Export of Mangoes from Pakistan

Executive Summary Practical studies are the essential part of MBA program. So in this regards our worthy course instructor Mr. Muhammad Arif Saleem has assigned us a report on the topic ³Export of Mangoes from Pakistan´. The objective of the study is to explore the problems that are faced by exporters of Mangoes and Dates and to find out the reasons behind those problems. And to suggest the solutions for those problems, which will help the exporters to enhance their exports by rectifying those problems. In order to achieve these objectives, we interview many Mango Exporters from all over the country. Big Mango Exporters are mainly concentrated in Southern Punjab and Sindh. So after studying the problems we find out that there is great demand of Mangoes in the international markets. So in order to increase export of this product from Pakistan a combine effort will be required from both the government and the individual exporters to try to solve the problems and also explore new markets in order to earn foreign exchange and contribute in the boost up of the economy.

INTRODUCTION Mango ± An Important Fruit of Pakistan The word Mango is the British pronunciation of the Mankay, the Tamil word for the fruit, because it is found in most abundance in Southern India, around Madras. The mango is held in high esteem all over the world and is considered to be the native of Indo-Pakistan Sub-continent and eastern Asia. They are to be found in nearly all over the tropical regions of the world, therefore known as the ³king of all fruits´. Mango is cultivated around February/early March, when the cold weather begins to subside and the danger of destruction through frost disappears. It comes in market early in the May and remains in market till August/September. There are more than 1300 varieties of the mango, which are cultivated in the Indo-Pak sub-continent. In Sindh, there are more than 125 varieties of mango. As we get

mangoes from Baluchistan and NWFP, but the main source are Sindh & Punjab. In Pakistan we get more than 10 lacs tons production, out of which Sindh provides 34% i.e. more than 3 lacs tons. Multan and the Mirpur khas are the main regions, where we get mangoes in large quantity. The maximum production, we get from Rahim Yar Khan, where mangoes are cultivated on more than 26 thousand acres. The main field of mango is obtained from District Rahim Yar Khan, Rahimabad, Sadiqabad, Shaikh Wahan, Mianwali, whereas Hyderabad, Tandojam, Tando Allahyar, Tando Jan Muhammad, Digri, Nawab Shah, Nushero Feroz, Khairpur Mirus, Ghotki, Bahawalpur, Shujabad, Muzaffargarh, Kot Addu, Khanewal, Sahiwal, Vehari, Okara, Faisalabad, Jhang, Toba Tek Singh and Sargodha are also very famous for mango production. There are many varieties, which are famous in Pakistan, but some varieties which are very common are Sindhri, Langra, Chunsa, Fajri, Samar Bahisht, Anwar Ratole, Dasehri etc. Nutritional Value of Pakistani Mango (Ripe)

Food energy (calories) Protein Fibre Vitamin A (1.u.) Thiamine (mg) Riboflavin (mg) Niacin (mg) Ascorbic acid (mg) Vit. C
TOTAL PRODUCTION OF MANGO IN PAKISTAN Area and Production of Mango in Pakistan

57 0.5 0.4 2580 0.09 0.05 0.7 47

Mango is grown all over the Pakistan. However major mango growing provinces are Punjab and Sindh. The percentage share of area and production of mango in different provinces of Pakistan are shown in table below:


Area (lac acres) 1.19 1.05 0.047 0.005 2.29

Production (lac tons) 5.82 3.12 0.16 0.02 9.12

Punjab Sindh Baluchistan NWFP Pakistan

Percentage of total production 63.82 34.21 1.75 0.22 100.00

Area and Production of Mango in Punjab



Area (Acres) %

Production (tons) %

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Rahim Yar Khan Bahawalpur Multan Vehari Muzaffargarh Khanewal Sahiwal Jhang Faisalabad Okara Sub Total Others Grand Total

26970 22.55 18000 15.05 18150 15.17 9932 8.30 8000 6.69 6675 5.58 4510 3.77 4375 3.66 4110 3.44 3100 2.59 103822 86.79 15798 13.21 119620 100.00

173143 29.71 96073 16.48 81970 14.06 44114 7.57 31950 5.48 28651 4.92 19358 3.32 16035 2.75 15340 2.63 13885 2.38 520519 89.31 62327 10.69 582846 100.00


Sr. No


Quantity M. Tones 209,426 52,579 40,251 39,186 26,780 17,154 10,541 10,195 10,163 10,000 8,999 8,900 7,397 7,249 7,170 465,990 43,888


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Mexico Philippines Pakistan Brazil India Netherlands Peru Guatemala Israel Kiribati France South Africa Thailand BelgiumLuxembourg 15 China, Hong Kong SAR Sub Total

41.07 10.31 7.89 7.69 5.25 3.36 2.07 2.00 1.99 1.96 1.76 1.75 1.45 1.42 1.41 91.39 8.61

07 3.441 10.39 Exports Value (Million US Dollar) 4.626 441.10 1.12 0.54 3.87 11.505 34.12 6.79 4.758 18.448 3.613 24.71 86.045 8.71 9.71 4.56 3.393 46.114 509.60 + 68.712 4.64 13.74 1.39 4.065 17.163 18.407 20.000 22.42 2. Tones 197. No Countries Quantity M.878 100 LEADING MANGO IMPORTERS IN THE WORLD YEAR 1998 Sr.36 100 Year 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-2000 Percentage Change over last Quantity Tones 18360 25039 35834 37963 47602 + 25. Hong Kong SAR 2 Netherlands 3 United Arab Emirates 4 5 France Malaysia 6 Saudi Arabia 7 United Kingdom 8 Germany 9 Singapore 10 Belgium-Luxembourg 11 Japan 12 Portugal 13 Kuwait 14 Spain 15 Sub Total Others Total Source: FAO EXPORT OF MANGO FROM PAKISTAN 38.81 7.15 6.878 %AGE SHARE 1 United States of America China.Others Total Source: FAO 509.711 9.764 68.77 1.02 5.877 5.87 0.85 .

00 EXPORT OF MANGO FROM PAKISTAN 2000 -2001 JULY TO DECEMBER Sr.07 0. Sr.01 100.) 221286 140629 53617 76491 492023 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total July August September October November December .34 0.29 0.12 98.01 5.13 0. No.07 1. Karachi EXPORT OF MANGO FROM PAKISTAN 1999-2000 Qty in Tones Value in ³000´Rs.26 5. No.37 0.44 0. Months Quantity (M.99 1.65 0.73 1.71 7. Country 1999-2000 Quantity Value 36037 3335 2502 2411 824 509 311 239 210 175 161 150 139 61 57 47119 482 47601 %age Share 1 Dubai Oman 2 United Kingdom 3 Saudi Arabia 4 5 Qatar Bahrain 6 Singapore 7 Sri Lanka 8 France 9 Kuwait 10 Germany 11 Norway 12 Malaysia 13 USA 14 Afghanistan 15 Sub Total Others Grand Total 426326 40379 42932 38315 10272 6508 4880 3285 3387 3114 3756 2720 2324 2032 500 590730 9374 600104 75.31 0.50 0. Tones) 11715 6648 1838 3362 23563 Value (³000´ Rs.year Source: Export Promotion Bureau.

Quality of the fruit is very good. Juice moderately abundant. A description of few of them known widely is as follows: LANGRA: This variety range in size from medium to large. Size range from small to medium. with very sweet taste. Skin is medium in thickness. season (Early to mid Season) 1st to 3rd week of July. skin thin. SAMMAR BAHISHT: It got its name because of its pleasant flavor. SAMMAR BAHISHT CHAUSA: It is originated in a village Chausa in Malihabad. and taste is very sweet. Juice moderately abundant. Tehsil of Lucknow. Fruit quality is very good. fibreless. Taste is very sweet. Its color is yellow when it ripe. skin is thin. Yield is very high. pulp color pale. flavor pleasant to delicious. Juice moderate to abundant. It is also known as ³Kajri´ or ³Khajri´. Variety ranges from good to very best. . It¶s season is July month. pulp yellow. Ripening season is August (Late). smooth. AMAN DUSHERT: It drives its name from village between Lucknon and Malihabad where it was originated.Varieties of Mangoes There are 450 known varieties of Mangoes in Pakistan. RATAUL (ANWAR): It has originated in ³Shohra-e-Afaq´ garden in Rataul. Ripening season is July (Mid-Season). Season is August month. Size is medium. Ripening season July-August. fibreless. pulp is fibreless. Keeps well in storage. FAJRI KALAN: It has originated in Bihar and got its name after the name of lady Fajri who selected and brought up its trees. taste sweet with pleasant flavor. flesh firm. Skin is medium thick. Flesh firm. Fruit quality is very good. very sweet. Size is big. Now it has become popular in mango growing areas of Punjab because of its high flavor. Fibreless with pleasant flavor and sweet taste. skin greenish yellow. base rounded. It¶s skin colour is skin green and is thin. flavor very pleasant. Fruit quality range from good to very good.

But the process to produce the mango is not so simple and straightforward as it seems. Nowadays the problems. which are faced by the growers. pulp color yellowish cadium. Heavy yielder.4 cm.6 cm weight 5 oz. Fruit shape ovalish long. Although Government is trying to take efficient measures to solve this problem but this problem is still there and causing trouble for the growers. Weight 14 oz. which are most prominent. and then starts producing fruit. length 15cm. Surface is smooth. Fruit shape ovate. size small. Thickness 7. early season. breadth 8cm.9 cm thickness 5.7 cm breath 5. The base is rounded. Measures to Rectify the Disease: Many pharmaceutical s companies have made chemicals to protect the Mango tree from this disease but these pharmaceuticals are less effective to control this disease.SINDHRI: It is leading variety of Sindh. Water Shortage: The 2nd main problem which the growers are facing regarding the cultivation of mango is the shortage of water. Have small dots on its surface. Surface smooth. In this disease first of all the stem of the plant caught this disease and then it effects the mango fruit from top and within 10 to 15 days the whole fruit become destroys. Flavor is pleasantly aromatic. Similarly many fertilizers companies have invented fungus to protect the mango from this disease but their efforts are also not giving good results. Size is big. In our country this problem is very severe. include: Die back Disease: Nowadays a big problem which the mango growers are facing is the dieback disease. Skin color is lemon yellow when it ripe. A mango tree takes almost 5 years to produce fruit after its seed was put into the soil. . Skin color is sea green when unripe and yellow with raddish tinge when ripe. Major Growers Problems Mango is a fruit. There are some problems. taste is sweet. which has big demand both locally and internationally. It reaches almost 7 ft. length 7. NEELUM: Quality variety of Sindh.

The segment that we have selected in this regard: the export of mangoes from Southern Punjab. of our lacking. The awareness on he given in any of the following way: o Training. but we have not been able to exploit the potential. So. in order to acquire a competitive edge. Due to sheer ignorance. o Sends delegation of exporters and growers to other country. that famous all over the world due to its name in quality variety of mangoes. o Promotion and advertisements. o Seminars. The limited definition and points of the area that is being covered by in this regard are discussed below: y The horticultures sector development is the first priority. There is need of injecting and arising. since it¶s beginning. these are necessary to be followed by the companies. procedures and path. procedures and paths in order to export the products especially fruits (mango) in foreign markets.Scope of Problems (mangoes) Nature has bestowed us with the ability of producing high quality and superior variety of fruits and vegetables. y Social uplift factor and awareness is the core factor in this regard. y Research and development is another aspect. in this regard. particularly from this area of Multan. keeping this point of view. about how to handle this segment in order to work for social uplift of the society. By enhancing the facilities structure and providing proper services to the growers and exporters. . y The other major factor behind the success of any business or system is the creation follow up and stick ness to the standards and procedures. agriculture. the assurance of development in any business or system cannot be predicted. farmers and other associations must be developed and follow certain standards. This clearly seems that without the presence of certain standards. the growers. Unluckily in Pakistan. we can make sure that our country can be able to achieve higher target and aim from mango exports in the future. The government or any private entity must take initiative in his regard to develop a sort of research and development programmes for this mango export sector. That may be one of the reason. It paves a new way for the nation. quality and variety are also suffering. o Trade shows. Let¶s take the example of mango export. keeping in view the development of exports in Pakistan. no proper attention is denoted to research and development in any segments. awareness in the growers and exports. production.

The heaviest supply period is from May to June. y Minimum labeling. During the late summer (August/September) and in February supplies are less than during the winter season (November/December) and May. . The ethnic market specially in UK. packer and/or dispatcher). Also. the organization must take responsibility of promoting this brand through: advertisements. when exporters want to gain high market share. y Name of variety. Exporters must be given an option to market their product under their brand or use any other brand. often with superior taste and flavour. fibreless without turpentine smell. although a 4 kg net box (30 v 40 v 10) is common. y Origin of product. through grand image building measures. This sort of problem comes at the final stage of product development. international seminars etc. y Nature of the product if contents are not visible form outside. y Class. highly coloured. Market Analysis Product Portfolio Product Name: Mango Biological Name: Mangifera Indica Family: Anacardiacae Market Requirements The main stream trade requires fruits weighing from 350-500 gms. Packing y No real packaging standards exist. y Size expressed as minimum and maximum weight. y Number of fruit. Market Structure of European Union Mangoes are supplied all year round.y Brand development and awareness is becoming very important nowadays. but juicy and aromatic. y Identification (name and address of exporter. prefer smaller fruits. promotional schemes. bright colour (yellow / red / orange) with a good flesh. y Cartons are telescopic or single piece folding.

re-exporter most of the imports to other European Countries (Germany or Scandinavia).2 million tones. Recommended temperature is between +100C and +120C with a relative humidity of 90% to 95%. It is important for exporters to not that chemicals used post harvest should comply with EU MRL regulations. a well managed pre-harvest fungal program is necessary and a post-harvest hot-water fungal dip may also be desirable.8 billion. Germany. Belgium. The rap must not touch the fruit because rap±stains develops easily where anthracrose disease is likely to be a problem. One of the main reason is the shifts from Air to Sea freight with bulk deliveries on competitive prices. Caribbean or Kenya are more in demand by the ethnic markets in Europe and in other European countries e. On the other hand the leading import country. Fruit fly infestation can be controlled by a integrated pest control program and a hot water bath at harvest. .g. not only between the EU member states but also from the countries outside EU. or ECU 4. In 1995 total imports of fresh fruit amounted to (6. the Netherlands. The United Kingdom.3 million tones) meaning an increase of almost 4 percent compared to the preceding year which is indicative of as upward trend. Market Trends Mango is one of the tropical fruits which has experienced a tremendous development in recent years.The main importing European countries are the Netherlands. The temperature during the transport must be between +80C and +10 0C. PortugaAl and Spain. Imports from outside the EU into number states amounted to 7. Netherlands. Portugal is one of the biggest consumer markets for mangoes in Europe. The European Union Market Large quantities of fruit and vegetables are traded in the European Union.5 billion. How to Improve the Quality Mangoes should be harvested carefully avoiding shocks and mechanical bruising. Pakistan. The imports of fresh fruit into the EU are marked by higher than the fresh vegetable imports. The stable cutting operations also has to be done carefully. The total value represented by this volume was ECU 10. The main stream demand is for fruits of count 8 and 10 or smaller size (12) per 4 kg carton. Coloured mangoes are preferred to green varieties other varieties from India.

the United Kingdom. Ecuador. or via the Belgiar port of Antwerg and the Netherlands port of Ratterdan.5 million tones. October is the only month during which France finds difficulty in supply. Burkina Faso and South Africa. Major EU Markets for Mangoes France: France is the second largest importer of fresh fruit in the European Union. Mali. French imports increased from 12 thousand tones in 1994 to 17 thousand tones in 1995.2 million tones 7 percent. reddish colouration and lack of fibre. Belgium.8 billion. Brazil. Mangoes are available year round with supplies mainly originating in Cotedivorie. . while suppliers around the world are stepping up production. Total mango imports increased to 86 million tones (ECU 107 million) in 1995. Preliminary figures for beginning of 1996 indicate that the growth in imports of mangoes was continuing.3 billion. the Netherlands and Italy.The country importing the largest amount of fresh fruit is Germany with almost 5 million tones representing ECU 3. The growing sophistication of the trade and increased retailer and consumer awareness have opened gates to what many describe as one of the most promising growth areas in European fresh fruit trade. representing almost ECU 1.5 million tones annually. Mexico. with many countries receiving higher deliveries. The Kent variety is most popular in France as a whole because of its taste. France is the third largest mango market in Europe. Usually French imports from developing countries are brought in via the northern French port of Le Harve. These countries all import between 1 and 2. The entry of Austria. In 1995 total imports amounted to 2. Sweden and Finland in EU in 1995 meant an increase of imports of fresh fruits into EU of 1. Germany is followed at a distance by France. Mangoes: European mango imports are increasing steadily every year. An interesting product for exporters from developing countries is the growing import market for mangoes.

UK imports of fresh fruits show an upward trend. Mango imports have increased strongly reaching 29 thousand tones (ECU 35 million) in 1995.1 thousand tones) and Peru (1. South Africa (2.7 million tones.Netherlands: In 1995. These three months account for over half of annual imports. Very sweet Indian and Pakistani varieties are preferred by the Asian ethnic communities. The leading supplying country was Pakistan. According to traders.6 thousand tones). accounting for 17 percent.3 thousand tones).6 billion in 1995. due to supply by different sources mangoes are now available throughout the entire year. total mango imports increased to 15 thousand tones (ECU 17 million).3 thousand tones). Two segments can be distinguished in the UK market for mangoes. given the large volumes in which mangoes are now being shipped to Europe. The high season for mango imports in the UK is May through July (i. with imports amounting to 2. . Still Netherlands consumption is one of the largest among the EU countries after the United Kingdom. Imports from Mexico have increased remarkably over recent years. the United Kingdom is Europe¶s third largest importer of fresh fruit. United Kingdom: After Germany and France. Nevertheless. In 1995. Switzerland and Scandinavia. The first segment consist of ethnic people (mainly from India. Almost half of the imports are supplied by Non-EU countries (47%) developing countries supplied 651 thousand tones or ECU 408 million (38 percent in volume). transportation costs are what have kept mango prices high and thus unappealing for the average UK consumer. while the second segment consist of mainstream products (Florida varieties). India/Pakistan season). Both in volume and value. Mexico (3. Fresh fruits amounted to 1. the total fresh fruit imports into the Netherlands accounted for ECU 1 billion. Other major mango suppliers are USA (4. Most mangoes were supplied by Brazil (11 thousand tones).e. Pakistan and Caribbean) who know the product well. The second segment is still characterized by a lack of knowledge of the product (both at retail and consumer level) leading to poor presentation and over pricing at retail level. Air freight is more expensive than sea freight and less economical. Almost half of all imported mangoes are re-exported mostly to Germany but also to Austria.5 million tones or ECU 1.

3kgs. Now we calculate Cost/Benefit for Jeddah(Saudi Arabia). These boxes are designed in the nation language of importing countries.225 Rs.20 .144 Rs.12000 The same calculation is for other European countries and price. 4kgs and 5kgs.219 Rs. for Holland in Dutch and for Saudi Arabia in Arabic.10 Rs.3 £2. Even shipping in controlled atmosphere containers require careful adjustment and a degree of experimentation to avoid chilling injury or pre nature ripening of the fruit. if converted into Pak-Rs will as above.5 2kgs 1kgs 4000kgs Rs. Total C & F(Heathrow Airport) London Sales Price @ Rs.The problem with sea shipment is that mangoes are extremely sensitive to changes in temperature and thus easily damaged during long voyages. for France in French.6 Rs.10 Rs. controlled atmosphere and ripening facilities for mangoes and other fruits.20 Rs. The packing is available in 2kgs. Mango Cost ± Benefit Analysis: Mango is exported in corrugated cartons.5 Rs. To address this problem UK importers such as wealmoer have set up their own state-of-the-art cold storage.90/£ Profit Profit One Consignment Profit per Consignment 2kgs ³ One 2kgs Cost Rs.50 Rs. Price of Mango Packing/Grading Box Air Freight upto London Custom clearance etc. Cost Mango Packing/Grading Box 4kgs 4kgs 4kgs Rs. For UK in English. We calculate Cost/Benefit of mango export to UK.100 Rs. made out of fine cardboard and beautifully printed/colored.

Sales Price. we produce here the rate of air freight charges as under: Year UK Jeddah Air Freight 1kg . 2.336 @ SRL/Rs. Exchange Rate. therefore. y The above calculations are made on the basis of rates prevailing in 2001 mango season. because mango is perishable good and cannot be kept even for 2-3 days in stores. If.21/Rs. in comparison to London market. Because profit is more per kg and the investment is less for Jeddah market. Air Freight Charges: PIA is the main air carrier to lift the mango from to other destination. with the supplies from Pakistan to the destination market. the freight charges or the exchange rates can effect the cost/benefit ratio. Air Freight Rates. 3.23 Rs. Since.Air Freight upto Jeddah Custom clearance Total C & F Jeddah Sale Price Profit Profit One Consignment Profit per Consignment 4kgs 4kgs 4kgs 4kgs 1kg 4000kgs Rs. it can be rotten and the whole consignment be wasted.16 Rs.313 SRL. any change in rates price. the main affects came on the cost-benefit by virtue of the changes in above mentioned the factors that is 1.168 Rs. Sale Price: Sale price varies during the season. The reason is that mango is supplied in half-ripe stage to the foreign market and it starts ripening just after the arrival. mango price is almost stable for the last three four year. the supplies are floaded the price in the foreign markets drops down.5. The sale price factor is vulnerable factor. therefore the price fixed by PIA is also affecting the cost benefit.23000 Rs.5 Rs.75 y By above calculations we can examine that mango export to Jeddah is more beneficial as compare to London at above prevailing rates. if not sold some day or the following day.

1. yet the fluctuation during the season is always plus/minus one rupee in one of Saudi Riyal and plus/minus 2 rupees in case of Pound Sterling. The changes brings effect on the realization. Lack of selection and earmarking of Mango Gardens for export oriented production: . Sales tax No.)  C & F certificate  Invoice  Packing list  Air way Bill / Bill of lading  Bill of exchange  Certificate of origionfc MANGO EXPORT PROBLEMS and their Suggested Solutions & Outcomes 1. sale price in rupees.T.2001 2000 1999 1998 72 72 60 50 42 42 35 30 You can judge.O. N. The more the charges the lesser the profit. Export license 2. then banks will be ready to open his account and he will be able to do export from Pakistan to other countries. how the cost benefit is affected every year by the increase in air freight charges. Number Then he. DOCUMENTATION FOR EXPORT OF MANGO If an exporter provide following things. 3.C.  Request for E-form (N. Foreign Exchange Fluctuations: Although Pakistani Rupee is devaluing against Pound Sterling and Saudi Riyal.

involved in the growth of export oriented production and that what type of fertilizers are used and that what was the apparent condition of the fruit at the time of export. the grower do not want to export. In this way. fruit is wasted. then they must contact with those exporters. They pluck the mangoes when market is in their favour whether the mangoes is under or over ripen. y Proper movement of fruit would not be possible. Suggested Solution: Due to conventional markets. It is also necessary to know the proper and exact time of ripening of crop. either they sell the crop to the brokers or the broker their self buy the crop and sell them. who can better handle and sell their crop in the foreign market. It is sufficient that growers their self must take initiative in this regard. After that it would be possible to expect for a quality-oriented fruit. Certain important facts controlled and checked. Lack of record keeping for use of fertilizers and chemicals in Mango production for preparation of much needed product history for export purposes: . Practically. growers do not emphasize over the trading of mangoes in other countries. y Proper maintenance and use of chemical must be used like calcium carbonate. Open market selling of fruit results in heavy losses to the exporters because they are not aware of the proper procedures and steps. y If the fruit is picked/ploughed early. 2. so that the strength of crop at the exporting time must be maintained. Secondly for supply of mangoes in foreign markets. If.Nowadays. the growers do not attack importance to the specific requirements by the exporters. y Lack of proper taste. it would better and easier to keep in view. y Instead proper ripening. and to keep the grower informed about the strength and size of Mango. it happens. We suggest that gardens or areas should be earmarked to produce quality mangoes for exports by involving exporters and growers of the area. then its standard shaped and taste would not be maintained. by this way exporters face difficulties in grading and selection of right mangoes for the foreign markets. y No proper color is developed. that is the major factor in export.

using the traditional approach. No proper attention given to Standard Grading and Packing: . Outcomes y Premium quality of fruit would be achieved. there is a complete set-up of usage of fertilizers and chemicals and it must be kept in record. farmers are not well-in touch and informed about the complexities and the requirements in the export process. This problem is occurring only due to negligence of the growers and farmers for export oriented product. y Customize trend of product would be emerged. Rather they produce mangoes. y Sales would be boosted up. So that the buyers could be specified about the nature and type of the chemicals and fertilizers used in the growing of mangoes. Rectification y Awareness must be created among the farmers and growers. y More channel members communications would be generated. y The proper methods and procedures must be forwarded to the grower to achieve export oriented mango production. y The training program must be conducted for this purpose. then the delication and sensitivity of the step involved in the exporting of this item increases a lot. y Books are forwarded to the farmers. That is why the proper identification of various problems is not possible.Export itself is a sort of delicate job. In this area of Southern Punjab due to lack of awareness. One common problem is the each of record keeping for use of fertilizers and chemicals in mango production for preparation of much needed product history for export purpose. y More foreign exchange is earned. and when the export is of perishable items like mangoes. 3.

and75% to 95% moisture in the air is suitable for mangoes. may reach up to 52 0C and there fruits are wasted in hours. during transit and arriving at the destination. 4. has proved that 5. no proper cool chain system has been developed for the proper storage and delivery of fruits.50C to 9. both have got a common belief that. Pakistani mangoes are of various types. which results in the negligence of export orders. Why cool chain system is needed: Continuous research in America and other countries. especially in the region of Southern Punjab. that are not commonly taken into consideration. keeping the fruit(mango) in the cold room. Mangoes must be cooled down as soon as possible. 16 0C standard temperature is maintained. destroys the taste of fruit. Depending upon the market condition. Mangoes must be cleared out quickly and taken from the forms into suitable temperature in order to preserve their taste. Because the foreign people are very much conscious about the outlook of product. Lack of cool c hain systems for proper transportation of Mango to Airports: In our country. y French market people prefer to have green color mangoes. without being cool down. Or in storage. European people always like to have medium sized mangoes (350 to 450 grams). and research has told that most of fruits have got chilling Injury sports over them. The temperature of skin of mango. Suggested Solution . matching to that particular market. So. keeping in view this fact. y Far east people like to have large size fruits. followings tips must be taken into consideration.00C. shape & color. Along with these grading points and facts important stress must also be given over the packing and labeling of fruits. they become too much soft and shelf life is also squeeze. Before exporting of mangoes to various foreign markets. And the fruits that are kept and packed. when the fruits are in transit. Better outlooking product can fetch better price as well. by keeping them under 120C to 140C. These conditions and temperatures are for American mangoes. the exporter have to develop a system.Foreign people are very much conscious about various smaller facts. All Growers and exporters.

If the water is passed through ice. Problems of cargo space in PIA and difficulties faced to meet the delivery schedule: Air mode transportation is a sort of limited way for transferring the products and fruits and many exporters try to adopt this way of transportation. Netherland and Belgium etc. Germany. 2. within the fruits. then it wipes out the heat and temperature. Italy. y The water ponds in the fields. It is kept in the water ponds for few hours. planes and freighters. Out comes: The benefits of keeping the mangoes in the water ponds are as follows: 1. where no other option is available except air transports like United Kingdom. and slow down the ripening process. As the fruit is brought to the fields. no other option is available. proper cool chain systems and standards must be developed not only at the governmental level. 5. which is the second source of transportation. it is only from Karachi. in this way many local exporters have to face major problems. .65. regarding the transfer of their products to the foreign markets. Large amount of mangoes are exported to the Fareast and Gulf countries through launches and ships. y The cool storage houses and y Cold storage transit carriers. but also private sector must take initiative in this regard. before being packed into the boxes. Normally delivering one kg of fruit to Europe costs Rs. The best way to take fruit in suitable temperature is to pass them through fresh water.For this purpose. The dust over the fruit is washed and germs of various diseases are also wiped out. attractive and eatable for foreign people. In Southern Punjab that is the major growing areas of mango. France. So. The cool chain system includes. that makes the fruits. no direct flights are available from any station for the transfer of fruits directly from their markets. This way is relatively expensive and only suitable when.

Also.A second problem in this regard is that the schedule of flights is also not proper and matched with the specification of the demands and seasonal requirements. on information regarding the demand. a massive amount of fruit cannot be shipped in a single time. commercial councilors of Pakistan Embassy must take initiative to pass. Normally in a week PIA offers two flights to Karachi not to foreign market that are also not separate cargo or freighters. Outcomes: By adopting these steps and procedures. will be saved and preserved and high foreign exchange can be earned. Now at the time there in that region. but the normal passenger carriers. So. due to improper handling. Large amount of fruit that is destroyed and wasted in local market and during transit. the demand of Pakistani Mango develops. between the various senior officials of the posted in foreign country. Suggested Solution: This factor is developed through a proper network and coordination of activities. it saves lots of time and cost. must also be increased. And proper schedule is maintained. Say. type and amount of fruits needed in that very region to Pakistan that is an exporting country. Out comes: . Through a well developed teams and network of market officials. Also. According to a recent survey. Rectification: For this purpose PIA. Lack of information on specific demand from countries by commercial councilors: This is also a major problem that occurs in our country especially in this region due to lack of cooperation of foreign officials and local councilors of both exporting and importing countries. the out comes will be fabulous. the amount of existing flights from other stations like Lahore and Karachi. the exporting country must remain in touch in this regard. carrying and high temperatures. for the direct export of fruits to various markets. wastage of fruits is a common experience. must have to design such schedule that it must offer flights in the southern Punjab region. almost 50% to 60% of fruit is wasted in local markets only which is alarming. that meets the requirements of the exporters. 6. Also. in the specific region of world during a specific season.

EPB. Suggestion and recommendations given by visitors would also be a source for improving the existing flaws in the businesses. has not have a valid web-site for this purpose. but it is operating at a limited level. due to timely consideration. Lack of authenticated information by Pakistani Exporters about the taste. stockholders and employers of the business. Non ± availability o f web site with EPB to facilitate access to required information by all concerned: The web site and networking are important tools. and production data of competitors and also the packing and marketing techniques in the developed countries This problem also exists due to non-coordination and cooperation of Pakistani Exporters. The web-site must be generated and developed in such a way that it not only covers all sorts of topics. Many many new exporters and grower. due to effective and efficient coordination and cooperation of activities among the commercial councilors of various regions. No doubt currently company has launched a fascinating web-site. Export Promotion Bureau. generation. 8. Large amount of wastage is reduced and foreign exchange is earned.Out comes of these improvements are apparent. authentication. that want to enter in this sort of business could have the access to the data about existing features and markets of the fruits and vegetables. Out comes: The proper provision and launching of web-site will provide great ease to different business men growers and other parties involving in this very segment. areas and information about all regions and the country¶s products and services. 7. production and . Registration and data collection would be possible. but also the foreign countries and regional information must also be mentioned in that web-site. The better and easy access to the information would be possible. The exporters mainly try to hesitate the sharing of information about taste. sharing and transfer of information among the customers. size. but also be helpful for the foreign officials. and location of fruit demanding region. Another major benefit would be that exporting trend would boast up. This web-site would not be a source of information for local people. nowadays for the communication. recommendation. parties and importers. the only institution regarding the promotion of exports of various products. and has not have that much scope and information that is required. size.

The awareness in terms of product better quality products and fruits.preferences of the customers. that is normally the capacity is 12kgs. also it used for the transfer of fruits to the Gulf and Fareast countries. before shipping the product. through air transport. We can say that a lot of secrecy is maintained. are also not up to the mark. Wooden crates are normally used for local transfer of fruits to the wholesale or direct customers. Rectification: The main and the most easy way is to create awareness among the various exporters in the country. so no proper attention is given during the carrying and transfer of material that provides a great damage to the product. One thing is that in developed countries. handling and packing must be done in a efficient and effective way. . y As crates are hard from outside. In Pakistan. through launches. This condition has got a positive aspect on one side. but filling up to 15kgs is a normal practice. two types of crates are used: y Wooden crates y Paper (corrugated) crates. This lack of cooperation in our country leads to the discouragement of exports of fruits and vegetables over the last few years. no special attention and emphasize is given upon it. this is considered as a routinized task. that leads to the backward trend of exports. especially in Pakistan the awareness about export oriented fruit product is very low. The good packing not only preserve the fruit. and we can say in this region. but also lead to severe negative outcomes. we just have a look over the American and European exporters. As far as packing is concerned. there sharing of information between two or more companies is a common habit. the case with the method adopted for the purpose of packing and marketing techniques used in developed countries. Similarly. but also can match the eye of customer. Problems: y Most of the time there crates are over filled. especially in the very region of Southern Punjab. y Crates are made of rough wooden material that cause the hurdle in the movement of fruits. Due to this reason there people are successful. rather it is considered as a positive aspect for the organization. One party cannot try to disclose its information to the second party. If.

that reduce the strength of box. Recommendation: The boxes used in exporting of fruits must be made up of long fibres. Along with that no planning and feasibility plans are conducted etc. that result in the uncertain out comes. According to that boxes must be of 8-10 inches depth and keep mangoes in them in such a way that the head or cap side of mango is in ripened direction.8 & 10 kilograms of mangoes.5. proper passage for air circulation must be provided. For air transport usually 2 to 5 kgs boxes are used. that could resist the pressure and weight of mangoes. that trend is using marketing plans and techniques are discouraging. available in different sizes. The corners of the boxes must be properly shaped. preferences and habits of the market people. Along with the creation of methods certain other educational awareness must also be provided to the people involved in this very business. so that there could exert the specified amount of pressure during carrying and transfer of the product from one place to another. exporters and stakeholders. y The samples used in this regard are not so much hard.4. education and by giving incentives and subsidies to the growers. The Pakistani way of packing the fruits is most suitable for this purpose. a special craft paper must be used for filling these boxes. The awareness can be generated through training programes. Normally 2. there crates are used. Problems: y Normally the light material is used in the manufacturing of there boxes. Corrugated (Crates Boxes) There are normally used for exporting purposes. Marketing Techniques: One important fact is that lies behind the failure of this business. Our exporters and growers forward the fruits to the markets without having knowledge of the customers. .9. Also. Rectification: First and the most important thing is the provision of awareness to the exporters and growers. y Air movement slots are very less in these boxes.

Normally subsidies are offered during peak season and cogent the volume of business conducted. Increasing freight charges every years: .f 306-1998. by sketching a proper view of markets. pricing and promotion of the product. that is causing great hurdle for the discouragement of the business. demand and supply the proper plan about the freights and subsidy is designed. would give a boast to trade.e. a heavy foreign exchange can be earned. handling. Also. Out comes: Many many business centers and economists have changed their destiny through a well-developed support and cooperation from the government regarding the provision of subsidies to the exports and other parts. Unfortunately.Secondly in Multan certain marketing companies must be opened. the Pakistani government.f. Here in our country especially in this vary region through the introduction of subsidy. carrying. attached with any sort of business. 10. that should be responsible for handling the activities like freight settlement. where unemployment rate is high. government must start to initiative. European and American countries have got a common practice of offering number of subsidies to their businessmen and other people. Rectification: Simple is that. Out comes: The out comes for there will be fascinating through proper packing and marketing techniques and having strong cooperation can lead to good businessmen activity in the region. Government usually takes up initiative for this purpose. buy offering subsidies to the exporters. 30 -6-1998: Subsidy provision is a strong tool for the development of particular business or a segment. Non-availability of freight subsidy w. which results in large revenue and foreign exchange can also be earned in this regard. in the form of consession and other sources. especially for the very region (southern Punjab). is failed in providing subsidies for this very segment of businessmen w. 11.e.

through if proper planning and control of freight charges. the government is not able to handle the freight charged by the different air craft companies. only few parties that have got a strong base or support are only entering and running the business. one can expect.35. through which.60-65 and nowadays it is reaching up to Rs. the massive trend of exporting of fruits trade. the freight for transfer of one kg of mangoes was almost Rs. this region can earn a huge foreign exchange for whole country. The high freight leads to high cost of packing handling and carrying etc. The situation is amazing and attractive that banks and financial institutions cannot provide finances to the grower and exporter of mangoes. Rectification: The government is the only authority that can play a major or a key role in this regard. Also PIA has got a sort of monopoly in the transfer of goods to the foreign markets. so no-proper attention is given to the high freights being charged. 12. previously. that is the major crop lying in this region and almost every grower. We can say that these companies are those that can have the ability to absorb certain amount of shock and resistance.50. especially Mango. also not huge amount is generated through self-developed sources. that is not beneficial for the exporter. Out comes: Through managing and controlling the freight rates. . broker and exporter is linked with this business. In 1998. The grower and exporter have to work over his/her own or self-developed sources.70. one cannot expect the flourishment and encouragement of exports. So. many of the growers and exporters perceive this segment as a greater risk coping section. it must design such policies. Due to this reason. Banks and financial institutions are the only source for the running and development of any kind of business through the provision of finances. keeping in view all there freights. the freight was almost Rs. Especially in Southern Punjab. must concentrate in such a way to develop a positive aspect of this fruit exporting business. Non-Availability of Finance from banks. the govt. that are not valid and reliable. Small parties and businessmen cannot enter in this segment of business.Instead of providing subsidies to the exporters. these high increasing freights trends is controlled. So. in 1999 it raised up to Rs. there are less part¶s involved in this very business. then 2000. Through a well-developed network of activating and controlled rate of freights.

a latest scanning machine is needed that is not present at the Multan airport. division selection and packing of fruits (mangoes). in order to have to final check of the product being launched for export. proper grading selection and flaws in the packing can be traced out and removed that would contribute a lot in the promotion of the product. regarding the export of quality product. Now for all these activities. Outcomes Outcomes would be apparent by the introduction of finance system from banks. So. Non availability of scan -machine at Cargo Terminal Multan Airport: This is also one of the major problems regarding the exports of mangoes. this very segment of business is bit different form others. Rectification Banks and other financial institutions must fix a sort of quota or limit system in this regard. This scanning machine is much severely needed. European and other markets people are too much conscious about the shape. in terms of black spots. So. many small exporters would be able to enter the business and earn foreign exchange for the country. Rectification The government must also take initiative through this regard. but it can also be enhanced by developing some sort of policies that encourage the financial assistance in the running of this very mango export business in the region. . No doubt. to the exporters or importers. Outcomes Through the introduction of this machine. checked. 13.One more point is that no letter of credit is opened during the transaction. graded and selected. handling injuries. cleanliness grading. and to pin point if any sort of deficiency is being observed in this regard. The officers must have the authority to leave that pack out of the consignment. It is a big machine. both the parties are on risk over the wastage and theft of shipment or consignment. This promotion would ultimately lead to increase in sales and increase in sales would lead to higher foreign exchange. colour. Similarly no insurance is offered for the back-up purposes. structure. chilling injuries and others. it must be overlooked by the officers at the airport. It must collect funds or arrange a machine through its own official resources. through which at a time a large number of boxes are passed.

the exporters have to arrange. where no direct flights are available for the foreign markets despite of having a mango growing area. Non-Availability of Transport Facilities to Exporters The mode of transportation can be selected according to the requirement of the market. improper handling and carrying of consignments. sort of local transports for the transfer of goods to Lahore or Karachi Airports from where direct flights are available. 15. Let¶s have brief look over the problems that exporters face in these regions with each mode of transportation. Pakistan International Airlines has still bounded the exporters to attach an indemnity bond along with the other pre-consigning documents. Outcomes y New exporters would take initiative to enter the business. and the organization is not restricted to pay any sort of damages to the exporters. Indiscriminate PIA Indemnity Bond As already told that despite of improper schedule of flights. y By the entrance of new parties.14. the aircraft company is totally responsible for the safe and secure delivery of the products. Rectification Proper indemnity bond is designed or if possible such system or network is developed that this bond is removed from the exporting documents. PIA must design such policies that it could pay against the loss or damage to the consignment to the exporter. sales share would increase which is a healthy positive aspect. Without determining exact way or mode of transport for transferring of the product (mango) lead to heavy damage to the consignment. While this case is not in any other airline services of the world. . higher freights no subsidies. y More employment is generated. There. y The foreign exchange would also be boosted up. that in case of any damage or loss to the consignment during transit PIA would not be responsible in any case. So. Especially in this area of Southern Punjab.

y Cold boxes must be developed for the transfer of fruits. Outcomes y Heavy amount of wastage of fruits is reduced. This option is not available for Multan. . Rectification y Availability of direct flights from Multan. y Good quality of fruit can be maintained in the fruit market. For Europe it takes 10 days. Now a day. that cause damage to the consignment.By Road Transport Through this mode the production is transferred to the next station. By Sea or Ship Transport This way is a bit cheaper then air transport but more time is consumed for the transfer of goods. Also the system railway is not up to the mark and trust worthy. for Hong Kong 18 to 20 days. By Rail Transport This mode is not so much applicable now a day because stations are not located at suitable places. This method is discouraged in Multan now a days. In Multan no direct flights are offered. y In caser of absence of flights proper road transport must be arranged and set up must be developed. are not properly covered and over filled. This means that the perishable fruits like mango must be delivered in cold boxes so as to retain their freshness and life. the trucks used. In Multan normally the exporters prefer this method. and extra time is needed for the transfer of product. Air Transport This way is normally used for exporting purpose and also one of the expensive way only used when no other option is available. y Production and sales both will be increased due to proper transfer facilities. for Singapore 12 days. y Higher prices can be charged that lead to higher return. Apart from the condition of roads is not good that also cause extra damage to the consignment. y Air conditioned rail boxes must be developed for the transfer of such perishable items.

y Easily availability would be possible. Along with these there exist. That causes major hurdle in the quality and wellequipped packing of the fruit. Outcomes y Through proper packing place. Non-Availability of Packing Place to Exporters Packing is the most important place regarding the transfer and export of the fruits. the proper availability of packing space is common problem. especially in this region (southern Punjab). For this purpose different exports of the related field (Mango). Rectification This problem can be easily removed by the introduction of packing places at commercial level. So. y More packs are delivered in a shorter time. The detail of there is presented below: Importance of Training: The importance of training is remote in our country. Future Plans of Mangoes: By closely observing the problems. Future plans have been developed both by government and private level. must develop formal training programme structure. also consultancy should be provided to the exporters regarding any problem related to the export of mangoes. this important task can be achieved in a better way that will result in good future prospects.16. some future prospects and plans that can be adopted in order to modify and promote the mango export business. solution of problems and out come of these problems many important facts come into our mind. in future. must be sent to the fields. That why most of the growers and exporters lack various skills require to adopt while exporting some product to the foreign countries. . the exporter must provide large shads. For getting better results. warehouses. godowns and stores to the labour. it requires keen attention and specific environment. In Southern Punjab especially in Multan. or grower and exporter must themselves take initiatives to hire or buy a place to carryout the business. both government and private sector.

Marketing Agencies: In Pakistan unluckely. then one thing would be clear that there nations have developed a formal systematic network of activities involved in the agricultures development process. labeling. There can help in building a coordination between exporter and government. When this sort of environment is generated. Future is the era of marketing. clearing and sale of mangoes. Risk Sharing: Mango export is a bit risky job and no one except few parties that have got strong financial base can export this fruit. . Also. Proper financing must be available.Value ± chain Development: If. one can be able to get more and more share from the market. Also these agencies will help the exporters in identifying new exporting markets. Pakistan also can fetch better result. Role of Cooperation: The governmental agencies can do a lot in this regard. The concept of value-chain must be involved. we just have a look over the agricultures set-up in some European and American countries. The government and different institutions involved like PIA must collectively take initiative in order to reduce the risk on the part of exporters only. Certain Marketing Agencies must be developed that can assist exporters in priority services like handling packaging. so that small exporters can also take part in the activity. The main theme of their business strategy is to increase exports and earn more from foreign market. Along with there: y Special areas must be selected for export oriented production. especially in this very segment of exports of fruits and vegetables. But this cannot be possible if the government and the private sectors takes initiative in this regard. y The time of pesticide spray and fertilizer and all other intermittent procedures must be fixed. PIA must introduce certain incentives and loose down its policies related to the mango export. by following these formal procedures. no proper attention is given to marketing and promoting the products. then one can say that many other smaller problems will disappear.

Providing Storage Capacity in Airports: As we all know that Mango is a very perishable item and it has life of few days so a large share of mango ripe at Airport before it is exported because there is no cool place at Airport to store it and it ripe in hot weather and become export less.Suggestions and Recommendations After exploring the problems relating to the export of Mangoes and Dates from Pakistan. Increasing Awareness in International Markets through Marketing: As we all know that marketing plays an important role in increasing awareness of the product. Combine Efforts by the Governmentand the Exporters: If Pakistan want to increase its exports of Mangoes then a combined effort will be required by the government and the exporters to explore the problems and then work jointly to solve those problems which will give benefits to exporters in term of increase in their exports and Government in terms of greater foreign exchange earnings. So Government must play as important role by advertising our high quality mangoes at international level which will help the exporters to explore and capture new markets. Increasing Number of Flights: PIA should in consultation with Government increase number of flights in the foreign countries which will help the exporters to export these perishable fruits quickly and within their ripen time to foreign countries. we suggest some of the ways that will help the exporters to increase their exports and to earn foreign exchange for the country. Exploring New Markets: The Government and the exporters must also explore new markets for our Mangoes to earn foreign exchange which will be beneficial for our country. In this regard Export Promotion Bureau can play an important role. So the CAA (Civil Aviation Authority) must provide some cool place so that the ripening of fruit will be protected. Conclusion .

the Gracious who helped us in most crucial times as Well and enabled us to complete this report. few flight space for the export. Contents Executive Summary INTRODUCTION TOTAL PRODUCTION OF MANGO IN PAKISTAN EXPORT OF MANGO LEADING MANGO EXPORTERS IN THE WORLD YEAR 1998 EXPORT OF MANGO FROM PAKISTAN Varieties of Mangoes Major Growers Problems Scope of Problems (mangoes) Market Analysis Market Structure of European Union Major EU Markets for Mangoes Mango Cost ± Benefit Analysis: DOCUMENTATION FOR EXPORT OF MANGO MANGO EXPORT PROBLEMS and their Suggested Solutions & Outcomes Future Plans of Mangoes: Suggestions and Recommendations Conclusion Acknowledgement ALLAH.g. and there are also some other problems like non availability of cool chain for Mangoes etc. lack of storage capacity at the Airports etc. There are some problems which are created due to non-cooperative attitude of Government in exporting these fruits from the country e. And there is also great demand of Mango in the International Market. which are exporting these fruits.Pakistan is Alhamdulillah having the best varieties of Dates Mangoes. . But unfortunately there are only few exporters. So in order to solve these problems a combined effort will be required by the exporters and the Government to solve these problems and to increase exports which will generate high foreign exchange earning and it will help the economy to boast. Also there is need to explore new markets of dates and mangoes and the role of Export Promotion Bureau is to create awareness in the International Markets by marketing of these products in the International Markets.

Ghazi Ahmad Hassam Khokar. He has always been kind and expertise in helping and guiding us for the preparation and completion of this report. Muhammad Umar (Deputy Director EPB). AUTHOR . We are very thankful and appreciate Mr. Muhammad Arif Saleem for providing us an opportunity for gaining practical experience and knowledge about export of Mango and problems of the exports. Haji Allah Bux & Sons and others for co-operation and providing us best information for the Export of Mango. Exporters Khawaja Abdul Wahid. Naseem Khan Tareen.We are thankful to Mr. Mr. Mr.

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