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Project Report



Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the

Diploma in

Civil Engineering

Prescribed by

Maharashtra State Board of Technical Education, Mumbai

2018 - 2019

Submitted by

Sarang G. Warjurkar Shital M. Ughade

Tejendra S. Jambhule Punamchand R. Sindam
Amar C. Chatap Ashikkumar B. Jiwane

Under the Guidance of

Prof. P.S.Moon

Civil Engineering Department
Shri Sai Polytechnic, Chandrapur


442401 (M.S.)




This is to certified that this complete project report of entitled “USE OF
students of sixth semester of “SHRI SAI POLYTECHNIC, CHANDRAPUR, (M.S.) in the
partial fulfillment for requirement of DIPLOMA IN CIVIL ENGINEERING from
Maharashtra State Board Of Technical Education, Mumbai, (M.S.). This is the record of
their own project work carried out by them under my guidance and supervision for the academic
session 2018-2019.
Submitted by

Sarang G. Warjurkar Shital M. Ughade

Tejendra S. Jambhule Punamchand R. Sindam
Amar C. Chatap Ashikkumar B. Jiwane

Prof. P.S.Moon
Project Guide
Civil Engineering Department
ShriSai Polytechnic, Chandrapur, (M.S.)

Prof. A. V. Gowardhan Prof. S.N. Pilare

Head of Department Principal
Civil Engineering Department Shri Sai Polytechnic, Chandrapur, (M.S)
Shri Sai Polytechnic, Chandrapur, (M.S)

The student of Sixth Semester humbly submit this project, we have complete from time
to time as described in this report by own skill and studied between the period of 2018-2019 as
per instruction / guidance of Prof .P.S.MOON Sir and student related with this project are
associated with us for this work. However quanta of our contribution have been approved by the

Submitted by

Sarang G. Warjurkar Shital M. Ughade

Tejendra S. Jambhule Punamchand R. Sindam
Amar C. Chatap Ashikkumar B. Jiwane


2018 – 2019
I am grateful to my respected guides Prof. P.S.Moon Mam for her kind, disciplined and
invaluable guidance which inspired me to solve all the difficulties that came across during
completion of the project.

I express my special thanks to Prof. A.V.Gowardhan Sir, Head of the department, for
his kind support, valuable suggestions and allowing me to use all facilities that are available in
the department during this project.

My sincere thanks are due to Prof.S.N.Pilare Sir, Principal, for extending the all possible
help and allowing me to use all the resources that are available in the institute.

I would like to thanks all the faculty member of the Civil Engineering Department for
their support, for the successful completion of the project work. The acknowledgement shall
remain incomplete without expressing my warm gratitude to the almighty God.

I would like to thanks my Family members and friends for their continues support and
standing with me in all difficult condition during this work.
Housing is a basic need of human being. But this is out of the means of low income
householder who constitute majority of the population in the country. Low cost housing become
must in civil engineering. In this report some methods of low cost housing given.

Low cost housing is a new concept which deals with effective budgeting and following of
techniques which helps in reducing the cost of construction through the use of locally available
materials along with improved skills and technology without sacrificing the strength,
performance and life of the structure. There is huge misconception that low cost housing is
suitable for only sub standard works and they are constructed by utilizing cheap building
materials of low quality. The fact is that Low cost Housing is done by proper management of
resources. Economy is also achieved by postponing finishing works or implementing them in
phases. Present project concentrates on: Studying materials and technology for low cost

2.1.1 Random-straw or Coconut Fiber stabilized soil 6

2.1.2 Bamboo 7

2.1.3 Earth 10

2.1.4 Straw 12


2.2.1 Fiber cement composites 15

2.2.2 Structural Material 16

2.2.3 Ferro Cement 17

2.2.4 Bricks & Blocks 19

2.2.5 Plaster 22

2.2.6 Roofing 25


3.1.1 In walls

3.1.2 Non-erodible mud plaster

3.1.3 Fly ash sand lime bricks

3.1.4 Precast R.C.C. door and window frames

3.1.5 Precast Plank and Joist Flooring/Roofing

3.1.6 In Floor and Slab


4.1.1 Scale of the problem

4.1.2 Financial requirement for Affordable Housing
4.1.3 Social, Economical & Political Factors
4.1.4 Housing Policy Environment
4.1.5 Causes of Inadequate housing
4.1.6 Community housing through NGO’s
4.1.7 The stakeholders
4.1.8 The big picture:solving housing problem





2.1 Availability of natural fibers in India and its
applications in building materials
2.2 The properties of building materials in
6.1 Comparison between convectional and filler slab

6.2 Cement and lime content in blocks

6.3 Typical properties of aerated concrete (High

pressure steam)
6.4 Physical and material properties of panels


2.1.1 Random-straw OR Coconut Fiber Stabilized
Soil blocks
2.1.2 Bamboo forest in Maharashtra
2.1.3 Corrugated Bamboo Roofing Sheet

2.1.4 Earth blocks in India

2.1.5 Non - erodible plaster house

2.1.6 Rice Husk

2.1.7 Agricultural byproduct straw

2.2.1 Polymer-bamboo Reinforcement

2.2.2 Construction of house using aerocon panels

2.2.3 Calcium silicate plaster

2.2.4 Micro roofing tiles on sloping roof

3.1.1 Brick Panel Roofing


As India tries to shed its tag of ‘developing country’ and come in the league of
‘developed Nations’, one of the precondition is to provide food, shelter and clothes for all. A
major crisis for our country’s development is the problem of squatter settlement with nearly 100
million people living in slums and slum-like conditions without adequate basic facilities. These
numbers are expected to touch 200 million by 2020. India's housing shortage is estimated to be
as high as 40 million units and demand from the low income segments constitutes a large
proportion of this shortage. This has given rise to need of affordable housing in India. India has a
massive sanitation and public hygiene problem (affordable housing for masses). More than half a
billion citizens don't have a toilet and the country needs to build 78 new once every minute over
the next four years to meet the government’s ambitious sanitation target. One in two Indians, or
about 650 million people, defecates in the open. The untreated waste poses a serious health risk.
In 2007 India added about 11 million toilets, but the government wants the rate construction to
rise considerably. The national co-ordinator of aid agency water aid India, Richard Mahapatra
use official data to estimate that 40,000 new toilet for they are needed to reach the government
goal of making a lavatory available to every citizen by 2012. pre engineered buildings is one of
the techniques that can be used for fast and economic building of houses and toilets in India.

This paper studies the opportunity of Pre engineered building techniques to provide of
affordable housing and sanitation solution. Basic need of man in today's world is food, clothing
and shelter. House construction is a dream for low income people in our India. Whether he is a
farmer, labor or Private employee. Cost of construction is at high because of Highway base and
height material cost. A poor man has to spend his entire life in construction a house. Low cost
housing is reasonable for low income owners, if they can invest 30% of the household income.
In India as a developing country, has 20% of high income population that can afford a house.
High and middle-income people takeover most of the low income housing there is a need of cost
effective construction technology and materials. A low cost housing doesn't mean to sacrifice
with strength or build with operational materials but it means effective use of local materials and
techniques that are durable and requires less maintenance. Low cost material reduce the cost of
using alternative techniques. India's Urban population is the second largest in the world. The
country needs for plan for land acquisition and Rapid construction 40- 45% is slum population
which is growing day by day. Current shortage of 17.6 million houses is being faced by India.
Mumbai is the largest populated city of India having a population of 16 million according to
2011 census which has seen an increment of 15.9 8% form 2011 census. India's population
growth by 1.3 % per annum which is a main problem as 37 percent of population is below
poverty line on need using low cost and easily available materials and Technology.

Shortage of 17.6 million houses generates the uses of local available and natural material
in rural and urban India. According to the World bank the rural and urban population of India in
2013 is 67.97% and 32.02% respectively.

Affordable housing is term used to describe dwelling units whose total housing cost are
deemed “affordable” to the to a group of people within a specified income range. In India the
technology to be adopted for housing components should be such that the production and
erection technology be adjusted to suite the level of skills and handling facilities available under
metropolitan, urban and rural conditions.

Logical approach of for optimizing housing solutions: There should be a logical

approach for providing appropriate Technology based on the availability of options considering
its technical and economical analysis.

1. There should be optimal spacing the design considering efficiency of space, minimum
circulation space.

2. Economy should be considered in design of individual buildings, layouts, clusters etc.

3. While preparing the specifications it should be kept in mind that, cost effective construction
system are adopted.

4. Energy efficiency has gained considerable importance due to energy crisis especially in
developing countries. Orientation, built- from, openings & materials play a vital role besides
landscaping /outdoor environment .

5. To develop an effective mechanism for providing appropriate technology based shelter

particularly to the vulnerable group and economically weaker section.
Components should be such that the production and erection technology to be adjust to shoot the
level of skills and handling facilities available under Metropolitan Urban and rural condition.

Objective of the study

The following are the objectives of the present study:

1. To redefine the meaning of affordable Housing by comparing

2. To study the financial aspects of affordable housing
3. To study the be heavier of the buyer towards affordable house.
4. To study materials and technology used in affordable housing .



By the large commercial buildings materials like burnt bricks, steel and cement are higher in
cost, utilized large amount of non- renewable natural resources like energy, minerals, top soil,
forest cover, etc the continued use of such conventional materials has adverse impact of
economy and environment friendly materials and technologies with cost effectiveness are
therefore required to be adopted for sustainable construction which must fulfill some or more of
the following criterion:

1. Non Endanger bio reserves and be non polluting

2. Be self sustaining and promote self Reliance

3. Recycle polythene waste into usable materials

4. Utilize locally available materials

5. Utilize local skills manpower and managing systems

6. Benefit local economy by being income generating

7. Utilize renewable energy sources

8. be accessible to people

9. be low in monetary cost


Random- straw OR Coconut Fiber Stabilized Soil

Straw- soil mix is an ancient construction material and has been used in many countries
for years. Application of modern geotechnical techniques to this material can further improve
both strength and durability. Results with silty clay using the standard ASHTO compaction
procedure applied with the tensile test show that for 1% by weight of straw, the tensile strength
increased three times than that soil with no straw and also the soil straw mix gives high ductility
behavior. The percent of straw increase to the tensile strength increases and optimum condition
approximately around 1.6 % by weight and further increases of straw will decrease tensile
strength. From wet- dry test results, the coconut fiber gives a better durability. If sulfur coating is
applied to the compacted straw- soil mix, better water resistance is gained. Straw-soil mix can
also simulate the soil root system.

Figure 2.1.1 :- Random- straw OR Coconut Fiber Stabilized Soil blocks


After China, India is the second largest in bamboo production. Coupled with China, it
hold 50% of the world’s total share of bamboo production. Of the total 136 species of bamboo
occurring in India, 58 species spread out over 10 genera are endemic to the north eastern part of
India alone. The forest area, over which bamboos occur in India on conservative estimate, is
about 9.57 million hectares, which constitutes about 12.8% of the total area under forest. its
widespread availability and Rapid growth in areas of China, Japan and India has made this grass
and interesting structural material Due to its affordability easy assembly and relatively long

Figure2.1.2:- bamboo forest in Maharashtra

 Some Ongoing Bamboo Products Are

Corrugated Bamboo Roofing Sheet: A successful roofing material with a

development of traditional material comes from bamboo Board.

It is eco-friendly light-weight strong and durable and has minimal fire hazard when
compared to thatch and other roofing material. These sheets can be used for roofing, walling,
door and window shutters and other components in building construction.
Figure 2.1.3:- Corrugated Bamboo Roofing Sheet

Bamboo Mat Boards

Raw material source Bamboo grass( plant) species

Material for production Bamboo, polymer resign chlorinated

hydrocarbons and Boron and cashew nut

Applications flooring, walling, structural, membrane,

false ceiling,

Door/ window forms

Bamboo Mat Veneer Composite

Raw material source plantation, wood, bamboo plant

Material for Production plantation wood veneer, bamboo mat, polymeric

resin chlorinated hydrocarbons, boron cashew nut
shell liquid
Application door skin in flush doors, structural used as roofing,
web construction, prefab and portable shelters,
packing, modular partitions, and furniture.

Bamboo Corrugated Roofing Sheet

Raw Material source bamboo grass plant species

Material for production bamboo polymer resin chlorinated hydrocarbons

and Boron and cashew nut shell liquid coating for
UV protection and to improve

Applications Roofing sheets as substitute to corrugated Asbestos

cement sheets, Galvanized iron sheets, Aluminum
sheets and fiber reinforced plastic

Bamboo Rice Husk Composite

Raw material source Rice mill, Bamboo plants (grass)

Material for production Rice husk, bamboo mat, cashew nut shell liquid
phenolic resin.

Applications temporary Shelters, ware houses, false ceiling,

insulation, partition and stage settings, industrial
and domestic floorings.

Flash Polymer Composite

Raw material source Fly ash from coal based power generating plants

Material for production flash polymer material

Applications partitions, door shutters, roofing sheets.

Blast Furnace Slag Composite

Raw material source waste from Steel Plant

Material for Production blast furnace slag, polymeric resin

Applications laminating material

Sand Witched Fly Ash Panel

Raw Material source fly ash coal based power generating plants

Material for production fly ash, cement, sand, foaming agent

Applications partitions and walling panel.

Plantation Timber doors Windows

Raw material source rubber wood, popular wood and other soft woods

Material for production Rubber wood and popular wood plants,

thermoplastic and thermosetting resin

Applications doors and window frames, flush and paneled door



Earth is the oldest building material known to mankind. But its widespread use is the
hindered due to the limitations like water penetration,. Erosion of wall at level by splashing of
water ground surfaces, attack by termites and pests, high maintenance requirements etc. This
limitation can be overcome by using compressed earths block and non erodible mud plaster.

Compressed Earth Block

The compressed earth block is the developed for the molded earth block more commonly
known as the adobe Block this technology offer and economic Environment friendly masonry
stabilized earth block are manufactured by compacting raw material earth mix with a stabilizer
such as cement or lime using manual soil press.

Figure 2.1.4. Earth blocks in India

Non -erodible Mud Plaster

Central building research institute, India has developed on economical but effective
process to protect mud walls by applying non- erodible mud plaster. Non-Erodible mud is
prepared by mixing bitumen cutback (bitumen & Kerosene oil mixture) with a specified mud
plaste. Non- erodible mud plastered walls are resistant to water erosion. Centre for science for
villages, wardha India has developed a technique of providing potter made tile lining to mud–
walls protecting them from rain and moisture.
Figure 2.1.5:- non - erodible plaster house

Terra Cotta Skin to Mud Wall

Centre for science for villages, wardha India has developed technique of providing potter
made tile line to mud walls protecting them from rain and moisture in pace of potter made tiles,
kiln fired brick or tiles may also be used to protect mud walls from rains these tiles/bricks can be
fixed with mud mortar & pointed with cement mortar.

Rice husk

India is one of the world largest producers of white of rice contributing about 20 % of
world total rice production. The state of west Bengal ranks first in terms of area under production
whereas Punjab has the highest productivity in the country.
Figure 2.1.6: - Rice husk


Straw is basically an agricultural by product which comprises only of the plant stalks
(mostly cereals) after removal of grain and chaff. Rice straw has the highest silica content
making it the toughest amongst all ther cereal straws. Straw is considered as an environmental
problem as its burning causes breathing problems. straw and straw bale have a huge scope in
India as it is one of the largest producers of straw bale. 46% of total land ( 32,87,590, of
India is agricultural land and out of total population of 1,17,09,38,000 people 58.4%

Is solely dependent upon agriculture as a means of livelihood. So straw as high potential

as an alternate support combustion, is thermally insulated, has sound and moisture insulation and
is not toxic. The following are the profiles of some construction alternatives constructed with
straws and straw bales.
Figure 2.1.7 - Agricultural byproduct straw

1. Straw fiber

The early use of straw was by Mesopotamian and Egyptian in 1500 BC. Straw has provided
reinforcement to ancient products like boats and pottery. After the removal of chaff and grain
straw is obtained which is one of the byproducts of agriculture industry. Toughest compared to
other straw. Burning causes breathing problems, so an alternate method is needed for it


1) Life extended thatch roof- environmental friendly. it is fire resistant and water proof
2) Improved thatch roof- CBRI has designed a technique to make the roof more fire and
water resistant by plastering the layer by mud to make it more resistant to fire

Bagasse Fiber

Obtained from the remains of sugarcane or sorghum stalks. Waste quantity is same as the
quantity of production Around 500 sugar mills are present in India its is pale green to grey
yellow in color it is non uniform and bulky in size A Balaji et al states that approximately 50%
cellulose and 25 % of both lignin and hemicelluloses is present. If properly modified shows
better mechanical properties. 85% of the material is burnt of deposited of field advantage is low
energy input eco- friendly, reduces the density of product. Disadvantages are less impact strength
stocking problem, degradation of fiber etc. it can be used as bagasse cement board and panels,
bagasses PVC boards, biomass power generation.

Jute and Coir Fiber

It is a vegetable fiber. cultivation of just started around 800 BC it has been spread in
many parts of india 33 districts which has 98.41% of total area under jute cultivation jute is
mostluy used for pafckaging from the husk of coconut coir is obtained. Two third production
comes from million hectare in tropics it has a length of 35 cm and a diasmeter of 12-25 microns
coir industru is locted in india brazil etc. jute and coir fibers are used to produce coir – CNSL
board jute coir composite coconut and wood chips roofing sheetm geo textiles etc.

Sisal fiber

These fibers are naturally available that have that have low price, high specific strength
and are recyclable it can be used as reinforcement to make reinforced polymer composite. Life
span of sisal plant is 7 – 10 years which can produce 200 – 250 leaves. 1000 fibers, a leaf
produce. This fiber cannot be used in place of wet spills, snow, and rain. But it can be used for
paper production, cordage industry, tiles, geotextiles , roofing sheet and cement flooring sheets,
production of ropes.

Banana Fiber

Banana also called kalpatharu. India is the largest producer after Brazil. India has 5 lakh
hectares of farms out of which 10 % of waste is used to extract the fiber. There is no particular
method for extraction of banana fiber. It is highly strong fiber, with small elongation light
weight, average fineness is about 2400 Nm, bio-degradable environmental friendly. It is being
used for the production of building boards, fire resistance boards and medical applications, ropes,
mats, home furnishes.

Life extended thatch roofing:

It is one of the locally available and environment friendly alternative for corrugated
sheets. By treating it with copper sulphate solution its life can be extended by reducing the effect
of biodegradability. Additional layer of treatment on the roof surface using phosphorylated spray
or CNSL oil imparts water proofing, fire resistance termite proofing and weathering resistance.

Improved Thatch Roofing:

In order to decrease the fire hazard of thatch roof and making it water repellent a
treatment had been designed by the central building research institute. It essentials the thatch
layers are plastered with specified mud plasters making it durable and fire resistant.

Table2.1.Availability of natural fibre in india and its application in building


Item Source Application in building material

Rice husk Rice mills As fuel for manufacturing building and products
Banana leaves/ Banana plants In the manufacture of building boards, fire resistance, fiber
stalk boards
Coconut husk Coir fiber industry In the manufacture of building boards, roofing sheets, insulation
boards, building panels, as a lightweight aggregate, coir fiber
reinforced composite boards
Groundnut shell Groundnut oil mills In the manufacture of building panels, building blocks, for
making chip boards, roofing sheets, particle boards
Jute fiber Jute industry For making chip boards, roofing sheets, door shutter
Rice/Wheat straw Agricultural farm Manufacture of roofing units and walls/panels boards
Saw Mill Waste Saw mills/wood Manufacture of cement bonded wood chips, blocks, boards,
practical boards, Insulation boards, briquettes
Sisal Fibers Sisal Plantation For Plastering of walls and for making roofing sheets, composite
board with rice husk, cement roofing sheet, roofing tiles,
manufacturing of paper and pulp
Cotton stalk Cotton Plantation Fiber boards, panel, door shutters, roofing sheets, autoclaved
cement composite, paper , plastering of walls

Table 2.2. The properties of building materials in consideration.

S Properties Ba Concert Ferro Fiverce Fly ash Mud Rich Straw

r. mb Blocks cement ment bricks Blocks husk bale
n oo and compos (compr (with
o aeroco ites esed ) bricks)

1. Structural Wo Can be Lightwei The light Reduce Economic Pozzoloa Stable

rks given ght and weight pollution and nic and high
bett strength as requires high save energy economic load
er per no wet strength energy efficient al bearing
wit required plasterin to weight reduce corrosion ower
h less mortar g ratio, mercury resistance
moi joint as (asrocon) corrosion pollution increases
stur size bigger : high resistanc and cost light
e in which strength e crack 20% less weight
she increases low resistanc than final
ar stability density e, traditional product
forc and high flexibilit clay brick
es; crack y manufatur
hav resistanc lightness ing high
e e of strenghth
hig mortar lower
h ferro water
flex cement penetratio
ibili n,
2. Thermal Exc Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Moderate Moderat
elle e
3. Temperatur Mo Excellent Excellent Mdareate Excellent Excellent Depends Also
and water dera on depends
resistance te compositi on bricks
n as it is composti
used as ton as it
admixture is mixed
with the
brick and
4. Buildability Mo Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Moderate Moderat
dera e
5. Cost ( in Rs/ Dee 31.25 Depend Depends 62.66 15.625 NA NA
spuare meter) nds on on fiber
on thikness (3*)
thic (2*)

Fiber cement composites

From centuries, mankind has used the various natural fibers for wide spectrum of
application draining from conception to housing. In recent days many researchers have explored
the possibilities of using the natural fiber obtained from different plants which include, bagasse,
cereal straw corn stalk, cotton stalk, kenaf rice husk rice straw etc as an alternative building
material. Due to the light weight high strength to weight ratio, corrosion resistance and other
advantages natural fiber based composites are becoming important alternative for building
material for use in civil engineering fields.

Wardha tumbler tiles

Theses tumbler tiles are cast by potter and used as roofing have been developed by centre
for science for villages we wardha this kind of roof keeps the heat & cold out these tiles required
no under structure yet can bear the weight up to 1-0 tone/ m2 . Life is about 50 years & required
no repairs being light in weight ( 135kg/m2) the roof is safe even on future earthquakes.

Recycled steel reinforcement

steel reinforcement can be made entirely of recycled scrap iron. This material is salvaged
from automobiles, appliances and steel reinforced structures, which include reinforced concerte
pavements, bridges and buildings in general steel reinforcement bars can be rolled out from other
of the following: used scrap rails, automobile scrap or defense scrap, defectives from steel plants,
scrap generated from ship breaking and discarded structures, ingots from induction furnaces
tested billets from mini steel plant and main producer.
Structural material

The industrial revolution introduced many foreign substances which are the byproducts
of industries like fly ash and rice husk and created problems for their disposal. But on further
research into their properties it was observed that these materials possess excellent pozzoloanic
properties. Hence these can be used alternative building materials.

Polymer - bamboo reinforced concrete

The problem of bamboo reinforced concrete includes high volume change (expression
and shrinkage due to water content), low bond strength between Bamboo and concrete, low
modulus which Precipitate cracks at a service loads in tensile zone of concrete beams, and decay.
Many researchers have attempted to use many techniques to improve this low- cost material use
of bitumen, paint, cement. Etc.

Impregnation technique and increasing the bond strength for this material with Sulfur are being
developed. It is feasible that this type of material can be used the secondary structures when steel
is not available. Other the low cost materials such as a sulfur treated brick or masonry block are
also being studied.

Figure 2.2.1: - Polymer-bamboo Reinforcement

Pozzolona Material (Fly Ash/ Slag/Calcined Clay) As Blending Material with

Up to 35% of suitable fly ash can directly user substituted from cement as blending
material keeping the structural considerations. Addition of fly ash significantly improved the
quality and durability characteristic of the resulting concrete. Use of blended cement has now
become quite popular world over, from durability and environmental benefits point of view. The
advantages achieved with the use of a blended cement in concrete are quite well documented
reduce heat and hydration, improve workability and ease of pumping, superior microstructure
lending to lower permeability, higher long-term strength better performance in aggressive
environment (Sulphates, Chlorides, etc.) reduced the risk of Alkali silica reaction and higher
electrical resistance leading to lesser chances of reinforcement corrosion are some of the benefits
of pozzolona material blends. While Portland pozzolona cement save energy by 20%, lime line
for pozzolona mixture show up to 70% savings in energy.

Ferro cement

Ferro cement is a versatile structural construction material possessing unique properties

of strength and service ability. It is made with closely- knit wire mesh and mild steel reinforcing
bars filled with rich cement mortar. Welded mesh may also be used in place of reinforcing bars.
The materials required from making it, namely, cement, sand, wire mesh and mild steel
reinforcing bars are easily available in most places. It is possible to fabricate used in ferro
cement a variety of structures in elements which are thin, light and durable and processing high
degree of impermeability.

Ferro cement combines of lightness of steel and mould ability of concrete and can be
cast to any shape.

Application of Ferro cement component

Several applications of this material in housing include the following:

a .small capacity water tank

b. cupboard slab

c. roof and wall elements

d. shuttering for concrete construction

e. service core unite

f. toilet component

g. benches, furniture’s, dining , & other tables

h. sofa sets book store units etc.

i. Biogas holders

j. Boats and water troughs

In this paper a brief description has been about the method of production of Ferro cement
roofing channels, door shutter water tanks have been described and their cost economics have
been indicated for comparison purpose.

Advantage and disadvantage of Ferro cement components


 Less use of cement and steel for any given section compared with RCC with a
corresponding reduction in self weight
 A major reduction to cost expenses compared to RCC
 An easy manufacturing process required only semi skilled labor
 A simplified a cheaper installation practice compared to RCC
 The technique requires scaffolding shuttering a concrete mixer non vibrator
 They have a high degree implement ability resistant to cracking
 They require little or no maintenance
 they are economical compared to components build with steel concrete or bricks wall

 The need of the casting space and working area prefabricate the element and cure
them. This may be difficult or expensive especially in an urban setting
 The need for control to ensure quality products.
 The need for a proper applied curing method, usuallyoverlooked in any building
construction activities
 If the element arr not manufacture on the site they will have to be transported which
may add to the cost. Care should be taken not a damage the element during

Raw material of ferrocene and components

The following are the ingredients of the ferro cement production

 Pozzolona cement from the point of view of long term durability

 River sand
 clean water
 G I wire mesh or weld mesh

Normally a mix proportion of cement sand combination in the range ratio of 1:5 to 1:3 is
adopted in the production of components with water cement ratio ranging from 0.45 to 0.5 and
unlimited chips of ferro cement component can be productive depending on the requirement.

Manufacturing process

The manufacturing process includes the following:

1) Mould preparation (flat and smooth casing surface) preferably in a shaded area. There
should be no small hole and cracks in the mould of platform
2) Shuttering oil or west engine oil Smeared inside the mould or platform with a brush
3) Prepare the rich cement mortar and apply 1coat of 5 mm in the mould
4) Prepare weld mesh a layer of chicken mesh as per the design requirement
5) Then squared a second and last layer of mortar over the speed and obtain smooth finish
and required color grain of wood by sprinkling handful and of colored pigment cement
and rubbing it with mason travel
6) Curing is a necessary phase in order to obtain a properly manufacture ferro cement
production and minimum of 15 to 20 days of curing required.
7) Demould the products and stock for transportation

Cost analysis of different Ferro cement products

Ferro cement roofing channel

Material weight (KG) cost (Rs.)

3nos of steel bar of 8mm 1.10 46.00

Binding wire 0.120 2.40

Mesh (2 layers) 0.750 30.00

Cement 13 34.00

Sand 26 04.00

Total 116.40


Preparation of steel & mesh 2.0 hours 10.00

Casting 2.0 hours 10.00

Total 20.00
The total cost price for 1 meter prefabricated Ferro cement roof channel will be

Rs. 136.40

Ferro Cement Door Shutter

Summary of technical details for Ferro cement Doors

Size weight = up to 2.50m

Width = up to 1.50 m

Thickness minimum = 5mm

Maximum = 12mm

Weight maximum average = 30kg/m2

Reinforcement 4 layers of 12mm x 0.71mm (22G) mesh

WCS ratio 200 g of binding wire.

W= 4.40 (for 12 mm thickness per m2 = 4.5 liter)

C= 1 (for 12 mm thickness per m2 = 11.1kg)

Curing time S= 1.5 ( for 12mm thickness per m2=

Labor 2.5 to 3 weeks

Preparation of

Steel mat 1 bar bender + 1 helper : 2 hours/m2

Casting 1 mason + helper : 2 hours/ m2

Total 1 mason + 1 helper : 4 hours/m2

Cost price Not exceeding Rs 600 [er m2 (excluding the fittings)

Ferro Cement Water Tank

Cost of Ferro cement water tank (800 liters capacity )

1. Weld mesh 7.00m2 @ Rs. 25.00/m2 = 175.00

2. Chicken mesh 13.00 m2 @Rs. 15.00/m2 = 195.00
3. 6mm M.S rod 0.7 kg @ Rs. 12.50/Kg =8.45
4. Cement 2.2 bags @ Rs. 80.00/bag = 176.00
5. Sand 1.50 m3 @ Rs. 60/m3 = 9.0
6. Labor L.S = 520.00
7. Welding of fins for outets and scour = 40.00
8. Oil , grease mixer, etc.L.S. = 76.60

Total 1,200.00

Cost per liter = rs.1.50

Cost of conventional water tank with brickwork 800 liters capacity Rs. 1.95per liter.

Precast RCC Ferro Cement Farms

Precast RCC frames are concrete door frame with welded reinforcement these are
manufactured according to Indian standards. These are economical environmental friendly and
durable. They are termite proof, fire resistant and cousin proof. There is no bending or twisting
no shrinkage and no cracks.

They are maintenance free and easy to install at site, provided with in-built high quality
drop hold protector, stronger than other door frame material available in the market and are
provided with two different types of hinge fixing arrangements to suite specific requirement
.high quality plastic blocks for fixing hinges or arrangement for fixing stone hinges are available
. Ferro cement frames are 1/3rd in cost, compared to even second grade timber. They can be
manufactured at a small-scale level or for mass application, can be painted like timber shutters.
They have higher strength to weight ratio than RCC and provide 20% saving on material and
cost technical specification; 100 mmx60 mm section, grade of concrete M40, steel 6 mm dia, 3
no‘s, and stirrups, 6mm welded to main reinforcement.

Bricks and blocks

Need for building materials is growing at an alarming rate and in order to meet the
demand for new buildings, new ways and techniques must be evolved. Manufacturing of
building materials like bricks /blocks, cement, steel, aggregates, etc. consumed in bulk quantities,
puts great pressure on natural resources (raw materials) and energy requirement. The use of
alternative material for bricks should be encouraged in order to preserve precious fertile top soil.
Described below are a few examples of alternative materials for bricks/blocks.

Fly ash brick

Fay ash brick is a construction material, masonry unit comprising of class C fly ash
and water. Due to the high concentration of calcium oxide in class C fly ash, the brick can be
described as self cementing. These properties make fly ash bricks energy efficient ,mercury
pollution resistant, lower water penetration, lightweight ,thermal insulation and cost effective the
only major disadvantages of using fly ash brick is that there is very less information on its toxic
fume emission, Also it contains many unhealthy elements like silica ,aluminum, iron oxides,
arsenic, cadmium and mercury .Its mechanical bonding is weak and presents poor outlook .

A brick from coal washery rejects

Freshly mined coal is washed to remove impurities prior to its use or processing. This
residual waste from the coal washers plants is a hazard to the environment and needs to be
disposed or utilized in a manner which lessens its harmful effects on the natural surroundings
these bricks are eco-friendly and waste utilizing. They reduce air, land and water pollution is
energy efficient and cost effective.
Building Blocks from Mine Waste and Industrial Waste

It is eco-friendly, utilizes waste and reduces air, land water pollution .It is energy efficient and
cost effective. Majority of the large-scale industries and thermal power plants generate solid
wastes in bulk quantities .red –mud, coal ash ,slag, fly ash, etc. represent such wastes unutilized
for several decades. Such waster can be utilized for the manufacture of bricks/blocks, substitute
for fine aggregates in concrete ,partial replacement of cement in concrete , Lime-pozzolona
cements ,etc. Huge quantities of solid wastes (generally known as mine tailings) are produced by
the mining industries.

Aerocon panels

Aerocon panels are the inorganic bonded sandwich panels made of two fiber reinforced
cement sheets engulfing a light-weight core consisting of Portland cement, binder and a mix of
siliceous and micaceous aggregates .the use of Fly ash its substitution for timber based products
makes the panels environmental-friendly. The property attributes are eco-friendly, Faster
construction, no wet plastering and onsite curing, light weight, high thermal insulation, fire
resistant, excellent sound reduction properties, water and termite and weather resistant, suitable
for seismic and cyclone prone zone reloadable thin wall (space saving), smooth finish, mini-
mum foundation or ground preparation required and easy workability.

Figure 2.2.2: - construction of house using aerocon panels


These are bricks manufactured using the C- bricks machine developed by CBRI the machine is
available with BMTPC and used for production of quality bricks using fly ash-sand-lime, fly
ash-sand -cement and cement-sand aggregate.

Cement concrete hollow block

Cement concrete Block is a recently developed many unit of concrete. It works on

principle of densification of a lean concrete mix to make a regular shaped uniform, high
performance masonry unit. They are cost effective and better alternative to burnt clay bricks due
to their good durability, fire resistance, and resistance to sound, thermal insulation, small dead
load and high speed of construction

Low cost sandcrete block

The rice husk ash produced using charcoal form Rice husk is pozzoloanic and therefore is
suitable for use in block making.

In concrete

The rice husk ash is a highly siliceous material that can be used as an admixture in concrete if
the rice husk is burnt in specific manners.


Calcium silicate plaster

Calcium silicate refractoriness are usually derived from calcium silicate. Wollastonite is a
naturally occurring form the calcium silicate commonly used as filler. Portland cement is also
based on calcium silicate. Calcium silicate plasters economic, eco-friendly, produce less
wastage, have wide uses, give a smart finish, are less energy consuming, do not emit PUC and
other toxic fumes and gases after application and are recyclable. They are safein handling and
usages do not need skilled manpower, are fast drying, durable and have a less water

Figure 2.2.3:- Calcium silicate plaster

Fiber reinforced clay plaste

Clay Plaster Can achieve better sticking properties by reinforcing it with fibers. These
can be natural plant (cellulose) fiber or artificial fibers of polypropylene. Plant fibers in fiber
reinforced plaster act as reinforcement and create voids thus controlling cracking due to drying
shrinkage and thermal moments dried flower is less brittle than conventional blasters and can
withstand small moments of the substrate.


Bamboo mat corrugated roofing sheets

Roofing is an essential ingredient of any house and in India Several roof cladding
materials are in use including brunt clay/ Mangalore tiles, thatch corrugated sheet of galvanized
iron aluminum and asbestos cement, etc. Of these for semi permanent structures corrugated
sheets are three word building material and Technology Promotion Council (BMTPC) and Indian
plywood Industries Research and training institute (IPIRTI) have jointly developed Technology
for manufacturing Bamboo mat corrugated sheets (BMCSs).

Micro concrete roofing tiles

Micro concrete roofing (MCR) tiles are durable, aesthetic and inexpensive alternative for
sloping roofs micro concrete roofing (MCR) tiles are made from a carefully controlled mix of
cement, sand, fine stones aggregate and water.

Figure 2.2.4:- micro roofing tiles on sloping roof

Gypsum based ceiling tiles panel. Block sand door window shutters:

There are manufactures from calcined gypsum obtained by processing phosphogypsum

and industrial waste of fertilizer plants The panel are strong, light weight, resistant to fire and
works as a thermal isolative and cost of the product is cheaper.



Concept of pre-fabrication/partial prefabrication has been adopted for Speedier

construction better quality components and savings in material quantity and cost some of these
Construction Techniques and material for walls and roofs that are used many times have been
described further.

Different techniques adopted for different components of a building to reduce the cost of
and without compromising the strength of the buildings.

In walls

In the construction of walls, rammed earth, normal bricks, soil cement blocks, hollow
clay blocks, dense concrete blocks, small medium and room size panel etc of different size are
used. Although bricks continue to be a backbone of the buildings industry in actual construction
the number of bricks or blocked that are broken into different size to fit into position at site is
very last week results in wastages of material. On increasing the size of Wall blocks they will
prove economical to an extent due to greater speed and less mortar consumption, which can be
achieved by producing low density bigger size walls blocked by the use of Industrial wastes like
blast furnace slag and fly ash. Several fabrication techniques have been developed and executed
for walls but medium and large panel techniques have not proved economical for low rise
buildings as compared to traditional brick work.

Non Erodible Mud Plaster.

The plaster over mud walls gets eroded during rains, which necessitates costly annual
repairs. This can be made non-erodable by the use of bitumen cutback emulsion containing
mixture of bitumen and kerosene oil. The mixture is pugged along with mud motor and
wheat/rice straw. This mortar is then appliedon mud walls surface in thickness of 12 mm. One or
two coats of mud cow dung slurry with cutback are applied with the plaster has. The
maintenance cost gets lowered due to enhance durability of mud walls.
Fly – ash sand lime bricks

By mixing of lime and fly ash in the presence of moisture, fly ash sand lime
bricks are made. Fly ash reacts with lime at ordinary temperature and forms a compound
possessing cementations properties. After reactions between lime and fly ash, Calcium silicate
hydrates are produced which are responsible for the high strength ratio of the compound. Bricks
made by mixing lime and ash are therefore, termed as chemically bonded bricks. The bricks are
manufactured with the help of hydraulic press and are dried in the autoclave. These bricks have
various advantages over the clay bricks, as they posses adequate crushing strength, uniform
shape and smooth finish therefore does no require plastering and are also lighter than ordinary
clay bricks.

Precast RCC door and window frames

These are cheaper,, strongest fire resistant, termite resistant and sustain temperature and

Precast plank and joist flooring/ roofing

These are precast RC planks, supported over precast RCC joists. Cost saving is up to
20% and time saving in construction is up to 12%.

Solid concrete and stone blocks

This technique is suitable in areas where stones and aggregate for the blocks are available
locally at cheaper rates. Innovative techniques of solid blocks with both lean concrete and stones
had been developed for walls. The gang mould is developed for semi mechanized faster
production of blocks.

In floor and roof

A filler slab material may be termed as a waste material and is used to ensure advantages
over RCC slab. it is used mostly in southern parts of India as a simple and innovative technique
for roof construction. As it is known that steel is good in tension and concrete in compression
therefore it is difficult to remove concrete from tension zone But on the other side can be
replaced by using a filler material. Materials are place in a such a way that it is not compromised;
thereby removing unwanted concrete from below which leads to decrease in the quantity of
material required. These steps act as a cost cutting measures in addition leading to reduction in
dead load. To add an extra advantage internal cavity wall can be provided. different materials has
been used as filler material like mangalore tiles coconut shells, etc.

The advantages of using these material are that they are cost effective, have improved
thermal Coefficient, reduce carbon emission by 20% and better appealing recycle material before
deciding the design of slab, type of filler material to be used should we decide date first because
size of filler plays a role in deciding the depth of slab and also the spacing of reinforcement,
Filler should be soaked in water so that it is does not absorb water from concrete.

Bricks panel roofing

It had been developed by CBRI, Roorkee. The codal provisions from IS 14142:1994,
IS14143:1994 where used for its designed. The concrete used was in high compressive zone
whereas bricks are used in less compressive. Use of M20 grade or 1:3 Grade Cement mortar was
done for construction. Bricks panel roofing was made up of first class bricks reinforced with 6
mm MS bars, length was veried between 900 and 1200 mm but width was kept at 5:30 mm for
allowing 30 - 40 mm gaps between bricks. In order to increase the length of brick panel,
diameter of bars was also increase and its most suitable for rural areas the different advantage of
using this where that help in saving the quantity of cement, Steels, labor. It also saves time and
cost, concrete and concreting cost can be saved by 20- 25% and 25- 35% of complete slab cost
respectively. If the production for ensuring availability is to highlighted then that case of factory
can produce approximately 1,20,000 bricks panels/day in at 8 hours shift and 24,000 RCC joist
in an annum For all those produced the compressive strength ranges up to 150 kg/cm2 standard
size of bricks panel used was of size 1200x530x75 mm and while that RCC joist was
130x1200x3600 mm the numbers of skilled And unskilled Labour required are 6 and 20
respectively. Bricks panel weighs around 75 kg whereas RCC joist weight 15 kg/m.
Figure 3.1.1 : brick panel roofing

Flat slab

Slab is one such component of house that is directly supported on columns without any
intermediate beams as shown in figure. 3. It was constructed in 1906 by turner in USA by using
some of the basic theoretical designs. Testing of different slab was done during 1910-1920. But
Nicholas in 1914 gave a basic design method for its construction, but Jacob S. Grossman’s
method of equivalent beam had been preferred by many engineers.

Different methods came into existence of different types of designs likes for small ones
empirical methods used for irregular forms sub frame method was used and for calculation of
reinforcement details yield lines method was used.

For slab spanning 5-9 m, thin flat slab my must be preferred, whereas slab spanning for
more than 9 m, post tensioning should be done. Several advantages that can be elaborated and
first an easy form working, less construction time and easy concreting as well. Despite all these
advantages Indian engineers had to use ACI- 318 because of IS 456:2000 limitations.



India is a populous country where approximately 70% of the people reside in rural areas
people are migrating to urban settlements in search of jobs and better living standards

Scale of the problem

The exhibit 1 below shows the state wise and category wise housing shortage in India. It
can be seen that 99% of the housing requirement is in the economically weaker sections (EWS)
and the low income housing (LIH) space.

Financial requirements for affordable housing

Based on an analysis of the money spent on the above mentioned initiatives every
year we arrived at the following:

Total Urban Housing shortage(in Million units) 24.71

Approx cost per house (as per JNNURM estimates) 2,00,000.00
Total Financial Requirement(in crores)---5% of GDP 4,94,200.00
Total NREGA works cost per year(in crores) --- 0.6% of GDP 50,000.00
India GDP 2011-12 (in crores) 82,32,652.00
Total JNNURM Spending since inception (in crores) 28,287.24

From exhibit 2, it can be seen that even the most popular scheme of the government the
NAREGA is allowed only. 0.6 % of the total GDP. The most well known Urban Development
programmed has spent around 29000 Crores since its Inception. The above calculated housing
requirements are only for urban areas which constitutes 28% of the population (in 2011). The
Urban population is expected to rise to 50% population of the next two decades which will
exacerbate the problem.
Social, Economic & Political factors

1. Poverty and economic development: poverty & inadequate housing work are
cyclical factors: those who lack adequate housing spend money and time on the
shelter rather than on other basic needs, further entrenching them in poverty
2. Low household income levels: in developed countries, land prices average four times
the average annual income whereas in Asia, developed land is, more than 10 times the
average annual income.
3. Discrimination: Women and minority groups face both implicit (higher poverty
levels) and explicit (barriers to housing based on law and customs) discrimination in
many housing markers.
4. War and violence: war and violence creates an exodus of people who are forced to
live in temporary settlements without access to basic amenities. It also physically
destroys housing infrastructure and stalls housing production, creating further

Housing policy environment

1. Decentralizing authority: the responsibilities are often shared between multiple

agencies at multiple levels of government with little coordination among them
thereby leading to a lack of transparency.
2. Regulatory policies: Stringent construction and urban expansion policies leading
to increase housing costs, lengthy delays in allotting permits and complex land
registration procedures are contributing to the effectiveness in addressing the
housing problem.
3. Forced eviction & relocation policies: Households from slums and illegal
settlements are forcefully evicted and are consigned to less desirable locations
which are far from places of work, education, recreation and Healthcare.

Causes for Inadequate housing

The following causes of Indian housing India influence the quantity, quality and
affordability of housing options available to the poor
Market conditions are and Housing options

1. Land Shortage due to improper City planning: Increasing demand for and limited
supply of urban land are leading the speculative land prices
2. Lack of financing: loans require the poor to possess sufficient identification,
ownership of land and have inflexible payment schedules which do not address
the financial requirement of the poor. microfinance loans have a very short tenure
and are mostly given out for revenue generations activities. Household savings
are non-existent and government interest subsidies are insufficient

Failure of Governments

The following are some of the reasons for governmental incompetence in providing housing for
the poor;

 Standard housing projects:The government fails to understand the needs of the

intended beneficiaries and standard designs are not attractive.

 Location of housing projects: projects are located in the outskirts of cities, away
from places of work, education and healthcare.

 Lack of regulatory mechanisms: Many MIG and HIG applicants have benefited
from the subsidized prices for housing properties meant for the EWS & LIH sections
of the population due to lack of regulations.

 Lack of Co-ordination: Multiple government agencies are working with little co-
ordination among them for the development of housing projects leading to a
bureaucratic and inefficient system for project tender and allocation.
 Inefficient land acquisition process: Acquiring land in India is a hassle & the laws
are not well defined when it comes to land acquisition and eviction. This is leading to
lengthy delays in acquiring developmental permits.

 Increasing land prices: the rapid increase in the price of land is leading to a Nexus
between the government officials, politicians and land mafias which make it highly
impossible and costly for the beneficiaries to get title to the land.
 Lack of supervision: This is leading to significantly inferior quality of construction
material being used by contractors resulting in a poor quality of construction.

Failure of private Sector

The private sector has also failed to perform as per explanation in the low cost housing
space. The following are some of the reason for the failure.

* Lack of incentives: The booming urban middle class on the demand side and
increasing cost of land and construction model on the supply

side have led to housing projects being price very high, which are now
unaffordable the poor.

* stringent construction standards: The maximum floor area ratio (FAR) that can be
develop on given piece of land is very less compared to the other developing countries. This
leads to a reduction of housing units that can be built on the same land which in turn is leading to
high prices for developed units.

* Long recovery cycles for Financiers: The poor can spare a very little portion of their
earnings on repayment, leading to a long recovery recycle for financiers who compensate for it
by charging high interest rates.

All the above mentioned concern have cause the clearing price for privately built homes
to be much larger than what is affordable to EWS and LIG section (see exhibit 2) and have left
the private sector short of addressing the housing problem.
Community housing through NGOs

given though in heavy inability duty of government the and private sector to cater to the
house and nature of the urban poor the most promising models used to in holy Angels and
communities there are many and use in India which have taken of the tax of facilities in housing
construction and financing for the poor like CHF India (cooperative housing foundation)
SPARC, assist Foundattion and habitat for humanity( HFH). We now take a detailed look at

HFH India

HFH Indiawas started in 1983 in Khammam Andhra Pradesh. It currently has 4 offices in
Delhi Mumbai Chennai and Bangalore and has a cyst in building around 40,000 homes across
the country although it started his operation close to 30 years ago it really got infected post of the
tsunami disaster around this time there was a increase awareness and mindshare for homes and
database got a lot of support and funds achieve hasbi more than 20000 homes in last 7 years.

The Habitat Models

The habitat models is drawn from the philosophy that it is not for charity organised
forward interest free loans to the poor who can not avail finance loan from the bank these forms
a compound tonoscope could be in visual ok opportunities funds are there in channels to the
deserving recipients through local enjoy the beneficiaries are called housing partners to see any
five that they are an integral part of the project and have ownership.

The stakeholders

In this section we will take a detailed look at the different stakeholders involved in the
HFH model, their roles the flow of resources and how HFH adds value in the process the
following diagram lists all the stakeholders and the flow of monetary and non – monetary aid
between them which will be explained in the next few section:
Housing partners or Beneficiaries

Their monthly income should be in the range of Rs. 4,500 -6,000 (belonging to
the economically weak section) to ensure that they will be able to pay off their deft within the 5
year period. Also they should have possession of the land. The government recognizes the long-
time inhabitants of certain localities and gives them an official status that they have a secure
tenure of the land for a specified period of the (say 30 years.) this will enable them to build a
house in that land and stay there but they do not have the title which is necessary to sell the land
this ensures that the beneficiaries are genuinely poor and in need.

HFH adds value

HFH provides interest free loans up to Rs. 60,000 to the beneficiaries which can
HFH repaid in easy installments of Rs. 1000 per month in 5 years they also provide them
technical support through an in-house engineer and help the reduce the cost of labor by providing
volunteers who can do unskilled work.

NGOs are like an execution line of a ship is the scope of a variety of activities like
identify the rights be necessary HFH does due diligence disbursement of funds and also monthly
collection of requirements quality in self help group s h g in every locality to ensure that the
payment is made on time these are generally organization which have a strong presence in circle
locality with in deppk knowledge of the inheritance and problems a lot of their is taken in
choosing the right sanjo to partner with the HFH teams does a detailed audit and evaluate them
on different parameters and does a periodic reviews.

HFH adds value

HFH gives their partner NGOs about 3 % to 5% of the first to cover the overhead
expenses which the NGO include in activities apart from housing as well as a page also plays the
role of mentor and diesel minutes waste management practices since HFH is as a internationally
renowned entity, it has the NGOs get credibility and hence raise more funds from other sources
reduce the resistance of the local and increase their acceptance and hence they reach.

Individual Donors

The donor come from all walks of life from employees who contribute of percentage of
their earnings admission to higher networth individuals who are in to work for social causes.

HFH adds value.

Given the model of h a phase the money in the end by do not need to not be charity it can
be written back to the game after a given period of time another advantage is that the utilization
of the fonts can be clearly seen as it creates real asset unlikely se donating to the Cancer research
foundation financiers are contained due to the three international standing and strong
achievements the donors don't have to worry about mismanagement of funds.
Corporate Donor

Large Indian and multinational companies have a tight of the HFH as a part of their CSR
activities the most common ways in which they contribute is true sending the volunteers and
matching donation policy for every hour of employee volunteer work Cisco some companies
also donate a kind of life Aditya Birla cement and certain electrical appliances companies from
Bank provide interest free capital 2hf with hfs guarantee the payment of the principal as a part of
their CSR activities.

HFH adds value

The outdoor volunteering activities for us as a great team building Activity Company is
same enter themes for a day volunteering that they can bond over construction activities which
require them to work in groups.


The government is only indirectly involved location of HFH in 2 ways

1. Identifying the long time in evidence of the land and adding them the position and
documentation which guarantees a security in this helps the poor build a home
without having a worry about it being demolished without any competition.
2. Giving unsecured loans for this section of the society of to rs 1 lakh which will reduce
the amount of money acpc will have to clean hands in wearing them to increase their
reach to more families.

The Big Picture: Solving Housing Problem

Based on our understanding we believe that a collective system which incorporates the
advantages of each entity is the most likely solution that comes closest to address in the housing
problem the responsibilities of various entities are as given in the following figure exhibition 5
described below:
•Provides subsidized
•Facilitates financing
Housing Partners opportunity Investors
•Monthly rent payments •Invest in Tax Exempt
•Buyout property after Housing Bonds
10 years •Finance private sector

NGO Partners Private Sector

•Identify beneficiaries
Low -Cost •Financing the project
•Monthly rent collection Housing •Construction and
from beneficiaries Project Management
through SHGs

 Government : In order to cut out the influences of the government in the housing
market we suggest that the government only be involved in active City planning and
making land available website for housing project the responsibility of development
of the project should be handed over the private sector industry regulation to provide
affordable housing on a fraction of the land.
 private sector : having been provided land at subsides price the private sector can
bring in it is experience in project management and construction to build good
qualities houses at the lowest cost it should also finance the projects while repairing
cost over a long period of time was matli 10 years based on a monthly rent collection
from the beneficiaries.
 Partner NGOs : the task of identification of beneficiaries should lie with NGO as
they are closely involved in community development.
 They should also from self help groups to guarantee regular rent payments.
 Investor : The government can facility close to the private sector 3 house and bones
on the lines of infrastructure bonds tax extension Malviya Chandu are the inventors in
their sleep on the private sector cancer pass on the financial risk to the financial
markets with sufficient regulation.
 Housing partners : They must of hold their company commitments of paying regular
Reigns file also having an option to buy the property 1 notable feature of the solution
this that these houses are not sold to the beneficiary on front heat is the given out for
phenomenal Rane top for period of 10 years the rain that is collected goes to the
private developer to pay back is loan Sony this project beneficiaries who live in this
houses for such a long period can be given an option to continue to pay rent of
perfectly about their house for a nominal sum this option would also help the private
developer if they want to get out of the project after 10 years.



Under Indira awas Yojana to panchayats are to identify the beneficiaries at gram sabha
meetings the housing subsidy under the scheme is directed and BPL families as the number of
BPL families is the many times more than the plants available in any given year the panchayat
list ranking beneficiaries and the ascending order of volunteers for families were given refunds
during the year the selected beneficiaries is provided the subsidy amount of by the gram
panchayat into installments 13,000 initially and 12000 on the completion of specific stage of
construction before Ranbir Singh II and final instrument and inspection of the construction is
carried out non of the rain a t series why interview reported of any harassment in obtaining ai ai
subsidy only a simple form is to be afraid for the purpose is verified by the panchayat officer
land for photocopy of the eligibility login user duration curve is submitted also the potential
energy has to have kabza 21 occupancy on the leg there is a window for it support for those
initially left out this comes from the SharePoint available with the clock chairperson but it can be
accessed only when the official has someonly rain this official has some thoughts left with him
and has started to meet the district target is first fixed which internships the lockets for the blocks
the blocked then fix the target for the each gram sabha of turn the tide wait for the block is not
fully Apportionment among its gram sabha.

The residual funds constitut the question points which block chairperson all over to the
son Nadi individual who are left out the Indira awas Yojana beneficiary are also able to get
admission forms for the construction of toilets and a smokeless chulha amount currently
available under1200.

Simillarly Rajiv awas Yojana(ray), Pradhan mantri awas Yojana(pmay) Walmiki awas
Yojana(way) and other state government different states are taking efforts for building houses for
the poor or below poverty level.


Filler Slab is much more economical than traditional slab as it saves 16%, 44%,17% of
cement, steel and cost in two way slab and 33% , 46%, 25% in one way slab respectively.

Brick panel saves 19% per m3 and Rs 418 cement, 19% per m3 and Rs 21 in sand 19%
per m3 and Rs 127 in aggregate, and 38% per m3 and Rs 536 in steel. Soil stabilized bricks are
27.7% cheaper as compared to country fired bricks walls, where country fired bricks use Rs 934
per m2 there soil stabilized bricks use rs 736 per m2, they are less air pollution, energy
consumption, carbon emission.

Aluminum form work is a comparatively high cost construction but give high quality and
speed constructin which can be used in places where speedy construction is required GFRG
building saves around 50.8%, 35.2% and 27.47% of cement steel and cost to convectional
buildings Flat slab the totally quantity of steel and concrete used are 8.644 m3 and 1294m3 as
compared to conventional building which uses 10593 m3 of steel and 1505.25 m3 of concrete
and the cost saving percentage in flat slab is 15% in B+G+3 building respectively.

Hollow concrete block can be used in those places where the load is not coming directly
on wall the cost saving is by 17.78%.

Rat Trap bond are much economical than conventional bricks they reduce the uses of
bricks by 25% and mortar by 40% and reducing the load by 8% while giving some compressive
strength with saving of 57% in cement cost, 20% saving in bricks, and 61% saving in sand.

Table: 6.1- comparison between convectional and filler slab

Slab Item Cement (Kg) Steel (Kg/m3 ) Cost

Two-way Convectional slab of 120 mm thick 38.4 71 415

Filler slab of 120 mm thick 32 4 346

Saving% 16 44 17
One-way Convectional slab of 120 mm thick 48 6.5 450
Filler slab of 120 mm thick 32 3.5 338
Saving% 33 46 25

Table:6.2 - cement & lime content in blocks

Description Minimum Average Maximum

Cement stabilization 3% 5% No max
Lime stabilization 2% 6% 10%

Table:6.3- typical properties of aerated concrete ( High Pressure steam)

Dry Density Grain size Compressive Flexural Modulus of Thermal

(Kg/m3) (um) strength strength Elasticity conductivity
(N/MM2) (N/MM2) (N/MM2) at 3%
450 70 3.171 0.621 0.016 0.12
525 80 3.998 0.689 0.019 0.14
600 90 4.481 0.827 0.027 0.16
675 100 6.274 1.034 0.025 0.18
750 110 7.515 1.241 0.027 0.20

Table: 6.4- physical and material properties of panels

Sr. No. Description Value

1 Density 1.14 grm/cm3
2 Water absorption < 5%
3 Sound transmission 28 (unfilled)
45 (filled)
4 Elastic modulus 3000-6000 N/mm2
5 Thermal conductivity 0.617
6 U- value 2.85 W/M2K
7 Thermal Resistance (R) 0.36 m2 K/W
8 Fire resistance 4 hr rating with stood 700-10000 C
9 Ductility 4
10 Tensile strength 35 KN/m
11 Flexure Strength 21.25 Kg/cm3
12 Unit Shear Strength 50.9 KN/m
13 Compressive strength 160 KN/m2 (unfilled)
1310 KN/m2 (filled)
14 Axial load capacity 160 KN/m or 16 tons/m
15 Weight 0.433 KN/m2 or 40 Kg/m2
16 Glass fiber 300 - 350 mm long
17 Fiber content 0.8 Kg/m2


In this study project the various natural materials like bamboo and its product, random straw
blast furnace slag fly ash and its product, earths and its products, rice husk, different fibers
(biogases, jute and coir, sisal, banana) are used being non endanger bio-reserves and non
polluting. Also manmade materials like fiber cement composite, pozzolona material products
Ferro cement precast material etc and recycle producing waste material into usable materials is
beneficial for low cost housing materials.

For the cost benefit ratio the effectiveness are filler slab over traditional slab is consider in this.

The dream of owning a house particularly for low income and middle income families difficult
reality it necessity to adopt cost effective innovative and environment friendly housing
technologies for construction . This project examined the cost of effectiveness of using low cost
housing technologies in comparison with traditional construction material. It is found that
26.12% and 26.68% of construction cost including labor and material can be achieved , can be
save by using low cost housing technologies in comparison with the traditional construction
method for the walling and roofing respectively.

Depending on the availability of the materials in a particular region. These materials can be
selected as transportation cost consist of approximately 30% of total construction budget.

There have been several attempt at local levels to make use of bamboo, fly ash, mud, etc.

In this project fly ash as a sustainable alternate building material is studied and the potential of
this material to be used as a alternate building material is brought out. Proper awareness to be
created in a housing sector for the low cost housing.

This material if studied and develop properly holds the key to address the current housing needs.
Mass housing target can be achieved by replacing the convectional material and more than that,
the process of making use of industrial waste like fly ash in large quantities is more
environmentally acceptable.

At the end we can conclude by using low cost housing natural material and manmade materials
and by using new trends and technologies we can build economic house.

AASHTO – American Association of state highway and Transport Officals

CBRI - The central building Research institute

CNSL- Cashew Nut shell Liquid

RCC – Reinforced cement concrete

GI – Galvanized Iron

WCS – Water Cement Sand Ratio

MS – Mild Steel

LS – Lump sum

BMTPC – Building material and Technology Promotion Council

VOC – Volatile Organic Compund

IPIRTI – Indian Plywood Industries Research and Training Institute

BMCS – Bamboo Mat Corrugated Sheets

MCR – Micro Concrete Roofing

EWS – Economical Weaker Section

LIH – Low Income Housing

GDP – Gross Domestic Product

NREGA – National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

MIG – Medium Income Group

HIG – High Income Group

FAR – Floor Area Ratio

NGO – Non Government Organization

CHF – Co-operative Housing Foundation

SPARC – Society for the Promotion of area Resource Centre

HFH – Habitat for Humanity

SHG – Self Help Group

CSR – Current Schedule Rates/Corporate Social Responsibility

IS – Indian Standard

 Http:// cost materials/5352/
 Building materials and construction – G.C. Sahu and Jaygopal Jenna
 Building construction by Rangwala
 Building construction by B.C. Pumia
 Engineering material by Rangwala
 Handbook of low cost housing by A.K.Lal
 Housing and Urbanization: A study of India By Cedric Pugh.