You are on page 1of 12

¿Qué es un Phrasal verb?

Un phrasal verb en inglés es un verbo que lleva un adverbio o una preposición. Se


compone de dos palabras y a veces de tres. Como por ejemplo look forward to. Este
phrasal verb está compuesto por un verbo (look) y un adverbio (forward) y la preposición
to. El verbo “look” significa mirar, pero el phrasal verb “look forward to” significa
esperar. El adverbio o preposición pueden cambiar totalmente el significado del verbo al
que acompañan.

Esquema básico de un Phrasal Verb:

Verbo + partícula (preposición o adverbio)

Look up | run away | give up

La partícula que acompaña al verbo es siempre una preposición o un adverbio. Las


más comunes son las siguientes:

in, on, up, away, round, about, over, by, out, off, down, back, through, along, forward
Tipos de Phrasal verbs

1. Intransitivos: NO necesitan un objeto y el verbo y la partícula


son inseparables siempre.
verbo + preposición o adverbio
Ejemplo: You should look up in the dictionary.
2. Transitivos: necesitan un objeto.
• Separables: verbo + objeto + partícula. Ejemplo: I tried the t-shirt on.
• Inseparables: verbo + partícula + objeto: Ejemplo: Peter run into the wall.

1. Phrasal verbs intransitivos

Este primer tipo de phrasal verb no necesita objeto para tener significado. Además, el
verbo y la preposición no se pueden separar sin cambiar el significado, son phrasal
verbs inseparables.

Ejemplos:

Calm down, we´ll get it on time. (Calm down = relajarse)

I woke up at 8.30 am. (Woke up = despertarse)

I´ll go back to Spain on Christmas. (Go back = volver)

My car broke down last Saturday. (Break down = romperse)

I was very sad when the Beatles split up (Split up = separarse)

2. Phrasal verbs transitivos

Los phrasal verbs transitivos necesitan un objeto o complemento y pueden ser


separables o inseparables.

Phrasal verbs separables

Si es separable, significa que el verbo y la partícula se pueden separar para poner el


objeto en el medio.

Please fill in the form | Please, fill the form in | (fill in = rellenar)

En este ejemplo, se puede poner el objeto (the form) antes o despues de la


preposición. Si el objeto es un pronombre, entonces siempre va entre el verbo y la
preposición obligatoriamente.

Please, fill it in
Más ejemplos

It was heavy raining, so I called the game off. (call off = suspender, cancelar)

I gave the exams out to all my colleagues. (give out = distribuir)

You let me down when you failed the exam. (let down = decepcionar a alguien)

Can I pick up the ball? Sure, pick it up! (pick up = coger del suelo)

Phrasal verbs inseparables

En los inseparables, el verbo y la partícula tienen que ir juntos obligatoriamente.

He´s been looking after his father since he was in his early 20s. (look after = cuidar de)

“‘Ha estado cuidando a su padre desde cuanto tenia sus 20 años”. No se puede separar el
verbo de la partícula y sin el objeto (su padre) no tendrían sentido.

Ejemplos

I came across a ring in the street last Friday (come across = encontrar)

Yesterday we went over the main topics (go over = revisar)

Phrasal verbs de tres palabras

Existe phrasal verbs de tres palabras, que se forma añadiendo una preposición a uno ya
concreto. Por ejemplo, si a look forward (esperar) le añadimos la preposición to, se
convierte en un phrasal verb de tres palabras.

I´m looking forward to hearing from you! (look forward to = tener ganas de, anhelar)
Phrasal Significado Traducción Ejemplo
verb

ask [sb] invite on a date invitar a una Carlos asked Julia out
out cita/pedir una on her birthday.
cita

ask ask many preguntar por Ask around to find out


around people the ahí which are the best
same question italian restaurants

ask in to invite invitar a entrar 'John's at the door'


somebody into 'Ask him in'
your house

ask over to invite invitar They've asked us over


for lunch on Saturday

break become separarse, Three of the members


away separate desvincularse of the band broke
away yesterday.

break to crush or romper, Whay are you


[sth] in batter destrozar breaking in the door?
something to
pieces

break [so] to train entrenar, I have to break in a


in someone to do supervisar new intern
a new job

break out to escape escaparse, The prisioner broke


fugarse out of jail.
break up to desintegrate, deshacerse, John broke up with
to separate separarse Lisa last week, now
he's single

break for run towards lanzarse a, Break for the exist


moverse hacia when you hear my
algo signal

check to look over; to revisar, ojear The teacher checked


over examine the students' papers
over.

cut apart Divide separar, dividir She is cutting it apart

cut away Change of shot cambio de They cut away to the


to (tv or film) plano anchorman as soon as
[sth/sb] she finished talking

cut back Reduce an recortar, The goverment is


[informal] amount of reducir cutting back the
money annual budget
avalaible to
spend

cut down To reduce reducir o The teacher asked him


[sth] (lenght) recortar el to cut down his essay
tamaño o
extensión

cut in Give someone dar una tajada, She said she would cut
part of compartir me in if she won the
something, a (coloquial) contest
share
(coloquial)
cut [sb] To disinherit Desheredar Meg's dad found out
off that she was marrying
Paul and he cut her off

cut out To stop dejar, parar de The doctor advised


Rachel to cut out
cigarettes

cut over Transfer migrar, The library will cut


(computing) transferir (en over the catalogue
informática)

do down to undervalue menospreciar, Ann is always doing


subestimarse herself down, but she
is a great dancer.

do out for to deprive, to hacer que Jessica has done Tony


cheat alguien no out of his job just for
consiga o no fun!
se quede con
algo de
manera injusta
o deshonesta

drop [sb] To drive Llevar a Everyday, I drop my


off someone alguien, dejar bestfriend off at work
somewhere a alguien en
algún sitio

drop [sth] To take Dejar algo en Don't forget to drop


off something un sitio the keys off when you
somewhere leave
get across to comunicar, Although I couldn't
communicate hacerse speak the language, I
entender managed to get my
meaning across when
necessary.

keep [sth] to mask, to ocultar, William's been acting


back hide esconder strange. I think he's
keeping something
back from me.

keep [sth] to hold under reducir, bajar Could you keep the
down control or at a music down, please?
reduced level;
to reduce

keep in to make quedarse The teacher kept me in


someone to after class because I
stay in a place talked all the time.

keep off to stay away alejarse de, Keep the children off
from apartarse de the oven, I'm baking
bread.

keep on to continue continuar, You have shown great


seguir improvement, keep on
practicing.

keep out to wait outside, no dejar If Jonh comes, please


don't let entrar, keep him out, because
someone entry permanecer I don't want to see
fuera him.
keep to to save a secret cumplir con, I'll tell you what really
mantener un happened, I know
secreto you'll keep it to
yourself.

keep up to continue continuar You're doing a


haciendo algo wonderful job. Keep it
up!

pick apart to refute or find refutar o The lawyer picked the


flaws in by encontrar testimony apart.
close defector
examination.

pick off to shoot after disparar The hunter picked the


singling out ducks off.

pick out to discern from reconocer, Tom and Laura picked


the distinguir out their cousins from
surroundings; the crowd.
to distinguish

put aside Lay down Apartar He put the newspaper


aside

put aside Ingnore a Dejar de lado Let's put our


disagreement differences aside
or problem

put away Tidy up, put in ordenar, The teacher told us to


a correct place guardar, put away our books
guardar en su
sitio
put away Save money guardar o Everymonth, he puts
ahorrar dinero away some money for
his holydays

put down Disparage, say Hablar mal de She always puts her
bad things alguien, boss down
about someone menospreciar,
ningunear

put down Write, make a escribir, tomar He put down all the
note notas information

put forth Propose proponer, We can put forth some


[st] hacer una changes
propuesta

put Suggest ofrecerse, Howard put himself


forward proponer, forward as a possible
postular candidate

put in To work trabajar I put in more thar 10


[informal] hours everyday

put in to insert, place Introducir en, Put in those files


something meter en
inside

put in for To apply for solicitar algo He put in for an early


something retirement

put off Delay until later posponer, The meeting has been
retrasar put off until further
notice
put off To repel or repeler, causar His attitude has put us
repulse rechazo off

put on To wear llevar Put those close on


right now

put on To mislead hacer que You are putting me on!


[informal] alguien se
equivoque

put on To add añadir, poner, You must put on some


sumar weight

put out To suponer un Did our early arrival


[informal] inconvenience problema put you out?

put [sth] To extinguish extinguir, The firemen put the


out apagar fire out

put over To convey, exponer We haven't been able


communicate to put over the
benefits of our product

put [sth] To mount, to colgar, He put up a signal for


up display desplegar, the upcoming visitors
mostrar

put [sth] To raise levantar Put your hands up


up

take [sth] when a plane despegar, The plane is going to


off leaves; to quitarse take-off at seven
remove a piece o´clock.
of clothing or
to have a
period of time
away from
work

take [sth] to start a empezar a He took up smoking


up hobby, to hacer, after breaking up the
accept or to instalarse relationship.
move in

take [sb] to go on a date salir con Lisa was happy that


out with alguien Max wanted to take
her out

take [sth] to excise, to sacar Can you take the


out apply for, to rubbish out?
remove

take on to accept, to hacerse cargo, Taking on the


fight, to hire enfrentarse, directorship was his
contratar first challenge.

take [sb] to allow permitir a Don't take Elisa in by


in someone to alguien la your nonsense.
stay in your entrada o ser
house or to be engañado o
deceived or estafado
swindled

take [sth] to observe estrechar, She had lost weight so


in something or ajustar the shirt had to be
to make a piece taken in more at the
of clothing waist.
narrower or
tighter

take to disassemble desmontar He was a good


apart something mechanic and could
take an engine apart
in less than two hours.