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Prepared by: Reynaldo G. Lopez


PRE-REQUISITE: All Political Law Subjects


This 5-unit course is a review of all branches of Political Law. Constitutional Law 1 studies
the General Consideration in the Philippine Constitution, the elements of the State and the branches
of the national government while Constitutional Law 2 focuses on the Bill of Rights. The course
includes Citizenship, Laws on Public Officers, Administrative Law, Election Law, Local
Governments, National Economy and Patrimony, and Public International Law.


The class will be conducted through lectures, recitations, quizzes and examinations..


Readings and Assignments. You are expected to be familiar with the assigned readings on a
week-to-week basis and must be prepared to participate actively in class discussions. Supplementary
readings and assignments will be given every now and then to augment the schedule of Topics and
Readings and to ensure a better understanding of a specific topic.

Recitation. You will be called to recite or lead the discussion of a scheduled topic during the
term. You are expected to demonstrate during recitation both knowledge of the assigned readings
and ability to express yourself convincingly.

Mid-term/Final Examinations. You will be given two major examinations in this course.
Both will allow you to display your knowledge and familiarity to think critically and logically.


Your grade in this course will be determined on the basis of class standing (30%) which
includes quizzes and recitations, the preliminary examination (30%), and the final examination

REFERENCES: Nachura, Antonio, E.B.. Outline Reviewer in Political Law, (2015) Quezon City: VP
Graphic Arts, Inc.

Magsalin, Mariano, Jr. F. and Roberto Rafael J. Pulido (2017) Philippine Political
Law, Pasay City: Arellano Law Foundation

Bernas, Joaquin G., The 1987 Philippine Constitution, A Comprehensive Reviewer,

(latest ed.) Quezon City: Rex




A. Politics, Government, Administration, Power, Authority: definitions, concepts, distinctions

B. Scope of Political Law Review
1. Constitutional Law
2. Administrative Law
3. Law on Public Officers
4. Election Laws
5. Local Government
6. Public International Law

A. Concept and Definition

- Distinguished from nation

- Origin, Theories

B. Territory

1, Definition
2. Components
3. The Philippine Archipelago, Article 1

a. Article III, Treaty of Paris, Dec 10, 1898 (Spain ceded the P.I. to the U.S.)
b. US-Spain Treaty, Nov 7, 1900 (Cagayan, Sulu, and Sibutu)
c. US-Great Britain Treaty, Jan 2, 1930 (Turtle and Mangsee Islands)
d. 1935 Constitution (Batanes)
e. 1973 Constitution (territories by historic right or legal title)
f. RA 3046, Jun 17, 1961
g. RA 5446, Sep 8, 1968 (Sabah claim)
h. PD 1596, Jun 11, 1978 (other territories, claim over KIG)
i. PD 1599, Jun 11, 1978 (200 miles EEZ)
j. UNCLOS I, II and III (1994) (Archipelagic principle, right of innocent passage,
right to sea lane passage)
k. RA 9522 (demarcation of maritime zone and continental shelf under UNCLOS

- Province of North Cotabato v GRP Peace Panel on Ancestral Domain, 568 SCRA
402 (2008)
- Magalona v Ermita, 655 SCRA 476 (2011)

C. People

1. Definition

As inhabitants, Article III, Sections 1 &2; Article II, Sections 15 & 16

As electors, Article VII, Section 4; Article XVI, Section 2
As citizens. Article II, Sections 1 & 4; Article III, Section 7

D. Government

1. Definition
- Government of the Republic of the Philippines defined, Sec 2 (1) Administrative Code

2. Constituent vs Ministrant functions

3. Parens Patriae
- Government v Monte de Piedad, 35 Phil 728 (1916)

4. De Jure government, Criteria for legitimacy

5. De facto government, kinds and characteristics
6. Classifications, Forms of governments

a. based on number of rulers

b. based on accountability to the people
c. based on the economic system
d. based on legislative-executive relations
e. based on divisions of the State

E. Sovereignty

1. Definition
2. Dual Aspect, Kinds and Characyeristics
3. Dominium & Imperium
4. Effects of Change in Sovereignty
5. Effects of military occupation
6. Territorial, personal and extraterritorial jurisdiction
7. Acts of State

A. Constitution: definition, nature and concepts

B. Parts
C. History and Background
The Philippine Revolution and the Malolos Constitution
Organic Laws under the American Period
McKinley’s Instructions (Apr 7, 1900)
Spooner Amendment (1901)
Philippine Bill of 1902
Philippine Autonomy Act or Jones Law (1916)
Japanese Occupation
1935 Constitution
1973 Constitution
1986 (EDSA) Revolution and the Freedom Constitution
1987 Constitution
D. Amendments and Revisions, Article XVII, Sections 1,2 & 3
Santiago v Comelec, 270 SCRA 106 (1997)
Lambino v Comelec, 505 SCRA 160 (2006)
E. Self-executing and non-executing provisions
F. Supremacy of the Constitution
- Manila Prince Hotel v GSIS, 267 SCRA 408 (1997)
G. Rules on interpretation of the Constitution


A. State Immunity

1. Basis: Article XVI, Section 3

2. When is a suit against a State?

3. Express Consent

a. Money Claims arising from contract

- Act 3083
- CA 327, as amended by PD 1445
- UP v Dizon, 679 SCRA 54 (2012)

b. Torts committed by special agents

- NCC, Article 2180

c. Incorporated Government Agencies (Note: Unincorporated government agencies

exercising proprietary functions may be sued)

4. Implied Consent

a. Government submits itself to court’s jurisdiction

The State itself files a complaint
- RP v Sandiganbayan, GR 85384, Feb 28, 1990

b. Government entering into business contracts

c. When inequitable for government to claim immunity

5. Suits against municipal corporations

-RA 7160, Sections 22 & 24

6. Suits against foreign states, Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Immunity

- Arigo v Swift, 735 SCRA 102 (2014)
- Minucher v CA, GR 142396, Feb 11,2003
- Rep. of Indonesia v Vinzon, GR 154705, June 26, 2003

7. Suits International Agencies, Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of Specialized

Agencies of the United Nations

8. Suits against public officers; exceptions

B. Delegation of powers

1. Rule, Maxim
2. Exceptions

a. By direct constitutional grant

- Tariff powers to the President, Article VI, Section 28 (2)

- Emergency powers to the President, Article VI, Section 23 (2); Article XII,
Section 12
- Rule making power to the Supreme Court, Article VIII, Section 5 (5)
- Delegation to local government units, Article X, Section 5
- Rule making powers of the Constitutional Commissions, Article IX,
Section 6; Article IX-C, Section 3; Article IX-D, Section 18
- Delegation to Commission on Human Rights, Article XIII, Section 8

b. By legislative grant
- Delegation tp administrative bodies (rule-making power)
- Delegation to local government units (ordinances as subordinate
-Sema v Comelec, 558 SCRA 700 (2008)
-NPC Drivers and Mechanical Asso. v Napocor, 503 SCRA 138 (2006)

3. Tests for due delegation of power

a. Completeness Test
b. Sufficient Standard Test

C. Separation of powers / Checks and Balance

-Belgica v Ochoa, Jr., 710 SCRA 1 (2013)
-Mendoza v People, 659 SCRA 681 (2011)

A. Preamble
1. Nature, purpose and aims

B. Principles

1. Democratic and Republican State, Article II, Section 1

a.. Manifestations of Democracy and Republicanism
- Rule of the majority
- Rule of law
- Elections through popular will
- Existence of bill of rights

2. Adoption of International Law, Article II , Sections 2

a. Renunciation of war
b. Incorporation Clause
- Deutsche Bank AG Manila Branch v CIR, 704 SCRA 216 (2013)
c. Adherence to peace, equality, justice, freedom, cooperation, amity with nations

3. Civilian supremacy; Role of the military, Article II , Section 3

a. Commander-in-chief clause, Article VII, Section 18
b. AFP in active service, Article XVI, Section 5 (4)
c. Respect for people’s rights Article XVI, Section 5 (2)

4. Duty and Role of Government, Article II , Sections 4 and 5

5. Separation of Church and State, Article II , Section 6

a. Freedom of Religion, Article III, Section 5
b. Political party ban on sects, Article IX-C, 2 (5)
c. No sectoral representative from religious sector, Article VI, Section 5 (2)
d. Tax exemption of churches, Article VI, Section 28 (3)
e. Non appropriations for sects; exemptions, Article VI, Section 29 (2)
f. Optional religious instruction, Article XIV, Section 3 (3)
g. Filipino ownership for schools; exceptions, Article XIV, Section 4 (2)
C. Policies

1. Independent foreign policy and nuclear free Philippines, Article II Sections 7 and 8
a. Foreign military bases, Article XVIII, Section 4 and 25

2. Just and dynamic social order

a. Social justice, Article II , Section 10, Article XII, Sections 1 (2)
b. Respect for human dignity and human rights, Article XIII, Sections 1, 17-19
c. Role of women; Fundamental equality of women and men, Article II , Section 14
-Garcia v Drilon, 699 SCRA 352 (2013)
d. Independent people’s organization, Article II , Section 23; Article XIII, Sections
e. Priority of education, science, technology, arts vulture and sports, Article II ,
Section 23; Article XIII, Sections 15-16; Article XIV, Section 2
f. Urban land reform and housing, Article XIII, Sections 9-10
g. Reform in agriculture and other natural resources, Article II , Section 21, Article
XIII, Sections 4-8
h. Protection to labor, Article II, Section 18; Article XIII, Section 3
i. Promotion of health and ecology, Article II , Sections 15 and 16
j. Self-reliant and independent economic order, Article II , Sections 19-20
k. Role of the private sector, Article II , Section 20
l. Role of People’s Organizations, Article II , Section 23; Article XIII, Sections 15-16

3. The family and the role of the youth, Article II , Sections 12 and 13
a. Family as a basic autonomous social institution
-Republic v Albios, 707 SCRA 584 (2013)
b. Protection of the mother and the unborn
- Imbong v Ochoa, 721 SCRA 146 (2014)
c. Natural and primary right and duty of parents

4. Communication and information in nation building, Section 24; Article XVI, Sections 1—
11; Article XVIII, Section 23
5. Rights of indigenous cultural communities, Article II , Section 22; Article VI, Section 5
(2); Article XII, Section 5; Article XIII, Section 6; Article XIV, Section 17; Article
XVI, Sec 12;
RA 8371 (1997), Indigenous People’s Rights Act

6. Honest public service, Article II , Section 27;

a. Ombudsman, Article XI, Sections 4-6
b. Full public disclosure, Article II , Section 28
c. SALN, Article XI, Sections 17
d. President’s health, Article VII, Section 12
e. Publication of loan applications, Article VII, Section 20
f. Public foreign loans, Article XII, Section 21
g. Contracts with foreign groups, Article XII, Section 2 (5)
h. Conflict of Interest, books of account, Article VII, Sections 12 and 20
i. COA annual report, Article IX-D, Section 4
j. Right to information, Article III, Section 7
k. Equality of opportunity; political dynasty, Article II, Section 26
- Ang Ladlad v Comelec, 618 SCRA 32 (2010)

7. Autonomy of local governments, Section 25; Article X;

a. Kinds of Autonomy
- Limbona v Conte Mangelin, 170 SCRA 786
b. Decentralization, Section 17, RA 7160, Local Government Code of 1991
c. Deconcentration of powers, Section 528, RA 7160

A. Definition, importance, distinguished from nationality

B. Rights and duties of a citizen
C. Modes of acquiring citizenship Article IV, Section 3
1. Involuntary: by birth (natural born citizen); Principles governing them
a. jus soli
b. jus sanguini, Article IV, Section 2
2. Voluntary: by naturalization (naturalized citizen)
a. Direct naturalization

How may Citizenship be LOST? OR REACQUIRED?

Commonwealth Act No. 63.

Sec. 1. – A Filipino Citizen may LOSE his citizenship:

1.) By naturalization in a foreign country;

2.) By express renunciation of citizenship;
3.) By taking an oath of allegiance to a foreign country upon attaining 21 years old.
4.) By accepting commission in the military service of a foreign country;
5.) By cancellation of the certificate of naturalization;
6.) By being a deserter of the Philippine Army in times of war as declared by a
competent authority, unless a subsequent plenary pardon or amnesty has been
7.) By marriage of a woman to a foreigner the national law of whom grants her the
latter’s nationality.

SEC. 2. Filipino Citizenship may be reacquired:

1.) By naturalization: provided, the applicant possesses none of the disqualification

prescribed in C.A 473;
2.) By repatriation of deserters of the Military;
2.a) By repatriation of women who lost their citizenship by reason of
marriage to an alien after the termination of their marital status; and,
3.) By direct act of the National Assembly.


Philippine Citizenship is the same as the procedure prescribed for naturalization: that is, the
applicant must possess all the qualifications prescribed under Section 3 of C.A. 473 and none of
the disqualifications prescribed under Section 4 of the same, plus he must possess the following
additional requirements:

1.) Applicant must be at least 21 years old;

2.) Applicant must have resided within the Philippines for at least 6 months prior to
his application for naturalization;
3.) Applicant must have conducted himself in a proper and irreproachable manner
during the entire period of his residence within the Philippines; and,
4.) Applicant must subscribe to an oath declaring his intention to renounce,
absolutely and perpetually, his allegiance to the foreign country of which he was a


Philippine Citizenship shall be effected by merely taking the necessary oath of allegiance to the
Commonwealth of the Philippines and registration in the proper civil registry.

***Reacquisition by direct act of the National Assembly is LEGISLATIVE, not Judicial.


Sec. 1. Petition for Philippine Citizenship shall only be heard by the courts after 6 months from
the publication of its application.

The decision granting the petition shall become executory after 2 years from its promulgation
(intervening time) conditioned upon the following:
1.) The court shall conduct a hearing after the lapse of the intervening time;
2.) With the attendance of the Solicitor General or his representative;
3.) In which the applicant has to prove the following:
a. That he has not left the Philippines;
b. That he dedicated himself continuously to a lawful calling or profession;
c. That he has not been convicted of any offense or violated any government
d. That he has not committed any act prejudicial or contrary to the interest
of the nation or government policies.

Sec. 2. Once the above requirements have been satisfied, (1) the order granting the petition
for citizenship shall be registered; and, (2) the applicant shall take an oath of allegiance. (3)
Only thereafter shall the applicant be entitled to all privileges of a Filipino Citizen (by
issuance of a Certificate of Philippine Citizenship; corollary, the Commission of Immigration and
Deportation shall cancel his alien certificate of registration).

- Substantive requirements: Qualifications & Disqualifications

- Procedural requirements
- So v RP, 513 SCRA 267 (2007)
- Administrative naturalization; RA 9139 (2001)
- Substantive requirements: Qualifications & Disqualifications
- Procedural requirements
- Legislative naturalization
- Special naturalization laws
- Mass naturalization law; Philippine Bill of 1902
- General law of naturalization; LOI 270 (1978)
b. Derivative naturalization
- wife, minor children. Alien woman upon marrying a Filipino
D. Modes of losing citizenship, Article IV, Section 3
1. Involuntary
a. by denaturalization (cancellation of certificate of naturalizarion)
b. found by final judgment to be a deserter of war
2. Voluntary
a. by expatriation
- by naturalization in a foreign country
- by express renunciation of Philippine citizenship, Article Iv, Section 4
- by taking an oath of allegiance to a foreign country; exception: Doctrine of
Indelible Allegiance
E. Modes of reacquiring citizenship
1. by naturalization
2. by repatriation
a. Commonwealth Act 63 (deserted AFP)
b. RA 965 (1963) (served Allied Forces in World War II)
c. RA 2630 (1960) (deserted US Armed Forces)
d. PD 725 (natural born Filipinos who lost citizenship)
e. RA 8171 (1995) (lost citizenship due to marriage, politics or economics)
- how is repatriation accomplished?
f. RA 9225 (Sep 17, 2003) (Citizenship Retention and Acquisition Act of 2003)
- Effect of acquisition of foreign citizenship before RA 9225
- Effect of acquisition of foreign citizenship under RA 9225
- Mercado v Manzano, 307 SCRA 630 (1999)
- Maquiling v Comelec, 696 SCRA 420 (2013) & 700 SCRA 367
- David v Agbay, GR 1991113, Mar 18, 2015
2. By law (direct act of Congress)
F. Who are citizens of the Philippines? Article IV, Section 1
1. Filipino citizens before the 1987 Constitution
a. citizens under the 1973 Constitution
b. citizens under the 1935 Constitution
c. citizens under the Philippine Bill of 1902
2. those born with Filipino father or mother
3. those who elect Philippine citizenship pursuant to the 1935 Constitution
a. elect Philippine citizenship under the 1935 Constitution
b. elect Philippine citizenship under the 1973 Constitution
c. elect Philippine citizenship under the 1987 Constitution
d. Procedure in electing Philippine citizenship; CA 625
- Republic v Sagun, 666 SCRA 321 (2012)
4. naturalized Filipino citizens under the 1987 Constitution
a. direct naturalization
G. Dual / Multiple citizenship; effects; RA 9225 (2003)
a. how acquired: by birth, by naturalization
b. dual citizenship distinguished from dual allegiance, Article IV, Section 5


A. Definition, nature
B. Scope
1. Election
2. Plebiscite, Article X, Sections 10, 11, 18
3. Initiative, Article XVII, Section 2; RA 6735, Initiative and Referendum Act; Sections 118-
126, RA 7160
4. Referendum, Article VI, Section, 32; Sections 127, RA 7160
5. Recall, Article X, Section 3; Section 69, RA 7160
C. Qualifications and disqualifications of voters, Section 1
D. Secrecy and sanctity of the ballot, Article V, Section 2
E. System of Absentee voting, Article V, Section 2; RA 9185


A. Who may exercise legislative power, Article VI, Section 1

1. Congress
2. Regional / local legislative power
3. People’s Initiative on Statutes
a. Initiative and Referendum
4. The President under a martial law rule or in a revolutionary government

B. Houses of Congress: Composition, Qualification and Term of Office

1.Senate, Article VI, Sections 2-4

2. House of Representatives, Article VI , Sections 5-8

a. District Representatives and Questions of Apportionment

- Aquino III v Comelec, 617 SCRA 623 (2010)
- Alaba v Comelec, 611 SCRA 147 (2010)
- Naval v Comelec, 729 SCRA 299 (2014)
- Bagabuyo v Comelec, 573 SCRA 290 (2008)
- Reyes v Comelec, 699 SCRA 522 (2013) and 708 SCRA 197 (2013)

b. Party-list System, RA 7941

- BANAT v Comelec, 586 SCRA 210 (2009) and 592 SCRA 294 (2009)
- Atong Paglaum, Inc. v Comelec, 694 SCRA 477 (2013)
- Coalition of Asso. of Senior Citizens in the Phil. v Comelec, 201 SCRA 786 (2013)
- Lico v Comelec, GR 205505, Sep 29, 2015
- Abang Lingkod v Comelec, 708 SCRA 133 (2013)
- Abayan v HRET, 612 SCRA 375 (2010)

3. Election:
a. Regular election, Article VI , Section 8
b. Special election, Article VI , Section 9

4. Organization and Sessions

a. Election of officers, Article VI , Section 16 (1)
b Rules of proceedings, Article VI , Section 16 (3) and 21
c. Journal and Record, Article VI , Section, 16 (4)
- Journal v Enrolled Bill
- Congressional Record, Article VI , Section 16 (4) par. 2
d. Regular, Special and Joint Sessions
e. Salaries, Article VI , Section 10, Article XVIII, Section 17

C. Privileges, Inhibitions and Disqualifications

1. Freedom from arrest, Article VI , Section 11; Privileged Speech and Debate Clauses,
Section 11
2. Incompatible and Prohibited Offices, Article VI , Sections 13, 14
- Liban v Gordon, 593 SCRA 68 (2009) and 639 SCRA 709 (2011)
3. Duty to disclose, Article XI, Section 17, Article VI, Sections 12, 20

D. Quorum and voting majorities, Article VI , Section 16 (2)

E. Discipline of members, Article VI , Section 16 (3)

- Pobre v Defensor-Santiago, 597 SCRA 1 (2009)

F. Powers of Congress
1. Legislative
a. Legislative Inquiry and Oversight Functions, Article VI , Sections 21 & 22
b. Bicameral Conference Committee
c. Limitations on legislative power
- Limitation on Revenue, Appropriations and Tariff Measures

- Presidential Veto and Congressional Override

- Prohibition against passage of irrepealable laws

d. Passage of laws
- Requirement as to bills
- As to titles of bills, Article VI , Section 26 (1)
- Imbong v Ochoa, 721 SCRA 146 (2014)
- How does a bill become a law?
- Effectivity of laws, NCC, Article 2

2. Non-legislative

a. National Board of Canvassers, Article VI , Section 4 (4)

b. Calling for special election, Article VI, Section 10
c. Decide temporary disability of the President, Article VI, Section 11
d. Veto or extension of habeas corpus and martial law, Article VI, Section 18
e. Approval of amnesty, Article VI, Section 19
h. Senate concurrence in treaties, Article VI , Section 21
i. Declaring a state of war or national emergency, Section 23
j. Utilization of natural resources, Article XII, Section 2
k. Constituent assembly to amend or revise the Constitution, Article XVII, Sections
l. Initiate impeachment, Article XI, Section 2
m. HRET and SET, Article VI, Section 17
n. Commission on Appointments, Article VI , Section 18
o. Approve national budget Article VI, Section 25
p. JBC (one seat)
r. Informing power

- Belgica v Ochoa, Jr. 710 SCRA 1 (2013)

- Abakada Guro Party List v Purisima, 562 SCRA 251 (2008)

A. The President
1. Qualifications, election, term and oath, Article VII, Sections 1, 4 & 5
- Macalintal v PET, 635 SCRA 783 (2010), 651 SCRA 239 (2011)
2. Privileges, Prohibition, Inhibitions and Disqualifications, Article VII, Sections 6, 13
- Pormento v Estrada, 629 SCRA 530 (2010)
3. Presidential immunity

B. Powers and Functions

1. Executive and administrative powers in general
2. Power of appointment and removal, Article VII, Sections 13-16
a. In general
- Funa v Ermita, 612 SCRA 308 (2010)
- Funa v Agra, 691 SCRA 196 (2013)
b. Commission on Appointments confirmation
- permanent or temporary
- regular or ad interim
c. Midnight appointments
- De Castro v JBC, 615 SCRA 666 (2010)
- Velicaria-Garafil v O.P. GR 203372, Jun 16, 2015
3. Power of control and supervision, Article VII, Section 17
a. Doctrine of qualified political agency / alter ego principle
- Hontiveros-Baraquel v Toll Regulatory Board, GR 181293, Feb 23, 2015
b. Executive departments and offices
c. General supervision over local government units, Article X
- Direct and indirect supervision, RA 7160, Local Government Code of 1991
4. Military powers (Commander-in Chief), Article VII, Section 18; Article II, Section 15;
Article VIII, Section 1 (2)
a. calling out power
b. Habeas Corpus
c. Martial law
- Kulayan v Tan, 675 SCRA 482 (2012)
- Ampatuan v Puno, 651 SCRA 228 (2011)
- Fortun v Macapagal-Arroyo 668 SCRA 504 (2012)
5. Pardoning powers, Section 19, Article IX-C, Section 5
a, Nature and limitations
- Monsanto v Factoran, Jr., 170 SCRA 190 (1989)
- Risos-Vidal v Comelec, 747 SCRA 210 (2015)
b. Forms of executive clemency
6. Diplomatic power (Treaty making), Article XII, Section 21
- Saguisag v Ochoa, Jr. GR 212426 and 212444, Jan 12, 2016
- Bayan v Exec. Sec, GR 138570, Oct 10,2000
- Treaty vs Executive Agreement
7. Powers relative to revenue, appropriation and tariff measures; Limitations Article Vi,
Sections 24 & 25
- Araullo v Aquino III, 728 SCRA 1 (2014) and 749 SCRA 284 (2015)
8. Borrowing power, Article VII, Section 20
9. Budgetary power, Article VII, Section, 22
10. Informing power, Article VII, Section 23
11. Delegated powers
a. Emergency power, Article VI, Section 23 (2)
b. Tariff power, Article VI, Section 28 (2)
12. Veto powers, Article VI, Section 27
13. Residual powers
14. Executive privilege

- Neri v Senate Committee on Accountability of Public Officers and Investigations,

549 SCRA 77 (2008) and 564 SCRA 152 (2008)

C. Rules of Succession
1. President, Article VII
a. Before assumption of office
b. Upon assumption of office
c. temporary incapacity

2. Vice President, Article VII, Sections 3, 7-9


A. Judicial Power

1. Adjudicatory power
a. Involving rights legally demandable, Article VIII, Section 5 (1)
b. Affecting ambassadors, public ministers and consuls
c. PET = SC

2. Judicial Review
a. Acts of Judicial Department: lower courts, Article VIII , Section 5 (2)
b. Acts of Executive Department
c. Acts of Legislative Department
d. Requisites for Judicial Review of a constitutional issue
1. Actual case or controversy; exceptions
2. Issue must be raised by proper party (locus standi)
3. Issue must be raised at the earliest opportunity; epistolary jurisdiction
4. Necessity of deciding the constitutional question (lis mota)
e. Functions of Judicial Review
f. Judicial Restraint; Limitations on the exercise of Judicial Review

3. Incidental powers

B. Rule-Making Powers, Article VIII, Section 6 (5)

1. Protection and enforcement of constitutional rights
2. Pleading, practice in all courts
3. Admission to the practice of law
4. IBP: discipline and practice of law
5. Legal assistance to the underprivileged

C. Auxiliary Administrative Powers

1. Detailing of lower court judges, Article VIII , Section 5 (3)
2. Change of venue or place of trial, Article VIII , Section 5 (4)
3. Power of appointment, Article VIII , Section 5 (6)
4. Discipline lower court judges, Article VIII , Section 11
5. Administrative supervision over all courts and court personnel, Article VIII , Section 6
6. Fiscal autonomy, Article VIII , Section 3
7. Annual report, Article VIII , Section 16
8. Supervision of JBC, Article VIII , Section 8 (5)
9. Plenary powers over the bar, Article VIII , Section 8 (5)
10. Supervisory power over IBP, Article VIII , Section 8 (5)

D. Concepts, definitions, distinctions

1. Political v Justiciable Question
2. Ministerial v Discretionary Functions
3. Judgment v Discretion
4. Substantive v Procedural Law
5. Substantive v Procedural Rights
6. Facial Challenge v As Applied Challenge
a. Void for Vagueness Doctrine
b. Overbroad Doctrine

E. Effects of declaration of unconstitutionality of law / act

1. Orthodox v Modern View
2. Operative Fact Doctrine
- Araullo v Aquino III, 728 SCRA 1 (2014) and 749 SCRA 284 (2015)

F. Modes of review and other judicial actions

G. Jurisdiction and Organization of courts

1. SC: en banc v division cases
2. General v Limited jurisdiction
3. Original v Appellate jurisdiction
4. Exclusive v Concurrent jurisdiction
5. Criminal v Civil jurisdiction
6. Regular v Special courts; Quasi-judicial bodies

H. Additional functions and powers for the Chief Justice

I. Safeguards of Judicial Independence

- Re: COA Opinion on the Appraised Value of the Properties Purchased for the retired
Chief/Associate Justices of SC, 678 SCRA 1 (2012)
- Re: Request for Guidance/Clarification on Section 7, Rule 111, RA 10154 requiring
government employees to secure a clearance of pendency/non-pendency of cases
from CSC, 706 SCRA 502 (2013)
- Re: Save the SC Judicial Independence and Fiscal Autonomy Movement v Abolition of
Judiciary development Fund (JDF) and Reduction of Fiscal Autonomy UDK-15143,
Jan 21, 2015

J. Appointments to the Judiciary

- Chavez v JBC, 676 SCRA 579 (2012 and 696 SCRA 496 (2013)
- Jardeleza v Sereno, 733 SCRA 279 (2014) and Resolution, GR 213181, Jan 21, 2015
- Villanueva v JBC, GR 211833, Apr 7, 2015

K. Judicial Privilege
- Re: Petition for recognition of the exemption of the GSIS from payment of legal fees, 612
SCRA 193 (2010)

A. CSC, COA, COMELEC, Article IX, A, B, C, D

1. Powers and Functions
2. Qualifications and Disqualifications
3. Jurisdiction
4. Appointment and Terms of Office
5. Prohibited offices and interests
6. Salary
7. Removal
8. Fiscal Autonomy
9. Submission of Reports
10. Rule-Making powers
11. Review of final orders, resolutions and decisions
a. Rendered in the exercise of quasi-judicial functions
b. Rendered in the exercise of administrative functions

- Funa v Villar, 670 SCRA 579 (2012)

- Funa v Duque III, 742 SCRA 166
- Dela Llana v Chariman, COA, 665 SCRA 176 (2012)

B. Economic Agencies
1. BSP, Article XII, Sections 20, 21
2. NEDA, Article XII, Sections 9, 10

C. National Commissions
1. Commission on Human Rights (CHR), Article XIII, Sections 17-19
2. National Language Commission (Komisyon ng Wikang Pambansa), Article XIV, Section 9
3. National Police Commission (NAPOLCOM), Article XVI, Section 6
4. National Commission on Indigenous People (NCIP), Article XII, Section 5; Article XIV,
Section 17, Article XVI, Section 12

D. Anti-Graft Bodies
1. Sandiganbayan, Article XI, Section 4
2. Ombudsman, PD 1630 (1979); RA 6770 (1989)