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Terms of Reference
Consultant on the Scope and Nature of Trafficking In Persons (TIP) in Jamaica

Trafficking in persons is often referred to as a form of modern day slavery. Every year,
thousands of men, women and children are trafficked in their own countries and abroad.
Trafficking in Persons is a multi-billion dollar industry in which transnational organized crime
networks take advantage of globalization, modern telecommunications and computer technology
to exploit vulnerable populations, especially women and children.

On the 29th September 2003, Jamaica ratified the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish
Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations
Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (“the Palermo Protocol”). Article 3,
paragraph (a) of the Palermo Protocol defines Trafficking in Persons as the recruitment,
transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or
other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a
position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the
consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. States
Parties to the Protocol, including Jamaica, are required to take effective steps to criminalize
trafficking and to protect victims of trafficking.

Jamaica has been classified as a country of origin, transit and destination for human trafficking.
Persons in vulnerable populations in Jamaica, especially women and children, are among the
victims of trafficking. Investigations conducted over the last five years have revealed that
traffickers have been exploiting our air, land and sea space to carry out their criminal activities.
Jamaica has therefore taken steps to address this crime through the establishment of specific
institutional arrangements including the establishment of the National Task Force Against
Trafficking in Persons (NATFATIP) and the development of a Trafficking in Persons Unit in the

Jamaica Constabulary Force. There has also been the enactment of the Trafficking in Persons
(Prevention, Suppression and Punishment) Act, 2007 which was recently amended.

In 2007, the (NATFATIP) under the Citizens Security and Justice Programme 1 (CSJP 1)
sponsored the Inter American Development Bank (IDB) commissioned a Study which was
conducted by Dr. Leith Dunn and Ms. Sybil Ricketts on Human Trafficking For Sexual
Exploitation and Forced Labour in Jamaica”. The main objective of the overall consultancy was
to provide a comprehensive assessment of the scope of sexual exploitation and Trafficking in
Persons and make recommendations on how to mainstream data gathering.

The National Task Force Against Trafficking in Persons (NATFATIP) acknowledges that there
is currently an absence of any new comprehensive or cohesive data analysis on TIP. It recognizes
the need for further research to determine the current scope and nature of Trafficking in Persons
in Jamaica and any emerging trends, particularly in light of the efforts made by NATFATIP in
the last two years to increase public awareness, train practitioners, reform legislation and
strengthen law enforcement and prosecutorial capacity.

The consultant will conduct a comprehensive data analysis on Trafficking in persons. The
objectives of this research are:
 To inquire into the extent and nature of TIP in Jamaica, focussing mainly on
trafficking for the purposes of sexual exploitation, forced labour, domestic servitude,
sex tourism and organs.
 To gather any relevant information on gaps or deficiencies in Jamaica’s anti-
trafficking in persons’ efforts with a view to identifying the elements for a
comprehensive national Anti-trafficking in persons’ policy.
 To inquire into the circumstances that put persons, especially women and children, at
risk of trafficking.
 To inquire into domestic, regional and international best practices on the prevention
and prohibition of human trafficking, the criminal prosecution of traffickers, and the
protection of victims of trafficking.

 To inquire into policy and practice in Jamaica measured against anti-trafficking
human rights standards especially in respect of the :
i. Identification and treatment of trafficking victims
ii. Monitoring, investigation and prosecution of traffickers
iii. Extent and quality of statutory and specialist services and accommodation for
 To inquire into the causes of human trafficking relating to Jamaica focusing
especially on the role of demand for sexual exploitation and child trafficking for
forced labour.


To achieve the above objective, the activities of the consultant will include, but not be limited to,
the following:
1) Preliminary Research Activities.
The Consultant will:
a) Conduct a desk review of all documents relating to TIP in Jamaica including
b) Conduct review of legislation in other commonwealth jurisdictions with a view to
identifying appropriate methods of combating trafficking in persons in the
Jamaican context. The client has rights to posit any other document they deem

2) Conduct consultations with key stakeholders to see how data is shared across sectors
and identify any overlaps in the TIP programme design and implementation among
entities. Consultation groups should include, but not be limited to:
a) MDAs with interest/responsibility in combating TIP.
b) Community Based Organisations
c) Non Governmental Organizations
d) Public
These consultations should utilize expert interviews, focus groups and questionnaire
surveys to ensure adequate information is gathered.

Based on the above the Consultant should focus on identifying:
 Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to the success of the
Prevention, Prosecution and Protection (3Ps) processes;
 the current vulnerable groups and any shifts taking place regarding the
vulnerability of persons within each group;
 any emerging groups that may become vulnerable to trafficking;
 critical shortcomings in Jamaica’s anti-corruption efforts;
 push factors for trafficking and opportunities for empowerment of
vulnerable populations, (in order to reduce the likelihood of being
 effective reporting mechanisms and propose the most practical method
of facilitating reports by members of the public;
 Effective communication strategies for building public awareness and
trust in anti-TIP programmes

1. Detailed work plan with budget within five (5) working days of signed agreement.
2. Report within twenty five (25) working days of receiving approval of work plan on
desk and literature review of regional and international legislation and options that
could provide best practice approaches that are able to be integrated into the Jamaica
3. Report on consultation process and research findings within thirty (30) working days
of receiving approval of desk review.
4. Overall Draft Report for review and comments within twenty (20) days of receiving
approval of consultation and research report and should include:
(i) Data analysis on gaps in the trafficking in persons processes to include
amendments necessary to facilitate an efficient and effective process in the
(ii) Push factors for trafficking and opportunities for empowerment of vulnerable
(iii) Data analysis on the relationship among MDAs and how information is shared.

(iv) The effectiveness among entities with responsibility in the procedure/process
of combating TIP.
(v) Proposed communication strategies to be employed
5. Final report within ten (10) days of receiving reviews of draft report.

The Consultant must have a Masters Degree in Public administration, Business Administration,
or one other Social Science with no less than eight (8) years experience in conducting research
and data analysis. The experience in conducting research in the security, or justice sector would
be an asset.


Consultancy not expected to exceed ninety (90) working days.


The Consultant will report directly to:
Chairperson, NATFATIP
c/o Ministry of Justice
11th floor, NCB (South) Towers, 2 Oxford Road
Kingston 5

The consultant will meet with the following:

a. Chair, NATFATIP within three (3) working days
b. NATFATIP Policy Sub-committee within five (5) working days
For briefing sessions to discuss the consultancy and consultants work plan


Payments will be issued upon approval of the deliverables by the Chair NATFATIP