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Geant4 Hadronic Physics - II

Geant4 Tutorial, Marshall Space Flight Center


April 2012

Daniel Brandt (based on slides by T. Koi)


based on Geant4 v9.5-p01

Geant4 Hadronic Physics – II Tutorial


Daniel Brandt, 18 April 2012
Overview
•Low energy neutron physics
High-precision (HP) models
Low-energy (LE) models
Thermal scattering & chemical bonds

•Ion physics
Cascade models
Abrasion/Ablation models
EM Dissociation

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Low Energy Neutron Physics
•Low energy: <20 MeV

•High precision (HP) models are built by extrapolating data sets

•Datasets G4 Neutron Data Library (G4NDL) based on file


format similar to Evaluated Nuclear data Library (ENDL)

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HP processes available
•Elastic scattering - G4NeutronHPElastic
Differential cross sections tabulated in cos θ, E

•Inelastic scattering - G4NeutronHPInelastic


Supporting a large number of final states and secondary distribution models
(isotropic emission, discrete two-body kinematics...)

•Capture - G4NeutronHPCapture
Final capture state described by photon multiplicity or production cross-section
given by data libraries

•Fission - G4NeutronHPFission
Currently, only Uranium data available. Different neutron energy distribution
functions are provided (tabulated, Maxwellian, evaporation spectrum...)

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Verification of HP processes
20 MeV Neutrons on 157 Gd
10

1
CrossSection [barn]

G4
0.1
ENDF

0.01

0.001
Elastic

Capture

Inelastic

Inelastic

Inelastic

Inelastic

Inelastic

Inelastic
(n,nγ) (n,2n) (n,nα) (n,np) (n,p) (n,α)

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Verification of HP processes - II
Verification of High Precision Neutron models
Energy Spectrum of Secondary Particles
Gd154 (n,2n) channel

4.5E-07
4.0E-07
3.5E-07
3.0E-07
2.5E-07 ENDF
2.0E-07 G4 result
1.5E-07
1.0E-07
5.0E-08
0.0E+00
0 2E+06 4E+06 6E+06 8E+06 1E+07 1E+07
secondary neutron energy [eV]

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Physics List for NeutronHP
•Create HP process and register data & model
//For example elastic scattering below 20 MeV
G4HadronElasticProcess* theNeutronElasticProcess
= new G4HadronElasticProcess();

// Cross Section Data set


G4NeutronHPElasticData* theHPElasticData = new G4NeutronHPElasticData();
theNeutronElasticProcess->AddDataSet( theHPElasticData );

// Model
G4NeutronHPElastic* theNeutronElasticModel = new G4NeutronHPElastic();
theNeutronElasticProcess->RegisterMe(theNeutronElasticModel)

•Register the process with G4ProcessManager


G4ProcessManager* pmanager = G4Neutron::Neutron()-> GetProcessManager();
pmanager->AddDiscreteProcess( theNeutronElasticProcess );

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Low Energy models
•In some cases, data for HP models may not be available

•When no HP model is available, the G4NeutronHPorLE


models can be used

•G4NeutronHPorLE models provide low energy parametrization


models/cross sections to replace the data-driven HP models.

•Elastic, inelastic, fission and capture models are available as


G4NeutronHPorLE .

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Physics List for NeutronHPorLE
•Create HPorLE process and register data & model
//For example Elastic scattering below 20 MeV
G4HadronElasticProcess* theNeutronElasticProcess
= new G4HadronElasticProcess();

// Model
G4NeutronHPorLElasticModel* theNeutronElasticModel
= new G4NeutronHPorLElasticModel();
theNeutronElasticProcess->RegisterMe(theNeutronElasticModel)

// Cross Section Data set


theNeutronElasticProcess->AddDataSet( theNeutronElasticModel-
>GiveHPXSectionDataSet() );

•Notice that rather than acquiring data from a library, the data
set is provided by the HPorLE model

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Thermal Neutron Scattering
•At thermal energies, neutron scattering needs to take into
account properties of chemically bound atoms:

•Translational motion, vibration and rotation of chemically


bound atoms influences cross-sections and scattering energies

•Scattering cross section:


bE
 E  E,    S  ,   ;
2kT E
•Based on momentum transfer α, energy transfer β:
E   E  2 E E  E  E
 , 
AkT kT

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Thermal Scattering Physics List
•Thermal scattering is created like any other neutron process

•Since it is only valid for thermal energies (~a few eV), usually
combined with HP model so that scattering still works at higher E
// Cross Section Data set
theNeutronElasticProcess->AddDataSet(new G4NeutronHPElasticData() );
theNeutronElasticProcess->AddDataSet(new G4NeutronHPThermalScatteringData() );

// Neutron HP Elasctic scattering > 4eV


G4NeutronHPElastic* theNeutronElasticModel = new G4NeutronHPElastic();
theNeutronElasticModel->SetMinEnergy ( 4.0*eV );

// Neutron thermal Elasctic scattering < 4eV


G4NeutronHPThermalScattering* theThermalModel = new G4NeutronHPThermalScattering();
theThermalModel->SetMaxEnergy ( 4.0*eV );

//register thermal and HP models


theNeutronElasticProcess->RegisterMe(theNeutronElasticModel);
theNeutronElasticProcess->RegisterMe(theThermalModel);

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Ion Physics – Inelastic collisions
•Geant4 provides cross sections for N-N interactions from
empirical, parametrized models

•Interactions between nuclei can be modelled by physics based


cascade models or by less computationally intensive
Abrasion/Ablation models

•Geant4 also provides a process for EM dissociation

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Ion Physics – Inelastic collisions
•Geant4 provides cross sections for N-N interactions from
empirical, parametrized models

•Interactions between nuclei can be modelled by physics based


cascade models or by less computationally intensive
Abrasion/Ablation models

•Geant4 also provides a process for EM dissociation

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Ion Physics – cross sections
•Geant4 provides many different cross-section formulae from
empirical, parametrized models

•The G4GeneralSpaceNNCrossSection class was created to help


in selection of the model

•References for the different models used are provided in the


appendix to this presentation

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Binary Cascade Model
•3-D model of nucleus constructed from A, Z
A<16: Use harmonic oscillator shell model
A>16: Use Woods – Saxon model

•Each nucleon is treated as Gaussian wave packet, total nucleus


wave function is product of all of these

•For every interacting nucleon, its momentum is sampled from


the range [0, EFermi] and taken into account for collision
probability and final state caluclation

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Validating Binary Cascade Model
400 MeV neutrons incident on Carbon

•For low scattering angles, very good agreement between


models and data

•Additional validation graphs in Appendix B of this presentation

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Validating Binary Cascade Model - II
Fragment Production
Si 453 MeV/n on Al Si 490 MeV/n on Cu
1000 1000
Cross Section [mb]

Cross Section [mb]


100 100
DATA DATA
G4 G4
10 10

1 1
Al Mg Na Ne F O N C Al Mg Na Ne F O N C
Particle Species Particle Species

According to F. Flesch et al., J, RM, 34 237 2001

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Binary Cascade Physics List
•Geant4 provides cross sections for N-N interactions from
empirical, parametrized models
//create process
G4HadronInelasticProcess* theIPGenericIon
= new G4HadronInelasticProcess("IonInelastic", G4GenericIon::GenericIon() );

// Cross Section Data Set


G4TripathiCrossSection * TripathiCrossSection= new G4TripathiCrossSection;
G4IonsShenCrossSection * aShen = new G4IonsShenCrossSection;
theIPGenericIon->AddDataSet(aShen);
theIPGenericIon->AddDataSet(TripathiCrossSection);

// Model
G4BinaryLightIonReaction * theGenIonBC= new G4BinaryLightIonReaction();
theIPGenericIon->RegisterMe(theGenIonBC);

//Apply Processes to Process Manager of Neutron


G4ProcessManager* pmanager = G4GenericIon:: GenericIon()-> GetProcessManager();
pmanager->AddDiscreteProcess( theIPGenericIon );

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Abrasion/Ablation Model
•Basic idea: Use geometric arguments to simulate nuclear-
nuclear interactions without running full cascade model

•Ablation simulates projectile


Abrasion
de-excitation of process
nuclear pre-
fragments – target
increases accuracy nucleus
of geometric models
Ablation
process

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Abrasion/Ablation Model - II
•Abrasion/Ablation models are much less computationally
expensive than full cascade models

•Provides reduced accuracy

•Ablation/Abrasion processes are provided by


G4WilsonAbrasionModel and G4WilsonAblationModel

•Ablation is simulated using Geant4 nuclear excitation models

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Validating Abrasion/Ablation
12
C-C 1050 MeV/nuc

100.0 Abrasion + ablation


Experiment
NUCFRG2
cross-section [mb]

10.0

1.0

0.1
C11 C10 B11 B10 Be10 Be9 Be7 Li8 Li7 Li6 He6
Fragment

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Abrasion Physics List
G4HadronInelasticProcess* theIPGenericIon
= new G4HadronInelasticProcess("IonInelastic", G4GenericIon::GenericIon() );

// Cross Section Data Set


G4IonsShenCrossSection * aShen = new G4IonsShenCrossSection;
theIPGenericIon->AddDataSet(aShen);

// Low-E model
G4BinaryLightIonReaction * theGenIonBC= new G4BinaryLightIonReaction;
theGenIonBC->SetMinEnergy(0*MeV);
theGenIonBC->SetMaxEnergy(0.07*GeV);

// High-E model using abrasion for faster simulation


theIPGenericIon->RegisterMe(theGenIonBC);
G4WilsonAbrasionModel* theGenIonAbrasion = new G4WilsonAbrasionModel();
theIPGenericIon->RegisterMe(theGenIonAbrasion);

//Apply Processes to Process Manager of Neutron


G4ProcessManager* pmanager = G4GenericIon:: GenericIon()-> GetProcessManager();
pmanager->AddDiscreteProcess( theIPGenericIon );

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EM Dissocation
•In the EM Dissociation process a relativistic nucleus causes a
target nucleus to fragment by exhange of a virtual photon

•Especially important for nuclei with large proton numbers

•Geant4 EM dissociation is based on NUCFRG2 (NASA TP


3533), validation table provided in Appendix C

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EM Dissocation Physics List

G4HadronInelasticProcess* theIPGenericIon
= new G4HadronInelasticProcess("IonInelastic", G4GenericIon::GenericIon() );

// Cross Section Data Set


G4EMDissociationCrossSection* EMDCrossSec = new G4EMDissociationCrossSection();
theIPGenericIon->AddDataSet( EMDCrossSect );

// Model
G4EMDissociation* theEMDModel = new G4EMDissociation;
theIPGenericIon->RegisterMe(theEMDModel);

//Apply Processes to Process Manager of Neutron


G4ProcessManager* pmanager = G4GenericIon:: GenericIon()-> GetProcessManager();
pmanager->AddDiscreteProcess( theIPGenericIon );

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Summary
•Geant4 provides high-precision (HP) data-drivven neutron
elastic, inelastic, fission and capture processes
•Parametrized models are provided where no HP data is available

•Thermal neutron scattering takes into account chemical properties

•Geant4 provides sophisticated models for N-N interaction of


varying computational complexity

•There is a wealth of validation information for all hadronic


processes, indicating good agreement between experiment and
simualtion

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Appendix A – Cross section references
Tripathi Formula
NASA Technical Paper TP-3621 (1997)

Tripathi Light System


NASA Technical Paper TP-209726 (1999)

Kox Formula
Phys. Rev. C 35 1678 (1987)

Shen Formula
Nuclear Physics. A 49 1130 (1989)

Sihver Formula
Phys. Rev. C 47 1225 (1993)

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Appendix B – Cascade Validation

•400 MeV neutrons incident on


Carbon

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Appendix B – Cascade Validation II

Copper Thick Target Lead Thick Target

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Appendix C – EM Dissociation Validation
Target Emulsion nuclei: Ag 61.7%, Br 34.2%, CNO 4.0% and H 0.1%

Projectile Energy Product from ED G4EM Experiment


[GeV/nuc] Dissociation [mbarn]
[mbarn]

Mg-24 3.7 Na-23 + p 124  2 154  31

Si-28 3.7 Al-27 + p 107  1 186  56

14.5 Al-27 + p 216  2 165  24†


128  33‡

O-16 200 N-15 + p 331  2 293  39†


342  22*

M A Jilany, Nucl Phys, A705, 477-493, 2002.

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