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Kabir (IAST: Kabīr) was a 15th-century

Indian mystic poet and saint, whose writings, according to some
scholars, influenced Hinduism's Bhakti movement. Kabir's verses
are found in Sikhism's scripture Guru Granth Sahib. His most
famous writings include his dohas or couplets.
The birth of Kabir remains unclear. Authorities disagree on
both when he was born and who his parents were. According to
unverifiable information, his mother was a Brahman who became
pregnant after a visit to a Hindu shrine. Because she was unwed,
she abandoned Kabir, who was found and adopted by
a Muslim weaver. That his early life began as a Hindu there is
little doubt, but he was later strongly influenced by
a Hindu ascetic, Ramananda.
Kabir is known for being critical of
both Hinduism and Islam, stating that the former was misguided
by the Vedas, and questioning their meaningless rites of initiation
such as the sacred thread and circumcision respectively. During
his lifetime, he was threatened by both Hindus and Muslims for
his views. When he died, both Hindus and Muslims had claimed
him as theirs. (There was a dispute whether
to cremate or bury his corpse).
Kabir suggested that True God is with the person who is on
the path of righteousness, and thus considered all creatures on
earth as his own self, and was passively detached from the affairs
of the world. Kabir's legacy survives and continues through
the Kabir panth ("Path of Kabir"), a religious community that
recognises him as its founder and is one of the Sant Mat sects.
Its members are known as Kabir panthis.


Childhood & Early Life
 The details regarding Kabir’s birth are obscure. Some sources favor 1398
as the year of his birth while others state that he was born around 1440.
 According to one legend about him, he was born to a Brahmin unwed
mother in Varanasi by immaculate-conception who then abandoned the
newborn infant. A childless Muslim couple is said to have adopted the
baby and raised him as their own. Howeve,r modern historians state that
there is no historical evidence to support this legend. According to the
Indologist Wendy Doniger, Kabir was born into and raised by a Muslim
 Kabir grew up to be a spiritually inclined young man and is widely
believed to have become a disciple of the Bhakti poet-sant Swami
Ramananda in Varanasi. The Swami was known for devotional
Vaishnavism with a strong bent to monist Advaita philosophy and he
taught that God was inside every person and everything.


Sanr Kabir Das Backround
The years of Kabir's birth and death are unclear. Some historians
favor 1398–1448 as the period Kabir lived, while others favor 1440–

Many legends, inconsistent in their details, exist about his birth family
and early life. Kabir was picked up and then raised by a Muslim family.
However, modern scholarship has abandoned these legends for lack of
historical evidence, and Kabir is widely accepted to have brought up in a
family of Muslim weavers.

Some scholars state that Kabir's parents may have been recent converts
to Islam, they and Kabir were likely unaware of Islamic orthodox
tradition, and are likely to have been following the Nath (Shaiva Yogi)
school of Hinduism. This view, while contested by other scholars, has
been summarized by Charlotte Vaudeville as follows:

Circumcised or not, Kabir was officially a musalman, though it appears

likely that some form of Nathism was his ancestral tradition. This alone
would explain his relative ignorance of Islamic tenets, his remarkable
acquaintance with Tantric-yoga practices and his lavish use of its
esoteric jargon [in his poems]. He appears far more conversant with
Nath-panthi basic attitudes and philosophy than with the Islamic
orthodox tradition.
— Charlotte Vaudeville on Kabir (1974),

Kabir is widely believed to have become the first disciple of the

Bhakti poet-saint Swami Ramananda in Varanasi, known for
devotional Vaishnavism with a strong bent to monistAdvaita philosophy
teaching that God was inside every person, everything. It is widely
believed that the Hindu saint Ramananda had clearly refused to accept
him as his disciple officially but Kabir very cleverly accepted his
disciplehood by covering himself in a rag and lying on the steps that led
the Ganges where Ramananda was bound to go for a holy dip in the
river before dawn : the saint accidentally touched him with his foot and


habitually cried "Rama,Rama!", having touched him with feet and
quoting Hinduism's most holy words (that became Kabir's "guru-mantra")
were enough, even for the orthodox Ramananda to accept him as his

Some legends assert that Kabir never married and led a celibate's life.
Most scholars conclude from historical literature that this legend is also
untrue, that Kabir was likely married, his wife probably was
named Dhania, they had at least one son named Kamal and a daughter
named Kamali.

Kabir's family is believed to have lived in the locality of Kabir

Chaura in Varanasi. Kabīr maṭha (कबीरमठ), a maṭha located in the back
alleys of Kabir Chaura, celebrates his life and times. Accompanying the
property is a house named Nīrūṭīlā (नीरू टीला) which houses Niru and
Nima's graves.

Later Years

 While Kabir was influenced by the concepts of Brahmanic Hinduism,

Hindu and Buddhist Tantrism, teachings of Nath yogis, and imageless
God of Islam, he was strictly against the rituals and meaningless
practices of organized religions.
 He composed verses prolifically, and his works reflect his own universal
view of spirituality. According to him all life is an interplay of two
spiritual principles. One is the personal soul (Jivatma) and the other is
God (Paramatma), and salvation is the process of bringing into union
these two divine principles.
 His poems were in vernacular Hindi, written in an earthy style, replete
with imagery. There were elements borrowed from various dialects
including Avadhi, Braj, and Bhojpuri in his writings. His verses, mostly
in the form of songs called padas and rhymed couplets called dohas
covered various aspects of life and call for a life of righteousness spent in
the loving devotion of God. His verbally composed poems of wisdom were
called “banis” (utterances).


 The poems which he verbally composed in the 15th century were
transmitted viva voce through the 17th century. One of the most popular
collections of his works, ‘Kabir Bijak’ was compiled and written down for
the first time in the 17th century. Other literary works with compositions
attributed to Kabir include ‘Kabir Parachai’, ‘Sakhi Granth’, ‘Adi Granth’
(Sikh), and ‘Kabir Granthawali’ (Rajasthan). Different versions of these
works exist.
 Kabir was involved with the Sant Mat, a loosely associated group of
teachers that became prominent in the Indian subcontinent from about
the 13th century. The tenets of the Sant Mat were based on an inward,
loving devotion to a divine principle that clearly departed from the
qualitative distinctions of the Hindu caste system

Major Works
Kabir was a saint and a poet who firmly believed in the unity of God
and denounced the caste system. He preached a religion of love which aimed
at promoting unity amongst all castes and creeds, and verbally composed
many verses reflecting his beliefs. Many of his compositions were compiled
by his followers in the years following his death, the most notable of which
is the ‘Kabir Bijak’. Several of his verses are also included in the Adi Granth,
the holy scripture of Sikhism

Personal Life & Legacy

 According to some traditional legends, Kabir led a life of celibacy and
never married. However, other sources suggest that he was likely married
to a woman called Dhania and had at least two children—a son named
Kamal and a daughter named Kamali.
 Like several details regarding his personal life, the details surrounding
his death too are unclear. He died in either 1448 or 1518.
 Following the great saint’s death, his followers carried forward his legacy
by forming the Kabir Panth as a sect of Sant Mat. The Kabir Panth
recognizes him as its founder and the followers observe sanctity and
purity in their daily lives and behavior as taught by Kabir. The Bijak is
one of the most sacred books of the Kabir Panth sect.
Kabir Matha
Kabir matha is located at the Kabir Chaura, Varanasi and Lahartara,
Varanasi in the back passageways. Neeru teela was the house of his parents
the Neeru and Neema. Now it has become the accommodation for students
and scholars who study Kabir’s work.



Sant Kabir was prejudiced by the existing religious mood of that time like
Hinduism, Tantrism as well as the personal devotionalism mixed with the
imageless God of Islam. Kabir Das is the first Indian saint who has
coordinated the Hinduism and Islam by giving a universal path which could
be followed by both Hindus and Muslims. According to him every life has
relationship with two spiritual principles (Jivatma and Paramatma). His view
about the moksha that, it is the process of uniting these two divine
His great writing Bijak has huge a collection of poems which makes clear the
Kabir’s general view of the spirituality. Kabir’s Hindi was a dialect, simple
like his philosophies. He simply followed the oneness in the God. He has
always rejected the murti pujan in Hinduism and shown the clear
confidence in bhakti and Sufi ideas.
His Poetry
He had composed the poems in a concise and simple style resonating
the admire for factual guru. After being an illiterate he had written his
poems in Hindi mixing with Avadhi, Braj, and Bhojpuri. He was insulted by
some people but he never attended.
Kabir Das Teaching
It is considered that he got his spiritual training came from the
Ramananda, guru of the Sant Kabir. In the starting Ramananda was not
agreeing to accept Kabir Das as his disciple. Once upon a time, Sant Kabir
Das had lie down on the ladders of the pond and reading the mantra of
Rama-Rama, in the early morning Ramananda was going for taking bath
and Kabir come down below his feet. Ramananda felt guilty for that activity
and then Ramananda was forced to accept him as his disciple. It is believed
that Kabir’s family is still living in the Kabir Chaura in Varanasi.
It is the photo of the Saint Kabir Math in the Varanasi where saints are busy
in the singing Kabir Ke Dohe. It is the place of giving real education of life to
the people.
Historical well:

A historical well is here at the Kabir Math, the water of which is

considered as mixed with the Amrit Ras of his Sadhana. It was first guessed
by the great Pandit Sarvanand from the south India. He came here for
arguing with the Kabir and felt thirsty. He drunk water and ask for address
of Kabir from the kamali. Kamali told him the address but in but in the form
of dohe of Kabir Das.


Kabir ka ghar sikher par, jahan silhili gal.Pav na tikai pipil ka, pandit lade
He went to the Kabir for arguing but Kabir never accepted to argue
and given Sarvanand a written of accepting defeat. Sarvanand returned his
home and showed that paper of defeat to his mother and suddenly he saw
that the statement was opposite. He was greatly influenced by that truth
and again returned to the Kashi to the Kabir Math and became the disciple
of the Kabir das. He was influenced by such a great level that he never
touched any book in his rest life. Later, Sarvanand became famous as
Acharya Surtigopal Sahab. He became the head of the Kabir Math after

Kashi Naresh came here to get Pardon:

Once upon a time, the Kashi Naresh, Raja Virdev Singh Ju Dev came at to
the Kabir Math with his wife to get pardon by leaving his kingdom. The
history is: once, Kashi King called all the saints to his kingdom as he heard
much fame of the Kabir das. Kabir das reached there to the kingdom alone
with his small water bottle. He poured all the water of the small bottle on his
leg, the small amount water started flowing on the ground for long way. The
entire kingdom filled with water, so Kabir was asked about that. He said
that, a devotee panda, in Jagannathpui, was cooking food in his hut which
caught fire.

The water which I poured, was for protecting the hut from being fired. The
fire was serious so it was very necessary to get more water from the small
bottle. But the King and his followers never accepted that statement and
they want the real witness. They thought that the fire was caught in the
Orissa city and Kabir is pouring water here in the Kashi. The King sent one
of his followers for the investigation. The follower returned and told that all
the statement of Kabir was true. The king became very shamed and he and
his wife had decided to go to the Kabir math to get pardon. If they will not
get pardon, they will suicide there. They got pardon and from that time the
King was always united with the Kabirchaura Math.

Samadhi Mandir:

Samadhi mandir is constructed at the place where Kabir was used to of

doing his Sadhana. The travel from Sadhana to Samadhi is complete here
for all the saints. Till date, it is the place where saints are feeling the flow of
huge energy. It is the worldwide famous place of peace and energy. It is
considered that, after his death, people were quarreling of taking his body
for the Antim Sanskar. But, when the door was opened of his Samadhi


room, there were only two flowers, which were distributed among his Hindu
Muslim disciples for the Antim Sanskar. The Samadhi Mandir is constructed
using the thick stone bricks of the Mirzapur.

Bijak Mandir at Kabir Chabutara:

This place was the workplace as well as the sadhanasthal of the Kabir das.
This is the place where he had given the knowledge of Bhakti, Gyan, Karma
and Manavta to his disciples. The place was named Kabir Chabutara. Bijak
was the great work of the Kabir Das, that’s why the Kabir Chabutara was
named as Bijak Mandir.

Kabir teri jhopadi, galkatto ke pas.

Jo karega so bharega, tum kyon hot udas.
Kabir Das Contribution to the Country
Saint Kabir Das, a Bhakti and Sufi movement saint of the medieval
India, is extensively for his Bhakti movement in the North India. His life
cycle is centered in the region of Kashi (also known as the Banaras or
Varanasi). He was heriditarically related to the weaving occupation and cast
of Julaha. His immense contribution towards the Bhakti Movement in India
is considered as a pioneered one along with the Farid, Ravidas and Namdev.
He was a saint of combined mystical nature (Nath tradition, Sufism, bhakti)
which made him of a distinctive religion of his own. He said that the path of
sufferings is the real love and life.

In the fifteenth century, all the areas of life of people in the Varanasi were
strongly held by the Brahmin orthodoxy as well as learning centers. To
make free the people from, Kabir Das had to work hard to preach his
idealogy as he belonged to the low caste, Julaha. He never felt difference
among the people whether they are prostitutes, low caste or high caste. He
preached to all by gathering self and his followers. He was ridiculed by the
Brahmins for his preaching activities but he never criticizes them back and
that’s why he was much liked by the common people. He started reforming
the mind of common people towards the real truth through his couplets.

He always objected the ritualistic and ascetic methods as a means of

salvation. He said that goodness’s ruby has more value than the mines of
ruby. According to him, the one’s heart with goodness includes all the
prosperity of whole world. A person with mercy has strength, forgiveness
has real existence of him, and individual with righteousness can easily
attained the never-ending life. He said that the God is in your heart and ever
with you, so offer inward worship to him. He had opened the mind of


common people by one of his example that, if the traveler is not able to walk;
what can the road do for traveler.

He opened the deep eyes of the people and taught them genuine lessen of
humanity, morality and spirituality. He was a follower and promoter of the
ahimsa. He had turned the people mind of his period through his
revolutionary preach. There is no real proof and clue about his birth and
family, some say he was from a Muslim family; some say he was from high
class Brahmin family. There was some disagreement among people related
to the Muslim and Hindu about the funeral system after his death. His life
history is legendary and still teaches the human beings a real humanity.
Religion of Kabir Das
According to the Kabir Das, real religion is a way of life the people live
it and not made by the people own. According to him the work is worship
and responsibility is like religion. He said that live your life, do
responsibilities and do hard work to make your life eternal. Never go away
from the responsibilities of the life like having Sanyasa. He appreciated and
valued the family life which is the real meaning of life. It is also mentioned in
the Vedas that living life by leaving home and responsibilities is not the real
dharma. Living as a householder is also a great and real Sanyasa. Just like,
Nirguna sadhus who live a family life, work hard for their daily routine
bread as well as chant the name of God.
He has given the people an authentic fact about what is the religion of
human beings the one should have. Such preaches of him has helped the
common people to understand the mystery of life very easily.
Kabir, Guru Nanak and the Guru Granth Sahib

Further information: Writers of Guru Granth Sahib

Kabir's verses were incorporated into Adi Granth, the scripture of Sikhism,
with verses attributed to Kabir constituting the largest non-Sikh

Some scholars state Kabir's ideas were one of the many influence son Guru
Nanak, who went on to found Sikhism in the fifteenth century. Other Sikh
scholars disagree, stating there are differences between the views and
practices of Kabir and Nanak.

Harpreet Singh, quoting Hew McLeod, states, "In its earliest stage Sikhism
was clearly a movement within the Hindu tradition; Nanak was raised a
Hindu and eventually belonged to the Sant tradition of northern India, a
movement associated with the great poet and mystic Kabir." Surjit Singh
Gandhi disagrees, and writes "Guru Nanak in his thought pattern as well as
in action model was fundamentally different from Kabir and for that matter


other radical Bhaktas or saints (saint has been erroneously used for such
Bhaktas by Mcleod). Hence to consider Kabir as an influence on Guru
Nanak is wrong, both historically and theologically”.

McLeod places Nanak in the Sant tradition that included Kabir, and states
that their fundamental doctrines were reproduced by Nanak. JS Grewal
contests this view and states that McLeod's approach is limiting in its scope
because, "McLeod takes into account only concepts, ignores practices
altogether, he concentrates on similarities and ignores all differences

Kabir Das: A Hindu or A Muslim

It is considered that after the death of Kabir Das, Hindus and Muslims
had claimed for getting the dead body of Kabir Das. Both of them wanted to
do the funeral of dead body of the Kabir Das according to their own customs
and traditions. Hindus stated that they want to burn the body as he was a
Hindu and Muslims said that they want to bury under the Mohammedan
rites as he was a Muslim.
But, when they removed the sheet from the dead body they found only some
flowers at that place. They distributed the flower between each other and
completed the funeral according to their own traditions and customs. It is
also considered that when they were fighting, the spirit of Kabir das came to
them and said that, “I was neither a Hindu nor a Mohammedan. I was both.
I was nothing. I was all. I discern God in both. There is no Hindu and no
Mussalman. To him who is free from delusion, Hindu and Mussalman are
the same. Remove the shroud and behold the miracle!”
A temple of Kabir Das is made at the Kabir Chaura in the Kashi which has
now become the great pilgrimage place for the people all over India as well
as outside India. And a mosque of him was built by the Muslims over the
grave which has become the pilgrimage for Mohammedans.
God of Kabir Das
His Guru Ramanand has given him the name of Lord Rama as a guru-
mantra which he had interpreted in his own way. He was devoted to the
Nirguna Bhakti and not to the Saguna Bhakti like his Guru. His Rama was
an absolute pure Satchitananda, not the son of Dasharatha or king of
Ayodhya as he said “Dasaratha ke ghar na janmey, yee chal Maya keenha.”
He was greatly influenced by the Buddhas and the Siddhas over Islamic
tradition. According to him, “Nirguna Nama japahu rey Bhaiya, Avigati Ki
gati Lakhi Na Jaiya.”

He never differentiate between the Allah and Rama, he always preached to

the people that these are only different names of one God. He said that there
should be a religion of love and brotherhood among people without any high


or low class or caste. Devote and surrender yourself towards the God who
has no religion or caste. He always believed in the Karma of life.

Death of Kabir Das

Kabir Das, a Sufi poet of 15th century, it is believed that he had
chosen his own place of death, Magahar, which is located about 240 km
away from Lucknow. He has chosen this place to die in order to remove the
fairy tale (myth) from the people mind. Those days, it was considered that
the one who takes his last breathes and die in the region of Magahar, would
never get place in heaven as well as take birth of donkey in the next life.

Kabir Das died in Magahar instead of Kashi just because of breaking the
myths and superstitions of people. According to Hindu calendar in Vikram
Samvat 1575, he left the world in the Maghar in the month of Januanry in
the year 1518 at Magh Shukl Ekadashi. It is also believed that the one who
die in Kashi, go to the heaven directly that’s why Hindu people go to the
Kashi during their last time and wait for death in order to attain the
salvation. Kabir Das died out of the Kashi to demolish the myth. His one of
the famous saying related to this is “jo kabira Kashi mue to rame kaun
nihora” means if there is a simple way to go to heaven just by dying in Kashi
then what is the necessity of worshipping God.

The teachings of the Kabir Das are universal and equal to all as he never
differentiate among Muslims, Sikhs, Hindus and others of different religions.
There is a mazar and samadhi of the Kabir Das in the Magahar. After his
death his followers of Hindu and Muslim religion fight for the funeral of his
body. But when they remove out the sheet from the dead body they only
found some flowers taking which they completed the funeral according to
their own customs and traditions.

There is cave few meters away from the Samadhi indicates his meditation
place before death. There is running trust named Kabir Shodh Sansthan
which works as a research foundation in order to promote the research on
Kabir Das works. There are running educational institutions as well which
includes the teachings of Kabir Das.
Kabir Das: A Mystic Poet
A great mystic poet, Kabir Das, is one of the leading spiritual poets in Indian
who has given his philosophical ideas to promote the lives of people. His
philosophy of oneness in God and Karma as a real Dharma has changed the
mind of people towards goodness. His love and devotion towards the God
fulfill the concept of both Hindu Bhakti and Muslim Sufi.


It is considered that he was from the Hindu Brahmin family but espoused
by the Muslim weavers without child, Niru and Nimma. He was founded by
them into the pond of Lahartara (in Kashi) lying at a huge lotus leaf. At that
time there was a lot of disagreement between orthodox Hindu and Muslim
people which was the main focus of Kabir Das to resolve that issue by his
dohas or couplets.

Professionally he never attended classes but he was very knowledgeable and

mystic person. He wrote his couplets and dohas in the formal language
which was greatly spoken at that time which includes the Braj, Avadhi and
Bhojpuri as well. He wrote a lot of dohas, couplets and books of stories
based on the social barriers.

Works of Kabir Das

The books written by the Kabir Das are generally the collections of dohas
and songs. The total works are seventy two including some of the important
and well known works are Rekhtas, Kabir Bijak, the Suknidhan, Mangal,
Vasant, Sabdas, Sakhis and Holy Agams.
The writing style and language of the Kabir Das is very simple and beautiful.
He had written his dohas very boldly and naturally which are full of
meanings and significance. He wrote from the depth of his heart. He has
compressed the sense of whole world in his simple dohas and couplet. His
sayings are beyond compare and inspiring.
Birth Place of Kabir Das

It is the great pond where Saint Kabir was found by the Neeru and Neema. It
is located at the Saint Kabir Math Lahartara in the Kashi.

It is the Saint Kabir Math located in the Lahartara Varanasi. What a great
building of the peace and real education. Saints from all over the world come
here to get the real education.



Like other mystic writers, Kabir often refers to himself as female (e.g. a
bride), and God as male (e.g. a bridegroom).[66] According to Bhupinder
Singh, "In [the devotees'] thinking, all human beings are bride and God is
sole bridegroom."[66] This can lead to confusion and Kabir has been
criticised for his depiction of women. Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh states,
"Kabir's opinion of women is contemptuous and derogatory”. Wendy Doniger
concludes Kabir had a misogynist bias. For Kabir, states Schomer, woman is
"Kali nagini (a black cobra), kunda naraka ka (the pit of hell), juthani jagata
ki (the refuse of the world)". According to Kabir, a woman prevents man's
spiritual progress.

Woman ruins everything when she comes near man;

Devotion, liberation, and divine knowledge no longer enter his soul.

— Kabir, Translated by Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh

Singh states that this outlook of Kabir about women and their role in
human quest for spiritualitywas not shared with Nanak who founded
Sikhism. Surjit Singh Gandhi also agrees with this.
In contrast to Singh's interpretation of Kabir's gender views, Dass interprets
Rag Asa section of Adi Granth as Kabir asking a young married woman to
stop veiling her face, and not to adopt such social habits. Dass adds that
Kabir's poetry can be interpreted in two ways, one literally where the woman
refers to human female, another allegorically where woman is symbolism for
his own soul and Rama is the Lord-husband


Kabir Das, a mystical poet and great Saint of India, was born in the
year 1440 and died in the year 1518. According to the Islam the meaning of
the Kabir is The Great. Kabir Panth is the huge religious community which
identifies the Kabir as the originator of the Sant Mat sects. The members of
Kabir Panth are known as the Kabir panthis who had extended all over the
over north and central India. Some of the great writings of the Kabir Das are
Bijak, Kabir Granthawali, Anurag Sagar, Sakhi Granth etc. It is clearly not
known about his birth parents but it is noted that he has been grew up by
the very poor family of Muslim weavers. He was very spiritual person and
became a great Sadhu. He got fame all over the world because of his
influential traditions and culture.
It is considered that he got all his spiritual training from his Guru
named, Ramananda, in his early childhood. One day, he became a well
known disciple of the Guru Ramananda. The house of the Kabir Das has
accommodated students and scholars for living and studying his great
There is no clue of the birth parent of the Kabir Das but it is
considered that he was cared by a Muslim family. He was founded in
Lehartara, a small town in Varanasi by the Niru and Nima (his care taker
parents). His parents were extremely poor and uneducated but they very
heartily adopted the little baby and trained him about their own business.
He lived the balanced life of a simple house holder and a mystic.




 Jaroslav Strnad (2013). Morphology and Syntax of Old Hindī: Edition

and Analysis of One Hundred Kabīr vānī Poems from Rājasthān. BRILL
 Jump up to: Kabir Encyclopædia Britannica (2015)Accessed: 27 July
 Jump up to: Hugh Tinker (1990). South Asia: A Short History.
University of Hawaii Press. ^ Jump up to:a b c Ronald McGregor (1984),
Hindi literature from its beginnings to the nineteenth century, Otto
Harrassowitz Verlag,


 http//sant_kabirdas//




 Introduction
 Childhood & Early Life


 Sanr Kabir Das Backround

 Personal Life & Legacy
 Historical well
 Religion of Kabir Das
 Kabir, Guru Nanak and the Guru Granth Sahib
 Criticism


 Conclusion
 Bibliography