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Mechanics: The oldest physical science that deals with both stationary and moving bodies under the

influence of forces.

Fluid mechanics: The science that deals with the behavior of fluids at rest (fluid statics) or in motion (fluid

dynamics), and the interaction of fluids with solids or other fluids at the boundaries.

Fluid dynamics: Fluid mechanics is also referred to as fluid dynamics by considering fluids at rest as a special

case of motion with zero velocity.

Hydrodynamics: The study of the motion of fluids that can be approximated as incompressible (such as

liquids, especially water, and gases at low speeds).

Hydraulics: A subcategory of hydrodynamics, which deals with liquid flows in pipes and open channels.

Gas dynamics: Deals with the flow of fluids that undergo significant density changes, such as the flow of

gases through nozzles at high speeds.

Aerodynamics: Deals with the flow of gases (especially air) over bodies such as aircraft, rockets, and

automobiles at high or low speeds.

What is Fluid

• A fluid deforms continuously under the influence of a shear stress, no matter how small.

• In solids, stress is proportional to strain, but in fluids, stress is proportional to strain rate.

• When a constant shear force is applied, a solid eventually stops deforming at some fixed

strain angle, whereas a fluid never stops deforming and approaches a constant rate of strain.

Normal stress: The normal component of a force acting on a surface per unit area.

Shear stress: The tangential component of a force acting on a surface per unit area.

Pressure: The normal stress in a fluid at rest.

Zero shear stress: A fluid at rest is at a state of zero shear stress.

1 © DR NIKHIL PRAKASH

The normal stress and shear stress at

the surface of a fluid element. For

fluids at rest, the shear stress is zero

and pressure is the only normal stress.

free surface, and it expands to fill the

entire available space.

Gas: The vapor phase of a substance is customarily called a gas when it is above the critical

temperature.

Vapor: Usually implies that the current phase is near a state of condensation.

Viscous flows: Flows in which the frictional effects are significant.

Inviscid flow regions: where viscous forces are negligible compared to inertial or pressure forces.

2. External Vs Internal

External flow: The flow of an unbounded fluid over a surface such as a plate, a wire, or a pipe.

Internal flow: The flow in a pipe or duct if the fluid is completely bounded by solid surfaces.

Incompressible flow: If the density of flowing fluid remains nearly constant throughout (e.g., liquid flow).

Compressible flow: If the density of fluid changes during flow (e.g., high-speed gas flow)

Laminar flow: The highly ordered fluid motion characterized by smooth layers of fluid. The flow of high-

viscosity fluids such as oils at low velocities is typically laminar.

Turbulent flow: The highly disordered fluid motion that typically occurs at high velocities and is characterized

by velocity fluctuations. The flow of low-viscosity fluids such as air at high velocities is typically turbulent.

Transitional flow: A flow that alternates between being laminar and turbulent.

Forced flow: A fluid is forced to flow over a surface or in a pipe by external means such as a pump or a fan.

Natural flow: Fluid motion is due to natural means such as the buoyancy effect

2 © DR NIKHIL PRAKASH

6. Steady versus Unsteady Flow

7. One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Flows

Surroundings: The mass or region outside the system

Boundary: The real or imaginary surface that separates the system from its surroundings.

• The boundary of a system can be fixed or movable.

• Systems may be closed or open.

3 © DR NIKHIL PRAKASH

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