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– without slipping

• rigid: gear and chain transmissions nord.com

• power transmission with friction

– slipping

• flexible: friction wheel and belt transmissions asconveyorsystems.co.uk

democrazy.encikbeliau.com/

giveng.com utterpower.com

19.5.2017 MatJo

achrnews.com

2

Power transmission elements in rotational motion

sew-eurodrive

19.5.2017 MatJo 3

Power transmission elements in rotational motion

• why power transmission element is needed?

– to decrease/increase the speed

– to decrease/increase the torque

• power

P = Tω = constant

T = torque

ω = angular speed

Airila 2003

19.5.2017 MatJo 4

Gear drives

images.google.fi moventas.com

valtra.com

19.5.2017 MatJo 5

Gear drives

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n4BuwzACiDg&list=PLPhKo_uriS6rTBM

GXJ9TAukYWECEVFBXH

MatJo

a) Spur gear

b) Helical gear

c) Internal gear

d) Pinion and rack

e) Bevel gear

f) Crossed helical gear

g) Worm gear

19.5.2017 7

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Gear ratio

• gear ratio

i = ω1/ ω2 = n1/n2 = z2/z1 = r2/r1 = T2/T1

ω = angular velocity

n = rotational speed

z = number of teeth

T = torque

T = Fur

Fu = tangential load

r = pitch radius

19.5.2017 8

MatJo

Example

• Define total gear ratio, output

torque and output speed, if

– number of teeth are: z1 = 18; z2 = 47;

z3 = 26; z4 = 71; z5 = 23; z6 = 50

– torque T1 = 12 Nm

– rotational speed n1 = 960 r/min

– efficiency η = 0,91

19.5.2017 9

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Example

• Solution

– total gear ratio:

itot =

– output torque

To =

– output speed

no =

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Problem 1

Determine the angular velocity

ratio for the gear train shown in

the figure. If the shaft carrying

gear A rotates at 1750 rpm

clockwise, determine the speed

and direction of the shaft carrying

gear E.

(A: 10.5 & 167 rpm counter clockwise)

19.5.2017 11

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Involute toothing

• involute

υ = invα = tanα - α

• α is pressure angle

- for spur gears normally α = 20o

19.5.2017 12

Tooth geometry

d = pitch circle df = dedentum circle

da = addentum circle h = whole depth

hf = dedentum ha = addentum

c = clearance j = backlash

19.5.2017 MatJo 13

Module

• module m [mm]

– m=d/z

d = pitch diameter

z = number of teeth

– with the help of the module it is possible to

calculate e.g.

• centre distance a = m*(z1+z2)/2

• circular pitch p = m*π

– the module defines the manufacturing tool

– the module is standardised (ISO 54)

19.5.2017 MatJo 14

Contact ratio

• is the average number of teeth in contact as the

gears rotate together

– in general 1.4 - 1.8, for slow speeds 1.1

• guideline values for the number of teeth

– for high-speed gears z1min = 16

– for medium speed gears z1min = 12

– for slow-speed gears z1min = 10

– for external pair of gears z1 + z2 ≥ 24

– for internal pair of gears z2 - z1 ≥ 10

19.5.2017 MatJo 15

Addendum modification

• to standardize centre distance and/or improve the

strength of tooth dedemdum

• also pressure angle changes

19.5.2017 MatJo 16

Calculation of the tooth geometry of a spur gear pair

19.5.2017 MatJo 17

Problem 2

An external gear drive consists of a gear with 38 teeth and

a pinion with 15 teeth. The module is 10 mm and the

pressure angle 20o.

a) Determine the pitch, the centre distance and the base

diameter for the pinion and the gear.

(A: 31.4 mm, 265 mm, 141.0 mm and 357.1 mm)

a) In mounting these gears, the centre distance was

incorrectly made 6 mm larger. Compute the new values

of the pressure angle and the pitch diameters.

(A: 22.7o, 152.8 mm and 387.2 mm)

19.5.2017 MatJo

Problem 3

Following data of an external spur gear pair is given:

module m = 6 mm, pressure angle a = 20o, clearance c = 1.2 mm, number of teeth:

z1 = 19 pcs and z2 = 87 pcs and addendum modification coefficients: x1 = + 0.38 and

x2 = + 0.35.

Calculate following geometrical values of the gear:

a) pitch diameters (A: 114 mm & 522 mm) b) base diameters (A: 107.1 mm & 490.5 mm)

c) pitch (A: 18.8 mm) d) working pressure angle (A: 21.95o)

e) reference centre distance (A: 318 mm) f) centre distance (A: 322 mm)

g) shortening of addendum (A: 0.203 mm) h) tooth depth (A: 13.3 mm)

i) addendums (A: 8.08 mm & 7.90 mm) j) dedentums (A: 5.22 mm & 5.40 mm)

k) tip diameters (A: 130.2 mm & 537.8 mm) l) root diameters (A: 103.6 mm & 511.2 mm).

19.5.2017 MatJo

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Helical gears

• with helical gear the contact is

smoother => lower noise and

less vibration

• bigger number of teeth in

contact => better strength

• longer teeth in helix angle =>

better bending strength

• better power transmission

capacity

• for downside there is axial force

=> helix angle β = 8°…15° even

to 30° (with double-helical gear

even 45°)

19.5.2017 20

Calculation of the tooth geometry of a helical gear pair

19.5.2017 MatJo 21

Problem 4

Following data of an external helical gear pair is given:

normal module mn = 5 mm, centre distance aw = 340 mm, pressure angle an = 20o,

facewidth b = 70 mm, number of teeth: z1 = 30 pcs and z2 = 100 pcs, helix angle b =

15o, clearance c = 1.25 mm and addendum modification coefficient x1 = + 0.4.

Calculate following geometrical values of the gear:

a) pitch diameters (A: 155.3 mm & 517.6 mm) b) transverse pressure angle (A: 20.6o)

c) base diameters (A: 145.3 mm & 484.4 mm) d) transverse pitch (A: 16.3 mm)

e) transverse base pitch (A: 15.2 mm) f) reference centre distance (A: 336.5 mm)

g) working pressure angle (A: 22.2o)

h) sum of the addendum modification coefficients (A: 0.73)

i) addendum modification coefficient x2 (A: 0.33).

19.5.2017 MatJo

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Tooth forces

• spur gear

– tangential force Ft

Ft = FNcosα = T1/r1 = T2/r2

– radial force Fr

Fr = FNsinα = Fttanα

FN gear tooth force

α pressure angle

T1 ja T2 gear torques

r1 ja r2 pitch radius

19.5.2017 23

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Tooth forces

• helical gear

– tangential force Ft

Ft = T1/r1 = T2/r2

– radial force Fr

Fr = Fttanαt = Fttanαn/cosβ

– axial force Fa

Fa = Fttanβ

αn pressure angle

αt transverse pressure angle

β helix angle

19.5.2017 24

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• bending stress on the root of the tooth σF

• surface pressure σH

19.5.2017 25

Dimensioning of gears

• strength and power transmission calculations

– can be based on following:

• bending stress on the root of the tooth (fatigue)

• surface pressure/pitting (fatigue)

• surface grooves (high pressure, small speed)

• abrasive wear (foreign particles)

• scoring (high speeds, inadequate lubrication)

– normally two first are most critical

19.5.2017 MatJo 26

Strength calculation of spur wheels

• SFS-ISO 6336-1: CALCULATION OF LOAD CAPACITY OF SPUR AND HELICAL

GEARS. PART 1: BASIC PRINCIPLES, INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL

INFLUENCE FACTORS.

• SFS-ISO 6336-2: CALCULATION OF LOAD CAPACITY OF SPUR AND HELICAL

GEARS. PART 2: CALCULATION OF SURFACE DURABILITY (PITTING).

• SFS-ISO 6336-3: CALCULATION OF LOAD CAPACITY OF SPUR AND HELICAL

GEARS. PART 3: CALCULATION OF TOOTH BENDING STRENGTH.

• SFS-ISO 6336-5: CALCULATION OF LOAD CAPACITY OF SPUR AND HELICAL

GEARS. PART 5: STRENGTH AND QUALITY OF MATERIALS.

• SFS-ISO 6336-6: CALCULATION OF LOAD CAPACITY OF SPUR AND HELICAL

GEARS. PART 6: CALCULATION OF SERVICE LIFE UNDER VARIABLE LOAD.

• SFS-ISO 9085: CALCULATION OF LOAD CAPACITY OF SPUR AND HELICAL

GEARS. APPLICATION FOR INDUSTRIAL GEARS.

19.5.2017 MatJo

Deformations

• deformations of teeth and shafts have an effect on

tooth contact

• contact shape (figure) is controlled with a color

• stiffness of the tooth is taken into consideration in

exact power transmission calculations

• stiffness of the shaft is taken into consideration in

calculations with a longitudinal load distribution

factor for bending stress

19.5.2017 MatJo 28

Efficiency of the gear

• efficiency of the gear teeth ηh

– during contact the teeth are rolling but also sliding

friction causes power loss

– for one spur gear pair ηh = 0,96…0,99

• efficiency of the bearings ηL

– for rolling bearings ηL = 0,98…0,99

– for slide bearings ηL = 0,96

• total efficiency of the gear ηtot

ηtot = (ηhηL)I (ηhηL)II (ηhηL)III…

– I, II, III, … number of gear pairs

19.5.2017 MatJo 29

MatJo

• Recommended accuracy grades (IS0 1328)

– Class 6

• very accurate gear wheel pairs

• speed normally > 20 m/s

– Class 8

• normal in mechanical engineering

• speed 5…20 m/s

– Class 11

• no special accuracy demands

• speed normally < 5 m/s

19.5.2017 30

Drawing data of a gear wheel

19.5.2017 MatJo 31

Noise

noise can be effected by:

speed shape of the tooth

tooth contact relief of tooth addemdum or

barrel-shaped gear teeth

accuracy class

contact ratio straight/helical gear teeth

number of teeth shafts

small module and big bearings

number of teeth more materials

teeth in contact

design of the gearbox

19.5.2017 MatJo

Spur and helical gear units

• normally helical gears

– bigger power transmission capacity

– reduced noise

• materials of the gears

– case hardening steel (D < 400…600 mm)

– tempered steel

– spheroidal iron

– plastics (small diameters)

19.5.2017 MatJo 33

Spur and helical gear units

• normally max transmission ratio in one gear pair is 5

– 1 gear pair max i = 5

– 2 gear pairs max i = 52 = 25

– 3 gear pairs max i = 53 = 125

– 4 gear pairs max i = 54 = 625

• lubrication

– oil bath (v < 4 m/s)

– splash lubrication (v < 14 m/s)

– pressure lubrication (v > 14 m/s)

19.5.2017 MatJo 34

Spur and helical gear units

• Parallel shaft

19.5.2017 MatJo 35

Bevel gear units

19.5.2017 MatJo 36

Bevel gear units

nord.com

19.5.2017 MatJo 37

Problem 5

A bicycle is normally driven by the pedals through a roller chain transmission to

the back wheel. The power efficiency of such a chain drive is 95 % if it is well

lubricated and rather heavily loaded. To avoid getting oil on the trousers from the

chain, a design change is considered. The chain drive is to be changed to a shaft

with two sealed ball bearings inside a tube in the frame and a bevel gear drive at

the pedals and another bevel gear drive at the back wheel. At the speed of 20

km/h the chain-driven bike requires 220 W to the rear wheel, and the same real

wheel power is required for the new design.

How large does the input power have to be for the new drive to run 20 km/h if

the newly designed shaft rotates at 1200 rpm and the bearing and seal friction

torque in each bearing is 0.1 Nm. The power efficiency for the bevel gears is 0.98.

Also, calculate the total power efficiency for the new drive when the bicycle is

driven at 20 km/h. (A: 255 W & 86.4%)

19.5.2017 MatJo

Worm gear units

19.5.2017 MatJo 39

Worm gear units

• big gear ratio

– high-speed gears i = 5…15

– slow-speed gears i = 5…70

• power loss

– gear teeth loss

– bearing loss

– idle loss

• use of torus

19.5.2017 MatJo 40

Worm gear units

• total power loss

PL = PLz + PLb + PLi

PLz is power loss in toothing

PLb is power loss of bearings

PLb = kP1

k = 0,005…0,01 (4 roller bearings)

k = 0,02…0,03 (4 slide bearings)

P1 is input power

19.5.2017 MatJo 41

Worm gear units

• total power loss

PLi is idle power loss

PLi = 10-7a(n1/60)4/3(ν50+90) [kW]

a is centre distance [mm]

n1 is rotational speed of the worm [r/min]

ν50 is viscosity of the oil in 50 oC [mm2/s]

• total efficiency

η = (P1 - PL)/P1 = P2/(P2+PH)

P1 is input power

P2 is output power

19.5.2017 MatJo 42

MatJo

Planetary gears

• internal centre gear/sun

gear S

• planet gears P

• external centre gear/ring

gear/annulus R

• arm/planet carrier A

19.5.2017 43

Planetary gears

• advantages

– power can be divided to several driven or drive shafts

– big gear ratio and power compared to it’s size

– many gear ratio possibilities

– symmetrical structure, drive and driven shaft inline

19.5.2017 MatJo 44

Planetary gears

• limitations and disadvantages

– number of teeth has compatibility condition => limits to

get a certain ratio with standard gear wheels

– circumferential load does not divide equally between

planet gears

– phenomenon of tooth contact in mesh is more complex

compared to spur gear

– the axial forces of helical gear are more tricky in planet

gear (bearings and centre gears without bearings)

– internal gear teeth demands special machinery for

manufacturing

19.5.2017 MatJo 45

Gear unit selection

• Selection is based on required input power of the application in

normal operation P

• Input power of the gear (rated power of the motor) P1

P1 = P/η or P1 = (M∙n2)/(9550∙η) [kW]

where η is efficiency of the gear unit

M is required torque of the application [Nm]

n2 is output speed of the gear [r/min]

• Efficiency e.g. for helical, parallel shaft and helical-bevel gears

– 1-stage: 0,985

– 2-stage: 0,970

– 3-stage: 0,955

– 4-stage: 0,940

19.5.2017 MatJo

Gear unit selection

• The gear unit is selected so that

nominal power ≥ service factor ∙ required power

• Service factor takes into account torque impulses (from

driven or driving machine) and operational time (with

worm gear units also the ambient temperature and cyclic

duration factor ED should be considered)

• Normally the operation (of uniformity) is classified to

three groups

– A: uniform operation

– B: moderate shocks, non-uniform operation

– C: heavy shocks, extreme non-uniform operation

19.5.2017 MatJo

Gear unit selection

• Examples of operation classes

– Group A (uniform): light screw conveyors, fans, assembly belts, light

conveyor belts, small agitators, elevators, cleaning machines, filling

machines, testing machines, belt conveyors

– Group B (moderate shocks): decoilers, feed drives for wood processing

machines, hoists, balancing machines, tapping units, heavy conveyor

belts, winches, sliding doors, stall dunging machines, packaging

machines, cement mixers, crane travelling mechanisms, mills, bending

machines, gear pumps

– Group C (heavy shocks): stirrers and mixers, shears, presses, centrifuges,

rolling stands, heavy winches and lifts, grinding mills, stone crushers,

bucket elevators, punching machines, hammer mills, eccentric presses,

folding machines, roller tables, tumbling barrels, choppers, shredders,

vibrators

19.5.2017 MatJo

Gear unit selection

• If the gear selection is based on the nominal power of the motor

(input power of the gear), following condition must be valid

2 ∙ nominal torque of the gear ≥ starting torque of the motor

• Max power or torque which the gear can take for short times (max

twice an hour about 20 seconds) is the double of the nominal power

or torque of the gear

• The thermally transferable power (thermal limit) should not be

exceeded over a longer time period (3 hours) so that the gear unit

does not overheat

• The permissible overhung and axial forces on the output shaft of the

gear unit should not be exceeded.

19.5.2017 MatJo

Gear unit selection/Example

• Select a Nord worm geared motor for a winch

based on the following data

– Output torque 35 Nm

– Output speed 20 – 25 r/min

– Operating time 8 h/day

– Start/stop frequency 100 cycles/h

– Max ambient temperature 40 oC

– Load time 45 min/h

19.5.2017 MatJo

Gear unit selection/Example

• The required minimal operating factor fBmin for an

application is calculated as follows:

fBmin = fB0 • fB1 • fB2

• The operating factor f takes into account load type A, B or

B0

operating factor f takes into account different ambient

B1

determining the operating factors f , f and f . B0 B1 B2

19.5.2017 MatJo

Nord: Universal – Worm Gear Units

Gear unit selection/Example

• Examples of load types for gear units:

A Light screw conveyors, fans, assembly belts, light conveyor belts,

small agitators, elevators, cleaning machines, filling machines,

testing machines and belt conveyors.

B Decoilers, feed drives for wood processing machines, hoists,

balancing machines, tapping units, mid-sized stirrers and mixers,

winches, sliding doors, stall dunging machines, packaging

machines, bending machines and gear pumps.

C Scissors, presses, punchers, nut bevelling machines, polishing

and grinding drums, agitators and choppers.

19.5.2017 MatJo

Nord: Universal – Worm Gear Units

Gear unit selection/Example

19.5.2017 MatJo

Nord: Universal – Worm Gear Units

Gear unit selection/Example

19.5.2017 MatJo

Nord: Universal – Worm Gear Units

Literature

• Shigley, Mechanical Engineering Design. McGraw-

Hill 2002.

• Hamrock, Fundamentals of Machine Elements.

McGraw-Hill 2000.

• Juvinall & Marshek, Fundamentals of Machine

Component Design. John Wiley & Sons 2003.

• Airila etc. Koneenosien suunnittelu. WSOY 2003.

19.5.2017 MatJo

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