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• Cognizant 20-20 Insights

The Next Wave of Manufacturing Relies

on Plant Operations Transformation
To enable deeply ingrained agility, predictability, responsiveness and
efficiency, manufacturers must think holistically about their factories and
develop integrated and harmonized capabilities that connect the end-to-
end supply chain with a new product introduction value stream.

Executive Summary This white paper describes our approach to

overcoming these issues, built on our ONEPlant
Today’s manufacturers are at an inflection point.
transformation framework and services. It
On the one hand, they need to become more agile
describes a well-defined maturity framework to
and respond more quickly to changing customer
draw a blueprint, methodologies to implement
demand amid increased supply chain complexity.
strategic actions, and end-to-end IT services that
On the other hand, they need to embrace new
can help manufacturers transform their plant
technologies and process/product innovation
operations incrementally and cost-effectively.
to continuously adapt to competitive pressures,
Today’s Environment: Challenges
Plant operations stands at the center of this and Opportunities
strategic change and is a critical lever for address- Today’s global economy presents manufactur-
ing growing business-technology challenges. ers with a host of new challenges, as well as
While plants must collaborate seamlessly and opportunities. Complex value chains, continuing
efficiently with other facilities, as well as supply economic uncertainty and changing customer
chain and innovation partners, many manufactur- demographics are forcing manufacturers to con-
ers still operate as disconnected plants, with non- tinuously adapt to dynamic business conditions.
harmonized operations management processes, Meanwhile, the next industry revolution is taking
non-standardized operations technology and hold (i.e., Industry 4.01), as new technologies and
legacy applications. Moreover, they have limited process innovations present opportunities for
appetite and budget to adopt new technologies. manufacturers to take advantage of the changing
The situation calls for a comprehensive approach environment.
to transforming plant operations management
to enable ingrained agility, predictability, respon- Challenges for Manufacturers
siveness and efficiency. Manufacturers must simultaneously contend with
the changing nature of the manufacturing model

cognizant 20-20 insights | february 2015

by applying new technologies and respond to and warehouse operators perform transactions
customers’ highly demanding fulfillment targets. on-the-go by enabling real-time access to busi-
At their core, these challenges include: ness-critical information.2

• Addressing demanding customers by creating In today’s digitally connected world, no product

agile fulfillment capabilities. or offering is complete without a connection to
the SMAC Stack or the IoT. The rapidly changing
• Remaining relevant amid market volatility. mobile landscape and onslaught of IP-addressable
• Meeting demand for more personalized and IP-aware devices can enable manufacturers
products by bringing customer intelligence to to gather accurate information, turn processing
the production floor, adding a higher level of speed into a competitive advantage, and capitalize
complexity to the configuration and fulfillment on the intelligence gained from every interaction
cycle. and transaction across the value chain.
• Attracting employees amid radical changes in IT/OT Convergence
workforce demographics (i.e., millennials and
employees with millennial mindsets). Amid the rapid advancement in digital technolo-
gies, underlying operational technologies (OT) on
• Understanding complex business models (i.e., a the plant floor have converged with enterprise
complex supply chain, contract manufacturing,
information systems, forming one technical archi-
global operations, volatile demands and higher
tecture that spans the manufacturing enterprise.3
product variants) that can reduce efficiency.
As these technologies blur, the convergence of IT/
• Staying on top of increased merger and acquisi- OT will help manufacturers significantly reduce
tion activity, adding heterogeneity to business their technology footprints and improve the
processes as well as the technology stack. overall information flow between the plant and
the rest of the enterprise, thereby facilitating new
• Drivingreal-time and predictive intelligence
operational efficiencies.
from the huge data sets that are collected
throughout the supply chain, including
In a perfect world, manufacturers would tightly
production processes (i.e., plants).
align enterprise and operational systems to blend
To address these challenges, manufacturers must corporate run-the-business data with process
re-examine their operating models and priorities information. For example, process data from
related to sourcing materials, production, fulfill- legacy systems would be more tightly integrated
ment, new product introduction, supply chain not only with plant analytics but also with
efficiency, resource utilization, etc. enterprise analytics. Better alignment between IT
and OT systems would also consolidate enterprise
Emerging Opportunities architecture, thereby helping manufacturers
Manufacturing has generally been seen as a provide event-based capabilities to more effec-
laggard in adopting new technology, but the tively respond to adverse events within the plant
emergence of social, mobile, analytics and cloud or across the supply chain.
technologies (the SMAC Stack™) and the Internet
Industry 4.0 and the Internet of Things
of Things (IoT) is opening new vistas for manufac-
turers to explore. With the ongoing Industry 4.0 revolution, the
boundaries between the physical and virtual
The SMAC Stack provides the technological worlds will increasingly cease to exist, particu-
underpinning to help manufacturers support larly as IP-addressable/aware devices define the
more intuitive, engaging, personalized and con- connected, smart factory. New operating models
textually-aware ways to design, build and deliver will emerge as physical material and information
products and services to customers. For example, merge into one, since the digital bits and bytes
mobile technologies can greatly improve the pro- contained in both will be tightly linked as more
ductivity of maintenance operators by removing and more digital data is embedded into the supply
paper-based inspection sheets and allowing chain.
them to view equipment health history and enter
condition information while on maintenance Manufacturers will have more SMAC technolo-
rounds. Mobility also helps quality inspectors gies on hand to power smart sensors, smart
machines and smart wearables, which will take

cognizant 20-20 insights 2

manufacturing to the next level of agility and better decisions through investments in opera-
productivity. Smart sensors with IoT platforms tional intelligence.
will generate numerous “Code Halos,” or the
digital code surrounding people, process, orga- Key capabilities include:
nizations and devices, throughout the manufac- • Integrated supply chain and innovation capa-
turing space.3 A plant Code Halo™, for instance, bilities that help to improve agility, reduce
could be harnessed by using big data analytics to manufacturing and innovation cycle time, and
obtain real-time predictive and actionable intel- improve resource utilization.
ligence for the plant. Actionable machine (or
device) Code Halos could be built by collecting
• Real-time and predictive capabilities to reduce
response time, improve planning and boost
process data, machine data and alarm logs during
resource utilization via dynamic planning;
machine failure conditions.
improve visibility; and achieve predictable per-
Using these data collections, manufacturers formance.
could detect failure patterns to warn mainte- • Collaborative operations management to
nance operators about a possible breakdown well improve knowledge-sharing and best practices
ahead of its occurrence. Such predictive alarms within and across the plant.
and information can help save costly breakdowns.
Similarly, batch production information — with
• Standardized and future-proofed OT to ratio-
nalize the operations technology footprint and
detailed meta data on process conditions — can
improve productivity by adopting new tech-
help create product Code Halos that, in turn, can
nologies. General Motors already sees Google
help manufacturers analyze and improve batch
Glass technology as a tool to improve assembly
line productivity to deliver real-time images
Factories (and small plants) are already emerging and videos, as well as on-the-job training/work
in which all employees — from supervisors to plant instruction.6
managers to senior leaders — share real-time
Goals include:
information and access plant analytics to improve
operational efficiency and productivity. As a • Higher customer satisfaction by delivering the
result, essential elements of manufacturing are right product at the right time and at the right
converging like never before, creating what we price.
call “informed manufacturing.”4 • More efficient plant operations by cutting waste
and reducing input material and operations
Imperatives for Plants costs (including energy and utility expenses)
As the focus on agility, responsiveness and per- and improving inventory turns.
sonalized manufacturing increases, plants need
to prioritize their efforts to seamlessly and effi-
• Improved regulatory compliance by adopting
total quality management (TQM) discipline
ciently collaborate with other manufacturing from design to delivery. This will help to improve
operations — from contractor manufacturers, customer satisfaction, as well as reduce overall
through supply chain and innovation partners. manufacturing cycle time.
This necessitates plants to work as a “one-
plant” ecosystem to achieve plant operations Current State of Plant Operations
management that is more integrated, predictive, Management
lean (efficient), agile (adaptive and flexible) and
While manufacturers prepare for the connected
enabled by new technology.
enterprise enabled by SMAC and the IoT (and
Indeed, according to IDC,5 30% of manufacturers wearables in particular), many are still struggling
by 2016 will invest substantially in increasing the to integrate and harmonize plant operations
visibility and analysis of information exchange with the end-to-end value stream (order-to-cash,
and business processes, both within the company new product introduction, or NPI). According to
and with partners. Further, IDC also estimates Gartner,7 70% of plant floor data is still not used
that this year, 65% of companies with more than for enterprise decisions. As a result, many plants
10 plants will enable the factory floor to make are unable to capitalize on the power of new tech-

cognizant 20-20 insights 3

Today’s Manufacturing Enterprise

Research & Product Feedback

Development Enterprise Product Feedback

Design Schedule &

Master Data
Response Planning Production Schedule &
Response Master Data
Feedback Scheduling Production Return Customer
Release Ecosystem
Innovation Order Dispatching
Plant A
Maintain Experiments & ECM Manufacturing
Analytics Deliver
SOP & Product Master EHS Plant B
Retire Fulfillment
Quality & Production Floor
Compliance Inventory Warehouse Warehouse
Return Process Data
Energy & Analytics, Collection
Utility SPC and Maintenance Track &
Tracking Control Historians Trace

Supplier 1
Process Control Process Supervision Center
Source Contract Manufacturer
Manual Process
Information Flow
Supplier 2 Material Flow

Figure 1

Manufacturing plants need to be viewed as • Lack of a common IT program at a corporate

strategic investments that help to develop level. IT strategy is still largely driven by local
and expand business. As such, plants need to plant or enterprise integration needs.
operate in sync with the overarching business
vision. Even some manufacturers with high levels
• Higher risk and substantial time involved in
changing processes/systems at the plant level.
of technology implementations fail to derive
maximum value from their plant investments A Comprehensive Plant Operations
because of a plant vision and system integration Transformation Strategy
that is misaligned with the enterprise.
To prepare for the next wave of industry revolution,
Existing plants pose unique challenges for manufacturers will quickly need to close gaps
achieving enterprise transformation (see Figure between plant and enterprise operations, as well
1). The following scenarios must be addressed as between operations technologies and new
by manufacturers to achieve such business information technologies. To achieve this, manu-
objectives: facturers must adopt a comprehensive approach
to transforming plant operations management.
• Multi-discipline,
non-standardized, non-inte-
grated plant operation management processes. Most of our leading global manufacturing clients
realize these challenges and have already
• Non-integrated processes (within the plant as initiated a comprehensive approach or are in
well as within the supply chain).
the process of adopting one. The aim of such a
• Lack of real-time visibility of plant operations program is to harmonize operations management
due to sub-optimal plant resource utilization. and operations technology to align the plant(s)
• Challenges in getting end-to-end traceability with the enterprise.
(material/process) information.
Key Considerations
• Lower levels of collaboration within the supply A successful transformation initiative requires
chain and innovation value stream.
the following:
• Legacy systems with disparate application
stacks, leading to greater technology variance • The understanding that transformation is a
journey, not a sprint, that requires buy-in from
within and across plants. Obsolete technolo-
all stakeholders (corporate business users,
gies also add to the plant’s operation risk.

cognizant 20-20 insights 4

Implementing a ONEPlant Approach

Achieving Integrated (ONE) Predictive, Lean, Agile, New

technology & Timely Plant Operation

ned Harmo
nize Standa
rdiz Co
lla oratio
sion Proc
r cess
s Syst
y temm

P la )

Other Warehouse
Enterprise Customers Organizations and Vendors

Figure 2

corporate IT, plant IT, plant users, owners of on addressing current plant situations, as
various strategic initiatives, such as Lean Six described in this document.
Sigma, etc.).
• Technology services and agile methodology to
• A phased approach to align plant(s) with the help transform plant operations management
enterprise vision and a defined roadmap to in alignment with the transformation roadmap.
reach a future state.
Plant(s) of the Future
• The ability to identify strategic actions that
Plants of the future will need to be seamlessly
address current plant challenges and align with
integrated with the extended supply chain and
the overall vision.
innovation cycle, operating with greater agility
• And, perhaps most importantly, the wherewith- and efficiency (see Figure 3, next page). All plants,
al to choose a credible partner that can help in including contract manufacturers, will need to
realizing overall transformation goals. work as a single ecosystem to fulfill customer
demands, thereby improving customer satisfac-
Cognizant’s ONEPlant Services Help tion across the board. Role-based and secure
Transform Plant Operations plant information/transactions will be available
Our ONEPlant transformation framework and anytime, anywhere and in real-time, on any device
services offer a unified approach to transform (mobile, laptop or desktop computer, wearable,
plant operations. Importantly, they enable manu- etc.). Plant operations will automatically adjust or
facturers to achieve an integrated enterprise by respond to adverse events within the supply chain.
strategically aligning technology, processes and
people toward a common vision and goal (see Plant, product and machine Code Halos will aid
Figure 2). in predictive intelligence and drive proactive
actions. As such, new SMAC Stack technologies
Key components of our ONEPlant services will become an integral part of operations tech-
include: nologies. Experts will be able to remotely work
with floor operators in a collaborative manner to
• A maturity framework to assess the current improve efficiency, with remote experts able to
state and define the transformation roadmap. not only view the real-time health of plants but
• Strategic
actions that are part of the trans- also identify machine failure locations through
formation road map. These actions focus video and photo sharing.

cognizant 20-20 insights 5

Tomorrow’s Manufacturing Enterprise

Research & Product Feedback

Development Enterprise Product Feedback
Schedule & Production
Design Master Data Dynamic Planning Response

Faster Release Ecosystem
Real-time & Dynamic Scheduling
App1 AppN App1 AppN

Warehouse Warehouse
Plant A Contract Manufacturer Plant N
Supplier/ One vision & strategy across the ecosystem
Source Vendor ty
Base Quali Simplified & harmonized plant operations processes
Standardized operations technology Information Flow
Material Flow

Figure 3

Maturity Framework objectives. Key processes that ONEPlant

Our proprietary ONEPlant maturity framework addresses include detailed scheduling, experi-
provides a systematic way to define maturity, ments and change management, production
along with a specific focus on plant operations execution, inventory management, quality
management processes. It can be used to align management, plant maintenance, energy and
vision/KPIs and process capabilities, as well as utility management, track and trace, QMS and
define the transformation roadmap. compliance, plant performance, EHS, etc.

Process View Figure 4 illustrates the various levels of maturity

and capabilities required at each level.
Considering various interactions and the impact
of plant operations on the value stream, the The ONEPlant maturity framework defines
framework focuses on key plant operation maturity across five levels, from the initial level,
processes that are key to achieving business at which plants are more reactive, to the top level,

Measuring Process Maturity

Level 5 Enterprise-wide Predictive & Optimizing
Predictive & Optimizing
Plant-wide Orchestrated & Agile
Level 4
Orchestrated & Agile
Standardized Reap benefi
Level 3
Repetitive Re
eap benefitits Predictive planning and
Level 2 operations execution with
p benefitss Aligned enterprise and continuous improvement
Level 1 extended enterprise
Functional Improvement
Standardized processes with Agile and
and technology with collaborative process
Aligned vision with aligned operations
tactical capabilities within plants
Vision and strategy updates

ACTIONS Align Standardize Transform Sustain & Improve

Figure 4

cognizant 20-20 insights 6

at which plants are agile and predictive. Progress • Adopt new technology. New and powerful
toward the highest maturity level typically technologies, such as mobility, social media, big
happens step-by-step, where at each level, certain data analytics, virtualization, cloud, wearables,
capabilities generate tangible business benefits. etc., provide real-time actionable intelligence
The initial maturity level focuses on improving that can elevate plant operational perfor-
efficiency by boosting production yield, produc- mance by improving flexibility, responsiveness
tivity and real-time plant visibility to the planner. and quality. Vendors that provide automation
By delivering improved maturity, plants move technology to manufacturers already offer
toward more flexibility, responsiveness and historians, supported with big data technolo-
predictive planning. gies. This can help manufacturing enterprises
analyze long-duration process data with trans-
Strategic Actions: Addressing Unique actional MES/lab data, gaining new process
Plant Challenges insights.
Our ONEPlant roadmap recommends a phased • Integrate processes and enable plants with
approach, with strategic actions that align with manufacturing SOA. Current plants use
the overall vision and simultaneously offer ways multiple systems (including legacy environ-
to address existing plant operations challenges. ments) to achieve various manufacturing
These include: capabilities. While plant transformation and
• Simplify and standardize plant operations standardization of operation technology will
management processes. This is one of the reduce the application footprint, plants need
key aspects of transformation and needs to more flexible and faster ways to integrate
be aligned with enterprise strategic initiatives disparate and legacy plant systems while the
such as Lean Six Sigma, TQM, etc. Individual transformation is in progress. A manufactur-
plants typically have different ways of handling ing service-oriented architecture (SoA)8 can
planning, execution, production reporting, help by addressing specific needs for plant
performance management, material handling, integration. This approach can also enable the
quality assurance and control, etc. Moreover, development of cross-platform applications,
many plant operations processes span multiple improving agility and responsiveness.
departments. For example, order execution pro- • Enable remote operations management.
cesses typically cut across enterprise planning, Remote operations management for perform-
plant production, quality and materials handling ing asset diagnostics and abnormal event
departments. To standardize these process- analysis can help reduce the overall TCO of
es, it is important that multiple stakeholders maintaining operations, as well as improve
from various plants, as well as the corporate overall organizational responsiveness.
business/IT team, are strategically aligned.
• Improve collaboration and best practices uti-
• Improve user experience. With millennial lization. As advancement in each technology/
workers, organizations need to take a new process increases, it is important to take inputs
look at the user experience with respect to from all experts before incorporating best
operations technology. The user interface practices in process improvement. Such collab-
should be more personalized and responsive oration can be improved through the adoption
to the preferences of individual users. Such an of new technologies. Integrated knowledge
approach is emerging in the SCADA space, as management and remote expert support using
well as other operations technology environ- screen-share and camera-share capabilities
ments (MES, EAM, WMS, LIMS, QMS, EMI, etc.). offer organizations ways to take collaboration
• Standardize operations technology. While from concept to reality.
simplifying processes is important, standard- • Build predictive and real-time operations
ization of operations technology (system) intelligence. Creating closed-loop predictive
is equally so. Key elements that need to be operations intelligence is one cornerstone
considered are clear separation of responsibili- of plant transformation. Harnessing plant,
ties for systems with business capabilities with product and machine Code Halos — and layering
minimum overlap, a minimal number of tech- these with predictive intelligence — can help
nologies and interfaces, plant needs for higher plants take proactive actions aimed at improv-
availability, and multiple deployment options ing overall customer satisfaction, efficiency,
(central vs. local) to address reliability needs. agility and responsiveness.

cognizant 20-20 insights 7

Cognizant’s Aligned Service Offerings Ready to Deliver Transformation

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5

Functional Repetitive Standardized Agile & Orchestrated Predictive & Optimizing

Align Standardize Transformation Sustain & Improve

Maturity assessment, vision/KPI alignment and transformation roadmap

Plant operations harmonization & blueprinting
services Operations
MOM / OT product evaluation technology
Operations technology rationalization
Remote operations diagnostic
User experience enhancement (UI services)

Solution realization:
OT support
Technology & Design, build, test & pilot Solution deployment:
integration New technology prototype/pilot: Global rollout & release management IT/OT synergy and
services Mobility, wearable, analytics improve cost
Remote operations
Training & change management management

Figure 5

End-to-end Services to Transform Plant Operations

Figure 5 details our portfolio of advisory, technology and integration services to advance the transfor-
mation of plant operational management.

Quick Take
Advancing Plant Operations Transformation
Many of our clients already follow a comprehensive approach Benefits
for plant operation transformation, although some are at
A structured and comprehensive transformation initiative
the early stages of their transformation journey. Examples
typically delivers multiple benefits:
• With improved maturity, plants will see improvements
• The world’s largest research-based pharmaceuticals com- in various KPIs, such as manufacturing cycle time, time
pany has begun its transformational journey of converg-
to change or experiment with new processes/products,
ing electronic batch record system, quality management,
flexibility for order variations, inventory turns, energy
inventory management and plant performance, along with
efficiency, scrap, overall equipment effectiveness, yield
an enterprise SAP initiative. We helped with solution real-
and quality compliance.
ization and are deploying it across 70-plus sites.
• With a step-by-step approach, the enterprise will see early
• A global diversified manufacturer known for its innovative benefits due to new business capabilities supported by IT
products across segments is starting its journey of trans-
forming its manufacturing operations management, along
with an SAP initiative. We helped define the operations • Businesswill be able to compare multiple plants and
management roadmap by blueprinting the production, benchmarks in terms of capabilities and KPIs. This will help
quality and inventory processes, with a specific focus on improve KPIs, adoption of best practices and collaboration.
functional segregation of processes between multiple • A framework approach helps to align IT transformation,
systems. informed by a Lean Six Sigma initiative.
• One of the world’s leading consumer goods company in • Simplification and standardization during solution design
the healthcare space is in the process of enterprise trans- and build will help reduce rollout time for solutions within
formation, which is driving change within plant operations the enterprise. This, in turn, will help to reduce rollout
management. We have been engaged in standardization costs and enable early business benefits.
and solution deployment for QMS and MES systems, with a
focus on compliance management, device history records • Operations technology rationalization will help reduce
total cost of ownership by reducing support service costs,
and quality management.
as well as software license costs.

cognizant 20-20 insights 8

These services are further supported by our Halo thinking, will play a key role in this strategic
solution accelerators and tools/templates, realignment.
Accepting the need for a holistic approach and
• Cognizant ONEPlant framework. transformation of plant operations management
is a critical first step in enabling this evolution.
• FloorTrack: Mobility for Shopfloor. Here are some additional steps that manufactur-
• APEx: Remote asset monitoring. ers can take to better prepare themselves for
• PACE: Agile project execution framework. plant operations transformation:

• Process templates and tools aligned with • Align and establish support from stakehold-
various industry standards (ISA 95, ISA 88, ers for the transformation program, both
PAS 55, ISO 22400, MIMOSA, SCOR, APQC, from the business (corporate business owners
etc.). as well as plant operations owners) and IT.
Looking Ahead • Establish an understanding of the current
Amid a new era of growth, manufacturing has state of plant operations management and
a crucial role to play in moving both developed set common goals for the desired future state.
and developing economies forward. In this new
era of manufacturing, businesses need to realign
• Develop a PMO and core team to manage the
transformation program.
their strategy to address the challenges of agility,
efficiency and volatility. We believe that to partici- Cognizant ONEPlant helps manufacturers prepare
pate in a new growth phase, manufacturers must and transform plant operations management
align their information and operations architec- across the enterprise, adapt to new-age manu-
tures and processes from the plant floor to the facturing and gain competitive advantage in the
top floor. Powerful new technologies such as the global manufacturing industry.
SMAC Stack and IoT, powered by proactive Code

1 Industry 4.0 is a project funded by the German government to promote the computerization of the
manufacturing industry,
2 “How Mobility on the Shop Floor Transforms Manufacturing Operations,” Cognizant Technology
Solutions, August 2013,
3 For more on Code Halos, read “Code Rules: A Playbook for Managing at the Crossroads,” Cognizant
Technology Solutions, June 2013,,
and the book, Code Halos: How the Digital Lives of People, Things, and Organizations are Changing the
Rules of Business, by Malcolm Frank, Paul Roehrig and Ben Pring, published by John Wiley & Sons, April
4 See “Informed Manufacturing: the Next Industrial Revolution,” Cognizant Technology Solutions, April
olution.pdf and “Informed Manufacturing: Reaching for New Horizons,” Cognizant Technology Solutions,
September 2014,
5 “IDC FutureScape: Worldwide Manufacturing 2015 Predictions,” IDC, December 2014,
6 Jeff Bennett, “GM Takes Google Glass on a Test Drive,” Wall Street Journal, Aug. 5, 2014,
7 “Has MES Come of Age,” Gartner/MESA joint presentation, December 2014,
8 “MESA White Paper 43: Applying Global MOM Systems in a Manufacturing 2.0 Approach,”
MESA International, April 2013,

cognizant 20-20 insights 9

Note: Code Halo, SMAC Stack, FloorTrack and ONEPlant are pending trademarks of Cognizant
Technology Solutions.

About the Authors

Pawan Kale is Principal Architect at Cognizant’s Engineering & Manufacturing Solutions Practice. He has
over 17 years of experience as a solution architect, with a specific focus on transforming manufacturing
operations management through simplification and digitization using various systems such as plant
integration systems, historians for data collection, MES, EMI, EAM, QMS and enterprise integration using
the manufacturing service bus. Pawan has a degree in chemical engineering from University Institute of
Chemical Technology, Mumbai. He can be reached at

Puneet Raitani is a Consulting Manager within Cognizant’s Engineering & Manufacturing Solutions
Practice, with more than five years in the practice. Puneet has an engineering degree in mechanical
engineering and an M.B.A. in marketing and systems from T.A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal,
Karnataka. He can be reached at

V. Rajagopal is a Manager, Business Development, within the Cognizant Engineering & Manufacturing
Solutions Practice, with more than five years of experience. He has an engineering degree in mechanical
engineering and an M.B.A in marketing and systems from ICFAI Business School, Hyderabad. He can be
reached at

The authors would like to thank the following Cognizant associates within the Engineering & Manufac-
turing Business Unit for their contributions to this white paper: Frank Antonysamy, Senior Director;
Phani Bhushan Sistu, Senior Director; Ratna Sarma Kolachana, Senior Director; Rajesh Sahasrabudhe,

About Cognizant
Cognizant (NASDAQ: CTSH) is a leading provider of information technology, consulting, and business
process outsourcing services, dedicated to helping the world’s leading companies build stronger business-
es. Headquartered in Teaneck, New Jersey (U.S.), Cognizant combines a passion for client satisfaction,
technology innovation, deep industry and business process expertise, and a global, collaborative work-
force that embodies the future of work. With over 75 development and delivery centers worldwide and
approximately 211,500 employees as of December 31, 2014, Cognizant is a member of the NASDAQ-100,
the S&P 500, the Forbes Global 2000, and the Fortune 500 and is ranked among the top performing and
fastest growing companies in the world. Visit us online at or follow us on Twitter: Cognizant.

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