MS. as to. it^. (bN »o^.?. me. Dnni\\) them raasc. ]niN or ~nN with. its. hi?n. nJ< or "DN ) accusative. you.60 «s. as "i\p5 hevisltcdme. See § 9. DHN (niiriN ivith them-X bN (""V. "^a ( 15 ) at ihe end of verbs signifies me. r. Note. (^572 ^:73 ) pa 73 from. an: 73 etc. ) Mttio. thee. iV. in. ''"^*^' TfM me. '3753 me. etc.72 =)37aa tl373 tjti. and ^^hvi expressed by Dagesh/orte. is seldom found with the pointing of the Jlccusative : us sns (for piPs ) tcith her. on account of. thyself. etc. Note. to. it.M (=!ir. you.:3b •i72b' C:3b. bi< is 6roc?). into. as!ia'/2. n3^. * yq is generally dowtZerf.iK:73) from him . T72H doubtful) ib " " hi?n. See § 9. fiariN with you. them.^. etc. etc. you. it. her. firiN ^^J^7A Aer. it. ) t^/M MS. DnN (cnnN ^^^'^' nrnwS' ) ^Ae/« fem. against. This preposition (when added to suffixes). etc. himself. "inN i^7«V7i ''PiN with me. it. nrT373 ^-373 him. to. ((. tins Qlris D-i7J3 them.* See § 9. Zife. etc.iV/i i/tee. -us. ^3723 '^1733 thee.a (for ins ) icith him. =lDriN ^ftJt ^nN i^. Note.

Nb5n behold. 1\-. was. T7tl^ I'^'^H! the same. ^s-^ribN. etc. rj^nlrN. JD—'nriw^ \*5. bs ( bi3 ). aftenoards. l-i^i^N Sn^'N where {art) thou. 6y myself i. l^i^S ^3"'nT:5 between two. "^"li^/or around about me. i. 'o Twe.). etc.bN . ':j"'hi'ij< b^'. alone. l^a-'VN T^'w-^N ^/iey are not. aZ/. '^nHf Tjnbn . besides. "^ribib wof. same time or place. etc. ^5b!0 I'^^b «/o?je. other. among. T12 i. "irb'N . ("l?2 '^'T'!?b thyself e.P N . ^1^3 in ?J3?1 ) behold thee. '!]'''vriii .1 > together. 'jn'^ib tlJ^^b by themselves. ^bb^2 . ti5'^f7. See § 36."'3 T|3"i3 . "•nh. ^2 in equal portions).? ^n5>ba . only. in order that. '^!nb. mc. nib . not she. Dp. thee. m':'^5 between. m'm\\ by on account ^tlN. ir ni-. etc. except. '/'ere es.! . yz. I have. nn\ ^.bN {once with prefix. e. T^i'^JN . bacJcwards.~ ) /or % sake.. > ''t!?^? ^'^^\^. etc. ':]. 'I'liS'a ^Aaf. ). fil^'^nhN i'^N . at the "">^^. no^ /. 15 y2L. besides 7?ie. "^^^''N d^N etc. on . is. . on account of according to. "^"^hN . Note 2. . around about. without. T3'i. . etc.61 «^i$(''bN') unto me. 'n'bN 'rfbN m?/ ). ITPIN after. account of. D"i=l2y2 etc. are. tabs and Qnbs nsnbs and nsb^S jyab (l^^ab ) </iai. rib^l . "iriN . ''N . "iT^b ^o himself. "'J* Ae fi3\Nt is «o^. Dm j"'3 between them. is. e.V lohere. . . '^''nhK . ''nS'b?^ besides.^ba ficsiWes <7tee. n3''."''nu3N. etc.? ( '^^.''r)b^T except. except. etc. were. besides. ^"^. Dlnibti . she not. '^'•i^Z entirely. of. nbs . C3"]\'^2 ""rs . without. ^3 3. ^'^2>2 . ^Tf^ j' '^"'T^'5 ^«iJpj/ art thou. alone. so that. wilt. i. another way.?. JlSS. 'Fiba . T^rN G^o^. ^l^^?. <o '^'^ib .'^i* '^3''N ^?\*< </<ow is art not. behind. -bs ^bs ( rfb3 . ObN iHbi<b. he you are. (once Mb3 ). ''nn'iN bi" . through. thou.bN. except. ii!n . \% J r^^S^^'j ""j nothing. . See § 72. ^3b'2 t]3b3. 6. tlS'^^N . tSS'iU^. ^^2 for. will. bbsa .2 "^nbS nof.. ':j"'t-. . j^^e are no<. between us. alone. "^b lU^. ^"^n. . </«ere Z5 thou art. ibs rib? .?N.

"^isb before me. here. against. how. 'i. m^a ':j-'i5> . (see § 72. '31"il> while I am. •jS-b? therefore. Mtab. wherefore. truly.. instead of. ^"'22 ) DN . under. DTS^b 0:^2?. 13735 t3ri73y nny (nl^y ) nowj. 1:752?. concerning. N3N . 'i'7aD3 as over against him i. "'nnn.^''Hisi while he. (CI'S . ('('^i<. without.XD the same. '5 J ""c.and nsi. 'SSQ ow account 'la 5. ns^b^y . "JN-I? n:N-ny ]. "^3 because. Nib O «Aa<. "^"iisiz. nnn wnc^er.* 2. yet. Zes/. in . T^vp^ . "i-n^. mw- "^3 although.e.62 "^"^tib before. for. ah I pray n? '^'1? you. until. provided that. again.. ^DCb . etc. n^niy. hitherto. ''a 1 pray '^^I'b? on account of. (Nib) ^ot. unto. not. against. "JS in ^N owZ^. n732> . in the 'presence of . because of Cm'^:e72 . as for. under. rrri D before. within. '^"^^ T'by tjy toith. v:i:> . since. rr^ay. lb . bN b3 . Q373N. even. ^iSntiri aftoMf zV. 6?/. n^ny unto '^Tay tt?i7A. while. before thee. niy . t]'iis> they (are) ye< (alive). DN if. !13N . so that.) Mb er. . none. as. '^3S~b? before. ^7^$ . ^TDN—Jl'ttb that. T'l^HPi. '''^^ "'by . V:3b before him. nuJN-]^ or. ..» are for n6n—1» . beneath. Note 33 . indeed. Ti». wnfiY. 133 biN but. tDri"^?. QN-'^D but. 1. %. you.-'by. 133X3N swreZ?^. PIN aZso. nJ^T ^/iot^. <iW note.b "i. 'j'^N tl'iJ Particles (Separate and Combined). ""if na 2. <§) 72. . etc. nvs?? (from IlTsy) near.* '''j ^? (''I? ) ^^^'^ 'o. '^''3Sb V33 "b? . do not. Mb^b. nlb^^b^Ta nhn bN a6oi. ti-'^by ^732? in. tii'? now?. over against. * etc.). beneath. thee. </i?'s. ^iV^.B~^i'. is not. like as. ^y (^nr ). ti^Tas . forever. "'rnhn . there there.?. 6m/. n^l fibi2>^ eternally. . etc. while thou art. wheth1l72 TN then. <A^s rfay). (n73b) nt . .r^ 6tc. . ^l^is) ^^I'^h^S' ri. . 'is> yet. if. we. O that! I beseech. against. fi^. . suited to him. not. 2^>i7A. for or fo me. N3 now. yea. S^l'y (D^iyi? ).' no/. "I'^JN-'iy tN-iy <i7.. order that.e. 5113 bb 73 6cZo?^r. f 725> .? w^ow. of. "'ly T^ny !j:d">1j> . /iozo Zon^.

-\'i1-i^)^ backwards* are sometimes used as particles . he (Participial nouns). skilfully. n_j occurs only in nouns ending in fi— . ^s^^h^r\thy See § 14. enough. by from me. . a"'t3'in iceU.t your. plur. sometimes omi^erf before the suffix. Ezek. 3. for j from is ^ii. n^n">_ for Dn"^- (M parag. a server. n- as (rr nVs a// o/«7. n'iJi'' (^^73in. * note. plur.) thy fern. Inab . ^n-iJr. noun. . (n parag. plur.their {them) masc. S-'niD. Jisp. after m' in ibe fem.) is commonly placed .).m forever. suffix. CSttin early. * The particles frequently as ^psa t (tiPSW )/rom with thee thee. whither. has a plur. 36: 5. Note as •]ia 2.'i'i 133 his sons. § 73. nnriw speedily. . ']"'_ for ^''_. Sometimes a plur. nx:b why. n3!n_ The . form) his ^Iri— {his) suffixed only to nouns ending i<n''_ for n"^_ Aer. Nouns and Verbs as 'n'ojz safely. 'r^^zya fromioith thee. plural i tf'^s. Note sometimes omitted as ^m':D» for l:{irn'-tt <§> 74. CSsitt before. wherefore. Note V^Ki 1. from thee. o/*. in ancient times. !i73b' . in (Chald. t]\V^»» etc. t occurs for -|ri (TnJiB ) Isai. plur. from upon. See § 14. Cinio^tt uprightly. 36: 5 s_ (her) stands for iTj a_ . ]m_ ^/<c?r fem.on account thither. a long time. noun . for nl:S . Many of the foregoing particles take the Prefixes 2 S V . Ezek.Ti2. he is Kal Participles. Note 1. n^iy nni" who serves. rQi<~"i?33 (for bON2 ) in the ^ dark. 52 without before. 1132 for j|D your fem.''_ for Note ways. . ?^. 'C'ith before. <A?/. for^n'^^nn . . suffix as ':fin?n!n_ thy praise. securely. as iril'ny for ^liiny In a few cases a sing. ^^D_ "rti for ^_ parag. for liaa noun takes a sing. Note which 3. the suffix i 50?)ieime5 coalesces with it. . . my nation. ifq^r) . frequently paragogic . 3: 17. serving. n:r7. niniN b^ . When The i a noun ends in i". Note JTisn-ij 2. noun. na-in mwc/i. plur. for for ]_ or ]_. before . ^12 is ]ij where? when? whither? !lDN as SliN Acre."^- fin- for tiTi. "'n. e. see § 18. any additional signification as nnn and hnpn beneath. ail3 .iss happy. for 1. . is plur. fearfully. small print). ""Vy^a have both Prefixes and Suffixes united to them i.) their. see § 9. !ri3 noun. because of. Note. forwards. . noun is . Cnp and C-iUS aboi}c. suffixes (§ 14. wAcre.i i. iS^ for PECULIAR FORMS OF SUFFIXES TO NOUNS.

etc. \y ti^D lV 'h and h . sing. fern. . etc.i\ . riNn". TiJDb . ^""1-*? B'^Vd"^ ^^'^j/ able. prevailing. . S^ he is going.i:: nS"^ .. m'^rii'. those ^S"! mDUJ". t'^ih.'^!" J^^^"". going.. prevailing. "{^. n''»ip and Woi^ ).f H'-^P^ he is fearing. coming. Note. o1p3 she is visiting. Kal. * OiAcr examples. going fem. every living being. he is fearing. praet.64 ViZiw asuj. psi'' . 'ijj. of ^iH'^P. ^''fi prevailing. JT^^I feminine. SS^ for mi-' for nssiiv the Those have same form in the 3d pers. who fear const. they are fearing. form y^l ). ."i2>T ) ^^ yb ivatching (and answering ) i. VERBS § 76. plur."sv . prevailing. ns^'i nssi'"' t . those coming. ii73j^ . D'^NIIT' "tip going out.^ . (once nnB^Tia for t^yni2 tottering). rrN'n^ Q'^N'n'. plur. i. 4: 18). (n?. T'iiy~\ . etc. niriijin m'iJjtd . t:^'-:. nN3 C\y3 s/ie IS coming. ^i. '^"i. ni-^l' they are able. § 75. nty-rzi fleeing with parag. tJ^ . construct 2 . See § 15. an enemy. niN2 those . r)y^\2J hearings '^^^. ftew?^ ashamed. ti"':b . . ^73^ . •. he is able. nib^ "IIN shining (Prov. ).is .iiJt n-i'tt. niN^\ etc. ripST ii|?. n:».. 'rn. . "'fJl^T' »ilV'' and pn^ . nTi^^ Note. xi2. going. Q-'DN-. those who fear. nbb'^ she is able. masc. masc. fern. ni'ip's </iey are visiting fern. etc. e. Some of the above forms are given in the Lexicon as Adjectives. scomer. she is fearing. placing. "'niUJi"' C'^np's they are visiting. ('113'' ) etc. coming.' a fearer of. a visiter. t3'^72[^ .i"' . riliT nit ^ ^n!?. n7J dying. they are fearing.^.i. a mocker. ">. "i:t'^ "'N*!'^ the fearers . Participles of verbs (roots) ending in Tsaree and Kholem.u' . tl'^p^:. n!a (DN\IJ from t:Ti:3 ). ysh > . ^'<^^• . t3"'a"i t]'':£-\ (chald. rt^^sh » fTJ^. crying. plur.. f^?. .'^ standing. const.. (once each. a fearer. Dj5 rising up e. Ci'^'iljiz nittn (m"70^'1 nitlN"^ . m'»j^. construct N'l'.

'^j?. plur. plur. "'IDS ""IDS covered. i^'^iif. is visited^ ). a visited person. .i"'"i. plur. fem. B"'^ Note The i is sometimes dropped. plur. rtp NS'a . D'lp S . encompassing . nnip2 she is visited. fern. 5173123. Q'^'ipS they are visited. yp against me e. my tJ''Kp . '^5'. . they are visited. ny'n fem. "^ Ji'ip S . masc. C^'n. from fil^ or D'^u). masc. plur. hD3 N^S ^ll-iT JTllpS . C^bia. "^Din n::'"' fem. t]""Nt2n for t3"'Nr2n Note. ni'^lb^. a visited person. I'a'p '••ap those rising thee. . hia with breaking me Q'^aa plur. 1..na. ^79. n^"!.j"'2.r') . WS for lato* . etc. fem. of p3 § 78. plur. (owce for JiJ^S'^) nN:^^ and t3N'l2 for Cijn'a from i<n3 . i. VERBS nnN : rib and l^b- fem.. an enemy. Nouns. .iN enemies of—. 30: 16) for DDTIJ. Masc. ""ira !i. ^2^n rny enemies. The Participles in a?Z the Conjugations receive the same endings as . revealed. 9 . from NU:3. n:i:i"' fem. •Tphb. const. anio (i''2TD) surrounding. . const. ti^l^B from ms . t3"''^lbil. those visited. root DD^D. he . . as is^i'n my enemy."i'is those cursing § 80. •»h>i h . fr^.65 § 77. plur. milpD "^nVa . •^1^3. 'nu)3 {^pz ) forgiven. '"lips . root Tib-i !l^=)i:3 from JiU3 See Note 1. plur.>a (Jer. '. :3^.ibil. (^1"^y. const. masc. enemies .|is etc. m'y"n . D'^pin N2£i''. (CpJ from Dip b^ from blQ (rarely). h DN. nibia and . C^^Dti from ttJIH. fem. ITI a h •^13 3 (with D'^'lips . m''!:ii! m'-^m'N from . masc. PASSIVE PARTICIPLES (KAL). M'S"!^ they are burnt. nNi^'a (riNiZv:). n'in and Ji^'in (n:^?:). Q'^n-^'iN . "'^INa . paragogic). ':. visited ones fem. !inn fem. from !lD3 niii^ from filp nriv . as sa]sfor \aBS . const. plur.nN sufF. . tibia and M^bii!. Tips Tips (1J?D 5=i7:uj .

Some of the above forms are given in the Lexicons as Adjectives. etc. tiri^. as sian who ( came.''n m''nSl'7!l. . etc.re he who is desired. Note 3. with the t note.?3NrT "iJo'ni'r: . § 81. . ''n-j'l'j? PARTICIPLES WITH SUFFIXES. n^'*] .") "^3-^ my feeder. enemies. shep1"'i^*l'! my feeders ''i<-l^ (const. nN2.66 Note 2. tj-^^snan m""i3iari . 'n:^^^''?! which is purposed. is (n). with plural suffix ip. from ni^:^ and Nna . . ^. ) ). '^5^af^. (''JJ'?. etc. Kal.!? those who fear from Nn^ . ^-ib^n y:^-Br\> fi^ir^^bars nir^n^n Pu- al s^-^irn/an. § 82.) ^b''QU:72ri ^ll''357aJi . . 'Wa from herd. The Participles in other conjugations are also found with Suffixes "^^tpji^. This participle is occasionally active. 'ip'h^iiH . who '^^'^''^^ T^^ri . m'-hNrj. 'li'-ri PARTICIPLES WITH THE ARTICLE spoke. T'Nnis thy Creator.'^VJ thy Maker. from his fearers. etc. Vr^. t)"^'1"lT ?r7 . . t^'''il2'niT\ which desirable. n-). fi'^'^wYiisn ti'^N^/qirj (Q^tiirasn).Ennjari which turning itself brandish- ing. T^i'l'N . as ^'^^tl^^ those blessing thee. These are Kal participles. '^''t^t'. n^. . rifk^^iTssn who tcere found. ii^iDsn. C'^'iaiyin that stand."^ ) ) sssVnn N parag. Hithpael. Pid.^ VrH. for ftsVrin who {they) went. The (^°'^ Article is occasionally prefixed to the Praeter . poured out.2n72rt. my . which etc. the lovely one or thing .l'^^!.that. Piel. Note. lives. rT^n-jN li^n^'i j< S5^s:n "^ . who. . thee. left.. who are abiding. i^ which he placed. "ilin . See § 15.'! those who fear me. ^b"'3U. who is speaking. ^V. h''3 "i^"n pa from nja \hH from nN"l "'J.! N . Hiphil.^ Hiphil. i^'^N . p. "^n'^lN my enemy. Niphal. £}•'-] ^s-ii^n . as ni^t he remembers. from n:J< .!". those that loere . T^V-i . l3''i?''Th?a- (with is » parag.

tlinj^ take fem. V'7. ^^"^'^ ^ fem.ap. put o£. 1 ''hpb. sess thou. VERBS ('rrb ''S . Parag.. b73 for ~>i3^. n. INip. Tn'^ descend thou.' powr thou. Tarag •^ (Kal). ^b ~^b ) go thou masc. ^ !T2:ii 84. etc. Tjp and MiUJ {I5fi i^ .e it masc. with epenthetic n?^ SI know etc. T>U"l etc. from hj^b (not hj^J 'iJl. get thee out). bia. la^p. masc. dwell thou. !^^R ^i^ (nj^b take. n^-'N^ from NS'' •"l^y and awake INT^ /car ye. ^0 ye masc. tremble ye. "'Sb ^ob go thou fem. I'-a'a . ). ^n (perfor andlhp^. p^ and Tl'^'^'^. "i'vli sit. twice ^ni:-. Nip . b'^ rejoice. -]n give. pardon. place 2 thou. .^o for thyself i. "iDb . approach. bu3 iai'e 0^. •'tis "^aTo. give. 83. plur. etc. remove "^TU thou. 1 60: ^0 thou. VERBS 'h. Is. etc. "^m and naT^jJ 6rcaA. with thetic 3 haps iia^i Hos. n»lp n^p VERBS . 4: 18 Ijhp /aA. Ihp epenz'i 2!i come on. 4: 7 nD3 etc. '»=ip.IMPERATIVES AND INFINITIVES OF DEFECTIVE VERBS. SlNa 'it) NT 3. with affix Itl^'^ confess him. bring thou. . Ti ) n:£ S . and -^av^'. e.. itts in:: ""lIN ('')3^p arise. Imperatives. dtil pos. ib'^a cognates. ]ri .) "^niy thou. make. with into N and their lift to changed ^86. shine thou. ye me. Qp arise thou.\2:'i ('>l3n).. ^0 /Aom. fe. NipD (Ps. with affix •':iilto take (^^"1^. 5 nyq'S go ye fem. . ''tol'7 . <Aom. ilS : n ^zue ) it {her). .. pit'. npto !i3pi p'^ Ajss thou. 13b J 13 . 15>'7. •\233 VERBS once for . a . take. fem. N3 come. tremble. ^85.) up. r^oice. \\to fem. thou.

in (N^r: 6e <Aow. ascewc? <Ao?/. ye. do DT surround thou. Judg. 5: 23. nb. with prefix riiibb iniba reveal. Vsi construct and so with 6/Acr . tarry.Nk) from Mit\ Z«/i! i<p. «§. etc. fem. and ]N"ip with it. 88. VERBS ^S. . VERBS rib . suffix "nn-i) (rarely like "^n^UJ) These Cwith a very few exceptions). open thou. ntj\ construct ViSi absolute. plur. i:''3 . n:"'N:£ g-o (for ) n. pa- " : fv tient. inT 5d elevate !-!D"^ (for 5<S"1 for NiB3 .) 6e mighty. =i:y si'wo" "^^'j i? answer me^ etc. . rrTi nntn •'. and n5*>yb) <o sit. have two forms. doubled. commend thou ^a (Ps. fem. dwell. =ib2. . VERBS y turn. (for "^i'S) szn^ thou )sing inquire ye.^ (absolute) and t^'D. ri^S (Ps. make thou.p . plur. remove thou. epenthetic) CMrse <AoM him.S'.68 Parag. 1U32> etc. The construct form is generally given here. INFINITIVES. r^a^b'•. 'l''^ nipy do. * species of verbs. y'-fi and ny i to A/ioto. so with verbs 53. devolve. ^^n ("^iri). Nii:2 (once no: ) ^P^ isiai^ (n parag. as ail'as absolute. ]N^. no: is ''Si. plur. *iiD. ''idi ^3'^ =173 '7. still. with prefix rT'm =l^Tl. etc. V^ remove.. with •'ija. and 7/e. testify ye. ^^inetc. (^aZ. . 1SN for ye masc. «§. n ni'is '}"'2 consider thou. lodge thou. ^S"! (for 13"1 Is."JR 22: 9) stands for Vi3. I'^rj'?. ir^i^ f|N-ip/ and 1i<np. .v (construci) to dwell . . (^!l|?. see § 94.nr30. ''i/ish)/??'/?/ ye me. Inij? (with n paragogic). lips' answer. fem. lb2> . as m'^z. .. curse ye. ) «^ 87. ) heal thou. m^"] (for IN^I ) fear ye.) ^90. '^3*:li (for See § 84.* nsu: (once IiViJ. i^in SI "^ 6c silent. 21: 12. •30. it. 80: 16) protect thou. ?/e ]3 with Tt parag. ND*^ (Jio'n (with 3 Aea^ </toM.) Twaite iare. etc. Nnj^ caZZ. fem. "'by . come is fern. thou. etc. 89. Tt'yi l^i^ ifiJ . . VERBS proclaim b^i commit. •^bN ^'^5'2 lament thou. ii'^ . 3 epenthetic nsfiinp read JlSy (n parag. call ye (upon) him).h pif?/ me. "^Z"^^ '^'ilJS .

etc. ) to etc. ll"l"i once !i3n (Ps.^\to produce. make. fo c?i<JeZ/ jne. . bringingforth.' 10). nii to place. VERBS 1? . suffix inhj? io possess. from npb rrPi'ilJ") possess "iifai and ZT^ii^ <o cZrj/ wp. reach. prefix ''nn^ than for to give. d^i to contend. . me ]'^3 <o distinguish. "ipol: my going. /rom going 24) . nNip. be . with prefix fi-lb (for n"vt3~\ iil"^ ) to fear. (for n:ri ) to give. f^^aujn wAo <o spread out thy glory over the heavens. and T\ over the heavens paragogic mj^JI^ their Root -jriD. riNiC ?'". fetch. (^nn-iil that e. DNtJ to alt.69 Parag. the spread- mi tn^ (nbb) t\'-j. it. e. have excellence. I may dwell). <o be <§> 92. fix 73 with pre- up (Ps. tTl"!^. go. im ui ^91. finX rj:^i to shine. lij'a n3N3. V'k VERBS ^':?. Vn (for ifD"' ). some niij? . place. with suffix. with suffix '^93. nhjpb . -j^b to lodge.. ex- w^ ^^"~.?: § once rarely ~rihp to take. editions J<iD3 down (See '"T'^^.%. (for nwXi "I'riN^. :S. prefix 3) NlTD^ lifted when 89: it is nn^ iri"! fo descend. See § 73. root TiXi nri ~nn 'nn. excellent once (with ^r\ix. r)b'r!-« afiZe. thy entering. ihou_goest. to lift up. with suffix and (^bb ) «o <arry. . thy going. etc. i. consider. VERBS . ing out of whose glory is etc. to know. for Til-jtt. lest. etc. DN2. <tf inherit. mo- come thou). ""Na / come (l^lbb nya <o touch. to approach. ^rp\. i. ('it'i ) in'JJi. remove. lodge. receive. prevail. 8: 2) in the phrase ro^ to go. n*Ja. my dwelling.

& is a suffix.withpref.) to he broken down. t:5N:i'733 (for t3Ni2J22 ) when you find (Gen. •^psj^ . but see Lex.Ezek. 7. n'N-j Hn-^ ) (once nN"! ip^na when he appointed. PECULIAR FORMS OF THE IMPERATIVE. -iba? .p"4J"i3 (Amos 45: ilT^. (mN"i to see. ai'n (inb) ^o multiply. meet. m'iUi'TO m'to^b zw making. niiuy to do. consumed. faiR completion. niii'i etc.l. 32: 20). Sd ~iO (^2p) iph . riin?*. transgressing. "'XDDj? .. tlS?'"! (fem. Pilel. Hithpoel . Note Note. See § 17. 21: 15. 47: 14) is for D7ahb. are peculiar.2ri it. 6. and Dag- ibiJ . when. VERBS ^b ) . 49. turn. n7:3Jt. as from JTi'' ). i''-. Peculiar Conjugations. andsuffi Q'^^brriQ'i?. Note J. •'Diijn . are on]y other names for Piel. . Once !i]^. Hithpalel . m^ba fulfil. Also page 72. Hithpael. m'iri. im*Nn ) /o 6e/«o/d DPI "Qri to complete. 'inN'^pb fin^-ipi? . '^N'^p I call. ^o j/?Z.. or is this last Qil'iJa T Poell* with prefix and suffix 2« ^/iciV uri'a from sinning. 'thN . * i^:^. Hithpolel . its ^ 96. Is. regard. fi-equently 2. riNton io exfix with suf. 22: 9) stands for b-J /ei Verbs Nb and nb are alike. for J^itStiTa Gen. but see List of iVti )::>. consume. VERBS to y doubled. Anomalies Jji) (Ps. JShj fi!?. riN'^p (once riNip to call. pZore. ma ini<t:h . in^D. ^ttj <o appease. libs rib:!j . A/m comviit (his affairs unto comes ^tn": (NlT^b Note 1. compass.Pulal. he will deliver him).94. The Conjugations . ~]']-T ^'^ rejoicing. "ijvha lohen he set "173113 once JTiN'i when it is n"'Ji. See §§ 48. <o finish fi. See § Ss! the Lord. m'Ti^ ^o 6e. Polpal. «§..it re- Nb^ nj<b^ Ni:?3. ).1 (for n. hot Job 6: 17. 20: 6. to consume them. VERBS thmbii ^0 reveal. See § 53. joices. "y^. /rom . Pual. with suffix 'TjN'ipb. n33hb are peculiar. t note.95. (for nN'^pb) meet. etc.. perhaps like Dp. PoeZ. Polal. 5: 11). fem.-?nb . 'TnN "^mN and riujy. Polel. make. . Tn <o subdue Is. m'bJ> /o ascend. Poal. riN"! . doing. Hithpalpal. Pilpel. riN'np to riN'^pb salute. § 40. 1. etc. esh euphonic). nJ2hb_ (Is. ca/O and i'^iJl^ «'/«era it nsh . 24: 19. STn:23 (ri parag. . .70 «§. Note. shone. niih. fii'^p. remove. they are . a compass. fa lilb <o rob.

as is not. Note ''i\^ . thus : n_ n third pers. as !i:'lNi2Q'^ they shall find her. . masc. Vowels or The following changes take place in the to the verb. as DlUJ'lS'^T . '' " "In 1 second and 3d " fem. is the vowel. siug. for n333'' from JiDD "^a^^T heiudgedme. ns:. Imp. and Participles. Imper.N~ri']j^3 . "i^^sb^. .. see § 35. as D'lj^S he visited them . and Ful.). " becomes ri_ or ri_ " '^n or ^n second " " " " or or n n _ on riD (3) " plur. when veradded to them as Csy he answered them sirT^S he commanded him. . bal suffixes are '^)^_ Verbs nV lose their n in the 3d pers. 'JTJ:")^"'! . rinps (sAe visited). 35."'i< they are generally the nominative case. as t::2i he will build them up. is are so plainly distinguished by their characteristics. Note When first radical is a guttural . "^^2 . for "^ssa? from "jsi . In many cases amples... iTips etc. it takes Composite Slievau she seized her. (2) The following changes take place in the Sufformatives .71 VERBAL AFFIXES OR SUFFIXES. and they drove them (fem.n>? all it IT* Future. fem. for : as in the following ex. throughout. ^i3. .) appended to verbs transitive. ii-\p''^ they shall call me. These. when verbal suffixes or affixes are united to them . thus. "Ip3) . for the most part. he is not. expressed by Dagesh/brfe thee. praet. (5) When these affixes are appended to interjections and adverbs. and form the accusative (objective) case .] for "jTipN^T (7) Epenthetic it is 3 is often found before verbal suffixes. (1) These are fragments of the Pn'/m^/ue pronouns (§67. which unites them generally (but not always) different. ia&3 the it covered than. Infin. (4) Verbal affixes are in j (d) some cases appended to verbs '*':': ending in paragogic. 2. masc. or nj:!? (very rarely like fore 1p2 . masc. Verb. t::£li he delighted (in) them nP T. ] . ""rsntNSnn. ^DTn*}'^^. '^':7iff:i'2i''_ . of the conjugations. §97. so in the future. instead of '. be- an affix n'HjlSD or 1. for nil T. praet. sing. however. etc.. ^N-iN I will show *t:n~iN from riNn nsz)"' he will smite thee. ^^3"^^^:. as • ySh The he delighted.'^N she See §§71. as ^Jnij^Q or "'^rii^D thou hast visited me. etc. etc. Q {them) is (6) The The sometimes used for the fem. are the same fragments as the suffixes atto the tached to nouns (§ 14). that unnecessary to present examples of them with verbal affixes. for nnip^. ijOB when verbal affixes are added becomes li^D .

72 ''jn&"^ he chastised me.. See § 40. 5. nnib Poal. niasc. 71. ^nid Note. the affix me. n'^sijs^ P?/a/ of ns. from ^:£: }". for ^iJn-S". 8. 7. These are IliSL)! . 2. as ^^"^. 6. 6. D^^pnn HithpoUl See ^Vop_nn § 17. ^5^5 .b"isn 7«e " it shall bless wic. 1 as ^D'^7^5>2 plur. from !T^a. b^b^nn. nninOn (with n y^in. 9. J note.w^D (verbs 13?). 30: 39. D^ip Polal. ^^CrSHn Pealal passive. See § 40. "'_. iitp. from 'nO'^: '!. . another peculiarity. f note. i^?! P^/e/. See § Note 5. trans- posed. . . 30: 38.n "^3 . Y^si"). Pluriliterals. is 3d plur. n^. ha.i^Sn Peoel 7. ^hunn for nsnblan. . and Hithpael . Also § 35. 7. Ti'y . ^5nn. s^di^ntijn (5 38) Hithpalpal. (8) In a few cases the for rrr-iayri.pn for tiainpn. PECULIAR CONJUGATIONS.p Po/e/. See § form . ip. etc. ninndn ^5?) ^ilbS . ininD Pealal active. For the See § JVithpael conjugation see § 51. njpDn^'] from nDnS. ^r ^)2^ . See § 71. 7. Pnal. 6. etc. nin is T^/ie/. . nnnn. See Gen. Twice the 2d used for the feminine. TIT) "IS.:?iriTdi Poipai. 16. nri. Note.b':hDr\r]. ^!?a^wx Pw/a/. Sam. Note. ("•:) is the suffix mi/.s the masc. ^snJT") will save us. ^21552 from b^^D. Note § 17. V'^T^ (verbs Piipei. fern. 13w^. •^- Note. Peculiar forms. from q&n 6.^3 Hithpalel.in.ll2^ . for 6: 12. following are simply peculiar forms of Piel. etc. 16. see § 38) Hiihpoei Poel. from &s^Dn^_ is ^5-1. Note § 17. 4. I. J note. see Gen. thus: nniD Poe/. The 1. !^5^.

verbs n'^ . D '^'^ n 1 .1. etc. etc. (c) with the t note. Id -In . I'llri etc. etc. . I-N_wNl. in the Infinitive and Imperative Moods. 1"^ \S . i^{ . See § 45. (seldom ).^'. .t PiEL. verbs 'S . Id In . from rtT3 ->n'^ from "nn DFi"' from D^n.. -i"^ •l^5 or i.. "iD^. t3h3n . I^TN nn'^inN from naN . By accession D . • I -I ID . ii.73 Table of the Characteristics of the Conjugations in the Future tense. ID in from irn. fed verbs. for 510J5D". . "i'^'^iN verbs . .} for ^-u^V.' Ql'pN N-Ji* ./k/.. I -I LSI t Pi/AL. Da^esA c/ia?Yicier?s<ic is occasionally omitted .^ Hophal ii " of verbs Per/: or n^. nD nn is n". •jia"] Dip. 10 . for "'vJivari . un . is*.ipN i5"i'0ri .1. "1 ISl) HiPHiL olverhsiy(''3?).^) 3S. etc. ^S.. 1-1 *T"). rfni". and the Praeter of the otAcr conjugations. nwvj_ (n^^) Hithpael. from ^"^T |-1I_D t3t!5'!' > l-ll_n etc. h . ^rn ^''^J^'ln'^ b'^b?.'. in h aS": . D^. ifS> ^^^^1 . n7. 'nj2\ .X iLim. HiPiuL of verbs ib'^^'^n'' ^t) is for 'j'^TNN ."^ LS j« (LS orlii) / . ii:.s> . '\V'=>'^ . or :? tan^ for tin^ mn i*^ ^rp from 'iin [doubted. ^^ n ^ N from (D ri .. . FUTURE TENSE. verbs 's . P "ID n?.-^ n in for . n sometimes assimilated see § 17.i 5< HiPHiL of verbs Pf.. . verbs m*-n. 'i'^^^ii . "^ etc. * For the conjugation Kul. verbs nV . seldomofPer- (5<:2tl. . nttn •'nttn .:2N M . or nST^ "len (ncri verbs iV^: from p doubled.' "'ttij^an t . as tfrj. T\tr T"^ . Note. and in the Participles* ^ •1] 98. see the Tabular View referred to in the Preface.h . . i-i.) j^js? . " " ifD"^ 15?. from [or DE • nt23 . § 38. ^nnPi iT^". . . Niphal.

74 s§. ^n from frls: . excepting in verbs n ^^ . C^hr from . The prefixes 3 3b often reject vowel. " root . Note. Infin. " " iy . 38. 'pn . * which . or y doubled* in('n) i'^n-n and ntpn for rioin . nii^ip: fo^ . rhrr . . i?^»•4j: . VVh • Sometimes n becomes ri or rn as nBSn ttsin and iw'iri are from s*£^ and -i»^ . b^h . pp'^ ). NlPHAL. . excepting the final vowel. as ISTtn from r. as Infin. as rib^n . n"»5^N for ''OrT. nb^^rn. 99. § uj-i'^N for niN53. •In ^•i-i: . nbsn . imper. '^l"^^::"^. excepting in verbs n/ . 40. Imperative occurs in two words only Infin. sometimes assimilated. INFINITIVES D) . nV^nn n is and niV^nn. n n HiPHiL •' ol" v^erbs Peifect^ D£. The . See §<^ 26. NiPHAL. Also § 6 small print. like the Praeter. rann . nib^fn . r-^sn is for b"':3N. in (d . or n^ . acv "'nn 'D''}:"'ri fem. Is like the Praeter. "'iVs" verbs ly See § 51. For Piel and Pual see Tabular View. Note and take its 26. Tiari . . See § 53.(from Nn: is peculiar. Sometimes the niirpn for Infinitive has the pointing of the praeter.5T 100. 073'3. >§. AND IMPERATIVES. is (t). ^'s. 17. apocopated 75rn. 1. for Apocopates. ^72-in . as !i^3TlJn T:2n from m:3 nnb'n and nn|^n from nr. HlTHPAEL. The have Infinitive is like the Praeter. 2pers. ?l'"2n. n"'nn from nnij from Nis. HoPHAL.n. q"jn nsnr: . 39. and Imper. n&^ '-nri ^'T^n. which ( • ) or ( T ~ ) for ihe final vowel. from n^y Note.' p-in (rad. CAa/«?. as . • . inh for ns-irj . ^isHD "n'ny. ""^lln) ^n? n ChaW. PARTICIPLES. ( i ^ ). ..

m'ta^ from nt23 Once . ^^'^^^ "'^ ' il2 " " a''"} '^s. "'inu^ from nhu . In some cases the Pa^cs/t char- omitted.75 or(v). ov V doubled. from TiX^ \-\\12 •^tiS^UTS . or iis. . as bap3. const. " 12^ " 15?. m'a^: fem. . n is "^Sitatt for 'ilnBnw . and Pual participles) . or H?- ^_ (by accession) C"':s?'7. '^S. oa3 from 0D?3 .s>:!:pin^ for £?0M6/eJ. fifth edition. 39. "ii3>?. \12 HopHAL of verbs " " " plo ) .. I ^ •.y Perfect. acteristic is VSN for Vssto . aipi.. Note.'^ ^^^ '^'^^'^. 'b'^s*i572 ^7 etc. (seldom . > ^^^.. is omit- ted . ]S. ^T'^ i^ from rriv With"' parag. Professor Stuart's Those who wish to see full tables of the Paradigms. for a^Dia. from n^. 40. etc. plur. "an 2 const. or 3? P''f''^ verbs. are referred to Grammar.7J . t-t'^h_ ta-j'iB for U'li'u^a VV»s for ^V»s». This Grammar is decidedly superior to any one published in English. * In some few cases the as )i3'i for ha'i'/a . TO • •in It: (jiStin T : Seldom 1^. n^m fern. to (characteristic of Piel for rtj^Vw . as . 13S^a ^ac^NQ Plur. . 12 HiPHiL of verbs Perfect. ^ ) " m*. !i!:53.. n-iD^Ta. Also §§ 38. Ci-jpiii for CiffiJ^^itt. etc. yNs^ for 7NDn?3 See § 17. (e). See § 45. rrn HlTHPAELsometimes assimilated. with t note. with the Notes. 'J"'":??? for V\'^. ^-^t??. ^3'^ ib» from 'J^b I -I I ^ "It) I ^ * PuAL. \12 '\)2* for PiEL.. ' ^na '^ from ^1^ .

N{i3 from . =i3''3. 8: 2) n:n /o spread out. i. '-^11 . uia:. from Ni£^ and J<b53 . 2. ^in'^i^^T. as thou hast given for ril3ijri3 (^T parag. ^1^. "ij^-. nip' " nse up. verb npb {he took) often drops its b . ^''P2 N">. §14. iO^ (^5^). '^^pN i^-i^j. Anom. as hj^'. nOT' from nSD {very seldom 3. nn (""nrj ) for nan to give. ni ( ni ) •^ generally placed after ni . FIND THE Root. —a station. 'rfjUi. ^^111 . 3's. and if three or more be left they are the root as Qri"'n'i"i?3i2J733 in their stations. !^r^. the spreading out. Jlpb to take).": from ^b. with suffix "^nn to give me i. ' ^"11 . n:2. mp. e. N however . '^y:" approach. ."1^1 . ^c. . lb73 .'!! •IN'^h'^^: > etc. icz7/ ^eacA Ti'T Ti~\^ from !Tn^ TT])} ««(/ i/jey ccs< fZo?c« from •jriD ^T]"' Note riJ^n place. nD-.) e. 1. is seldom dropped. ^jb. ':]!ri from . . nruJT^ri.. lid'. ribj^bj^y crooked C^Dyc^ ei/e- beams of the rising sun. ""aN . once (Ps. np take thou. iSn . . Note 3.} incline and he smote than "132 ^N ^^ an U^ '^^^? A^. etc.. «o surround. ^ " <•' nrfjinn j^i^-i " . from "lauj he watched.).3. stationed a Din prefix suffix in. their.76 To § 101. he shall take. adjuncts. Examples. and postfix !l as S33. or double the second radical. or insert 1 (rarely ''). [jn: ^^1?. . lis. S'^t^ (aiii.l "^^ ^'om Mt:: . ^-. .n. UJ^N. i!rt'n5^ (^^d his iron.=ip^ . from bT^S . my giving. or postfix Jl (seldom n). letters 1. "^^>pa Heeraantive noun fem. ^ ^^^ come. nibVlsh confusion and ways. If two letters remain. inp". ^b'^V!3>3 con- fused are Primitives lashes.). from bj^^ . £3". "Tiisa . "jPi^ •TiJ3'. . etc. Gii:\2. "hpN and rtnpi* (n parag. plural. The nnpn. he shall spread. The verb (Ae g"oyc) sometimes drops both . Note 2. {the root requires </«ree. from " s>'i1 to know .. If but one letter remain prefix 3 *). ti'^-vpn.^3D CS'' As . ^/je/« .) prefix thereto "^ or 2 (to np prefix b. all its Divest the word of . •)i\i '' n"'uj (nvoij). Ji:/3Dri .

b^M he ate. nu:y performed. "jn. (also fut. riN-] T\xy-\ /ze ///erf. he moved. Note. uj. 4. from "^'^ ITrVn a generation. knew. placed. n"4i". j^'i) he took. or T73 . whose first . n'^llj nip '"^ly-s /te collected. from b^N "^i^TPi from ^7N r|bi< . fut. § 28. flourished.:t). commanded. (Infin. THorfe. "'?. =in. 17:5. Hos. "nrrj? nhj: . are usually fi-om roots he will cause to fut. T T n^ti he was. <o nb.^D"' irjDN.) from at the Note root . | Tjna he blessed. n:£^ ^:. he gave. he formed. place. 1"^. knelt down. ^e sa?/?. [fearing).) /«e ^bn ^b. N'n"' 7ie was afraid. . qon. btJS Ae divided.% nh)"3 . . apocop. once np^ he took Ezek. is . (Ni'a <o 5^0. -liN s/tme. nil Nb72 (Si'l he multiplied. if'. N*lp called. 32?n ripN from FIO^ . * as n'iJia a seat. met.?. from C]0^ t These should be committed •.. ROOTS common 'J occuiTence. to die. first b). he moved. nVil. ). .e/^. . . s'^ipin. * note. firom y'liTS ?''1'i" etc. (Infin. 33: 21) from [•§> nnN of 1 an anomaly. D^U) "Crl'^io appoint. nnjjV (prefix 3.) (for from "ihN. ^"^^N i ^"J^ N'lJ'T ^'^' '"^ was fruitful say thou). . ) appeared.] . * note. put. . f. placed. 102. There n'li^i"' are a ^ew exceptions to this rule dwelling. . tense nbl"' etc. § 15. /«e /«e Part. happened. crept.|-iiN ^m'rt from t3-!>. "12£^ ). (in pause . stand. 'ijp. syllable is in . produced. *Ti'l from n-jv . 77 . etc. rTib'b . .^- from rTi. * Verbs 'S change their 1 into 1 for several purposes. nsnnJ3 . make. n'^'ii Piel. <Z«V/.fihi5 in "IN Ae <ooA- Mem Note 3. =li<. it ~\J it T seeded. 15. sat. "^hN (1 pers. ni'i^ia "J^. as b'^sn to cause to destroy. the omitted. and nhp ) filp <o rjse wp.i: from . See § 15. . Imper. (Imper. in .f N'^a he created. 11: Words whose =12 . r\'\)h «. produced. Note. i'' . yi"' Ac ny^ . (Imper. fulfilled. Imper. is =12D^» from Nn\l JinN^T Deut. n^i m73 nil? (Infin. invoked. radical a'^^jirt . * note. nn). fern. See § 15. /«e §28.T)fn. * note. See § . i'n" . turn. 5 n"'UJ'i"^ sit. rihj3. I'iji See § 15. (§ 51) therefore in Sometimes i is must be changed back again into ^ forming the root. but Kholem implies it as CiO V or tiC'"" he will add.3 naN niX"i Ae said. as n^yin from 1*4? he is sitting. hj5 Ae rf^^. . consumed. nr .^ /«e fte^o/. Infin. went. from . Hiph. {Inhn. nri fi^ip CTt!) <o place. establish. A few words require from N beginning to form the . (T7. in is "• .

(const. 'J". ]"'a Icind. PARTICLES between ("Jia of common occurrence. goodness. Tlri3 desolate. 2n. m's? again. (]» /rom). that. . ^D /or. '^'iHy ^^'^7A (t^^^) Mere a name. 103. because. . a fowl. y'nt seerf. field. Hiph. wherefore (D'^J . a collection. over. of N'^3 See §§ 67. who. U:d\ a creature. and Niri (i<\"i) is s7ie. 70.. Tiin (const. JnQ. t3'^3^) a year. not.'ip?^ ) ^1/ night. fi'vlJ /or n:^ S"»\p li?/^/* (q^ people). TO what. presence. nSjn behold. or also. . land. JT. "^^i is who. (ci'rT-b^. (7) Note. and ''^ — is»ie. j«A«i.^ no<. »» and waters. morning. posterity. face. yet. and Q^. wind. a beast. riTiJ a ny2 (constr. middle. so. Mere fi^ is not a?so. water. species. nart3 cattle. among. wo. "JS "'JS so. "JT: from. "]3 a son) *^T^N which. instead of. 'j5~b5 therefore.^22 dryness. ^fn ) midst. when. flSs T^an ^ip continually). living thing. (constr.* fi. plur. forever tN if.tl) ^j2 3 tDi'' ^if^> a c?a3/. Zi^A/. NOUNS of common a occurrence. Qip tiTia to place. y''p"j soul.] [§ 104.78 [>§. tnnu) (const. . life. bN . B'^^'vU heavens. that. <Aws. against (bN God. besides. nor. sea. tl''23 (const. empty. n?25 we . N^\ 3>"i'V grass. plur. i'ny evening. V"'-'^ Q^ (constr. Ilrin earth. > «n expanse. tn'p?3 ) a place.* DN ~nN because. iwYo. !]tan (kho-shek) darkness. Ci''72^ . when. iib . bN m«<o.) N^n is 7ze. 'r\lp_l2 ^t? «^5^^ ^T. fiJJ. aips?. power). plur. Q'^TD^ ) Vl^.] These should be committed. every . "^32 ) plural form. even. bird. sign of the accusative. while. <o. even to. J^'!^"!r •m'N and liN^ (i^'"!^ ) int: ^oot/. breath. . by. whether. 'j"'2 ^^ upon.- "'jN'^Z^rt he deceived me. n:[h plurti''''. nJin under. ) y2> ''?2''» ) a tree. in. (]''i<) ^3 -bs 'ly aZZ. nsuJ. \Vr\ spirit. 97. /ter6. Oipig (const. rty^ (const.

is for Nl^brj. " " is Prosthetic. *> inserted '* Characteristic of Hiphil. §§ 74. § 18. 11. "jl. is 10. at the end 1. For ^: (n) see §14-^3. and (with =1. as W^:TN!ri. n-^niD 'But see§ n. § 79 Note. see Anomalies. nor see §n. peculiar combination of the serviles occur. see 3. D"'3'i:n l^ix . is Heemantive. §11 with Exceptions " " 3. See Lexicon ^n'ri* h'lSJfi* is (in a few cases) for . 2. learner will find The much benefit from it. NT^J^i*.?* note. of all the Conjugations. 81 . "nzriri^t. § Note 14 C. an''N. f note. 4. sing. at the beginning is 7. intended to exhibit in one view. see 10. ibbin'ipN &{ . 2. 18 small print. masc. at the end L is a Suffix pronoun. fut. and print Hithpael as "IJ-TTN see ""nlrNSiV 30. Epenthetic. r: see Anomalies. a Heemantive letter. VAPaous Uses of the Serviles ^hj) nojt: The following table is |n\N. " " " " 2. . with the Examples. see ^\\. § See § 71 t note. 80. is 4. • See § 16 with Note 1. or. or at the end) plur. " " 2. § 15.79 <§> 105. few cases) Paragogic. § But see § 14 note 4 small print. . 3d Pers. § 74 ^^7:in. see List of Anomalies. Construct plural. " 3. see § 14. is (in a 3. Paragogic. n of Niphal. §73 Note § 73 'H ' . *^ Also § 76. 1. § 71 t note. ^^ at the beginning.9. Nl^N 2. ^. 11. Hiphil. with the * note. small . is §44 3. i«J inserted (in a few cases) is Epenthetic. § 98. the various uses of the serviles which are scattered throughout this Manual. § 16. 97 (7) Note. (c). especially when some See § See § 16. § 82. Tj^DNSTN. "^ § 14 Note §97 (2). is the 1st Person future. § . small print. Anomaly. is (rarely) . 3. 2.*'bipri . see § 17. ri. is 1. §73.

(IS inserted is Epenthetic. see 10. with Examples. see § 14. §§ 15. plur. see § § \7. Praet. "'_ ri at the beginning 1. see § 11.§ 51. 50. 3. at the end is 2d 97.. sing. Jem. § •' 2. § 15.. at the end)yem. Also (with fern. Future. see For ^n (n3) see§§ 15. 5. plur. § 97. Imper. Peculiar forms. see § 14 MS ). See page 32 20. 2. fern. § 26. 3.{b). ] ] at the end) 2d and 3d Future. singular § 10. is 2d pers. at § 4. see § 11. 7. is 97. 1. is Fern. 74—80. * note. 3 30. * note. fern. and fern. 44. see § 10. " 5. sm^..) and (with D the beginning) Future. 3 at the For n: see §§ 16.. ^'^i (3)- (n_ m). 3d fern. (2). 20. is 3d fern. is Construct fern. 3. see 11 Ex- ceptions 4. siiig. (see § 20. (4).80 ^ at the end " 4. (2). pluralfuture. with the Note. 1. and (with § 16. is (rarely) Dual and Plural. § Heemantive. (3). 16. and § notes.11 . is (seldom) 3d fern. 10. is Heemantive. t end {]) " " 1. is Suffix 3. see § § For n see 97. masc. see § 15. 4. plur. see . see §§ Hri ). Note. plur. § 16. see 97. etc. see §§ 18. Characteristic of Niphal. § 11. is (seldom) Construct singular. is § 16. sing. is Heemantive. nD " ri . plural (ni see § 11. " " 2. 3. ^d pers. § 8. see 57. sing. 19. § 7. " " " 6. see Fern. is is Heemantive. see For ]V "JV see §11. 16. 2. 9.20. fern. is \s. xs is 1st pers. D at the beginning " 1. § 5. Future. is pers. § 10. § 16. 11 Note 3. But see § 11. (2). Imper. is Paragogic. see § 16. §§ 35. " 2d and 3d pers. see §§ 20. Participle.. Ordinal numeral. 2d wiast. (5). 2d " " " (t I"!) 4. pers. 6.

* note. § 17. § 38. with Exceptions 3. " (rr f^ 2. For " " (t)"!-) 4. " " " 2. see § 11. § 18. § 18. see § 10.. praet. " " 4.. is 3d pers. with the t note. § 81. page 32. masc. is a Prefix. (sometimes) construct. is a Suffix. see Lex. on this table. with Note 1. " " (D) 2. see 100. Suffix pronoun. is i>MaZ. with small print. (c). HopJi. ((^). " of i/zpA. and Hithpacl. 19. see the Ai-ticle. is Heemantive.. §§ 18. n at the end 1. 4. small print. 64. § 17 " " 2. is (seldom) Formative of Adverbs. see § 14.81 12 at the beginning 1. (e) t note. n at the beginning 1. see 3. t3373N 'DJzi-'. 3.. with Exceptions. is Interrogative. For WD see § 14. is see § 14. 12 §§ 9. Hiph. §§ 18. 71. fern. For riD §§ 14. 3. (generally) a&so?w<e. 74—81. 3. See N. (e). §97. see § 30. § 20.. § 31. see § 11. see . " 4. and Jn/?n. *t23 at the beginning is a Prefix. 99. cri see § 15. and Imperative. 73. <§ 17. see § 11.. is Heemantive. 4. is Characteristic of the Participles in Piel. " (Cl''_ Q-) 3. Infin. see § 10. in all the conjugations. § 40. 8. is Characteristic § 36. at the end (d t3n)l. is Characteristic of Niph. is i^em. 4. //op/j. 11 . Imper. 20. and jffi^A§ pael Praet. sm^-. 5. 24. 19. " n) 3. § 45. <§ Pual. see 3. §§ 9. 16. (e). (1). 6. Note. with Exceptions 1. 60.. 11 Note " 2. For H {his) n3 see §§ 14. D:aN . is Plur. small print. See N . § 99. is see §§ 9. etc. 59. with Examples.

82
§ 15.

But see §§

18. 19.

74—80. For n:

see

§§
"

16. 20.

"

5.

is

Paragogic, see §§
3. 3.

15. 16, with t note.

§ 16, Note

§ 49, with the Notes. §

11. 11,

Note
6. is

§ 73.

Local, see § 13.
a Prefix, see

T 1

at the

beginning
(i)
1.

is

§§

9- 62.

Also §§ 22. 23.

inserted

is

the Active participle^ see

§§

18. 74. (t)

Passive participle, see §§ and Impcr., § 20.
"
(i)
2.
is

19. 80. (l) Infin.

Epenthetic, see § 44,

3.
at the

See § 45, with the * note.
is

1

end

(

1

or

_

)

1.

3d pers. plur. Praeter^ and 2d pers. plur,

Imper. masc, see §§ 15. 20. For ^D see § 97, (2). 13(3)§ 15. Also § 44, Note.
"
"

"

2.

is

(with

n

at the beginning)

2d and (with

"^

at the
'

beginning) Sd pers. plur. masc. future,

see § 16.

"

(TIT
"

in)

3.

is

Suffix pronoun, see

see <^§ 14. 35. 71.
(
"i

§ 14. For ^3, Also § 9, Note.

iJ3

,

^12,

)

4.

is

Paragogic, §

11. 11,

Note

3.

§ 14,

Q^

note.
'2

at the
at the

beginning

is

a Prefix, see § 9. § 20, f note.

§ 61.

D
p

end

(

^

'^

)

is

a Suffix pronoun, see §§ 14. 71. a Prefix, see § 9. § 20, t note. § 61.
a Prefix, see § 9. § 20, t note. § 61.

at the

beginning

is

n

-at

the beginning

is

SYLLABLES.

nS

at the

beginning

is

Participle Hithpael, see § 18, with the

'

small print. § 45, Note. § 100. § 52.
40. § 17,
[e).

§§

38.

T\T\
*

at the

beginning

is

Praet., Infin., and Imper. Hithpael, see
(e).

*

§ 99. § 17,

§§

38. 40, with the Notes.

83
For

n^

,

nn
Si

see
§

§

17,

(c).

§

17, (e)

t note. For

see

17, (e), with the t note.
,

For forms
nsri
,

like
,

twri
,

nm

,

tiuin
§ §

,

PipJ2

,

etc.

inpn

np«

etc.

see

38. 39.
4.

For

nN n3
rT]

see above
at the
§

"N

at the

beginning"

nn
)
at the

nX
end
"

(hn)
§

beginning i^w^wre i/iYApae/, see
t note. §§ 38. 40,

98.

17, (c)

Note

2.
1.

"Jl

(

T_

is

Paragogic.

See above "

2

at the

end "
3

]''_

y^_

"

is iKfasc.

Z>Ma/ and P/wr. See above "

at the

end"
'!''_

5.

"

"
"

is

Paragogic, 2d pers. fern.

sing, fut.,

h

16.

JlD

"

13

Paragogic,
49, Note
3.

'Hd

pers.mascpraeter, see

^

15.

§

^D ==
1!a

on

"

"

is

2d pers.

plur. before verbal suffixes,

§

97, (2).

(once ia Ex. 15. 5) at the end, their, them, § 14. § 97, (niD),
at the

(1).

riD
^Tli
Jl3

DD,p
§

n3D

at

the end, see §§14. 73.

end see § 73.
15.) at the end, i^<<Mre,
§

(once tljn praet.

16.

But see §§20. 73.

^D ^D

nS
"^D

at the

end

is

Epenthetic Suffix, see §§ 14. 35.
is Suffix,

(

''3

)

^t the

end

Sufformative, see
1. §

§§

14. 15.

§ 97,

(1).

(3) Note

97,

(4). §

97, (7) Note.

EXERCISES IN TRAP7SLATING.*
In the following Exercises the learner will find an ex-

ample of nearly
*

all

the forms
mind
that

in

this

Grammar.

Hence

The

learner will bear in

Serviles,

and :\nr)ilaGSS(tiJi:('f')p-ito are Radicals

sirii('])53(Ci) '2;nis('r)V2 are ; it must also be re-

collected that a servile may become a radical (i.e. but a radical can never become a servile. See § this, may be found in § 39).

when
9.

it is

found in the root)
to

(An apparent exception

when ho meets with some word

in

the text whicli he does
siiii-

not comprehend, he wiil consult these exercises for a
llar

form.
booh,

nsb a

CiN a

fnan,

UJNI a head.
by means of a
(the) book.

^tfyq from, on account
with Note.
^1**'?.

of, out of,

See §

9,

from, on account

of, out of,

my means of a
Q'^^H
'/*Cj

{the)

man. §

9, Note. 9, Note.

'^SSri the, this, that, etc. book.
UJN-ii
,

etc.

man. See §

-d^-^l and, etc.

a

(the) head, top.

See §

9, with the Note.

Cn^S
u;>i~ib

as, like, etc.

a or the man. a

•::ii"i3 like

the head.
,

See §

9, Note.

,

^N~)b

to, as to, cic.

{the) hea.d

;

ncbb

"iDsb to a or the

book. See § 9, Note.

'n5S3

,

"iDwS

in,

with, etc. the (a)

book

;

t:'iN3 with the (a)

man.

See §

9, Note.
i/ic

NUJ-3
2''l

in the grass, ^*^^.rj
/^^"e

ei'ening,
i/ic

iip^b (i">P^b
uiS'Y'O

)

/br the herb,
z« comparison of
9.

TS

the seed, "ip.a^^ yi-ow

morning,

honey (see § 24), n^'iT and the word.

See §

§ 10,

1.

^3,15^

(1^-?).

H^.

"15^

>

1^1=-

p^^^ (f'^n)'

P^^' P^^ (ph^),

etc.

See § 9, Note. % 10,

2.

riNtDhs, 2;V"ib, y^it^, ^'Vi^, T""-'— (•T»'— ('TT— (•T**'

t3ib'«i33

See

§

9, Note.

Also

§

10, 3, with

(m'b">2J2), ti'ib-iya T;^ T-'' T» Examples of Hccmantivc

Nouns.
ti^'y^t:^

§§ 59—62

inclusive.
l^'itHi

books,
7nan,

Vi'^^b^'Pi
'n'^'n

generations, histories , n^T^"^ likeness ,

a wo-

a

beast,

n^h

beast of, n'iJN the wife of, C^Hi'^ a pair

of shoes,

ln]p.^

a

collection, 'nyj'Jn
'''^iil

a

collection of,

n"^'>2Jf{'n

begin-

ning, ""nQD books of,
ples

heads
11.

of, etc.

See §

10, 3,

Exam-

of Heemantive Nouns. §

§ 11,

3.

Also § 21.

•'150

my

book.,

"i^^O his book, Q'lCD their book, ^"12D thy book, Dr)-)DD
/ieac/.

yoiir book, mTL'NI /ter (zVs)

See

§ 14.

n^btt a queen (from !]M3 a Hw^), see § 11.
3/OMr jwccn, etc.

"TiSba
2.

my queen, D^nsb^
Ms
(its)

See § 14, with Note

wby

leaf

85
(from 'n\^J, see § 14, Note
Ats books,
4.

"'ncD (""l^O

)

my books, V'^BD
1.

ST^lSp

/ier

6ooA;s, fin'^'nso

their books, 13"'"7,CD owr

ioofc, 'T'lSD thy books, etc.

See § 14, with Note
11.

!Tn»5 agirl (from
mi/ girls,

"-(^"b

a boy), see §

nii^;; girls, § 11. •'nin5>:

T^hin?3 thy girls,

'^'Jl'^'^?!

'% (fem.)^^>Zs,

DTi'^ni'ni'.D

their girls, ivh'^n^'2 her girls, ]n'rii")?.5 </*«> (fem.) ^iV/s, etc.

See § 14, with Note
*1J:n he said,
able.

3.

Nip

/«e ca/^e^/, r^i*"!

he saw,

NT<

Ae feared, bb"* ^e jcas

See §

15, with the Note.
fern.

rrn^N

sAe sfliW,
''ri"i73N

H'nbN thou didst say masc,
said,
l3~i^J<
)
(

ri"]^JJ

(ri

,

T?

)

,

J
,

3

)

2^^e

sazW, nn"i72N: ye said

masc, fem.
15.
Zearre

•jn-iTgN

^"i^N (t?^^^
*i52'::n

'^*^2/

^^^^> ^~^'R^. s«i/ ye.
s/ja//

See §

"iwb^

/ic

sAa// learn,

s/jc

Zearn,

nobri

i/jow sAa/i

masc, fem.
^''^TZblT}

"^"iJa^rri,

"i^orN

I

shall learn, ^lyzi

we

shall learn,

ye shall learn masc, fem. iiii'airn,
SHj'iTariri.

l^ttb^^

they shall

Zcarw

masc, fem.

See §
1: 1.

16.

Genesis
n'^'i2JN"^.3

in the beginning.

For the
D"'-.

prefix

2

see § 9, with the Note.
ri'^'Jit'^
.

For the termination

see

§

11.

See Lexicon

N12

he created, see § 15.

QTjbN Gof/;*

a sing, noun with a ylur. form
.

{'d'^-,

see

^11);

see

Lexicon nibN

DN

see §§ 32. 71.

fi'aiari the heavens.

See §§
T

9. 59.

For

C";_

,

see § 11, 8.

^^^^

For the prefix
the earth.

see § 9.

For DN see §§ 32. 71.

ynkn

For the

prefix

n

see § 9. See Lex. y*ii<
1: 5.
"i

.

Gen. NIp^T and
he called.

For the prefix and conversive
"^

see

§§

9. 23.

For the praeformative
D^lnbN see above.
nii<b as to the light,
ni'^

see § 16, with Note

1.

Root N"ip §

15.

b see §

9, with the

Note.

Root ^tn

.

day.

See Lexicon.

Nominatives g-encrally /oiioio their Verbs, and adjectives their substantives.

. 23. 3. all. 29. bs a?/. a and N2£^ ti are Heemantives 10. see §§ 9. See §§ 71. See above. § 14. -]73 from. § 9. N'ni? he called. 20. See above. 3. Root § 2. See § 18. Also § 66. 'Qiiy^Ti See § 1 9. Root ':h (n^h a?^. ii. they went. 3. i"iy evening. See § 15. ''Jl^l rtwc? z< «f>as. 9. Lexicon. For the and prefixes 1 and b see § 9. 23. § Note INiZ^. See above. Din^nns'-pttb as to their kinds. See § 57. 1. § 11. Lex.^15> the fowl. "•rj". See §§ § 10. 3. Heeraantive noun. Note 3. See § 10. 1. b? wpow. f?ay. See § 10. biS . 8 : 19. 104. See Lex. 16. 1. See §§ 71. Root hit. V^Ntn f7«e See § 9. Root n^fn . § 9. ear^A. (2). ^j?'2 fii'' morning. 11. See § 11. the reptile.! awf? it was. 104. toai'1 moving. with Notes 1. ^'q'n ^'iiH nb^b night. See Lex. y-iN . 104. b see §9. see § 10. Suffix fir. "b^") anc? . -b3 all. T ni^rj • § 1^'. See above. 73^^.! h's awd Ae 6m7f.. rjsTa a» aftar. n^hn "bs the beast. §66. See Lex. 3. nh}« yfrs^ Gen. and for (J under b (b ). See Lex. ri » § 14. nss^ri <Ae ark. Lex. blf . Noah. Lex. . 3.86 ^^^h^T and as to the darkness. . Root M53 §§ 15. euer^ thing. nnsUJa See § 15. b'S or ). with the Note. For 1 see §§ 9.(8). See §§ 2.|ii>ln For see § 9. See Lex.

Examples of Heemantive Nouns. § 71. * 7: note. 10. Root § 15. (12'7) Ae § 15. 5 and (e).D. i see § 9. 71. 1. 3 and (c). See § 17. 3.fn ^l^N cursed is the See § 19. •« ^jt!2 a«(f Ae §§ 9. spoA. Root "nua. See above. Vi^ith {li).'$'7 "J^ 12'''?^ '^1 wAo are ^om^ om< yrow Root man. VlN. Root ^^ri See 17. . . 63. § "lb *15'=. 17. Lex. § 17. ^inar: the clean. § 29. see above. '' 4 and (<^). §§ 9. ni'ntin the dean. (2). Note 4 small K3~^"^. 'i:3 Root hj?!: . ja n'^. see §§ 32. Ti^^V Lexicon. a//. ?3 § 16. 7. Noah walked is continually. -ii\. See § 17. § !i:ofi2n ^/«6' ccfif/e. note. §2.'^ fi^^l ««t? <o <Se^A there (Ac) M?as 6om a son. riVs' offerings. fem. the earth. see § 9. See 1 §§ 9. See above. see §§ 9. Page 85. * rib:^ . small print with * note. Note 2. 23. ^3:^1 t^^'JTi n 1 see § 9. See *:. Root ^51. • see § 17. •^nSb'UJrr / was cast upon b? § thee.e to me. ojffered. 23. all. Lex. Root \b:. § 14. and from the fowl. ll^'iNb ^2"^ 3 it was poured out upon . n* see § 11. 153a /rom ( of ) see § 9. "^Pi § 15. 6. 2. Root ^DD !: § 9. 62. See page 85. Root ^'nN . § 14. article (n) sometimes prefixed to D"'ribN'.87 m'n^b to Jehovah. 'nint: or n^^'nu § 9. Ji Also 10. See § 10. 'T'b'^ § 15. 73 Heemantive § 10.). Root ^b. (it) MYJT' ^"^^^an Jehovah caused <o rafn. See § 18. ^?\l and he see §§ 9. 1. (The § 3. Sing. <ooAr. N^fc"" the land. ij^Vs see 71.lnriii QTfbNrj"!!}* with God. print. Ji see § 9. Lex. Root nb:v' h3T735 on the altar. Root ii^T SENTENCES. with * note." V"^. ^ ^inD .

. See § 19. Note rt73'^73. under and Soph-pausook after Tj . and also di-^a in the § § 29 t note. \C5^» pinJ2 rta Wta< "0^72 ?s siceeter than honey. ( 62. § Root ^b^ tJ^'bN ^inr:". 2>. § 9. 13. a«c? G^o<? JfesetZ fAcra. See 20. Root m* § 11. Root ).3. §§ 9. Dn'^ipy ye have done. see § 16. Dri'j< ti\":fbf<.e if/iow cakes. and § 11. Root Drib m'il^ ''niON ''^?'. my nf ^11. and fill ye. 32. 88. (1). 55. Lex.4. See §§ 20. 20. daughters. ''^'ip §§ 2.. 10. 20. iiC innT! Lex. 60. this.24. (Root ni"! §§ 15. on^Z fewr?/ thy father 4. see § 26. §§ 71. (1). 15. iibJ^ "l^N3 '^'nN-niJ Hnpi ^scenJ. §§9. see §§ 31. ).'! and they went § to see the camels. See Lex. § 20. 2. §§ 11. see §23. 3. See (it).56. 2>aTU . ti-is'. 32. 9. 9. 97. t3'^b!0ilfi~nN n"iLS")b . 1. nto:^.3-:T with* note. §§ 72. ••§ 14. see 26.l say thou 'iIJl^ to them. the heavens. 68. see § § 26.88 'll^n ^T"l3 tii'S i?ttJQ^i. irni'Sn"! . the earth. 85. nNT "ri'^ip^ I have done see § 26. 95. § 14. bip.4. §§ 70. see §§ 15.. see § 26. 20. 1?^'^ ''e«^ 3^6 ?«?/ yojce. 61 (3). ^f'. See § 20. (2). «nn32 Ji3i'UJ refifrra ye (Root niia see §§ 20. Root § !]'13 . with f note. 'li^b'. §§9. and to rule over the day.Din N3 look now towards 59. Note 4 small For Silluk 2. Root D53 . n-ij. Root "naij . 71. nVi^S? day (that) Lord God made (lit. 20. 26. to make). (c). Rootuj^ib. 4. 85. see § 3. see Lex. 20. f/te 26. and multiply ye. 25. For tinN see 32. =JNba^ ^^d 6c ye fruitful (Root n-jQ ). Note jTiy-'SUiri 1. §§ 14. For Maccaph -') see § 2. see §§ 26. t33lrt print. blessed is the man. '•inD Jl^!! 6g thou my hiding place. Lex. 14. -in-in y-jNn-nN 88. and the damsel was exceedingly handsome. § 88. as he hath made thee swear (promise). 17. 88. 9. § Root ?jn3. h^_72'<D . 9.i. knead thou anc? maA. 3. 8. 14.

t note. IhN see § 71. §§ 101. § § 101. Examples. 54. with small print.83. Examples. . 54. For nhpj and njJ^ see § 84. 84. nsnln 'Jio Nit ^o ny^ o?<< from the ark. Lex. § fi'iNln N")^T awe? the man 23.n ^»?"^^. . see §§ 27. cawic fo see § § 28. N2 . (or ^V. §§ 32. §§ 27. 71. {Other forms. built an altar. b3 . §§ 32. 84. see §§ 28. bl^ . §§ 11.91. 81. see §§ 27.) ^o -n"«u ^''^^o '^c Arm^-. ''i3''Nri-nN 'DTp\'?. firiNa . 27.2. u3n <o 2>t ). For 1 con- versive see § nn^< C-i:'^! awe/ he placed it (her).b ) hear them. Note 4 small print. 83. see §§ 27. § § 15. </«e r):2N>ri nNlS at the time (that) § drawers of water go out.89 '^«* ^-^ <"''» "«''' "»«» see § § 26.). y-iNn bN nlD. =!»[? . 29. ^2?3^ . §§ 32. § § i-inh72ln-ni* t\'p_ take the fire pan. § 71. 61. 88. S"^ . died. § Dp he up against them.2. § 14.71.^ . rihj^b rose (nnj? ) to take the man. 12 . with Note fin'N (-r^ -^i?. §§ 32. see § 29. "^nTatJ . 90. ) """i. 71 bs. 90. Jiiri '^"'^'S'. § 71. 'y:D .^N after to give (he gave) him.71. na rr^ see § § 28.''N jn'T «wrf § placed each (lU'^N ) ^Ys parf see . liria-bs TibN riN3 na 5/ie all thefrst-bom hiin. §§ 27. 1X3 lift up now thine 1. !:$$ (^btj ) pages 60. to DNip ( ni<\i. S'l} . saiv. see 28. § 29 1 note and Examples. § 71 . see § 29. § 14. 4. see §§ 27. :iN3 . 23. nn (-nn 1. 28. 18. n-ij . see 27. see §§ 74. n'rii* "^ni^z / ca?ne with him. Examples. § 14. 72. § 71. 84. Note 4 small print. §§ 101. 71. 2. 91. see §§ 27. see §§ 27. /te "inna (2. 'ib^. IIN '"'^ ^e^ <Aerc be light. "J". 54. see § 29. nsTtt "ji'l anc? /i€ 101.Jrb (or n5?) ^o ww^o <Ac land. 2. eyes. 101. {r\s\ •'leDtn •friN "ib""!?? (or ]n) ^/ye <o 7«"/7« <Ae book. §Vi. see 29. Examples. 91.

^"i~2 ^i"11"' he will instruct him in the way. jTn/Oiri T\^^2 fi<13 ye shcdl surely see §§ 28. small print. Also 3. Examples. his being born (his birth). he he gracious to thee. and rejoice thou. For Dagesh T see § 97. 47. ?|Di< root . Note 2.i^b ) not add to curse. I will not curse again. see § 30. b\ph ?1DN Nb I will (for . § 16. 56. and For be patient. see § 35. See §§ 30. § 101. with the t note. see §§ 46. § 24. heart. see §§ 52. For the Dagesh § 66. see § 62. see § 30. 51. t note and Ex- amples. small print. (2). see § 20. Root ^T' . ^H'^. under 3 ^o£nt ( 3 ) see § 66. with the * note. p'122 See § 39. small print. (8).iD^ see § 29. (e) * note. 'iSh"'! and may •jDh . §§ Root "'h73'i. he will be particular to refer to the Table § 105. Note. 28.]-'D'iN bV.3. and also to these Exercises. When the Student begins to use his Bible and finds any difficulty respecting the Serviles. Root he loill ]3"1 . T RootnbV we justify ourselves ? see in.e. For Dagesh in 2 see § 56. . so as not to go. see For ^^ § 29. See §§ 51. t note and Examples. Note 2. 46. see §29. 6. §§ 51. 14. Also § 99. 'D^ '^311"' DTlbi* may God be gracious to thee my son. 20. 98. Also § 16. for the prefix and Dagesh § in "• see § 60. 1. small print. see §§ 47. '^nbn!? not to go. i. 98. Root ].!] '^"'d ^'fi on his journeying s. fij^Tn/Efn be separated from me. Exceptions. ^ITanl DpiSbi =n53N commune with your 20. 98. (1).'. § 101. inbl^ln QTTO than the day of 73 . die. T'l^Dttb 1?. 92. 45.h see § 45. and Kaumets under 1 see § 17. Root . 87. 1. 1. see T For dagesh in 73 see § 56. Note.e. I. Root in § 66. (7). Root TM. 87. (5). with § note. 45. P"^U:!^i"riW hoio shall § 16. njNnsrr QVa in the day (of) their being created. 'S'llJn enlighten my darkness. 92.90 : 'D~p> i^ta'J § and he planted a vineyard. For see § 17.T "^11 T^''\2 sing thou.

§ 32. Root "»^!n see § 44. (lit. 1. § 71. he shall live forever. small print. 61. 40. and see § 8. n:2. 55. and do not tear with them. . 66. . root tJ^J. see §§ 2. with the Peculiar forms. Blp. fiSni* MN/IJ ''Tib b^TN itb I am not able of myself to bear you. 101. who Note dwells on the mountain to meet you. Root b:^. and pass ye through. (For T d::!: n see §§ 54. (2). Root nhT^ see §§ 38. 26.riN'ipb "lln2 jli'iU'r. Roots see §<^. For the prefix see § 62.. removed towards § 50. 53. see §20. 91. •frisr. 1. For Dagesh n'^'ilnri-ntN: see § 56.. Roots HDD 23. Note 3. 6. For Inna'i?.4. Root See § 31.) bowed himself towards in the earth. see § 85. For dagesh forte D?3tji see § 56. (not they. S-DD see § 16 in Note 4. 26. rr-i^ (Hithpael) 12 . See §§ 51. Q is a suffix. (1). See §§ 98. For -ii$2 = -1^X3) Ti'DT see § 17. (1). "inanN lnriTi3''_T and he . ^§99. "^"l. 85. See §§ 47. ^'1'^ InSt tpb turn ye. (8). 18.91 abl'yi? * "'riT and (3). see '^'"•^ § For Dagesh 8. See §§ 47. 84. ^Wp arise ye. 81. §§ 27. ive ^ -J rr^s'iar. . 56. 40.:^ se 59. Note. 44. 27. D see § 56. 38. see §§ 15. For T criverf. the^'^^^^'t. Also §§ 13. '^'^'^l^ 'iNS J b'^i^iSl Moses began to explain 3. he explain- ed) the law ( Root bi<.tlJi after he niD: . :nhn>p'^^ tSi'lTT Hj?'^} arac? Me people hoioed down and worshipped. (1). 50. 66. S'Si} I^Vl and we turned and . 1. Root in 73 C3»r: . 94. Roots mi£ (Kal) esh lene in Tl^y*] ^5>0 ri . § '^1)- i>D3. had smitten him (literally after to smite him). see §§ 23. For i see § 62. and go ye. 94. . For Dag- j) . 13. For Dagesh D see § 8. ^? until to destroy them (until they are destroyed). S3 "lariPi tJ'i^ri bX do not molest them. §§ Qjanb <o destroy them. remove ye. 1. 51. . Nis. 88. bi*"] For Dagesh in n and 72 see §§ 8. For ye. and remove yourselves. (2) § 96. page 61.

4. Sin — \'l until to destroy (he destroys) those § § who and those who are hidden. with Dagesh in n is lene. ""nPi. Piel used adverbially. \:i^T\. encourage him. Anomalies.(1).'] and thou Root § 8. down 26.?. Qrrb " 71. 71. Note 2. t3"''^h § 46. Kal pause) of tt3i. n"i^"ib llih b^tn 6e^zra possess thou. . and support him and 6 small print. tan'iayT dnb ri'^T'ijn'vpr. ^*n»UJPl § § i. Hiph. 81 .. § . to them and thou shoiddst serve them. with the * note. see § 30. small print. all parag.etc. see Lex. 1. nnb nn^^. see §§ 26. Ini73ii1 ^np„Tr]"i inN l^l and command him. D'^inpiMT are Q">~lJ<lU3ri left. 7 71.} and he afflicted thee. in D see § 56. 15. ^1) of them arc dead. 6. 40. Root D suffix see 5§ 14. see b'3 § ^3 S3 all of us are olive. Note 91. <Aoi/. viQ are all alive.-yn ye shall surely be destroyed. bn." Jmp. Q also § 97. rfb "i73iiirj 6 small print. see Root r:b3 . NbT fl!?ifZ thou shalt not pity (spare) them. with § note. inn. cn^?^. nn ^ri?nr! J^N") see. (in order) fo inherit (the . 90. § 18 small print. (1). For 15. small print. tih'iJ See § § §§ 38. § 17. see § 17. 30. 84. ').92 For dagcsh nr^-DPi. Apocopated forms. § shouldst boio . §22. /Aaye ie^i^w ('Hiphil of Vbii) io ^/<7e fo </iee (lit. n'iJ^b §§ 27. 44. see § 14. come from See §§ 27. before thee). ^r\1^ Infin. see §§ 27. \D-\ Imp. See Anomalies. ^bSN^T ^niJJ'i::! "^S^". § 26. § 17. "stvn finM T^n'^^r^iirr n^ until thou destroy (lit. to destroy thee. see ] § 30 small print. 1 For dagesh lenc in § D see For n see 22. of bbn (in see §§ 31. land). and he caused thee to hun- . '^'iDb § 42. 83. see For the Dagesh 20. § 32.) them. ^d. fiT]^. convers. * note. 98. in both 5's see § 59. p~\ only be luatchful (take care) for thyself. 3. ^"73 Qnbs b^^ri § thou shalt be able to destroy thejn speedily^ Root 51. § 8. 99. § 16. 1. (1). 29. see §§ 27. see § 31. Root i>D3 lnrin. "jn: . 4 and Note. .l n §§ 8.n 1. For Dagesh forte in 2 see § 56. 27. ^[99. 97.

hasten. 17. (1). se& §48. descend. ItaZ with Root ^-}3 Conjuga. 10. 6. For 12 instead of 12 see 66. and I loill destroy them. see §§ 85. i^i-ou shalt surely loathe Infinitives I it.93 ger. ^N"^att t\'iT\1 "^3 for the Lord is bringing (will bring) thee.' Cn*''. "^saa 71 (page 60). Note 2. "•rj'lJjn §§ 27. Apocopates. 90. 'T^r'^n'i "^^l^T and he loill love thee. in "^ Root T tl32? . 6 small print. §§ 9.b {water). ^?3''a are from D". Hiph. § 99 * Roots Ni:. 45. and he caused thee to eat (fed thee). Hiph. See § 26. of 'Tli' . 51. § 17. § 18 small print. I protest § against you. see § 14. or ^3 § 97. of msn § . 1. 98. 17. 3. small print. Peculiar forms. Root plur. inN In^riNbl mrr^TiN ~N")'^p to fear the Lord and to love him. Root NT2 . with small . "^3:^373 dVauJN"] ?l~in let mc alone (desist from me). Root inN Conjuga. see §§ 14. Imp. Part. 17. §§ 50. and ma . '^^\'. 10. small print. order to humble thee. 6.B. 46. § 1?:. §§ 14. §5. 45.riT ff<!^ it. § "^tvq T^ mp arise. (1)). Note.5. Note. fii'T^ Hiph. ']V^. See § 98. see §§ 100. see note. 71. see 11. 83. 3 and (c).N1 17. (l)N. suffix '^ and (see he will increase thee. "^nOD 'jy'sbT '^ri'i^' . see § after conversive of the fu- 23. see § § 11. 97. and he will bless thcc. 97. (1). Piel. § 26.) ye Aawe 6cm rebels. 6. § CnttMb § Ql^J'^i^'iri he brought them out to slay them. "^ns etc. •r^b^'^DS hew out for thyself. come from n']^ (a house). and thou § shalt certainly abhor 6. 21. see Wys. for ( ")' —^ ) epenthet- ic see . ^iijDTlJn ^Si^rin ^3. 8. ClsriN 'nyil since the day (of) my hnoioing to know me) you. § Piel and Futures. Q'^ra . 99. with * note. (lit. Note 1. 44. For the Dagesh forte omitted ture. and in order to prove thee § both forms Piel Infinitive of verbs nb .- n^nt?^ r^-)7D . see § 20. 18. see §31. */* For see § 35. see § § § 100. For the other two verbs which are For the suffix :) Hipliil^ see §§ 98. (ni"'"i:^r page 12.

6. DSb lai^ appoint ye for yourselves. ^l^'^l . Root ns: 1 pers. 3. (in order) to knoio whether (the Lord) Jiad (her). incline thou. 10. ) Also § 45. STitin trib^^b and ye regarded -jT. see § 11. ?/«e Root '2^1 . § 34. n^2£'] 0*1:3 before it flourished. (2) Exceptions. see Lex. 99. *»ay '^^^. e. For the . of nbit see § 3 & (c). § 36. before I had finished. see §§ 71. B'^rfrN is a pluralis excellentise. Root Nit^ §§ 27. 'a na "i^'^n awrf /said Note 2. last word (Hiph. ^'^'l . used by way of eminence.'^^^'^ U^'^Nm'] and the man gazing at kept silence. latiril ««</ she said. (8). Hiphil. Note. See §§ 50.'7j??a73 t3nN^. Hiph. Notes (see §23. 95. § 16. prospered Root 'nii'^i . see 37. Q^'i* ^51 (^f^(^ smote them. 13. and Fut. plur.^I^5N fi'np § . 66. ^"7. 55. shall I certainly bring back? Root iiVtii . 4. see §§ 20. For such forms '') (i. see §§ 26. 101. . Root M52 . Hiphil.). Root Hiphil.04 print. 1. Hiphil. ^b to thee. 46. ff^tljsn the SN is anomalous. 98. "'s against thee. 2. Root rtU3 . M?Aose daughter art thou. see §§ 27. 3. by. etc. 31.^l "'i^* <AoM go with me ? Root Tfil See §§ 36. Si^'IJN !3">?^?7!l Note 2. ^5 ^^^ I pray. *i.3 in their going out from the sanctuary. ^?^^">^ Root Mi*n . . Root nby see ^§ 26. . l^'^^iril tt)3 and "i^'N and § 11. 17.5 See §§ 36. women. 16. 88. § 22. . 2d /m. 6. Imp. go up to the mount. ^'nliN GocZ of thy fathers. n'lUNT tiri'^ drink. 90. Tjs icith. and I drank. "'vfbN. it as a light thing to . thy bucket. praet. Infin. 83. See § 26. 6. 1. 98. "-li'^lh'? "^ ^^. futures with the omission of Shevau under see § 62. §§ 70. See nns^b] and to weep (for) her. h'^bann nynb her. § 50. For 1 conversive in these verbs see . riN Note 4. 100. 67. § 23. see §§ 38. For the small 5 see page 12.

rs ('in'^s). to 3. 14.. see § 46. rrbnN (generally I'bSnN) t3^.n. (j[^ note. '>li'fn /rom mowfA (to month).). nnyviij^. 62. 84. IS-is. (owce). For dagesh 56. 12 For iro^srj see §§ 31.n. "i^-'. (8). § 8. See § 11. see § 14. Trl'l ^^!. see § 9. from di"'. etc. pbn'.ya. tirT["'5. see §§ 98. 'S. Note 3. 'S^ID etc.i] etc. are from hs a mouth. Note. etc. ?13UJ ) "^h (C'^'^ri).^1^ and are paragogic.ii "''5^ the days of the years of the . 35.95 •n -riJN firt'^i^ '^)'. For tli*5 ri^N. JiyTUJ-: !1"JT:^ "1. rrtoi^n (once ntoy'^r!). Root 252^. ^ For Dagesh see § 56.. helived. t note. 4. etc. J note. i<"lNi (from iiN-i). life of Abraham which JO. i. § 56. Tj-'B. n'^s . 33 Nb we will not smite him. Note 4. and he despised. irihuNt n»nb pnyo ^n-Snni (for lll^^^nn ) and his sister ( niriN ) plac- ed herself far off. Roots (6. Nj~!Tilii! I pray. see §§ 44. (4) Note ? QnsJ'i'l'Jn do ye know Lahan 1 Is he well see §36. i. § 14. are from H^n "J-J^-tt . see § 90. see §§ ^3 50. For dageshybrie and b see § lb Qiriilr: "Jlab-nN For see §§ 4. 101. See also § 29.T and ii he spread his tent. 11 Note 3. and kiss me. '•nz'n. .l ^i^'l ^""P'l ^"^ '"^ drank. . etc. (e) and * note. nn^ (see § 16.tl"'^?. I'as ZiX-e iailjy the herb. ri. D=ip "I'^-np'iliT ^b^ (§66. "^ Mnnty.s . and he rose up and went away. 3. For dagesh in 22 see § 17. 2. Note. '''t. § 23. .. come. T ) Root !iDD .x?.?^ riNa Ae Ztas completely triumphed. see § 11. 5. (in order) to observe. vU^J . For (instead of . (once). 10. For ^n (^h . a^'^S. with the Note. 101. "'nNb. see § 9. in". 66. See <§ 11. see '§^ in 1. Root !n32 Ti3? ilbD"' Hiphil. . in5N. 3 27. see Anomalies.)).^S2£n Nbl and she was no longer able conceal him^ forte in Rootba. t note. see § 30. Roots Icne in 3 see UJT p'iJJ . HTS § 50.. "irj^'l. 'sa . "ja .

</«e?/ Root tilp future Kal. is "Din "^l^N the happinesses of (prosperity to) all who See Lex. ib'^Sil'n he ye wise. § 18. Poetic. § 79. ia''rii'nD'i72'"nN n)?ri. ^i^^j . D suffix. ^3 7273 ask of me. See §§ 54. 83—87. (e) with t note. ^s^b^. Root Cl^ Note. see §48. Root C]'i: . rii72^. heye warned. . § 49.''73i (''72^). § 71 i»b Qi'fn this day have I begotten (appointed) thee.. SO. § 51. (from hjob). 10. biri'I? Note ys. Note 2. preceding see § 14."'Nn. Root pn. ^b:^ ^"'^p ^^*«y «^c rising § up against me. § 30. see § 14. 173^^ p"^"! i<b they shall not rise up. fut. mrji^n see § 17. § 11. bN"*p For dagesh lene in n see § 8. . 76. and 1 will give. (3). 1. dash them in pieces. it) azcaj/.^a"'. W«"^. Root i-'^'i Kal. trust in him. Hiph. See §§ 31. Hiphil. illT li&'^ri thewind drives (him. see § 11. i73b ii^bl he will •^^n'lb'^ laugh at them. and Niphal.76. . 'W^hiri . § 49. with * note. See §35. see 'i^kSt M?/«c/j ^§ 19. Note 3.> ^?1I^> "l^i^^5 N^t^r!!' ^??^!^ tia-i-iN. Roots ii^ i ^^"^ • ^^^ §42. . (1). See § 100. 71 b? ?«Ao ?//if5 ^"^jiin ti'^'ntt /ie up my head. ln". § 71 'jn3 . etc. nV2^ . Drn"'a'^ etc. Note 3. 99. Roots b^^j ^^1 Imper. ^-1 enemies have increased. Root tip . Root ^bv See Jl2riN"i § 97. see J^TiJ"'A^!' ?i:^"'"J:3Tri (or 'n)."'P'5". Root C^'^F) thou shalt !l'lpn!n see § 16.D let us tear asunder their yoke (yokes). "'37373. ''i:£ ("^t!^ ) ^m ''^y • § 71. 2. § 72. . ^. § 40. (7). part. small print. &"i'' '^^a\ v»\ !-fa'^. small print. Root T!\\e future is often used to denote present time. § For "^ 16. For suffix V2 see § 14. §§ 49. § 45. ^J'^s. 13 ^IH imagine a vain thing. Note 173 3. are from a day. a tree planted. §§54. See § 98.

""S resemble those in :D . nn-. see §§ 15. Root in t3l72 Niph. r)^^p^ p-^ian. Root fi:y . Root !-. part. !rTi''N!i ^d:? ^^"^^" looh. the revengeful^ (c). b2i2 .^ Hiphil Infin. p^^. nOln .. For of ^n ) see §§ 71. answer me. praet. see § 31. "p/^'"! . . see § 31. § 84. Root n^N § 18. that a few verbs ii:-. 'f:? "^N"i)^3 w/«ew I call. § 77. Root Hiph. § 100. part. (l). 1&173 13 .^ '1^ my enemies will rejoice when I am moved. For rr parag. Root £373-1 (mi?). when terror is lifted up. etc. Vjl"! . § 31 rj § 49. see §20 see § 26. Root I note. b*'22n '{"'i* no one delivering (delivers). small print. §§55. riDD (for N^f^D ) up. and to § 101. Fut. Should the learner find any he is difficulties ascertaining the root. "JIS Piel. ^P\^1 . lift For "'i see § 97. B. Here it may . ^^ §§ !]n (instead 14.T fi-l3 ^:'^>.lii* . 1i:£ . For ~ri (instead of n) n^b. see § 53. hai^e rebelled ^5 llz: "^3 iarp'T" c«5/ . see "ib §§ 100. t\%z . referred to § 29. noticed also. 76. 88. 2. enlighten my 49. . t31BN "^3 88. 3b-"'n. (8).>p^ ^"'ibio he is saving the upright of heart. piZ^ . etc. from ni. § 17. Hiph. Root Hithpael part. pizz .97 n^D^b ' "" '" to {for) the leader of the music. y:^. eyes. fijP_:nJ:n n"^3"i3rjb to quiet the enemy and . .. Imp. for they against thee. 94. ^t:23 Piel part. Imp. . see § 31. Root 'ib'^^. 66. iQ"^b> 3. [ § 98. see § 100. upon. Hophal p^- 2>i:. etc. out. see § Root 11N Hiph. Root . (7) Note. § 56. yp_1 T^^l . § 30. see § 17. §§ 55. 49. Root b^3 (b=iii). . p:^1 . with the t note. Hiph. N. see § 98. (see § 42) as r^^tl pn:^ . large print 2. 6 But see page 72. 173 § 14. Hiphil . Root ^^D Hiph. etc. See § 100 § 18. </«e/« Note 1. fut. 1333 Hiph. . 2. Niphal y%'^. .. § 65. Root ti^_\ . Imp. 51. . as^. Note 3. Root n^a . Mr)2\i3 "l^N which thou hast ordained. "JIS p^Jl he hath prepared for himself Root i. Other examples. (2). around them. 4. Kal of ">?^ . ^Sni I^J"*]::^ «nc? <^om (literally) is Wft protect them. see §§ 47. Root § 56. see §§ 54. 97.:y . with § 33. Root "S'i^l Hiph. answer me. Root hn: § 26.

niji?. . etc.. 7. etc.. See § 17. see §37.98 But after all. See §§ 20. ^13 ^[13. . § 25. ^^'- . .ibN nnian nirciTs. niD3 rTi":r3 (from riD3 and rirs see ^ 26. . \X'4) . T:3 . Icne occurs after n^ri'. iy::i . 4<Sp. -rnrt . ^isnjD .etc. "-jT^N ^n'l (from nm . ^^l"i\ See § 35. =in:aai-iN. with the t and Wt.t\. ^^. 3. iz^p^ ( etc. -ly's. etc. if written Dagesh "'JTN. a^oipn . interrogative. DTain? etc. 1. See § 42. a large and full list It not be forgotten also. ^Jdii . ^^3.r . 'n riin. as a thorough knowledge of the uses of the viles which are contained in the sections enclosed in Brackets. TN or D-it3 coming before futures. nsnhn. n:— |— . ^iV^^i?' . i'nj^. •T3\\'<. J^^l. with an implied silent Shevau under . till they become very familiar. Also page 72 large ) print.. i^?r!p . see § 36. it 7\'^f\^'\ shall fly. ^Tia 3r. see . I must must refer repeat here. 83—89 inclusive.6 small print.). that there is of Peculiar and Anomalous forms in at the end of the Grammar. Note. See § 17. there is nothing so well calculated to enable the stu>S'er- dent to find the root. etc.' because this word is read as "^ i. ) —n —n —~ — n . =i. . ^-j— . rr^^: {once for n'^2 ''3^: etc See § 17. "^lihs. !:5N b^'wX 6 I note.] "on^. etc. See§ 17. See § 8. Notes 2. "'fd . to which one can extreme cases. [once V^iN I shall eat. abject slave. with small print. ]— . ^tJ? etc. viz. that these should be read often and attentively. as '2 1i. D'^nns? lis? an .' . rrna -^-\s . ). PN "^tnN hfti/ cedars. ^^V?n. .'^> -ri" '^JDn 6. see §34. ). ^hi?. ii<'a. -jp. 2.yr^^. '? J^^'n^. ''jqip ^^<^i . ^ba . etc. -n"nD. "^S'^j . 4. l^ttN . "^hj? .e. J notes. what has been said in the Preface. "^ipy . 3.

e. 98. see §§ 67. Note 1. i\^^Ilrt 7~>Nrj that that booh. t:. -h- iVnrr 073^1 . For ^ (fem. Lex. . those lands. that land. suff. 44. 76. § 28. things. 85. iori t3ipn '21?' . stu- In order to account for the various changes of the vowels.) see § 14. etc. § 98. Note. 54.3— ^/«'s. D^rt who hath placed. 'py *§§ 20. TT . § 99. Note 3. shine thou. i.nd . For Dagesh forte in in ti and n . See § 30 small print. i<Tn?i t31'2 on that day. Hiphil. ^. an answer. •rniN Nl §§ "^3 arise thou. with * note. (1). Hiphil. with * note. 24.\n . e.^. Niphal. 4 and ^•i) '^'^_^ ''3 {d). For forms l?3nri . 4. see § 1"T'3n-Nb ye shall not regard faces judge partially. see § 12. what) ore. Nl^in ni'S that time. '^y!^^. t: § 9. see Lex. see §§ . Root Note. nr)N">^ i. nT~ "1?. n3'7 lih'N llij"'"! and they will bring us . with prefix . . N^iu naV^? . . Also §§ 59—65 .§ 28. from MSn and D3 judgment. "^rj^t^. and the waters were assuaged. Note then it For Dagesh in 3 see § 56. For C33 see § 71. see § 69. ye shall not Root 133 Hiphil. Also § 16. t3'^732'D Pl^N. 64. Ji^Nrt n'^-)3'7ri these^ those words. ^"^12*3 in those days. t. "'nn that lives. t2E"4J?33 tJ'^aD this day. to call. tJrrf^ ?/t ^IN . the dent should read carefully § 6C. Root ^5'i? . Note 1.TN was begun etc. See § 29. For forms like 1^"uj . See §§ 51. m'a'n t3'^\"'y eyes (that are) ^i/itec? wp. § 17. t^-- Tian . .i<rj ''«5. C-ii'Tn ?i":?>Nt these (are) ^/jc tcorrfs. see § 29.99 S<3n who came. For the omission of it see § 59. k\nnuj like etc. proud looks. For ^3nN see § 71 page 60. (2). NiuJSJa blTa my sin is too great to he forgiven. inclusive. bNn nii£"lNM these. a'^an JiiTB"} 3. DNTri V"?. § 101. land. 3l'ij see § 98. 97. 69. . page 61. in i. see § 81. n!:. Note 3. loho hath appointed thee "^"^iN 'J3lj5 a ruler 1 See §§ 28. see § 59. see §43. t333 D3"'b2> ?/e 7\'o'^ (for >|&T^) /ie ^^^7Z increase you (from a thousand times (more). §§ 54. 9. for thy light hath come. Root PjD^ fut. (to) ti^n D33J1T and behold ye are 71. Nipp bin. ^^'^'^^ ^?. e.ir'4 .

For b (instead 'ofi^)see§61. 46. ^^^^'^ Tt 1':^^:'3~ caused thee to eat manna. § 45. I will show '^^'M'' him. see §§ 35. '% sheep shall increase. nnin hnt he who offers praise. . Root iin. SinNnb to show you (cause you (2). Root rtijn Hiphil. 98.100 t:3n J ii. Note. see § 17. Also Lex. Hiph. 80. ''22'isD'] 6 small print. nrjn-bi* thou shalt not he terrified. "133 Hiphil 2d Q suffix. iiSriN in •:. 76. Piel. Root infin. 62. and since he . would keep § 33. nnJ5 S*nj:5 nbh n'2'l flowing (from see mt participle act. 1. Root D^TZJ infin.98. see §51. Root bSN part. For see § 16. approach thou and hear. in^^tiilTT n^. For Dag- esh in a see § 59. 53. V?^11 '^^^^1 J. (1). § 32.!. ^§ 81..z. ^"f^' Root. see § 18. with them to destruction. page 61. the oath). terly devote pers. fut.:!: him and to bless. see §§ 31. For sVs see ^3 § 71. ti^nN nin"^ ni^iN'?. '?"l"l! a hand. {YiteraWy they shall praise fut. Hiph. i"l^ffittT §§ 54. see § 30. For ^ see § 61. Piel. fem. 1. all of them). Root Dnti and future Hiphil. see §26. to serve t]nnbT ir)-]'. . (4) Note 1. yjSTp/l '^'2. to see).(3). 100. 98./or you to encamp^ Root Mjrt Kal. B^D 'W^'S all people shall p)-aise thee thee. 60. Root print. honors me. tlttj">*n'!ib irDIN rtD\>t how shall I be able to drive them out. see § 18. people. 1.'^^ nnh Niphal. 81. see § 48. see§311>!. CDN fi'^")tl5 TiT\'\'2i'rt^ and thou shalt smite them thou shalt utpraet. see §§ 19. small § 98. since Jehovah loves you. of SiN-n. it (viz. Root nn3 1^k'^^< fut. see §§ 51. see §§ 48.) (with) milk and honey. see § 26.n. with small print. (1). For Dagesh '^Tl*!!^ see §§ 56. see §§ 35. Root Hd-^ . Root nSn . Root riDD ' . an arm stretched out. see § 53. 82. Hiphil. Kal.

A L 1 ST

PECULIAR AND ANOMALOUS FORMS
FOUND
IN

THE HEBREW BIBLE.*
5J5:

S^n^N

from n3N

fut. Piel.

^hia
^sII'n

'r^y.a

from m"*
r;n"'

fut.

Hiph.

nN

Chald.

from
-

fut.

Hiph.
Hiph.

r;:nN praet. Kal.

nr.m'i<
;^Si\n

i:ih

-

MJi3

fut.

Kal.

b^M
b:Dw\

Hiph.
Kal.

N1Z
nn\'

-

Hiph.

b^nN
^"biN
ri-)2£iN
T-n'Jt

Hiph.

^biiN from ^b"' fut. Hiph.

^n^N

for ^"^isn

from

^n3
'::Na

imper.

from -lUSN
-

fut.

Hiph.

Hiph.
•^nbNJJ* (for '5- ) from

-i"iN imper. Kal.

praet.

ni'TiiN
']"'3N

-

rrriN part. plur. Kal.
-JTM
fut.

Hiphil.

Hiph.

!i"^N
ti-f?
t'i?."'1^^.

D^.'JwN:

from JTIT
fi737

fut,

Hithpa.

btN

bTN

Chald.
fem.

from
~

fut.

Kal.

nbTN
'

for

nbTN from bTN 3d

T'P"

~

Hiph.
Hithpael.
infin.

Kal.

JlB-TN

-

n73- -

tLnW

(for'-^ri)

from ^'\l

ThN
nsiihN
m'"»hN

from MTH
-

fut.

Kal.
Piel.

Niphal.

mriN nrin from SriN
^SliriN from m"'
fut.

fut.

Kal.

NDh
n-ihN

-

Hiph.
Kal. Kal.

•nN

-

1->^n

-

bhN

d6

bhN from bbh

fut.

Hiph.

rr^^ni* from

nan fut.

^'nnN

from "inN praet.

Piel.

* There are a few forms omitted here which are noticed in the to</i/ of this Manual. The Article n and the Prefix 1 (excepting in a kvf particular cases) are also

omitted.

102
DhN
ni^ni*

from

nti;

Chald. Aph.

103
T

"^^^l?" - -''h praet. - Hiph. Hiph. Hiph. "^n^rr m» JiD"* with suffix iniNn^n from Nia Hiph. with sufF. Niphal. from - nbn vn-i^n ^i73ri D7ari iD^hn i\i. nb:> nbi' Hiph... ^Rt^rr 3 fem. Pi^a infin. suff.n:i bbfi infin. Aph. n=)» Hiph. TllTi infin. article suffix. n interrogative.rtDD Hiph. msr: p. - CS^niiTn from nnN2nr-t - Niph. praet. Hiph. Ithpael. nbyn "^li^rt Hoph. riNb 3d fem. a" bbn praet. la^ri ''^'!n Aph. ^5\l:\-l from ^b^ imp. ^33r| !i"it infin. Hiph. n-is Hiph. from nS5 Hiph. Hiph.t3D infin. Q^'^en from *i^Q infin. Nnh 3d fem. 'q-'X'r. Hithpael. n". DD73 Niph. nn-^n N72tiri n. b?3r!D:ri bbs> Chald Aph. Hiph. (for fi3^ . fem. i<atD Huthpaal.r! infin. nD3 imp.n"'n Hoph. rD73:^ - noT: 3d plur. . "i^N Chald.Chal. part. ^r=^ ^nnsri nNlrr7. nbi? imp. i3"'\!l or hD. 1-^-ti. b^sri "^is^t from b3N - infin. Hiph. '?'^l^n •^Driri praet. Nisbn (for 13'rn from ^bri 3d and "'tohn from plur. "PinrirT tari nnn Hiph. n>n'. Kal. ( T ). . Hiph. Kal. fem. Hiph. Niph. Hoph.i3!-| - mD and Kal with - ]13Hithpolel. - iTih Chald. ^372 Hoph. NUh -n!\! Pliph. infin. Hiph. Hiph. nt23 ^ nn73 from Hiph. '^^ni^canDnin73r. "i^^lv! ft'om t3^!53?^ Hiph. T^nTi oasrr from nnN from t:2^ Huthpaal. for nn which from fi!7 see. . with from bbl Hiphil. ]w:73^TJ7ib-'TISrr: pT 'tnri) Chald. for rn - from rT^n Kal. Hiph. praet. "'MhJli from CHD Hithpael. with suff. m"3rt n53 infin. Hiph. Hiph. Hiph.' from ]^3 Hiph. iVrr (for -Jbrrr: ) bbn ) infin.rT infin. rr^Dn b?rt nbi>?i nno Hiph. . praet. Aph. Hiph. infin. n::72 ^an nr:2 imp. Hiph. from niD or imp. praet. nran . Hiph. l-^a- or fin and "'bh. - hT3 or n^iD hi"^ Hiph. p"' Hiph. rT33 Hiph. is5ri (for ^:.rn ^riD Hithpael. nD3 Hiph.'l^n - r. Aph. ) from nST imper. Hiph. ^n ^?!l from nS3 imp.. - M-ih imp. infin.104 rriTn from I^T infin.

Hiphil. infin. from Nia Hithpael. yVh nT-i2hnri from niah biinr: 5i"'nri infin. 'sh'n . Hiph. - Hiph. Piel. from - S. Kal. JiS'^ 2>U3n or y^iT imper. Hithpolel. from riaT Pual. from - bnn bnn Kal. Hophal. Poel. - r. Poalal. K. illU imp.^!! M^"l 3d fem. Jisn imp. . parag. nriN and ^TJn 3d plur. Hith- - ni-i imp. from ) 'DIZT) infin. Hithpa. Tn'bh nbn infin. Aph. irsirrs from :3-). Hithpalpal. - DQi n-i"' imp. nT" Hithpael. QJ?^ D^ip i:iri73n72nri from tiliiz niiaprt (for Hiphil. infin. from nh'^i Hithpalel. Hophal. Piel. trhyi'qrj'ri from nna infin. n"irin">::n from H'on 3d fem. p]:h dag. ^sn from nrDn infin. Poalal.h "jSi: infin. Hithpalpal. "I'ph frorn pph infin. Hiph. mn Chald. with n^nn Tiirj n"^?. Hiphil.'' Hophal. Hithpa. Tn. '^an 3d plur. suff. praet.r. y2?u3 ui'^N and Kal. with sufF.105 ^an^DiSrt from m5£ Hithpa. Hiphil.::.from rn Hiphil.i?n imp. Tnri (Si. ti. t3-iT iT\T Piel. ^il^rt T?''^^!'. Kal. Hiph. in'ih (for n::n) from T^l'n. Kal. Hiph. 'pn from niiip infin. niS3nn from NS2 n"«s:nlri (-^s) infin.n from ^:h 3d fem. nsit iHrr iTa-in JT-in infin. Niph.]"). Hiph. imp. nisn 14 nsn. palpal. i. Hithpa. D3T23 infin. 13fj"^^t from n-it - Piel. bnii ("bnh Hiphil from bnin Piel. (bbn n-iiizn nja"^ yi:'' ?) s-ssn - Hophal. Hiph. TTih nia-iri Tih nn-i fem. from i<t2n infin. imp. ^t3h^. (for inV/aT) from naT. n nVnh ^n^nh •ipm and r\ii'0'n ^!:2^r n73"4in ria-iin tia. Piel. ) nfi73n!i from nan imp. Kal. Hiphil. IT : • Ft t -. cau3 Hophal. Hithpael. euphonic.^ infin. - Hiph. m:^ Hithpael. Tiiya.

n::i"' fern. Kal. Kal. fut. C-".i3 fut. rt parag. fut.: from - . bN"^ fut. iVrin"^ Hiph. Piel. fut. n:^n"! ^5?. from Kal. Kal. •^'V N-ii"" t:'-)!"" - n-i"« fut.. Piel. bNiV from from -n'N . Poel. fut. Mf<T Kal. fut. n:\^ fut. Niph. ?) "''M. fut. Pual. r V .fut. part. from m'i< fut. !n^ ^Ti-' '^d-i-«frora - from - mh Kal. Q:oT fut. iiijp^T* _ . Piel. iny-iV ^"-DT" — - i^l"^ praet. (Hoph. with 1\nN^. -11N - Niph. D ha n^b from h^D praet.n-« - Kal.. Kal. m'^ nT2 riT3 h^n u. la^"^ from t]7:n fut. Aph. Niph. Kal. Hiphil.. Hiph. . Kal. mn fut. - Hiph. n5N Chald. Kal.: ti from - "jrh imp. nn'' fut. ^^t?. fut. 'iT'^n. .^l from Jnb 3d plur. - nT* Hiph or Hoph. from "U3 infin. nnT '::^l infin. Kal.. Piel. nn*' Hiph. from n^ 'h-' ST^h fut. from bnn bSN N22"^ fut. fut.^p-\ part. Piel. in^ from Nis •:.— riarr 3d plur. Hiph.. paragogic. nh^fonh^ nt3^_^ from mh fut. Niph. praet. fut. suffix. - - b!:"' Hiph. -jsi. Kal . Kal.C!''.'. li-T. ^"i^ - Kal. irN"'* bn^ briN - nrN ~ Hiph.)-. fut. HT" Hiphil. .106 'iii'sh ''. } Vn*" li*. laT"^ for =l7i^ from fut. - r nr ]!> - Hiph. fut. '"3":nNi^.v I "^n 3 plur. nrtin from 1-in Pilpel. fut. Kal. iniN. Kal. Kal. nx.. Hiph. from NTD N'it: Pilpal. from nna Kal. '^. Kal. Kal. Clan.Piel. "nt^ n^T - Kal. ll"'J'!7. fut. Kal and m^bh T'bh X XT T r ^on Niphal.iJ7. >n nh n-i:* from - r!2T Hiphil. ri-'n^lpN-L: - Hiph. nw^: from nnN Kal. Hiph. Kal. Kal. - fut. :^U5"' n^n Ti>\b'"'n".

. fut. p3 nsb: b5\ bs: ^br)-^ Polel (Pilel?) nnD niD T^:^ D=13> - Hiph.. Hiphil."inN sinri:. l^b - Hiph. :) . iaibs^ from nos Piel. Hiphil. 7=1 fem. from Nb?2 - fut. Piel. nZT^Tjl '^:n"bn^.' nr^ Hoph. fut. Hiphil. Piel.'?'^ Ti273". ^Vm": (=iVrpT) n^)!.''"' or B'ly Kal. - r!53 . from bH"' praet.) bni bh: bTn(!:^i7)fut. Hiphil. from - Hiph. Kal. Piel. . 14.p3: for iQ^D?^ (§§ fut. - 1^^ 'jT'on:. from fut. Hiph. np"" (6«s) from nn72 Niph... Kal. tit:. tiir^ Hiph..Hiphil. not ^hf Ih'-i' m'n - - Kal. Kal. irib. nV. yN3 - b^V. nn^i t2t t:"' fut. ^rb^ T3'»b: lb.107 ]n'»Ji^ from - nnh 5^h fut. Hiph. Piel. Poel. Hiph. T)y'y2 see Lexicon "^sy. Piel. N -5. bs. n3n'a5.orfem. ' ^«*-. Hoph. Kal. - naSJ fut. fut. and NiiS - Niphal.Hiph. n'lD^D^ from nD"* praet. 'n»'' - 1173 ^'^'° ^'iD^ -t3?. ns. Piel. ^2 ^^2 n33 niD Hiph. Kal. nsap-iS? from ^n2] from QtD'13 fut. Kal. from - praet. - Kal. - Chald. Itl'l ':.' ma pn-^ ppn fut. 3d f. fut. fut. Hiphil. Kal. Kal. lnt32 fut. paragogic. - n£23 S^T^ - Kal.Mort 3 plur. titr* Kal. . fut. plur. bD^' Chald. 3d plur. Kal. -1732. Niph. - bn"" SD"" Niphal. Pual. N13 - b'^b"^"' bb"* - hT Sorts'" ps"^ fut. Piel. Hiph. Hiph. ri'ib"' from - lb"* part. Kal. Kal. 53. Hiphil. - Hophal constr. from noa nnD from Hiph. N-i)3 fut. Hiph. fut. n"'02 - tibD - Kal. fut. an"" praet. fut. nor:-*'' Hiphil. - ns suff. fut. from iiD - fut. Kal. b fut. iofin.'. nh. from nh3 Niphal. ^^y . - Niphal.ri^ ^^'^ "Jin fi^t. fern. fut. Kal.

- - Niph. part. fut. Hiph.'". ^me)'^ - fem. mii"" Kal."\^i Q^rvlJ'^ from Hiph. Kal. i>-^'' n^p rrrp ujp. - n'b-d - - Kal. n-)"' Hiph. inniii"^ ^i. fem. Hiph. ^574?^ MN'I Niphal. fut.*"^..fut. 'nrp'] (Keri) from nTiJ fut. Kal. Kal. a-^-^a: from . Hophal. ^nnri^p-^^ Kal. ^-li"') imp. fut. fut. from n-iN - Hiphil.'']"51. Kal. Kal. np^ fut. - Kal. Kal. tDoJ-. ^l'"?. fut.'Kal. 3 Sin-ip^ from nip 3d plur. rr^'^rj Kal.. il'l's^itn S%.. tzi/pui"^ - Qiy<D 1157. .inifut. from - UD'iJ fut. i>"i"'&n2>n fut. M^-i Kal. Kal. Kal.) 3 plur. V. . Kal. Kal.. . from iitB fut.: - Kal.^y. fem. ^^\ iniT'' ''r]:i1 ^^:i ni:-' - Kal.- tttTiJ Hiph. •JTi. ' - 3 plur. ^l'-. Chal. Iliphil. fut. - infin. rtIN 'nb-i - Hithpael. ran"^ Hithpael.. i2"jj. epenthetic. Hiph. (nnn-J'. pi£\ p2£l "12£'''. from nnttj from ni^ fut. Kal.^_ - (]11)fut. Kal. Nln"^^ '^jn-' infin.Hithpoel. Kal. Nn^ IJjn'^. - Kal. l. Kal. p^^ pi:^ -i::^ Kal. bip: npb Yp-" - Hophal. Hithp. Kal. Kal. ^^'\ t^s^ N2£'"^ - 'rnQ fut. ilil nn'^ "^^"^ fut.'!"!": ni-i )2•^ - 5>2UH£^ from i>n^ fut. - yir-i ^=)-i Kal. 3 sing. Kal. fut. Ni. 5. UJyp rib">l3 - ^r.:i'^ Hophal. from . '•pb''4J'. - n::i praet. for -nriB !-:Ni:'-' fut. nrr^ fut.108 JD^. Hiphil. ^^\ from - -lii^ fut. ^1. i.-. TtDTB-JJ'. Kal.":'. V=i-i. Kal. Hithpalel. fut.^^^ from :. ipTppt^ip". from pp'i: fut.. _ - ^i:i£ i>i:^ _ - Hithpael. masc. - af: Hiph. from - n"^"' !-Tl-» Hiphil. from Tina - Kal. fut. fut. Kal. Ti'-n"] for 'iS'^ i:]^-)-. fut. IN-S^ (for n^.Hithpalpal. :j>"4. in^i^ ^i2J: - Niph. 'i^XD nn-^i) S:i': 'inS^': from ^i:^ fut. fut. T^y"* Kal. M->z3p - Hiph.Kal. part.

praet. Chald. Ji:riV3 from i's. 73. Kal.3. "^ab ns-iD^ - TTQ ni'iJS. with from Nir.o»3 - nna plur. Kal. 'j'lb "^nibss from Hiph. rrib . t=:W'. Hiphil.praet. D»n Niph. Kal nn-^hb from t]J3h'^ -^hb. §§71. part.U-b from '^•i JiNib infin.109 Tn". - 01^ Chald. from MTft ri5'» flit. n:nnb from suffix. a''-lNb '-\'-\!!i\ h from n-ivS "lii* ^. Ithp. Kal. Hith- rTa~:onnb from palpal. infin. Snn3 2. Ithp. ^\ n3^ (^^) from fem.tlf]^ - Hithp. «fc '^. Piel.pi infia. infin. ]T T Chald. n33 - ]:3 imp. from r:n?3 fut. 1:3 for Va.2n^ from n>"n". n-^j"^ Kn3 •^-INS •''13 for l\\^3 from Sn". . rt^"! f^'^. niD^b - infin. sing. nb from - infin. 'T D3 »=1D3 from riD3 pass. (for ti3-i»b) from Ji3-)^. - nV3 nV^ from Vs. Kal. n-iH nb"' Y?^ infin. Kal.. infin. Kal. Q^n n3^ infin. lib'i infin. part. iVninb bbn Niphal. Hithpa. rST bisKal. nr73. Kal. § 42 Note DSri"^ - Hithpael. n?. Piel. Kal. nr. ^:n&3 from JiD3 3 fem. i^inb^ ^n"i. N^S 2 n3b' from ^2bb - Y^"* -jib infin. Qn?3 1>3 ^r!23 •^fn^S from Vs. infin. 6 71. narnan'^.'!- ni^J^^n^ - i^nuj infin. forl-iNS from n^3 praet. Niph. Nl-i'^b - ni^ •jUJ"' infin. ]ir!^. Kal. infin. (^5). - ms? - 'in: - "i'^" "S^ *^"2 fut. ""rins. Kal. § 71. Hiph. Pilel. Hithpal. ni3. Hiph. Hithpalpal. infin. nri^o infin. Kal. Hi. Kal. Kal. - ^"^" ii&D ^^ori-" Tiphel. n-ins 'ji-in^3 ir3. fut. •»]n. ]id^V Piel. "1133 from n. Kal. flit. - Nb3 nb3 praet.b' (for "' n:b') from " 3 fem. n3^ n3^3 from . ns]"". ^b"» imp. Kal. Dn"> TT^n-' from tian fut. from nn3 Kal. jinn. Hiph. ri3b. .

Hithp. Hophal. ~ na & inj. no^a nsia Niphal. m"2^"r. Hoph. lel. ib"^ from :inia. see Lexicon fi73 & *li>Jif. Nh73 - Chald. from - ^t)3> infin. Hiph. N^Z"" - fi. N. - rta » & nab. Hophal. niajp '^ltl'^'3 ?iua part. Hiphil. Aph. Kal. infin. rT/>^N'-)3^b for DEDha c^n^^sna from - ^on -VvliN")^)? n-i-iiiiiria M'2"i.a ?]nn Chald. ^^bia - ns'^ part. part. n-^iDNba Hophal. BinyriSJ from &ri or from ari. Hiph. NTN Chald. Piel (Peoel) or Hiphil. § 42. infin. Kal with &.a. nriD part. plur.110 ^sb' for ^33b from "Jib Kal. Pual. Kal. Peal. Piel. ^^^« 1^"'\[^ n^. Aph. infin. from b3"}3 ^b. Hiphil. "nriua ••rias^s from - "nlrtu part. Pual. na!l» from nia Hoph. mxba - from J«ba - in part.:ti Hiph. fi''3n» iba nNiba Nba Kal. - nb . bTlN» from t33DN73 ••att bTi< part. nbb from infin. Chald. >n-)ra t-i?3 - n^"' infin. ^'1*II^5'? Aph. Ni^a jb ti''3b"nipyb niSiC'? N'-ib part. P^^rt. b2^Da plur. - Nia part. B'^'-i'-iirha •i^nyna niva fem. " "*1? Chald. - CU'D infin. Kal. Hoph. suffix. ' T . part. cjri. Hiphil. infin. nN^ba from Nba Q'^rba tiiDba V infin. from nna - part. Kal. Hiphil. for nO"^ part. Kal. Hiph. l^b part. nSi£ N"^"'. •'a-'a - 'D\h. part. part. NTa rrja V!'?. QW^ia ci"':j"'-)ia W^j'D from m"' part. Hiph. Piel. Pual. Note 3.:? infin. rr^si?: for 'ia from n5>a part. h'^^^h from bD3 infin. iuna jha - i<un "JDn Kal.N"5i ^lai: since at the be- ginning. Hiphil. niSij^rrTa 5>i£p part. - nno part. riN-iia Nia part. Pi- from ]^N Chald. ?jna t3f7. Kal. Kal. "Jib part. T^** P^J^t. B'^nia from riT* part. Hophal.

rh . •rina from m72 Polel (Pilel). Pual. n=. - i<::72 Kal. rrr^lbpart. •'zTa (for n^STq Ps. Pilpel. Hiphil. Kal. Chald. Hithpoel. Hiph. Hithpalel. (for n''-)nn'JJ72 § 40) from ^^n'I7 part. fin73 ^nb'a 'Dl'nW2 ^7373. imp.a J*i:72 Infin. bc/ilJ Hiph. mf«: na"^ from I-in: Pilel. Hi 72 - or h^3 part. '^!:"'D-IJa part. (Numb.i:p72 V\^^ part. : Hoph. -^T infin. "iI?")R'3 p part. 10: 2) from N-^p Kal. Hiphil. Kal. Tiphel. nikN: ]72 . •jNliTj - 2 plur. fem. N:i:72 Hophal. nD":3 part.>i|73) part. 45 9) from ii"'::? - ni"" or h'ls part. "rib from n'72 Kal. 2 rT'Sa from rT'^3TS73 mo - Ti:i''73. from m73"part. «n73 from nna . Hiph. Kal. . Pual. rjipa - N:p 'raiR^ N'^^P72 VP part. Nba Kal. etc.72 r)r'h. p part. Piel. part. m-173 - T-i"' infin. nnuJtt (for tin'^Thn\i. ~ltlf]'2 from ?Tin part. t-:n» . rjbnbn^i from pal.pTg part. Hithpal- from )73. Ci"«n7373 from T|7373.Ill 7\\'q I2s\tt from 5ribi< part. Piel. ^•^^TSTi - t3"^-1t372. - n72. Hiphil. C2'-i73 nuSb tJ'iS. part. D^Niib ^nk72 '2-ib'bi573 '72'^p. 'nnJz part. Piel. epenthetic. from bbp part. Hiphil. Y'^'D yi<372 part. Pual.

fut. fut. imp. nh3 tt"»: Niphal. fem. nn3 . Niphal. ^5 ^11- J^^2 fut. Kal.112 D"^an3 ''riDhJ - can part. fut.t:i£3 rT"Ji23 pni Hithp. Hiphil.) from !t:j3 praet. nhD3 n??: Niph. Kal. n trans- n^^ from Na:^ praet.3 •1i2. nynujs - TOW Hithpael. Kal. from 1i:3 imp. Kal. nnN^23 nNV. Kal. with n assimilated. i7. bp. ^h-^JiD- "ino Pealal. ItoJ? (for •^Itoy') from pass. lnD3 for N'lJj from N'UD imp. Niph. riNi: from Nlf' - infin. la^do from nnD ^30. n * According to some editions of the transposed § 38. Bible ^P. - Kal. Tiz/ii^ Kal. ntoi' Kal. praet.Kal. rrn^? from TT2> imp. '"Piel§ nin'ij3 ^np-7:£* pn:£ infin. n^hn"*^? from ^^'^ fut. iDSD - n^ri Niphal. part. Kal.' nt5:5> raD3 D^. - tjnpD - 123ns praet. & 3 ' NI^Uj (for lNtp3) from Nt. fern.5?3 n^bss from Nbs 3 fem. Kal. from '-is2> from ntJ3> 3 fem. part. part. >!:S3 from bD3 - Pilel. Sinrrj nh3 . Kal. 'nDS Nithpael. - nr Tn-^ Kal. imp.'6. Kal.pTLS- . from Nii:3 part. nils from nS3 infin. ^732 from - -1^73 Niphal. p-. ^Di: (for ""IDi:) from nsii: pass. niy?. Hithpalel. Kal. Ni: (nN:£) from •^^^3 '=ito3 '' n::'' imp. Piel.^:^: aSD nay rt^-y - '^"ly - Hophal. from mui Nithpael. posed § 38. plur. ^y42 (for "'t"^-. nD"" part. Niphal. Kal. Niphal. Hiph.3 plur.3 bbp Niphal. Vai. from N^^ 2 fem. Niphal. Kal. Kal. pn nnn 2 fern. in^'3pr!3 Tiihs from pna Kal. 'D^'^^2 from n^J'vIJ fut. from ins 'iW: from 'nnn Niphal. ny: ^N33 fut. pass.

from (for - iSp imp. epenthetic. suffix. Kal. nN"ip from 3 fem. lii^'l fem. l^-* infin. Kal. nxi!J. nnuj from n-^ij-i imp. Kal.!: from Kal. iSlin (Nii. suffix. (Judges 19: 11) forT^. : 5) from nph praet. inn-^j. yn plur. infin. Kal.y (CTvi?:) from ITIJ infin. Kal. nNt. part. Kal. Kal. Pilel. Kal. imp. 2 sing. QiJ-vba from aauj Kal. ti^^p -S'4J.:j'^ from \2:t^ J^pj i^HR imp. nin-ij. Kal.".3) "Srip from D npb imp. N'2. infin. epenthetic. § 35. Kal. nd. 'T^") from TTi imp. t3T. Kal. Q"^::-. Chaldee. l"'i:-i Kal with from suffix. ^m-^j (^rii'>y). from NiU2 infin.3 infin."i. Kal. infin. "in^i"]. 45: 1) from li-^ •^V. kal. Kal with ^isrip 3 from npb imp. (Hos..if"?^'^'}. . nn-i^rrjT - dn^ from tDi<p rrn-i participle Kal. praet. from - C=ip praet. . 2>2>-i Kal. "H' Tif-) '^'''^^ from p-i & t3Np !^=p^ Q9 imperative Kal. infin. fem. 17 Kal. etc. fut. Kal. dn T^ (nn-i) (Isai. nhp & I'^p rihp from npb from n''p 2 plur. Kal.) M^P (for i3p_) from nnp 3 praet. ' ID £2NUJ from UTi: part. etc. "''?. infin. "^x from ^DIJ infin. mo from a^-) infin. npb praet. Kal. I^-IR ^I^IR from J<^p 2 plur. np nhp from (Ez. imp. Kal. \i. Kal. 3 sing. Kal. iS:- masc. 11:3) from suffix. Kal. ^^5p from nsp imp. ^'RX pi:"« infin. N"IJ from Nto: imp.2:-i"> ^•'^'^ ^^1'^P. from iui^ niDui Kal. Kal.113 '2^nr!?:j5r from - r)732£ p)Z-> praet. from 135^^ nej"^ infin. 13>^ Pilel. pi? imp. Kal. Kal. infin. Kal. Kal. 15 . Kal. Ti-^ra: - praet. niN^! (for !n'i<^) from nN"l infin. Poel. praet. nN-^. I Kal. & fem.

bhri fem. Kal. •^^ppan -^L-pn Pual. Kal. Kal.iD"' fut. Kal. Kal. t2ri Kal. •^DTn (for n2Tri) from nat fut. Kal. or Niphal. Kal. Niphal. - from - fut. Niph. 5]pin PiPin from Hiphil.3 Jid' ) imp. from pi. •in^nri ^ ntrn 2 dhn nhn (n'iT'M) Kal. .D!:'ij. m'73"IJ •jy^'ij D73P i>73-r infin. ^Tid nnx praet. Kal. Kal. with nri'iJ. ^:in j^-iysi^ from - ~Sa r-ii^a fut.114 'Pi'iHuJ from for nb'i! praet. 'r|n. Kal. Hiphil. 'D^^TS'in from r\lz-\ fut. fut. plur. rii-^i-isin - na^^ rra^ ni-:. Q'^ITn from nST 'Tfit Kal. from - n'^'vU infin. Kal. Piel- - "^j^n "^D^fn - Nin (for Tdp) from nnx from Ni3 fut. fern. Kal. tl3"^ r. Kal. ri'T^ fut. ^"^ ^^h^V dual of ^3^ a ^j""'^ year. nni^^n iiNdn fut. Kal. n'^. Kal. n inb*DNn from i'nNin i^lSN fut. rrbn rtn? - . - ^/an particip. from nrd Kal. tift rit:2 - Hiph.. fi'om (for p\i. Tl^^ Clii. Hiph- '^Tn from bTN Kal. lain ^^Toin nr Hiphil. plur. Kal. bbn '^liin - Niph. Niph. - ^br^ ''i^cirj*!' Kal. from can Kal. rt^n rv^'s - b-^n - n^3 - •j^pznn j| pm fut.in) from fut. & nnn t-:t23 masc. fut.\-r!nsb^rifi fi^n imr: flT* - Kal. T^in i-7tn Kal. Kal. D'^ft nOD - Hithpael. riTr:^"'n •jT^an - Hiph. Kal. ri'ylj isMn "ipib fut. - Hiph. ^nb"4 "'Pi:p'ij ^nbN\p from nbNUJ. \-ij<nn from Nia Th'n THN Kal. Kal. Kal. imp. epenthetic suffix. D^n riDsn - riDtD - paragogic. ^hn Jiir: ( n^n "rinNi^an from - fut. nnn ) from fut. part. nns fut. r::\\::r. Piel. . Kal. 2 fem. Piel.: from '^du: 3 praet. plur. Hiph. Piel. - Kal. fem.» in -^ 2 fern. - Kal. Piel. fut.

2 sing. insnn ^Nipn ?) - n::^ ^'^3 5i'i) - han ^n^n iDan for nna nna T72n - - - Kal. - nny nSwN see Lex. DPin . Hithp. Niphal. Piel. ' - ma -\73ii - Hiphil. fut. Pilpel. (Kal from t)73n 'aiyV:^)?- 3 plur. Hiph. Hophal. Hophal. ^cn (-isn) from "nns fut. 2 sing.n >b:: fut. with epeuth. Fl&n from . Chaldee. fut. - nn-1 !-!3-1 l Kal. Hithpael. Niph. 5>ndn in:\yn (for fut. Tiphel. Hiphil. fut. from - liTi) "jn. t3D•'^l^:!. Niphal. !i:n from ]n2 infin. nnn from ni^n Kal. suffix. p-^Dn.iDt\ fat. Hithp. S^lDn from J^T fut. Kal. fut. N-:j3 fut. Kal. lbi>ft ( infin. - nnn nnn. -jhKirn fut. i>nn from wn briD 3:^"^ fut.n from :fS>-:J Kal. Hiph. ""ph from -. Polpal. (Ps. Kal. lydr^n from •jn. Kal. 8: 2) Mn from rtnd from fut. -lan 1-)7:'n - -ina (m?j) fut. -isnn fut. (] paragogic) Hithpael. Kal. sing. Kal.^D^l 7^2 & iiiii dd "itinn from . rT:n from ]nD imp.115 )Z^ from )^b UJzh fut. rrji^^n o:\\'4. n paragogic. Niphal. ) Kal. bsnri - - n^snn ^nir^-in from b:^-) inn &. nzbkn from 3^. Kal. . 'Pn for '2>n ) Kal. inin from in"^ fut. ) from IDD praet. nha - Hiph. Kal.') from p5> 2 nn -nn plur.ri i'^. -113 n-i:i Hithp. DQiuJri - QTp/ij - Hithpoel. ^njP'^ir^ Hithpalel. Hithp.. fem. - - Kal. ]"|-i3n-rn from I'd^ fut. Kal. fut. Kal. fut. from p=ia fut. mh fut. n^nn (for fut. THn-vlin nnr 2 sing.-d fut. (for "i^V ^'o"^ ^'^ SttR from ^iD^ "ittr Hiphil. 'jn: fut. nn. yi-in from y::-! fut. fem. Hiph. Hiphil. infin. Kal. from nri? fut. Kal. tsnnyn from "tny •'-I'lnyn "iTihr. Kal. Hithpael.

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— 47 47 . . 33 34 . Page.28. . DAGESH " forte " " " " " . 26. 20—21 .63 • Heemantive . Gender and Number of 21-23 21 Terminations of Exceptions to Gender . — . . esh " " •< V. 27. " Letters retained in Characteristics of Division of 19 " Accents their influence Apocopated forms Affixes — Verbal — .. 60 39. . . . 47 101 Anomalies list of Begad Kefat (Beghadh Kephath) letters Hiphil . . n paragogic omitted 23. .53. dotted 23 12 7. . . 33 — 34 negative . — . .44 conjunctive paragogic ( . hne i D .. 52—53..28.22 22—23 ... . 40 — 41 of 28—30 " Peculiar • Construction (Construct state) 72 32 . 47 and Number of Anomalous . 71 NOUNS Derivative Primitive expressed by Dag.— .. 5. .. 48 9 n of Hiphil. .101 List of Anomalous forms . . . . . -46 20 Compound .. 57 49 71 Ground-form of the future tense 46 . " Participles beyond Kal . . Accusative ris (""nj* ) . 20. . compensative characteristic 51 " 51 51 51 " " Mappik Maccaph Metheg iyz 7. 27.. 19. .30. 60 . Degrees of comparison Epenthetic " .. inverted. diminished. . 3ns (—Jii*) preposition with .. 73—75 Hithpael " 41 42 Peculiarities of . 33 40. Local n Letters enlarged.. . .INDEX. . 39.50 44. 9..46. 63 24 " euphonic ..66 17. Gender " 47 73 21 42—45 58 Exceptions to . ALPHABET " Article. suspended. . 20 21 21 31. 73—75 Comparison . . and Hithpael . • 71—72 .23 on vowels 57 GUTTURALS " " " Hithpael 7... CONJUGATIONS " " n of Hiphil and Hophal signifi- retained 47 47 23 names and cations of 27—30 characteristics n n local interrogative .39. 26 —23 Ground-form of 46—47 Punctuation of 27 Letters omitted in 27. 7. "i Euphonic Syllables Future tense " " " . • 52 .. .. . . 57 . Hophal. Page. 14 in 53 ^w ) suffix pronoun .

and Superlative degree . 71 3 expressed by dagesh 71-72 of Niphal omitted in the future 27. .66. 40.26 49 " . Pronounced . 73 Derivative or Suffix Relative . 19... 33—34 6. . . . PRONOUNS " *' " Primitive . Prefixes and Particles 59-63 NITHPAEL conjugation PARTICIPLES " Kal. 28 38. 63 [—66 » " Table of the characteristics of the Conjugations 73 . . . Punctuation of the Article ( n " " Prefixes Peculiarity of the verb n^iB Piel 53 53—56 . . 36.. — Pattakh /wr^irc Prefixes . 26—27 fu- (Separate and com- Ground-form of the . 52 Shevau. 24.42 . SiUuk Short Kaumets (Kaumets o) Negative w Numerals . of 77 — 78 7 ..25 Root of begin'g with s 40 .. 30 " Construct state of 32. . . 19. 6 8 . 71 Nouns. . — .Hophal. .83 24 Serviles future 73 " Suffixes. NOUNS " " " with paragogic letters " Demonstrative Interrogative ) . b3 T 5 3 paragogic " epenthetic ..74 31. . 23. 74 — appended to Nouns " " " " " " Verbs 71—72 . 34 passive 30 — 31.. 42 n ) . 36 Praeformatives of 26—27. .20 . 29. 47 common occurrence Root— how to find the . .. 66 VERBS " PARAGOGIC LETTERS PARTICLES " " Conjugations of Praeter tense of 27—30. . . Transposition of n characteristic " <' with suffixes 60 ofHithpael . 24. .. .12. bined) . . . . " — Simple and Composite Silent NIPHAL " " praeter " . . and . " " " 25 . 24 42 8 used as Particles 63 [57 and Pual .. .. 26. 76—77 7. infini. Punctuation of Praeformatives of Sufformatives of . active . 30... united to Prefixes .Hithpael 46 41 30—31. 66. — il.75 . 23. 38. 59 Apocopated forms of . [48.. . . .20... 56 53—56 58 24 Defective . 7 " .9 19. — 26 — 47 25 63 Future tense of ture tense of . into t: . and Suffixes 50 the — 62 41 Modes and tenses of " " coming before future . 72 Syllables euphonic ... 74 Hiph- 75 Technica4 names of Defective verbs 36 " " verbs with a guttural .lis Page. Pual. 73 27... 62-63 " 46 . " " Tabic of the uses of 79-83 imperative tive participle . 50. " '• . 59 . " " " Persons and Gender of 25 20 Root of 20.72 . 31. with the Article ( n of Hithpael changed . . . [CT note. 21—23- Quiescents Radicals Roots. Niphal Piel. " 5!) Exceptions to Gender of 23 Suffix pronouns attached to . and Particles .27. .. .

5. n^Nn 54 64 from the top. 68—69 46. 49. Tcirr and (^4 JTi'n":.35. for "nJCJ^'T of the type. 32 • . added 2G— 27.6 . 57. this was occasioned out of the type. 68. the breaking The following were occasioned by 8 25 27 28 bottom line. 50.48. 68 § 89. nunciation of 55 35 . second line from the bottom. for fi?. with epenthetic i' (— • and 29 39. 33 71 derived from Nouns Final Tsaree and Kho• Verbal Affixes or Suffixes . 36. put a period after Sufformatives. 8. occurs in a few copies only.48 27. 34. before the future 47 following ipVs . " " of defective 67. . put a semicolon after D^p . [51 nV " " . 64. 64 55—56 ERRATA. for dTsi-iriN read cai'-^nN .74 Infinitive Kal 31. 74 Hiphil . 74 . 67. V guttural . 67. Pluriliteral . for read . " . 70 50. 68. by the drawing for 1 read 15 . 47. 46. . for ^^iiT: fifth line ^^^r\ . .70 . 47.uttural 52 36. . Long and Short Lengthened ed) .N'l third line from bottom. • 25. read ^^Nfl this . . 69 Punctuation of Prefixes before .68. twelfth line from top. • • -4^ VOWELS " " .72 .N-ip read riih^p. ."?". 70 Imperative Kal 31. . . ) 58 Imperative Niphal " Piel . VERBS Paragogic letters to . %. 50. Jem •3 . • 56. 74 " " " of defective 68 — 70 47 63 21 1 Dropped .34. 65. Page. put "in. fourth line from the top.57—58 [58 " " Piel .65. 35. . . [G8— 70 " Niphal 38. 29 " " i Shortened (changed) 56.51. 50.119 Page. . « . 46. Hiphil • 39. 5 the vowel should stand on a line with u in full ^^jP'^ 38 47 twelfth line from the top. 64 46. . Tl. 48. G8 38. . Peculiar pro- 35. 6 (chang. used as Particles Conversive of the Prae^cr Conversive of the Fwiurc . 35. Page. for D'^bn read Dnnb . 57 . bottom line. 46.

S46 A manual Hebrew grammar . Library Princeton Theological Semlnary-Speer 1 1012 00002 7302 .PJ4564. for the use ot ^ .

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