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# Gears

## • power transmission with form

– without slipping
• rigid: gear and chain transmissions nord.com

## • flexible: toothed belt transmission

• power transmission with friction
– slipping
• flexible: friction wheel and belt transmissions asconveyorsystems.co.uk

democrazy.encikbeliau.com/
giveng.com utterpower.com
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achrnews.com
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Power transmission elements in rotational motion

sew-eurodrive
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Power transmission elements in rotational motion
• why power transmission element is needed?
– to decrease/increase the speed
– to decrease/increase the torque
• power
P = Tω = constant
T = torque
ω = angular speed

Airila 2003

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Gear drives

images.google.fi moventas.com

valtra.com

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Gear drives

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n4BuwzACiDg&list=PLPhKo_uriS6rTBM
GXJ9TAukYWECEVFBXH
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## Gear wheel pairs

a) Spur gear
b) Helical gear
c) Internal gear
d) Pinion and rack
e) Bevel gear
f) Crossed helical gear
g) Worm gear

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Gear ratio
• gear ratio
i = ω1/ ω2 = n1/n2 = z2/z1 = r2/r1 = T2/T1
ω = angular velocity
n = rotational speed
z = number of teeth
T = torque
T = Fur
Fu = tangential load
r = pitch radius

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Example
• Define total gear ratio, output
torque and output speed, if
– number of teeth are: z1 = 18; z2 = 47;
z3 = 26; z4 = 71; z5 = 23; z6 = 50
– torque T1 = 12 Nm
– rotational speed n1 = 960 r/min
– efficiency η = 0,91

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Example
• Solution
– total gear ratio:
itot =

– output torque
To =

– output speed
no =

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Problem 1
Determine the angular velocity
ratio for the gear train shown in
the figure. If the shaft carrying
gear A rotates at 1750 rpm
clockwise, determine the speed
and direction of the shaft carrying
gear E.
(A: 10.5 & 167 rpm counter clockwise)

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Involute toothing
• involute
υ = invα = tanα - α
• α is pressure angle
- for spur gears normally α = 20o

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Tooth geometry

## p = circular pitch db = base circle

d = pitch circle df = dedentum circle
da = addentum circle h = whole depth
hf = dedentum ha = addentum
c = clearance j = backlash
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Module
• module m [mm]
– m=d/z
d = pitch diameter
z = number of teeth
– with the help of the module it is possible to
calculate e.g.
• centre distance a = m*(z1+z2)/2
• circular pitch p = m*π
– the module defines the manufacturing tool
– the module is standardised (ISO 54)

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Contact ratio
• is the average number of teeth in contact as the
gears rotate together
– in general 1.4 - 1.8, for slow speeds 1.1
• guideline values for the number of teeth
– for high-speed gears z1min = 16
– for medium speed gears z1min = 12
– for slow-speed gears z1min = 10
– for external pair of gears z1 + z2 ≥ 24
– for internal pair of gears z2 - z1 ≥ 10

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Addendum modification
• to standardize centre distance and/or improve the
strength of tooth dedemdum
• also pressure angle changes

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Calculation of the tooth geometry of a spur gear pair

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Problem 2
An external gear drive consists of a gear with 38 teeth and
a pinion with 15 teeth. The module is 10 mm and the
pressure angle 20o.
a) Determine the pitch, the centre distance and the base
diameter for the pinion and the gear.
(A: 31.4 mm, 265 mm, 141.0 mm and 357.1 mm)
a) In mounting these gears, the centre distance was
incorrectly made 6 mm larger. Compute the new values
of the pressure angle and the pitch diameters.
(A: 22.7o, 152.8 mm and 387.2 mm)

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Problem 3
Following data of an external spur gear pair is given:
module m = 6 mm, pressure angle a = 20o, clearance c = 1.2 mm, number of teeth:
z1 = 19 pcs and z2 = 87 pcs and addendum modification coefficients: x1 = + 0.38 and
x2 = + 0.35.
Calculate following geometrical values of the gear:
a) pitch diameters (A: 114 mm & 522 mm) b) base diameters (A: 107.1 mm & 490.5 mm)
c) pitch (A: 18.8 mm) d) working pressure angle (A: 21.95o)
e) reference centre distance (A: 318 mm) f) centre distance (A: 322 mm)
g) shortening of addendum (A: 0.203 mm) h) tooth depth (A: 13.3 mm)
i) addendums (A: 8.08 mm & 7.90 mm) j) dedentums (A: 5.22 mm & 5.40 mm)
k) tip diameters (A: 130.2 mm & 537.8 mm) l) root diameters (A: 103.6 mm & 511.2 mm).

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Helical gears
• with helical gear the contact is
smoother => lower noise and
less vibration
• bigger number of teeth in
contact => better strength
• longer teeth in helix angle =>
better bending strength
• better power transmission
capacity
• for downside there is axial force
=> helix angle β = 8°…15° even
to 30° (with double-helical gear
even 45°)

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Calculation of the tooth geometry of a helical gear pair

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Problem 4
Following data of an external helical gear pair is given:
normal module mn = 5 mm, centre distance aw = 340 mm, pressure angle an = 20o,
facewidth b = 70 mm, number of teeth: z1 = 30 pcs and z2 = 100 pcs, helix angle b =
15o, clearance c = 1.25 mm and addendum modification coefficient x1 = + 0.4.
Calculate following geometrical values of the gear:
a) pitch diameters (A: 155.3 mm & 517.6 mm) b) transverse pressure angle (A: 20.6o)
c) base diameters (A: 145.3 mm & 484.4 mm) d) transverse pitch (A: 16.3 mm)
e) transverse base pitch (A: 15.2 mm) f) reference centre distance (A: 336.5 mm)
g) working pressure angle (A: 22.2o)
h) sum of the addendum modification coefficients (A: 0.73)
i) addendum modification coefficient x2 (A: 0.33).

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Tooth forces
• spur gear
– tangential force Ft
Ft = FNcosα = T1/r1 = T2/r2
– radial force Fr
Fr = FNsinα = Fttanα
FN gear tooth force
α pressure angle
T1 ja T2 gear torques
r1 ja r2 pitch radius

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Tooth forces
• helical gear
– tangential force Ft
Ft = T1/r1 = T2/r2
– radial force Fr
Fr = Fttanαt = Fttanαn/cosβ
– axial force Fa
Fa = Fttanβ
αn pressure angle
αt transverse pressure angle
β helix angle

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## Stresses of the tooth

• bending stress on the root of the tooth σF
• surface pressure σH

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Dimensioning of gears
• strength and power transmission calculations
– can be based on following:
• bending stress on the root of the tooth (fatigue)
• surface pressure/pitting (fatigue)
• surface grooves (high pressure, small speed)
• abrasive wear (foreign particles)
• scoring (high speeds, inadequate lubrication)
– normally two first are most critical

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Strength calculation of spur wheels
• SFS-ISO 6336-1: CALCULATION OF LOAD CAPACITY OF SPUR AND HELICAL
GEARS. PART 1: BASIC PRINCIPLES, INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL
INFLUENCE FACTORS.
• SFS-ISO 6336-2: CALCULATION OF LOAD CAPACITY OF SPUR AND HELICAL
GEARS. PART 2: CALCULATION OF SURFACE DURABILITY (PITTING).
• SFS-ISO 6336-3: CALCULATION OF LOAD CAPACITY OF SPUR AND HELICAL
GEARS. PART 3: CALCULATION OF TOOTH BENDING STRENGTH.
• SFS-ISO 6336-5: CALCULATION OF LOAD CAPACITY OF SPUR AND HELICAL
GEARS. PART 5: STRENGTH AND QUALITY OF MATERIALS.
• SFS-ISO 6336-6: CALCULATION OF LOAD CAPACITY OF SPUR AND HELICAL
GEARS. PART 6: CALCULATION OF SERVICE LIFE UNDER VARIABLE LOAD.
• SFS-ISO 9085: CALCULATION OF LOAD CAPACITY OF SPUR AND HELICAL
GEARS. APPLICATION FOR INDUSTRIAL GEARS.

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Deformations
• deformations of teeth and shafts have an effect on
tooth contact
• contact shape (figure) is controlled with a color
• stiffness of the tooth is taken into consideration in
exact power transmission calculations
• stiffness of the shaft is taken into consideration in
calculations with a longitudinal load distribution
factor for bending stress

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Efficiency of the gear
• efficiency of the gear teeth ηh
– during contact the teeth are rolling but also sliding 
friction causes power loss
– for one spur gear pair ηh = 0,96…0,99
• efficiency of the bearings ηL
– for rolling bearings ηL = 0,98…0,99
– for slide bearings ηL = 0,96
• total efficiency of the gear ηtot
ηtot = (ηhηL)I (ηhηL)II (ηhηL)III…
– I, II, III, … number of gear pairs

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## Tolerances of spur gears

• Recommended accuracy grades (IS0 1328)
– Class 6
• very accurate gear wheel pairs
• speed normally > 20 m/s
– Class 8
• normal in mechanical engineering
• speed 5…20 m/s
– Class 11
• no special accuracy demands
• speed normally < 5 m/s

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Drawing data of a gear wheel

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Noise
noise can be effected by:
 speed  shape of the tooth
 tooth contact  relief of tooth addemdum or
barrel-shaped gear teeth
 accuracy class
 contact ratio  straight/helical gear teeth
 number of teeth  shafts
 small module and big  bearings
number of teeth  more  materials
teeth in contact
 design of the gearbox

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Spur and helical gear units
• normally helical gears
– bigger power transmission capacity
– reduced noise
• materials of the gears
– case hardening steel (D < 400…600 mm)
– tempered steel
– spheroidal iron
– plastics (small diameters)

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Spur and helical gear units
• normally max transmission ratio in one gear pair is 5
– 1 gear pair max i = 5
– 2 gear pairs max i = 52 = 25
– 3 gear pairs max i = 53 = 125
– 4 gear pairs max i = 54 = 625
• lubrication
– oil bath (v < 4 m/s)
– splash lubrication (v < 14 m/s)
– pressure lubrication (v > 14 m/s)

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Spur and helical gear units
• Parallel shaft

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Bevel gear units

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Bevel gear units

nord.com

## straight-tooth helical spiral

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Problem 5
A bicycle is normally driven by the pedals through a roller chain transmission to
the back wheel. The power efficiency of such a chain drive is 95 % if it is well
lubricated and rather heavily loaded. To avoid getting oil on the trousers from the
chain, a design change is considered. The chain drive is to be changed to a shaft
with two sealed ball bearings inside a tube in the frame and a bevel gear drive at
the pedals and another bevel gear drive at the back wheel. At the speed of 20
km/h the chain-driven bike requires 220 W to the rear wheel, and the same real
wheel power is required for the new design.
How large does the input power have to be for the new drive to run 20 km/h if
the newly designed shaft rotates at 1200 rpm and the bearing and seal friction
torque in each bearing is 0.1 Nm. The power efficiency for the bevel gears is 0.98.
Also, calculate the total power efficiency for the new drive when the bicycle is
driven at 20 km/h. (A: 255 W & 86.4%)

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Worm gear units

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Worm gear units
• big gear ratio
– high-speed gears i = 5…15
– slow-speed gears i = 5…70
• power loss
– gear teeth loss
– bearing loss
– idle loss
• use of torus

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Worm gear units
• total power loss
PL = PLz + PLb + PLi
PLz is power loss in toothing
PLb is power loss of bearings
PLb = kP1
k = 0,005…0,01 (4 roller bearings)
k = 0,02…0,03 (4 slide bearings)
P1 is input power

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Worm gear units
• total power loss
PLi is idle power loss
PLi = 10-7a(n1/60)4/3(ν50+90) [kW]
a is centre distance [mm]
n1 is rotational speed of the worm [r/min]
ν50 is viscosity of the oil in 50 oC [mm2/s]
• total efficiency
η = (P1 - PL)/P1 = P2/(P2+PH)
P1 is input power
P2 is output power

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Planetary gears
• internal centre gear/sun
gear S
• planet gears P
• external centre gear/ring
gear/annulus R
• arm/planet carrier A

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Planetary gears
• advantages
– power can be divided to several driven or drive shafts
– big gear ratio and power compared to it’s size
– many gear ratio possibilities
– symmetrical structure, drive and driven shaft inline

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Planetary gears
• limitations and disadvantages
– number of teeth has compatibility condition => limits to
get a certain ratio with standard gear wheels
– circumferential load does not divide equally between
planet gears
– phenomenon of tooth contact in mesh is more complex
compared to spur gear
– the axial forces of helical gear are more tricky in planet
gear (bearings and centre gears without bearings)
– internal gear teeth demands special machinery for
manufacturing
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Gear unit selection
• Selection is based on required input power of the application in
normal operation P
• Input power of the gear (rated power of the motor) P1
P1 = P/η or P1 = (M∙n2)/(9550∙η) [kW]
where η is efficiency of the gear unit
M is required torque of the application [Nm]
n2 is output speed of the gear [r/min]
• Efficiency e.g. for helical, parallel shaft and helical-bevel gears
– 1-stage: 0,985
– 2-stage: 0,970
– 3-stage: 0,955
– 4-stage: 0,940

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Gear unit selection
• The gear unit is selected so that
nominal power ≥ service factor ∙ required power
• Service factor takes into account torque impulses (from
driven or driving machine) and operational time (with
worm gear units also the ambient temperature and cyclic
duration factor ED should be considered)
• Normally the operation (of uniformity) is classified to
three groups
– A: uniform operation
– B: moderate shocks, non-uniform operation
– C: heavy shocks, extreme non-uniform operation

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Gear unit selection
• Examples of operation classes
– Group A (uniform): light screw conveyors, fans, assembly belts, light
conveyor belts, small agitators, elevators, cleaning machines, filling
machines, testing machines, belt conveyors
– Group B (moderate shocks): decoilers, feed drives for wood processing
machines, hoists, balancing machines, tapping units, heavy conveyor
belts, winches, sliding doors, stall dunging machines, packaging
machines, cement mixers, crane travelling mechanisms, mills, bending
machines, gear pumps
– Group C (heavy shocks): stirrers and mixers, shears, presses, centrifuges,
rolling stands, heavy winches and lifts, grinding mills, stone crushers,
bucket elevators, punching machines, hammer mills, eccentric presses,
folding machines, roller tables, tumbling barrels, choppers, shredders,
vibrators

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Gear unit selection
• If the gear selection is based on the nominal power of the motor
(input power of the gear), following condition must be valid
2 ∙ nominal torque of the gear ≥ starting torque of the motor
• Max power or torque which the gear can take for short times (max
twice an hour about 20 seconds) is the double of the nominal power
or torque of the gear
• The thermally transferable power (thermal limit) should not be
exceeded over a longer time period (3 hours) so that the gear unit
does not overheat
• The permissible overhung and axial forces on the output shaft of the
gear unit should not be exceeded.

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Gear unit selection/Example
• Select a Nord worm geared motor for a winch
based on the following data
– Output torque 35 Nm
– Output speed 20 – 25 r/min
– Operating time 8 h/day
– Start/stop frequency 100 cycles/h
– Max ambient temperature 40 oC
– Load time 45 min/h

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Gear unit selection/Example
• The required minimal operating factor fBmin for an
application is calculated as follows:
fBmin = fB0 • fB1 • fB2
• The operating factor f takes into account load type A, B or
B0

## C, the frequency of activation and daily run time. The

operating factor f takes into account different ambient
B1

## intermittent operation. The diagram below is used when

determining the operating factors f , f and f . B0 B1 B2

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Nord: Universal – Worm Gear Units
Gear unit selection/Example
• Examples of load types for gear units:
A Light screw conveyors, fans, assembly belts, light conveyor belts,
small agitators, elevators, cleaning machines, filling machines,
testing machines and belt conveyors.
B Decoilers, feed drives for wood processing machines, hoists,
balancing machines, tapping units, mid-sized stirrers and mixers,
winches, sliding doors, stall dunging machines, packaging
machines, bending machines and gear pumps.
C Scissors, presses, punchers, nut bevelling machines, polishing
and grinding drums, agitators and choppers.

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Nord: Universal – Worm Gear Units
Gear unit selection/Example

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Nord: Universal – Worm Gear Units
Gear unit selection/Example

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Nord: Universal – Worm Gear Units
Literature
• Shigley, Mechanical Engineering Design. McGraw-
Hill 2002.
• Hamrock, Fundamentals of Machine Elements.
McGraw-Hill 2000.
• Juvinall & Marshek, Fundamentals of Machine
Component Design. John Wiley & Sons 2003.
• Airila etc. Koneenosien suunnittelu. WSOY 2003.

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