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Trigonometric Methods

Trigonometry

1. A 4.2m long ladder is placed against a perpendicular pylon with its foot 60cm from the pylon.

1.1 Determine how far up the pylon the ladder reaches

To solve this equation it is nessasary to find the unknown value, this is achieved by the folllowing

equation:

x 2 + 0.6 2 = 4.2 2

x 2 + 0.36 = 17.64

x 2 = 17.28

x = 17.28

x = 4.156m

1.2 Calculate how far the top of the ladder rises when the foot of the ladder is moved 20cm

towards the pylon

To do this I use the exact same method as above except this time I substituye the new values in.

x 2 + 0.4 2 = 4.2 2

x 2 + 0.16 = 17.64

x 2 = 17.48

x = 4.18

Therfore the top of the ladder will rise 0.024 meters.

**2. From a point on horizontal ground a surveyor measures the angle of elevation of a church
**

spire as 20°. He moves 50m closer to the church and measures the angle of elevation as 25°.

Calculate the height of the spire.

To make the calculations of this equation easier I will represent the church and spire graphically as a series

of two trianguls:

P

P

h

R

S

20°

25°

Q

50

x

Equation X

In triangle PQS

Tan 20° =

Hence

i.e.

h

x + 50

h = tan 20°( x + 50)

h = 0.3639( x + 50)

Equation Y

In triangle PQR,

Hence h

Tan 25° =

h

x

= tan 25°( x) , i.e. h = 0.4663x

Equating equation x and y gives:

0.3639( x + 50) = 0.4663 x

0.3639 x + (0.3639)(50) = 0.4663 x

(0.3639)(50) − (0.4663 − 0.3639) x

18.195 = 0.1024 x

x=

18.195

= 177.685

0.1024

From equation y,

Height of the building h =

0.4663 x = 0.4663(177.685) = 82.854m

3. Solve the triangle ABC given that: C = 90°. A = 35° and AC = 5mm B θ 35° C 5mm θ = 180° 90° 35° = 55° So to find BC: On the calculator Tan 35 x 5mm = 3.257 = 6.5012 = BA2 = 37.257 37.501 And to find the hypotenuse (BA): 52 + 3.103 A .

1736 = 922500 156240 = 766220 c = 766220 c = 875. A ship. At the same time another ship. a bearing of 20°). The first step would be to find the speed of the ship by multiplying speed by time. sails at a steady speed of 50km/hr in direction W 30° N (i. Ship 1 travels at 750Km. Using the cosine rule: c2 = a2 + b2 2ab Cos C So: c 2 = 750 2 + 600 2 2(750 × 600) cos C 562500 + 360000 900000 × 0. A bearing of 300° from port).362 Km to 3 d. X. Y. Ship 2 travels at 600Km. leaves port at a steady speed of 40km/hr in a direction N 20° E (i.p .e. Determine their distance apart after 15hrs.4.e.

5.1 If it is descending uniformly. An aero plane is sighted due east from a radar station at an elevation of 50° and a height of 5.5. AO = 5000 = 4195. B . find the angle of decent B A 2500m 5000m θ b H3 H3 5000m a A H1 c B A H1 H2 50 O 45 O O H3 H1 H2 70 1 O Work out length AO and OB.498 Tan50 OB = 2500 = 2500 Tan 45 2500m H2 Then work out the hypotenuse of each triangle H1 and H2.000m Later it is sighted at an elevation of 45° and a height of 2500m in a direction of E 70° S.

086 x 3600=367509.232) 2500 sin 70.232 2 + 855 .0504 − 4195 .H 1 = 5000 2 + 4195.498) (5000) 2nd position (2349.44 meters The height difference between the two observations is 2500 meters therefore: tan θ = 2500 4083 θ = 0. (855.5km / hr 1000 .6 = 367. 5.2 Find the speed of the aero plane if the time between observations is 40s Speed = distance(d) time(t) Speed = 4083. 2349 .5 degrees.533 I will then calculate the first and second positions of the aircraft from there I will then be able to find the angle of desent.086m / s 40 102.0504) 2500 cos 7(2500) From this I can then find the difference in the distance between the two different observations using pythagoras theorem.498 2 = 42598025 = 6526.498 2 = 4083 .716 H 2 = 2500 2 + 2500 2 = 12500000 = 3535.6 meters covered in one hour 367509.549rads = 31. 1st position ( θ ) (4195.5° Therfore the angle of desent is 31.44 = 102.

56N and the direction is 20. Find the magnitude and direction of the resultant of two concurrent and coplanar forces of 30N and 50N when the angle between them is 55°.3434 71.57 2 = 71.56N Using the above information I was then able to draw figure 3 leaving only the unknown internal angle to be found which would give us the direction.8° Sinθ = To conclude the magnitude is 71. 24.56 67.21 From this I can the find the magnitude by: Magnitude = 67.56 θ = 0.57 = 50+30cos 55= 67. . the calculations are as follows: Resultant = -30sin55=-24. Figure 1 Figure 2 30 N 30N 30 cos 55° 55 ° 55° 50N Sin 55° 30N 55° 50 N Resultant Origin Figure 3 24. . State the direction of the resultant relative to the 50N force.6.57 71.8 degrees.35 = 20.212 + −24.21 Unknown From the above drawings I was able to calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant from the two forces.56 Therefore the Magnitude is 71.57 = 0.

848 Resultant of 40.978 30 ≡ Sin55 SinR SinR = 30 Sin55 = 0.978 R = 36.2.978 N at 36. 5.599 40. Cartesian and Polar Co-ordinates and Radian Measure 7. Change the following to polar co-ordinates: Illustrate your answer with a diagram (-2..2 From Pythagoras theorem 0 r = 2.92368 X .2 2 + 5. 5 θ a 2.5 2 = 5.848 degrees from the 50 N force.5) Y P r 5. Therefore 40.

80141° Or θ = π 1.801) or (5.523 9.923. 1.19859 = 111. 2. Change the following to Cartesian co-ordinates: Illustrate your answer with a diagram (6.5 = 68.27 rad) θ=2.4 sin 2.0174 Therefore: 30 x 0. 2.566 9.95131 rad Point P in polar co-ordinates form is (5.27 rad) 9.19028 rad 2.4 B x = r cos θ = 6.1197 This corresponds to the length OA in the diagram.2 68.1 30° 1° = 0.19028 = 1.3 π rads 3 .27 rad A 0 R= 6.4.0174 = 0.923.0174 = 1.119.898 This corresponds to the length AB in the diagram. 4.27 = 4.4 cos 2.27 = 4.951) 8. Thus (-4.2 90° 90 x 0. Convert the following between degrees and radians as appropriate: 9.a = tan −1 By trigonometric ratios Hence θ = 180 5.19859 or 1.898) in Cartesian coordinates corresponds to the polar coordinates (6.4. 111. y = r sin θ = 6.

4 0.047 x 57.295 = 48.0132° .838 rads 0.987° 9.π = 1.047 Rad 3 1.838 x 57.295 = 59.

A train is traveling at 108km/h and has wheels of diameter 80cm. Angular velocity v 30 ω= = r 0. 2700m at a constant speed of 30m/s is given by: t Time t = s 2700m = = 90 s v 30m / s Since the wheel is rotating at 716.19 rev / min× 90 min = 1074.e. then in 90/60 minutes it makes: 716.10.1 The angular velocity of the wheels in both rad/s and rpm Linear velocity v=108 km/h = 108 km m 1 h ×1000 × = 30m / s h km 3600 s Radius of the wheel 800mm 2 =0.2 The number of revolutions made by one of the wheels if the speed remains constant for 2.19 rev/min. Determine: 10. so.4m v = ωr .285 Revolutions 60 .4 =75Rad/s And = 2 πn Where n is in rev/s angular speed n= ω 75 rev/s = 2π 2π = 60 × 75 Rev/min 2π = 716.19 Rev/min 10.7km and there is no slipping v= s then the time taken to travel 2.7km i.

31 12. frequency and phase angle (in degrees) Amplitude = 100 V Angular Velocity.69 and 227. The voltage.2 The voltage when t = 0 v = 100 Sin(200π 0 + 0. v. t.1V .785) = 100Sin(628.067)=431The o 872 s solution of Cos-1 (-0. f = 1 1 = = 100 Hz T 0.785 × π 4 = 45° leading v = 100 Sin (200πt) 12. in an alternating current circuit at any time.678) = 0 180 – 47.1 The amplitude. Solve the following in the range 0° to 360°: Cos 1 ( 0.678).Sinusoidal Functions 11.31 C−1(. (seconds) is given by: v = 100Sin 200π0+ π volts 4 Determine: 12.01s Or 10ms Frequency. T = = 0. ω = 200 π 2π 2π 1 = = ω 200 π 100 Hence periodic time.785rad = 0.69 and 180 + 47.32 + 45°) = 663.312 = 132. between 0 & 360 degrees are: 132.312 = 227. periodic time.01 Phase Angle = 180 π rad = 0.

4) = 200 If the fundamental frequency is 200Hz then angular velocity ω = 2 πf = 2 π 200 = 400 π Rads/s Hence fundamental voltage of V = 200 sin(400π t ) The third harmonic component has an amplitude equal to 40% of 200 V i.12.522 + 0. v.4 The time when the voltage first reaches 50v When v = 50 then 50 = 100 Sin( 200πt 0.785 10 = 100Sin(2. A complex voltage waveform.4v rms fundamental voltage at a frequency of 200 Hz.356) = 100 Sin 135. 3 2 (141.307 Hence when v = 50v Time.1 Write down an expression for the voltage. is comprised of a 141. 80 The frequency of the third harmonic component is 3 × 200 = 600 Hz so: ω = 2 π 600 = 1200 π π rads 4 .785) = arc Hence sin 50 100 = 30° or 0.522rad 200πt = 0.307 = 2.785 = 1. v Voltage = 141.436° = 70.785) 50 = Sin( 200πt 0.0801 × 10−3 seconds 200π 13.17V 12.4 V (rms).e. So the maximum value or amplitude is: π rads . a 40% third harmonic component leading the fundamental voltage at zero time by and a 20% fifth harmonic component lagging the fundamental by 13.785) 100 ( 200 πt 0. t = 1.3 The voltage when t = 5ms 5 v = 100 Sin 200 π 3 + 0.

Re 300 The following formulas were used in m. 40 The frequency of the fifth harmonic component is: 5 × 200 = 1000 Hz So: ω = 2 π ×1000 = 2000 π Hence the voltage of the fifth harmonic is shown as V = 40 sin( 2000 πt Overall V = 200 sin( 400πt ) + 80 sin 1200 πt + π + 40 sin 2000πt 4 π ) 3 π 3 13.001) C1 = Third Harmonic = 80*SIN(1200*PI()*A3*0.s spreadsheet and the data optained follows on the next three pages.Hence third harmonic voltage is represented by π V = 80 sin(1200 πt + ) 4 The fifth harmonic has an amplitude equal to 20% of 200 V i.001+PI()/4) D1 = Fifth Harmonic = 40*SIN(2000*PI()*A3*0.e.001-PI()/3) E1 = Total Voltage = B3+C3+D3 200 .2 Plot the resulting complex waveform for v over one cycle of the fundamental waveform. A1 = Time B1 = Fundamental Voltage = 200*SIN(400*PI()*A3*0.

85936216 1 190.9654105 68.7257930 2 Total Voltage 21.14049 62 188.1 196.6410161 5 16.16644594 44.98621 83 109.2694657 2 8.325172 52 76.6410161 5 16.9 180.7808758 1 34.3 49.107227 79 72.28052194 2.76151 85 201.6 136.62491054 75.Time (ms) Fundamental voltage Third Harmonic 0 0 56.45145931 1.4574501 1.21240099 1.7 154.4574501 78.1026486 22.35073482 60.31646763 3 29.31646763 3 29.950909 73 .927526 34 82.1026486 76.19655 62 132.73797743 79.7257930 2 39.42037005 0.62491054 2.31646763 3 29.2113033 79.31646763 3 29.8655851 63.2113033 12.46689 24 90.7257930 2 39.7808758 1 34.6410161 5 16.95818 95 223.8 168.2694657 2 8.114643 5 141.5570505 36.01506725 1.7257930 2 39.7 168.621165 1 196.6410161 5 16.2 49.3 73.6053457 1.03256429 0.31928848 0.528665065 0.2 73.217551 04 138.20035 04 176.00888557 0.51730 66 160.5 117.7257930 2 39.3 199.9094212 7.96667023 17.7808758 1 34.555219 86 102.6410161 5 16.8655851 49.8 154.5570505 71.2 199.2694657 2 8.07334096 66.9094212 79.27046152 0.77350 25 154.82349485 1.09903362 2.4 96.64495717 2 117.90494923 2.36707 66 237.2694657 2 8.1 96.06664671 73.31923998 0.6 180.72331326 1.96052483 0.512860726 Fifth Harmonic 34.70755 2 123.78686 66 237.73797743 27.75536 74 184.5 190.6053457 1.9 136.9654105 40.56854249 0.35073482 52.01496 99 178.040411 8 76.36446 85 218.7808758 1 34.5147572 1.4 196.1 25.31646763 3 29.2694657 2 8.

2694657 2 3.64495717 39.76151 8 -201.4574501 78.5570505 36.4574501 17.7257930 2 39.56854249 73.2 -168.6 -196.6410161 5 16.46689 2 90.01497 178.70755 2 123.00888557 3 -117.4 -136.6053457 66.2694657 2 8.31646763 3 29.927526 3 -82.7257930 2 4.77183125 39.528665065 34.31646763 3 29.73797743 79.36446 8 218.4 25.9 -196.5147572 4.9094212 7.07334096 3.01506725 3.75536 7 184.31646763 3 29.51730 7 160.20035 176.7808758 1 -25.2694657 2 8.6 -117.06664671 2.6410161 5 16.77350 3 154.27046152 2.96667023 3.35073482 71.6410161 5 16.8 -199.31928848 8.35073482 60.06664671 56.8 -73.16644594 3.217551 -138.95818 9 223.96052483 2.1026486 63.6053457 44.621165 196.82349485 8.31646763 3 3.03256429 29.43149E-14 2.72331326 34.7257930 2 3.2 -154.2113033 -12.7 -199.7808758 1 3.85936216 39.7808758 1 4.31923998 3.7808758 1 34.9654105 40.1026486 22.9094212 79.5 4.3 -154.2694657 2 4.555219 9 102.3 -168.5 -6.45145931 4 -190.2694657 2.8655851 49.7808758 1 34.78686 7 237.31.4 -180.8655851 4.14049 6 188.1 -180.114643 141.2113033 79.9654105 68.21240099 76.7 -49.6 33.1 -136.62491054 75.6410161 5 16.28052194 - 34.075691 28 21.5570505 -96.36707 7 237.19655 6 - .5 -190.107227 8 72.9 -96.42037005 2.325172 5 76.6410161 5 16.7257930 2 39.

8 -49.6410161 5 132.98621 8 109.62491054 27.2863E-13 56.56854249 2 8.90494923 4.77183125 5 1.9 -25.7808758 1 34.927526 34 .52.31646763 3 29.7257930 2 39.7 -73.09903362 4.950909 7 33.512860726 4.06664671 31.73797743 2.075691 3 21.04041 2 76.

Sinx = -1.2433 The values in the range 0° to 360° are: X = 40°038’ and 139°962 . Show that: If 1 Sin 2θ = (1 Cos 2θ) and explain where this would be useful 2 Cos 2θ = Cos 2θ Sin 2θ And Cos 2θ + Sin 2θ = 1 Then: Cos 2θ = 1 Sin 2θ Cos 2θ = (1 Sin 2θ) Sin 2θ ∴Cos 2θ = 1+ 2 Sin 2θ (1 Cos 2θ) ∴ = Sin 2θ 2 This equation is useful when calculating RMS values.Trigonometric Identities 14.6433 . Solve the following in the range: 0° to 360° 5Sin 2 x + 3Sin x = 4 Rearranging the equation to make the answer equal to zero would give me: 5Sin 2 x + 3Sin x 4 = 0 Now that the equation is in this format I can easily apply the quadratic formula: So: a = 5. b = 3 and c = -4 3± 32 4(5 × 4) 3 ± 9. 15.433 Sinx = = 2×5 10 + Sinx = 0.

59° Therefore θ 1 = 1.59° θ 2 = 4.5 6 π 3 1 8 Sinθ − = Sinθ − Cosθ = Cosθ 6 2 2 5 Cos 3 8 1 sin θ = cos θ + cos θ 2 5 2 3 8 1 16 5 21 sin θ = ( + ) cos θ = ( + ) cos θ = cos θ 2 5 2 10 10 10 3 21 sin θ = cos θ 2 10 3 sin θ = 2 cos θ 3 21 42 tan θ = tan θ 2 10 10 3 3.321rads = 247. Solve the following for values: 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π 5Sin θ π Sin θ .18rads θ = tan 30 also tan θ = tan (θ + π ) hence1.SinBCosA π π π Sinθ − = SinθCos − CosθSin 6 6 6 π 3 = 6 2 π Sin = 0.321rads = 247.16.42 = 1.18rads = 67.B ) = SinACosB .18 + π = 4.59° π = 8Cosθ 6 . 6 Sin( A .

sin 0.544 Sin (t + 0.614 ) = 4.544 so.5 RCosα = 7.471495 = 0.614 t = −012301 Which is not in range of: 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π so. Express the equation: 5.52 = 9.614 radians 7.544 Sin(t + α) RSinα = 5.614 ) = = 0.5Cos t + 7.8Sin(t ) + 5.8 Sin t = 4.1 In the form R Sin (t+α) and hence 7.2 Solve. add 2π for one solution.16rad Also 5. 7.17. for values 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π 9.5Cos t + 7.5Cos (t ) = 9.8 Tanα = 5.8Sin t 17.5 Sinα = R Cosα = 7.614) 17.5Cos (t ) = 9.544 a.5Cos (t ) = RSin(t + α) = R[ Sin(tCosα + Cos (t ) × Sinα)] = ( RCosα) Sin(t ) + ( RSinα)Cos (t ) Equating coefficients: 7. t = 2π − 0.8Sin(t ) + 5.8 R 5.471495 9.5 4 .8Sin(t ) + 5.8 α = 0.5 si (t + 0.5 .12301 = 6.490985 = t + 0.544 Sin(t + 0.82 + 5.5 7.

471495 π − 0.036608 hence t = 6.sin(0.490985 − 0.614 t = π − 0.16rads t = 2.490985)=o.04rads .490985 = t + 0.614 = 2.490985) = 0.471495 then sin(π − 0.

com.freestudy. .wikipedia. en.Bibliography 1.org/wiki/Waveform John Bird – Higher Engineering Mathematics Barry college module1 Maths Barry college module 2 Physics Yeovil college Moodle. Www.

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