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TRUTH is defined as
• It is defined as agreement or conformity between the intellect and reality, between subject and the object.
• a statement about the way the world actually is.
• “The key to wisdom is this- Constant and frequent questioning, for by doubting we are led to question and by
questioning we arrive at the truth.”
~Peter Abelard, 12th Century Parisian Monk and Philosopher

Three kinds of truth in Philosophy

Ontological truth- It is the conformity of a thing to the mind.
Moral truth is the conformity of outward manifestation or expression of judgement and of mind. This kind is
treated in Ethics.
Logical truth is conformity to the thing known.
A logical truth is considered by some philosophers to be a statement which is true in all possible worlds.
Ex. If Drasha is a cat and all cats are mysterious, then Drasha is mysterious.

Nature of belief
In strict sense it is synonymous with knowledge.
Belief when used to mean faith in the divinely revealed truth of God.
Belief is also used to describe the assent given to a truth because of human testimony.

Nature of certitude
Certitude is the state of mind in which the mind gives a firm assent to a judgement without fear of error due to
recognize valid reason.

Truth as static
The approach of truth as static is analogous to peeling an onion where one can go on peeling each layer one
hopefully arrives at its core essence.
Truth presume to be perennial, it cannot be subject to change.

Truth as dynamic
Truth as dynamic as man who is it pursuit of it is also dynamic.
They want truth which is relevant, truth which concerns itself with the current issues of life.

A middle ground
If the truth is to be in the middle; it should be combination of the past, the present, and the future as well as
the” right mix” of the static and dynamic.
“Between a thousand yesterdays and million more tomorrows, there is one today.

Truth applied to education

Perennialism is a teacher centered philosophy that focuses on the values associated with reason. It considers knowledge
as enduring, seeks everlasting truths, and views principles of existence as constant or unchanging.
Progressivism is a student-centered philosophy that believes that ideas should be tested by experimentation, and
learning comes from finding answers from questions. This philosophy values the scientific method of teaching, allows
individuals to have their own beliefs, and promotes the interaction of students as valuable to the learning process.