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1.1 DEFINITIONS

Definition An m ´ n matrix is a rectangular array of real numbers, arranged in m rows

and n columns. The elements of a matrix are called the entries. The expression m ´ n

denotes the size of the matrix.

𝑎%$ 𝑎%% ⋯ 𝑎%(

𝐴= ⋮ ⋮ ⋱ ⋮ or (a ) ij m´n

,

𝑎*$ 𝑎*% ⋯ 𝑎*(

where aij denotes the entry that occurs in row i and column j , and i and j are the row and

column indices, respectively.

A matrix A with n rows and n columns (i.e. m = n ) is called a square matrix of order n,

and the entries 𝑎$$ , 𝑎%% , … , 𝑎(( are said to be on the main diagonal of A .

𝑎%$ 𝑎%% ⋯ 𝑎%(

𝐴= ⋮ ⋮ ⋱ ⋮ .

𝑎($ 𝑎(% ⋯ 𝑎((

Examples

æ- 2 p eö

2 −7 ç ÷

ç 3 1 æ1ö

0 2 , (2 1 0 -3), 0÷, ç ÷, ( 4) .

ç 2 ÷ è 3ø

1 3 çç ÷

0 0 0÷

è ø

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

Equality

Two matrices are equal if they have the same size and corresponding entries are equal, i.e.

æ2 1ö æ 2 1ö æ 2 1 0ö

A=ç ÷, B=ç ÷, C =ç ÷.

è 3 4ø è 3 5ø è 3 4 0ø

Addition

If A and B are any two matrices of the same size, then the sum A + B is a matrix obtained

by adding together the corresponding entries in the two matrices. Matrices of different sizes

cannot be added.

(a )

ij m´n + ( bij )

m´n

= ( aij + bij )

m´n

æ 2 1 0 3ö æ -4 3 5 1 ö

ç ÷ ç ÷ æ1 1ö

A = ç -1 0 2 4 ÷ , B = ç 2 2 0 -1÷ , C =ç ÷.

ç 4 -2 7 0 ÷ ç 3 2 -4 5 ÷ è 2 2ø

è ø è ø

Multiplication by a scalar

If A is a matrix and k is any scalar (number), then the product kA is the matrix obtained by

multiplying each entry of A by k .

k ( aij ) = ( kaij )

m´n m´n

æ 4 2ö

Example 3

ç ÷

Consider the following matrix A = 1 3 . Calculate 2A and - A .

ç ÷

ç -1 0 ÷

è ø

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

Subtraction

If A and B are two matrices of the same size, then A - B = A + (- B) = A + (-1) B .

æ 2 3 4ö æ0 2 7ö

Example 4 Consider the matrices A = ç ÷ and B = ç ÷ . Compute A - B .

è1 2 1ø è 1 -3 5 ø

Matrix multiplication

If A is an m ´ r matrix and B is r ´ n matrix then the product AB is the m ´ n matrix whose

entries are determined as follows. To find the entry in row i and column j of AB , single out

row i from the matrix A and column j from the matrix B . Multiply the corresponding entries

from the row and column together and then add up the resulting products.

𝑎%$ 𝑎%% ⋯ 𝑎%5 𝑏$$ 𝑏$% ⋯ 𝑏$8 ⋯ 𝑏$(

⋮ ⋮ ⋮ 𝑏%$ 𝑏%% ⋯ 𝑏%8 ⋯ 𝑏%(

𝐴𝐵 = 𝑎6$ 𝑎6% ⋯ 𝑎65 ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮

⋮ ⋮ ⋮ 𝑏5$ 𝑏5% ⋯ 𝑏58 ⋯ 𝑏5(

𝑎*$ 𝑎*% ⋯ 𝑎*5

𝐴𝐵 68 = 𝑎6$ 𝑏$8 + 𝑎6% 𝑏%8 + 𝑎6: 𝑏:8 + ⋯ 𝑎65 𝑏58 = 𝑎6; 𝑏;8

;<$

æ 4 1 4 3ö

æ1 2 4ö ç ÷

Example 5 Given the matrices A = ç ÷ and B = ç 0 -1 3 1 ÷ , compute AB .

è2 6 0ø ç 2 7 5 2÷

è ø

In general, the multiplication of two matrices is not commutative, AB ¹ BA . Equality can fail to

hold for three reasons:

2. AB and BA are both defined but have different sizes (e.g. if A is a 2 ´ 3 matrix and B is

a 3 ´ 2 matrix).

3. AB and BA are both defined and have the same size but they are not equal.

æ -1 0 ö æ1 2ö

Example 6 Consider the matrices A = ç ÷ and B = ç ÷ . Compute AB and BA ,

è 2 3ø è3 0ø

and check whether they are equal or not.

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

Assuming that the sizes of the matrices are such that the indicated operations can be

performed, the following rules of matrix arithmetic are valid.

(a) A+ B = B + A

(b) A + ( B + C ) = ( A + B) + C

(c) ( AB ) C = A ( BC )

(d) A ( B + C ) = AB + AC

(e) ( B + C ) A = BA + CA

(f) A ( B - C ) = AB - AC

(g) ( B - C ) A = BA - CA

(h) a ( B + C ) = aB + aC

(i) a ( B - C ) = aB - aC

(j) ( a + b ) C = aC + bC

(k) ( a - b ) C = aC - bC

(l) a ( bC ) = ( ab ) C

(m) a ( BC ) = ( aB ) C = B ( aC )

Transpose of a matrix

If A is an m ´ n matrix, then its transpose AT is an n ´ m matrix given by interchanging

the rows and columns of A .

(a ) = ( a ji )

T

ij m´n n´m

æ 2 3ö æ 3 5 -2 ö

ç ÷ ç ÷

B = ç1 4÷, C = (1 3 5) , D=ç 5 4 1 ÷ and E = ( 4).

ç5 6÷ ç -2 1 7 ÷

è ø è ø

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

( kA) = kAT ,

T

1.

( A + B ) = AT + BT ,

T

2.

3. (A )

T T

= A,

( AB )

T

4. = BT AT .

if and only if A = - AT .

Theorem 1 Every square matrix A can be decomposed uniquely as the sum of two

matrices S and V , where S is symmetric and V is skew-symmetric.

æ 3 -1 4 ö

Example 8

ç ÷

Decompose the matrix A = 0 2 5 as a sum of a symmetric matrix S and

ç ÷

ç 1 -3 0 ÷

è ø

a skew-symmetric matrix V .

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

A B C D E

( 4 ´ 5) ( 4 ´ 5) (5 ´ 2) ( 4 ´ 2) (5 ´ 4)

Determine which of the following matrix expressions are defined. For those which are defined,

give the size of the resulting matrix.

(e) E ( A + B ) (f) E ( AC ) (g) E T A (h) ( AT + E ) D

æ 3 0ö æ 1 5 2ö æ 6 1 3ö

ç ÷ æ 4 -1ö æ1 4 2ö ç ÷ ç ÷

A = ç -1 2 ÷ , B = ç ÷, C = ç ÷ , D = ç -1 0 1 ÷ , E = ç -1 1 2 ÷ .

ç 1 1÷ è 0 2 ø è 3 1 5 ø ç 3 2 4÷ ç 4 1 3÷

è ø è ø è ø

1 T 1

(7) - 3 ( D + 2 E ) (9) ( D - E )

T

(8) DT - E T (10) C - A (11) B - BT (12) - 7C

2 4

(14) ( 2 E T - 3DT ) (17) ( 3E ) D (18) ( AB ) C

T

(13) 2 E T - 3DT (15) AB (16) BA

T

(19) A ( BC ) (21) ( DA)

T

(20) CC T

T T

æ 3 -2 7 ö æ 6 -2 4 ö

ç ÷ ç ÷

3. Let A = 6 5 4 and B = 0 1 3 . Compute the third row and the second column

ç ÷ ç ÷

ç0 4 9÷ ç7 7 5÷

è ø è ø

of AB without computing the entire product.

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

Answers

1. (a), (c), (d) and (g): not defined; (b) 4 ´ 2 , (e) 5 ´ 5 , (f) 5 ´ 2 , (h) 5 ´ 2

æ 7 6 5ö æ -5 4 -1ö æ 15 0 ö

ç ÷ ç ÷ ç ÷ æ -7 -28 -14 ö

2. (1) -2 1 3 , (2) 0 -1 -1 , (3) -5 10 , (4) ç ÷,

ç ÷ ç ÷ ç ÷ -21 -7 -35

ç 7 3 7÷ ç -1 1 1 ÷ ç 5 5÷ è ø

è ø è ø è ø

æ 22 -6 8 ö æ -39 -21 -24 ö æ -5 0 -1ö

ç

(5) not defined, (6) -2 4 6 , (7)

÷ ç ÷ ç ÷

ç ÷ ç 9 -6 -15 ÷ , (8) ç 4 -1 1 ÷ ,

ç 10 0 4 ÷ ç -33 -12 -30 ÷ ç -1 -1 1 ÷

è ø è ø è ø

æ 1 3ö

ç- 4 2 ÷

æ -5 0 -1ö ç ÷

ç ÷ ç 9 æ -8 1 ö æ -7 -28 -14 ö

(9) 4 -1 1 , (10)

ç ÷ 0 ÷ , (11) ç ÷ , (12) ç ÷,

ç 4 ÷ è 1 -4 ø è -21 -7 -35 ø

ç -1 -1 1 ÷ ç ÷

è ø

çç 3 9 ÷÷

è 4 4ø

æ 9 1 -1 ö æ 9 -13 0 ö æ 12 -3 ö

ç ÷

(13) -13 2 -4 , (14) 1

ç ÷ ç ÷

ç ÷ ç 2 1 ÷ , (15) ç -4 5 ÷ , (16) not defined,

ç 0 1 -6 ÷ ç -1 -4 -6 ÷ ç 4 1÷

è ø è ø è ø

æ 42 108 75 ö æ 3 45 9 ö æ 3 45 9 ö

ç ÷ ç ÷ ç ÷ æ 21 17 ö

(17) 12 -3 21 , (18) 11 -11 17 , (19) 11 -11 17 , (20) ç ÷,

ç ÷ ç ÷ ç ÷ 17 35

ç 36 78 63 ÷ ç 7 17 13 ÷ ç 7 17 13 ÷ è ø

è ø è ø è ø

æ 12 6 9ö æ -6 -3 ö æ 2 -10 11 ö

æ 0 -2 11ö ç ÷ ç ÷ ç ÷

(21) ç ÷ , (22) ç 48 -20 14 ÷ , (23) ç 36 0 ÷ , (24) ç13 2 5 ÷,

è 12 1 8 ø ç 24 8 16 ÷ ç 4 7÷ ç 4 -3 13 ÷

è ø è ø è ø

æ 10 -6 ö æ0 0 0ö

ç ÷ æ 40 72 ö ç ÷

(25) -14 2 , (26) ç ÷ , (27) ç 0 0 0 ÷

ç ÷ 26 42

ç -1 -8 ÷ è ø ç0 0 0÷

è ø è ø

(

3. third row 0 ´ 6 + 4 ´ 0 + 9 ´ 7 0 ´ ( -2 ) + 4 ´1 + 9 ´ 7 0 ´ 4 + 4 ´ 3 + 9 ´ 5) = ( 63 67 57 )

æ 3 ´ ( -2 ) + ( -2 ) ´1 + 7 ´ 7 ö æ 41 ö

ç ÷ ç ÷

second column ç 6 ´ ( -2 ) + 5 ´1 + 4 ´ 7 ÷ = 21

ç ÷

ç 0 ´ ( -2 ) + 4 ´1 + 9 ´ 7 ÷ ç 67 ÷

è ø è ø

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

1 0 0 ⋯ 0

0 1 0 ⋯ 0

The identity matrix 𝐼( = 0 0 1 ⋯ 0 or I n = (d ij ) ,

n´n

⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋱ ⋮

0 0 0 ⋯ 1

ì1 if i = j

where d ij = í is the Kronecker delta.

î0 if i ¹ j

2 0 0

Diagonal matrix e.g. 0 1 0

0 0 −3

2 0 0

Triangular matrix e.g. 4 6 0

2 0 −1

If A and is a m ´ n matrix then:

(b) A - A = Om´n

(c) Om´n - A = - A

(e) AI n = A ; Im A = A

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

1. Find a matrix C such that the following sum is the zero matrix

æ 1 2 0ö æ0 2 1 ö

ç ÷ ç ÷

3 ç -2 3 4 ÷ - 4 ç 0 1 -1÷ + 2C .

ç 6 -2 1 ÷ ç 3 1 0 ÷

è ø è ø

2. Show that the product of two diagonal matrices is again a diagonal matrix. Hence, without

doing any calculations, find the inverse of the matrix

æ2 0 0ö

ç ÷

ç 0 -1 0 ÷ .

ç 0 0 4÷

è ø

Answers

æ 3 ö

ç- 2 1 2 ÷

ç ÷

5

1. C = ç 3 - 8 ÷

ç 2 ÷

ç ÷

çç -3 3

5 - ÷÷

è 2ø

æ1 ö

-1

ç2 0 0÷

æ2 0 0ö

ç ÷ ç ÷

2. 0 -1 0 =ç0 -1 0 ÷

ç ÷

ç 0 0 4÷ ç 1÷

è ø ç0 0 ÷

è 4ø

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

If A is a square n ´ n matrix, and if a square n ´ n matrix A-1 can be found such that

AA-1 = A-1 A = I n , then A is said to be invertible and A-1 is the inverse of A .

æ 2 -5 3 ö æ 5 3 -4 ö

Example 9

ç ÷ ç ÷

Given the matrices A = 1 3 -1 and B = -6 -3 5 , show that

ç ÷ ç ÷

ç 3 -4 3 ÷ ç -13 -7 11 ÷

è ø è ø

B = A-1.

(a) AB is invertible,

(b) ( AB )

-1

= B-1 A-1 .

( )

-1

Example 10 Show that if A is an invertible matrix then A-1 = A.

Inverse of a 2 ´ 2 matrix

æa bö @$ $ 𝑑 −𝑏

If A = ç ÷ , then 𝐴 = AB@CD −𝑐 .

èc dø 𝑎

æ1 2 ö æ 3 2ö -1 -1

Example 11 Consider the matrices A = ç ÷ and B = ç ÷ . Compute A , B ,

è 1 3 ø è 2 2 ø

( AB )

-1

and B -1 A-1 .

• Use elementary row operations to reduce A to I .

• Then use the same operations on I to give A-1

To accomplish this we shall adjoin the identity matrix to the right side of A , thereby producing

an augmented matrix of the form

(A I)

then we shall apply elementary row operations to this matrix, so that the final matrix will have

the form

(I A ).

-1

1. Interchange any two rows

2. Add a multiple of one row to another

3. Multiply every element in a row by a fixed number

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

æ 0 0 -2 -1 ö

æ 1 2 3ö ç ÷

ç ÷ and ç -2 0 -1 0 ÷

A = ç 2 5 3÷ B= .

ç 1 0 8÷ ç -1 -2 -1 -5 ÷

è ø ç ÷

è0 1 1 3ø

æ3 1ö æ 2 -3 ö æ 2 0ö

A=ç ÷, B = ç ÷, C = ç ÷

è5 2ø è4 4 ø è 0 3ø

-1

= C -1B-1 A-1 .

æ1 0 0 0ö æ k1 0 0 0ö

æ 3 4 -1 ö ç ÷ ç ÷

æ -3 6 ö ç ÷ 1 3 0 0÷ 0 k2 0 0÷

(a) ç ÷ (b) 1 0 3 (c) ç (d) ç .

ç ÷ ç1 3 5 0÷ ç0 0 k3 0÷

è 4 5ø ç 2 5 -4 ÷

è ø çç ÷ çç ÷

è1 3 5 7 ÷ø è0 0 0 k4 ÷ø

Answers

æ 7 1ö

æ 20 -15 ö

-1

ç - 40 8÷

( ABC )

-1

1. =ç ÷ =ç ÷

è 36 -21 ø ç- 3 1÷

ç ÷

è 10 6ø

æ1 öæ 1 3 ö æ 7 1ö

0 ÷ç -

ç2 5 20 ÷ æ 2 -1ö ç 40 8÷

C -1 B -1 A-1 = ç ÷ç ÷ç ÷=ç ÷

ç0 1 ÷ç 1 1 ÷ è -5 3ø ç 3 1÷

ç ÷ç - ÷ ç- ÷

è 3 øè 5 10 ø è 10 6ø

æ1 ö

çk 0 0 0÷

æ 1 0 0 0ö

ç ÷ ç 1 ÷

æ 3 11 6ö

æ 5 2ö ç 2 - - ÷ ç-1 1 0 0÷ ç 1 ÷

ç - 39 13 ÷ 10 5 ç 3 3 ÷ ç0 0 0÷

ç ÷ ç k2 ÷

2. (a) ç ÷ , (b) ç -1 1 1 ÷ , (c) ç 1 1 ÷ , (d)

ç 4 1÷ ç 0 - 0÷ ç 1 ÷

ç ÷ ç 1 7 2 ÷ 5 5 ç0 0 0÷

è 39 13 ø ç- ÷ ç ÷ k3

è 2 10 5 ø ç 1 1÷ ç ÷

ç 0 0 - ÷ ç 1÷

è 7 7ø ç0 0 0 ÷

è k4 ø

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

𝐴I = 𝐼 , 𝐴( = 𝐴𝐴 ⋯ 𝐴 𝑛>0 .

( JKLMNOP

𝐴@( = 𝐴@$ (

= 𝐴@$ 𝐴@$ ⋯ 𝐴@$ 𝑛>0 .

( JKLMNOP

æ1 2 ö -3

Example 13 If A = ç 3

÷ , compute A and A .

è1 3 ø

æ 2 0ö

1. Let A = ç ÷ . Compute A - 2 A + I .

2

è 4 1 ø

$ $

𝑒T = 𝐼 + 𝐴 + 𝐴% + 𝐴: + ⋯,

%! :!

𝐼 + 𝐴 @$ = 𝐼 − 𝐴 + 𝐴% − 𝐴: + ⋯.

æ 0.1 0.2 ö

( I + A)

-A -1

Consider the matrix A = ç A

÷ . Find approximations for e , e and by

è -0.1 0.3 ø

adding the first three terms in the series. Hence, check whether

(a) ( I + A)

-1

is the inverse of I + A ,

(b) e- A is the inverse of e A .

Answers

æ1 0ö

1. A2 - 2 A + I = ç ÷

è 4 0ø

æ 0.89 -0.12 ö A æ 1.095 0.240 ö - A æ 0.895 -0.160 ö

3. ( I + A) » ç

-1

÷, e » ç ÷, e »ç ÷

è 0.06 0.77 ø è -0.120 1.335 ø è 0.080 0.735 ø

æ 0.991 -0.022 ö

(a) ( I + A)( I + A) = ( I + A ) ( I + A ) » ç

-1 -1

÷

è -0.011 1.0130 ø

æ 0.9992 0.0012 ö

(b) e Ae- A = e- Ae A » ç ÷

è -0.0006 1.004 ø

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

Recommended reading: Chapter 2 (Sections 2.1, 2.2 [up to page 103] and 2.4 )

a1 x1 + a2 x2 + ... + an xn = bn ,

where 𝑎$ , 𝑎% , …, 𝑎( , and b are real constants. The variables in a linear equation sometimes

are called unknowns.

satisfied when we substitute x1 = s1 , x2 = s2 , ..., xn = sn . The set of all solutions is called its

solution set or sometimes the general solution of the equation.

(i) 4 x - 2 y = 1,

(ii) x1 - 4 x2 + 7 x3 = 5 .

or a linear system. A system of m linear equations in n unknowns 𝑥$ , 𝑥% , …, 𝑥( can be

expressed in general as:

𝑎%$ 𝑥$ + 𝑎%% 𝑥% + ⋯ + 𝑎$( 𝑥( = 𝑏%

⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮

.

𝑎*$ 𝑥$ + 𝑎*% 𝑥% + ⋯ + 𝑎*( 𝑥( = 𝑏*

The subscripted a ’s and b ’s denote constants. The double subscripting on the coefficients of

the unknowns 𝑥$ , 𝑥% , …, 𝑥( is used to specify the location of the coefficient in the system.

These coefficients can be collected together in an m ´ n coefficient matrix

𝑎%$ 𝑎%% ⋯ 𝑎%(

𝐴= ⋮ ⋮ ⋱ ⋮ .

𝑎*$ 𝑎*% ⋯ 𝑎*(

If we also let

𝑥$ 𝑏$

𝑥% 𝑏%

𝑋= ⋮ and 𝐵 = ,

⋮

𝑥( 𝑏*

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

𝑎%$ 𝑎%% ⋯ 𝑎%( 𝑏%

𝐴𝐵 = ⋮ ⋮ ⋱ ⋮ .

⋮

𝑎*$ 𝑎*% ⋯ 𝑎*( 𝑏*

( )

Each row of A B represents one equation in the original system and each column to the left

of the vertical bar corresponds to one of the variables in the system. Hence, this augmented

matrix contains all the information about the original system of linear equations.

x1 = s1 , x2 = s2 , ..., xn = sn is a solution of every equation in the system.

unique

none

A system of equations that has no solutions is said to be inconsistent. If there is at least one

solution, it is called consistent.

x + y = 4

2x + 2 y = 6

The basic method for solving a system of linear equations is to replace the given system by a

new system that has the same solution set but which is easier to solve by carrying out

elementary row operations:

1. Interchange any two rows

2. Add a multiple of one row to another

3. Multiply every element in a row by a fixed number

Elementary row operations do not actually change the solutions to the equations.

( )

The aim is to reduce the augmented matrix A B to row-echelon form:

1. If a row does not consist entirely of zeros, then the first nonzero number in the row

(called pivot) is a 1 (called leading 1).

2. If there are any rows that consist entirely of zeros, then they are grouped together

at the bottom of the matrix.

3. In any two successive rows that do not consist entirely of zeros, the leading 1 in the

lower row occurs farther to the right then the leading 1 in the higher row.

4. Each column that contains a leading 1 has zeros everywhere else.

A matrix satisfying the properties 1, 2, and 3 (but not necessarily 4) is said to be in row-echelon

form. A matrix satisfying all properties 1, 2, 3 and 4 is said to be in reduced row-echelon

form.

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

Gaussian Elimination

Step-by-step procedure to reduce any matrix to row-echelon form.

æ 0 0 -2 0 7 12 ö

ç ÷

ç 2 4 -10 6 12 28 ÷ .

ç 2 4 -5 6 -5 -1÷

è ø

Gauss-Jordan Elimination

Same as Gaussian elimination but includes a final step to get the reduced row-echelon form.

æ 0 0 -2 0 7 12 ö

ç ÷

ç 2 4 -10 6 12 28 ÷

ç 2 4 -5 6 -5 -1÷

è ø

After Gaussian elimination (see Example 16), the row-echelon form of the above matrix was

æ 1 2 -5 3 6 14 ö

ç ÷

ç 0 0 1 0 - 7 2 -6 ÷

ç0 0 0 0 1 2 ÷ø

è

- 2 x3 + 7 x5 = 12

2 x1 + 4 x2 - 10 x3 + 6 x4 + 12 x5 = 28

2 x1 + 4 x2 - 5 x3 + 6 x4 - 5 x5 = -1

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

Back-substitution

It is sometimes preferable to solve a system of linear equations by using Gaussian elimination

to bring the augmented matrix into row-echelon form without continuing all the way to the

reduced row-echelon form. The corresponding system of equations can be solved by a

technique called back-substitution.

4 x1 - 2 x2 - 7 x3 = 5

-6 x1 + 5 x2 + 10 x3 = -11

-2 x1 + 3x2 + 4 x3 = -3

-3x1 + 2 x2 + 5 x3 = -5

Example 20 Use Gaussian Elimination to show that the following system is inconsistent

3x1 - 2 x2 + 4 x3 = -54

- x1 + x2 - 2 x3 = 20

5 x1 - 4 x2 + 8 x3 = -83

Definition The rank of a matrix A , written rank ( A) , is equal to the number of nonzero

rows (i.e. rows with nonzero pivot entries) in a row-echelon form of A .

( )

matrix A B , then:

( )

(a) The system has a solution if and only if rank ( A) = rank A B .

Example 21 For which of the values of a does the following system have a unique solution,

and for which pairs ( a, b ) does the system have more than one solution? The value of b does

not have any effect on whether the system has a unique solution. Why?

x - 2y = 1

x - y + az = 2

ay + 9z = b

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

coefficients is square.

Theorem 4 A square system AX = B of linear equations has a unique solution if and only

if the matrix A is invertible. In such a case, X = A-1B is the unique solution of the system.

æ 2 -5 3 ö

ç ÷

Example 22 Consider the matrix A = 1 3 -1 . Is the matrix A invertible? If so find its

ç ÷

ç 3 -4 3 ÷

è ø

inverse. Hence, does the following system of equations have a unique solution?

2 x - 5 y + 3z = 0

x + 3y - z = 2.

3x - 4 y + 3z = 3

A system of m linear equations in n variables 𝑥$ , 𝑥% , …, 𝑥( is homogeneous if it is of the

form

𝑎%$ 𝑥$ + 𝑎%% 𝑥% + ⋯ + 𝑎$( 𝑥( = 0

⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮

,

𝑎*$ 𝑥$ + 𝑎*% 𝑥% + ⋯ + 𝑎*( 𝑥( = 0

𝑎%$ 𝑎%% ⋯ 𝑎%( 𝑥%

𝐴= ⋮ ⋮ ⋱ ⋮ and 𝑋 = ⋮ .

𝑎*$ 𝑎*% ⋯ 𝑎*( 𝑥(

Solutions

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

(1) If rank ( A) < n , then the system has a nontrivial solution.

(2) If rank ( A) = n , then the system has only the trivial solution.

If m < n , then the system has a nontrivial solution.

elimination

2 x1 + 2 x2 - x3 + x5 = 0

- x1 - x2 + 2 x3 - 3x4 + x5 = 0

x1 + x2 - 2 x3 - x5 = 0

x3 + x4 + x5 = 0

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

2 PRACTICAL EXERCISES

æ 1 2 -3 1 2 ö æ 1 2 -3 -2 4 1 ö

ç ÷

(a) 2 4 -4 6 10 , (b)

ç ÷

ç ÷ ç 2 5 -8 -1 6 4 ÷ .

ç 3 6 -6 9 13 ÷ ç 1 4 -7 5 2 8 ÷

è ø è ø

x1 + x2 + 2 x3 = 8

a) - x1 - 2 x2 + 3x3 = 1

3x1 - 7 x2 + 4 x3 = 10

w + 2x - y = 4

x - y = 3

b)

w + 3x - 2 y = 7

2u + 4v + w + 7 x = 7

3 x1 + 2 x2 - x3 = -15

5 x1 + 3x2 + 2 x3 = 0

a)

3 x1 + x2 + 3 x3 = 11

- 6 x1 - 4 x2 + 2 x3 = 30

10 y - 4 z + w = 1

x + 4y - z + w = 2

b) 3x + 2y + z + 2w = 5

- 2x - 8y + 2 z - 2 w = -4

x - 6y + 3z = 1

4. Exercises for Section 2.1, pages 96-97: 1 (a), (c), (e) and (g); 2 (a) and (c); 3; 4; 6.

5. Exercises for Section 2.2, pages 107-108: 1; 2 (a), (b), (c) and (e); 7 (a).

6. For which values of a will the following system have no solutions? Exactly one solution?

Infinitely many solutions?

x + 2y - 3z = 4

3x - y + 5z = 2 .

4x + y + (a 2 - 14) z = a + 2

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

v + 3w - 2x = 0

2u + v - 4w + 3x = 0

.

2u + 3v + 2w - x = 0

- 4u - 3v + 5w - 4x = 0

8. Exercises for Section 2.2, pages 107-110: 4 (a) and (c); 5 (a) and (c); 12.

9. For which value(s) of l does the following system of equations have nontrivial solutions?

( l - 3) x + y = 0

.

x + ( l - 3) y = 0

Answers

æ x1 ö æ 3 ö

ç ÷ ç ÷

2. (a) x2 = 1

ç ÷ ç ÷

ç x ÷ ç 2÷

è 3ø è ø

æ x1 ö æ -4 ö

ç ÷ ç ÷

3. (a) x2 = 2

ç ÷ ç ÷

çx ÷ ç 7 ÷

è 3ø è ø

If a = 4 the system has infinitely many solutions.

If a ¹ ±4 the system has exactly one solution.

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

3 DETERMINANTS

Recommended reading: Chapter 3 (Sections 3.1, 3.2 [up to page 160] and 3.3 [up

to page 168])

The determinant of a square matrix associates a real number with a matrix and it can tell us

whether a system of equations has solutions or not.

Determinant of a 2 ´ 2 matrix

æa a ö a a

det ç 11 12 ÷ = 11 12 = a11a22 - a21a12

è a21 a22 ø a21 a22

æ3 1 ö

Example 24 Evaluate the determinant of the following matrix A = ç ÷.

è 4 -2 ø

Determinant of a 3 ´ 3 matrix

Use a row or column to expand along. Multiply each entry in chosen row/column by the

determinant of matrix remaining when you delete the row and column of that entry,

remembering to use the following pattern of +/- signs.

+ - +

- + -

+ - +

æ 1 2 3ö

ç

Example 25 Evaluate the determinant of the following matrix B = -4 5 6 .

÷

ç ÷

ç 7 -8 9 ÷

è ø

Determinant of a n ´ n matrix

The determinant of a n ´ n matrix can be also calculated by expanding it along any row or any

column as long as the following signs for the sub-determinants are used.

+ − + − ⋯

− + − +

+ − + −

− + − +

⋮

Note that it is easier to compute the determinant by expanding it along a row/column which

has a number of zeros.

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

æ 0 1 1 1ö

ç ÷

ç 1 1

1

1÷

ç 2 2 2÷

Example 26 Evaluate the determinant of the following matrix C = ç 2 1 1 ÷ by using

ç 0÷

ç 3 3 3 ÷

ç 1 2 ÷

ç- 0 0÷

è 3 3 ø

row or column expansion.

Properties of determinants

The more zero entries there are in a matrix, the easier it is to find the determinant.

æ a11 0 0 0 ö

ç ÷

a21 a22 0 0 ÷

Example 27 Evaluate det( A) , where A = ç .

ç a31 a32 a33 0 ÷

çç ÷

è a41 a42 a43 a44 ÷ø

then det( A) is the product of the entries on the main diagonal; that is

(c) adding a multiple of any row to another row, or a multiple of any column to any column,

then det( B) = det( A).

Remark Note that property (c) of Theorem 6 states that if kRi + R j ® R j then

det( B) = det( A). However, the following elementary row operation kRi - R j ® R j is a

combination of two elementary row operations, i.e. ( -1) R j ® R j and kRi + R j ® R j , and it

changes the sign of the determinant: det( B) = - det( A).

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

The basic idea is to apply elementary row operations to reduce the given matrix A to a matrix

R that is in row-echelon form. Since a row-echelon form of a square matrix is always upper

triangular, det( R ) can be evaluated easily. The value of det( A) can be obtained from det( R )

æ 0 1 5ö

ç ÷

Example 28 Evaluate det ( A) by row-reduction, where A = 3 -6 9 .

ç ÷

ç 2 6 1÷

è ø

echelon form.

2. If a square matrix A has two proportional rows or two proportional columns, then det( A) = 0

æ2 7 8ö æ 1 -2 7 ö

æ -1 4 ö ç ÷ ç ÷

e.g ç ÷, ç 3 2 4÷, ç -4 8 5 ÷

è -2 8 ø ç2 7 8÷ ç 2 -4 3 ÷

è ø è ø

æ3 1ö

Example 30 Consider the matrix A = ç ÷ . Compute det( A) and det(5 A) .

è 2 2ø

4. If A and B are both matrices of the same size, then det( AB) = det( A) det( B) .

æ 3 1ö æ -1 3 ö

Example 31 Consider the matrices A=ç ÷ and B=ç ÷. Verify that

è 2 1ø è 5 8 ø

det( AB) = det( A) det( B) .

Example 32 Show that det ç ÷ + det ç ¢ ¢ ø÷ = det ç

¢ ÷ø

¢ a22 + a22

.

è a21 a22 ø è a21 a22 è a21 + a21

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

5. Let A , A¢ and A¢¢ be square matrices that differ only in a single row, say the r th, and

assume that the r th row of A¢¢ can be obtained by adding corresponding entries in the r th

rows of A and A¢ . Then

det ( A¢¢) = det ( A) + det ( A¢) .

(a) ka11 + a21 ka12 + a22 ka13 + a23 = a21 a22 a23

a31 a32 a33 a31 a32 a33

(b) ka11 - a21 ka12 - a22 ka13 - a23 = - a21 a22 a23

a31 a32 a33 a31 a32 a33

a1 + b1 a1 - b1 c1 a1 b1 c1

a2 + b2 a2 - b2 c2 = -2 a2 b2 c2

a3 + b3 a3 - b3 c3 a3 b3 c3

æ 1 2 3ö

ç ÷

Example 35 Is the matrix A = 1 0 1 invertible?

ç ÷

ç 2 4 6÷

è ø

1

( )

7. If A is invertible, then det A-1 =

det ( A)

.

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

3 PRACTICAL EXERCISES

1. Evaluate the determinants of the following matrices by reducing them to row-echelon form.

1 -2 3 1 5 4 2 1

3 -6 9

5 -9 6 3 2 3 1 -2

(a) -2 7 -2 (b) (c) .

-1 2 -6 -2 -5 -7 -3 9

0 1 5

2 8 6 1 1 -2 -1 4

2 0 0 0

3 -17 4 1 -2 3

-8 2 0 0

(a) (b) 0 5 1 (c) 2 -4 6

7 0 -1 0

0 0 -2 5 -8 1

9 5 6 1

a b c

4. Given that d e f = -6 , find

g h i

(a) g h i (b) -d -e - f (c) d e f .

a b c 4g 4h 4i g - 4d h - 4e i - 4 f

5. Without directly evaluating, show that a b c = 0.

1 1 1

(a) a2 b2 a2 + b2 + c2 = a2 b2 c2 (b) a2 b2 + ta2 c2 + rb2 + sa2 = a2 b2 c2

a3 b3 a3 + b3 + c3 a3 b3 c3 a3 b3 + ta3 c3 + rb3 + sa3 a3 b3 c3

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

æ 1 2 4ö

æ k - 3 -2 ö ç ÷

(a) A = ç ÷ (b) A = 3 1 6 .

ç ÷

è -2 k - 2 ø ç k 3 2÷

è ø

æa b cö

ç ÷

(a) det b c a = ( a + b + c ) ( ab + bc + ca - a 2 - b 2 - c 2 )

ç ÷

çc a b÷

è ø

ç

(b) det - sin f cos f cos q

÷

ç cos f sin q ÷ = 1

ç 0 - sin q cos q ÷ø

è

Answers

5 ± 17

7. (a) k = (b) k = -1

2

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

Eigenvectors and eigenvalues

Usually there is no relationship between vectors x and Ax . But sometimes Ax is a multiple

of x .

Ax = l x

the eigenvector corresponding to l .

æ1ö æ3 0 ö

Example 36 The vector x = ç ÷ is an eigenvector of A = ç ÷ corresponding to the

è 2ø è 8 -1ø

eigenvalue l = 3 .

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors have a useful geometrical interpretation in two and three

dimensions, if x is an eigenvector of A , then matrix A acts by stretching or contracting the

vector x , changing or not changing its direction, e.g.

Ax = l I n x

or, equivalently,

( A - l In ) x = 0 .

This is a homogeneous system, and only has non-trivial solutions if

det( A - l I n ) = 0 .

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

So to find eigenvalues we look for the possible scalars l which satisfy det( A - l I n ) = 0 .

Definition The equation

det( A - l I n ) = 0

degree n in l called the characteristic polynomial of A :

(

𝑝( 𝜆 = det 𝐴 − 𝜆𝐼( = −1 𝜆( + 𝑐$ 𝜆(@$ + 𝑐% 𝜆(@% + ⋯ + 𝑐(@$ 𝜆 + 𝑐( .

expect at most n eigenvalues.

( *^ *_ *`

𝑝( 𝜆 = −1 𝜆 − 𝜆$ 𝜆 − 𝜆% ⋯ 𝜆 − 𝜆;

where m j is called the multiplicity of the eigenvalue l j . The sum of the multiplicities of all

eigenvalues is n ; that is

𝑛 = 𝑚$ + 𝑚% + ⋯ 𝑚; .

æ 3 2ö

Example 38 Find the eigenvalues of the matrix A = ç ÷.

è -1 0 ø

æ 5 0 1ö

ç

Example 39 Find the eigenvalues of A = 1 1 0 .

÷

ç ÷

ç -7 1 0 ÷

è ø

(a) l is an eigenvalue of A .

(b) The system of equations ( A - l I n )x = 0 has nontrivial solutions.

(c) There is a nonzero vector x of dimension n such that Ax = l x .

(d) l is the solution of the characteristic equation det( A - l I n ) = 0 .

The eigenvectors of A corresponding to an eigenvalue l are the nonzero vectors that satisfy

( A - l I n )x = 0 .

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

eigenspace of A corresponding to l and is denoted by El . The set of particular solutions

obtained by solving the homogeneous system ( A - l I n )x = 0 using Gaussian elimination and

by setting each independent variable in turn equal to 1 and all the other independent variables

equal to zero are called fundamental eigenvectors.

æ 3 2ö

Example 40 Find the fundamental eigenvectors of the matrix A = ç ÷.

è -1 0 ø

æ 5 0 1ö

ç

Example 41 Find the eigenspaces and the fundamental eigenvectors of A = 1 1 0 .

÷

ç ÷

ç -7 1 0 ÷

è ø

Diagonalisation

P such that D = P-1 AP is a diagonal matrix. Any diagonalisable matrix A can be

decomposed as A = PDP-1 .

æ 3 2ö æ -1 -2 ö -1

Example 42 If A = ç ÷ and P = ç ÷ then the matrix D = P AP is diagonal.

è -1 0 ø è 1 1 ø

eigenvectors.

(2) If overall the number of fundamental eigenvectors of A is less than n , then the matrix

A is not diagonalisable.

(3) Otherwise, form the matrix P whose columns are the n fundamental eigenvectors.

(4) Then D = P-1 AP will be a diagonal matrix whose dii entry is the eigenvalue for the

fundamental vector forming the i -th column of P .

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

æ -2 2 3 ö

ç ÷

Example 43 Consider the matrix A = -2 3 2 . Obtain a matrix P , such that D = P-1 AP

ç ÷

ç -4 2 5 ÷

è ø

is diagonal. State explicitly the matrix D .

diagonalisable.

Example 44

æ 2 1 -2 ö

ç ÷

A = ç 2 3 -4 ÷ .

ç 1 1 -1 ÷

è ø

(ii) Determine the eigenvalue(s) of A .

(iii) For each eigenvalue of A , find the corresponding fundamental eigenvectors.

(iv) Obtain a matrix P , such that D = P-1 AP is diagonal. State explicitly the matrix D .

æ 5 0 1ö

ç ÷

Example 45 Explain why the matrix A = 1 1 0 is not diagonalizable.

ç ÷

ç -7 1 0 ÷

è ø

Matrix diagonalisation has many applications in practice. It is much easier to work with diagonal

matrices than with matrices in general as the result of addition and/or multiplication of diagonal

matrices is a diagonal matrix, i.e.

𝑎$ 0 ⋯ 𝑏$ 0 ⋯ 𝑎$ + 𝑏$ 0 ⋯

0 𝑎% + 0 𝑏 = 0 𝑎% + 𝑏% ,

⋮ ⋱ ⋮ ⋱ ⋮ ⋱

𝑎$ 0 ⋯ 𝑏$ 0 ⋯ 𝑎$ 𝑏$ 0 ⋯

0 𝑎% 0 𝑏 = 0 𝑎% 𝑏% .

⋮ ⋱ ⋮ ⋱ ⋮ ⋱

For example, matrix diagonalisation can be used to compute powers of a matrix efficiently.

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

æ 3 2ö

Example 47 Consider the matrix A = ç 5

÷ . Compute A .

è -1 0 ø

This idea can be generalized even further to evaluate efficiently any algebraic expression

which involves A only, e.g.

A3 - 2 A2 + 3 A + I =

4 PRACTICAL EXERCISES

In Questions 1-6, find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the given matrix, and determine

whether the matrix is diagonalisable. When it is, find an invertible matrix P and diagonal matrix

D such that D = P-1 AP .

æ1 0 0 0 ö

ç ÷ æ1 3 0 ö æ 2 1 -1ö

0 1 5 -10 ÷ ç ÷ ç ÷

1. A = ç 2. A = 3 1 0 3. A = 0 -1 2

ç1 0 2 0 ÷ ç ÷ ç ÷

ç ÷ ç 0 0 -2 ÷ ç 0 0 -1÷

è ø è ø

è1 0 0 3 ø

æ 3 2 -3 ö æ5 0 0ö æ 0 0 -2 ö

ç

4. A = -3 -4 9

÷ ç

5. A = 1 5 0

÷ ç

6. A = 1 2 1

÷

ç ÷ ç ÷ ç ÷

ç -1 -2 5 ÷ ç0 1 5÷ ç1 0 3 ÷

è ø è ø è ø

æ 5 7 -2 ö

ç ÷

7. Let A = -4 -6 2 . Find A10 - 5 A .

ç ÷

ç 0 -1 1 ÷

è ø

MATRICES MAT1091 MATHEMATICAL METHODS

Answers

Note that in Questions 1-6 while the eigenvalues of matrices are unique, the entries of the

corresponding fundamental eigenvectors are not as they are only defined up to a multiplicative

real constant.

æ0 0 -2 0 ö æ3 0 0 0ö

ç ÷ ç ÷

-5 5 0 1÷ 0 2 0 0÷

1. Eigenvalues: 3, 2, 1. P = ç , D=ç .

ç0 1 2 0÷ ç0 0 1 0÷

ç ÷ ç ÷

è1 0 1 0ø è0 0 0 1ø

æ 1 0 -1ö æ4 0 0 ö

ç ÷ ç

2. Eigenvalues: 4, -2. P = 1 0 1 , D = 0 -2 0 .

÷

ç ÷ ç ÷

ç0 1 0 ÷ ç 0 0 -2 ÷

è ø è ø

3. Eigenvalues: 2, -1. The matrix is not diagonalizable as there are only two fundamental

eigenvectors.

æ 3 -2 -1ö æ 2 0 0ö

ç

4. Eigenvalues: 2, 0. P = 0 1

÷ ç ÷

ç 3 ÷ , D = ç 0 2 0÷.

ç1 0 1 ÷ ç 0 0 0÷

è ø è ø

eigenvector.

æ -1 0 -2 ö æ 2 0 0ö

ç ÷ ç ÷

6. Eigenvalues: 2, 1. P = 0 1 1 , D = 0 2 0 .

ç ÷ ç ÷

ç1 0 1÷ ç0 0 1÷

è ø è ø

æ -28 -40 12 ö

ç ÷

7. 24

ç 36 -12 ÷

ç 4 10 -6 ÷ø

è

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