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2008/3 PAGES 21 – 33 RECEIVED 15. 3. 2008 ACCEPTED 10. 7.

2008

J. GYÖRGYI, G. SZABÓ J. Györgyi, Prof

Budapest University of Technology and Economics,


Dept. of Structural mechanics, Arany János 96/b,
H-1221 Budapest

DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF G. Szabó


Civil engineer, PhD student

WIND EFFECTS BY USING AN Budapest University of Technology and Economics,


Dept. of Structural mechanics, Arany János 96/b,
H-1221 Budapest

ARTIFICAL WIND FUNCTION Research field: Dynamics of structures, moving forces


of on structures, wind effect

ABSTRACT KEY WORDS

During the application of standards for calculating wind effects, we used the quasi- • wind effect
statical analysis calculated with the dynamic factor, size factor and force coefficient. • artificial wind function
From the Eurocode we can get these factors only in the case of special structures. If we • fluent program system
know the power spectral density function (calculated from the nondimensional power
spectral density function given by the Eurocode), we can calculate the artificial wind
velocity function and determine the dynamic calculation of the effect of dynamic and
size factors. During the calculation of vortex shedding we calculated by the correlation
length given in the Eurocode and used the modal analysis to calculate the displacement
and initial forces from vortex shedding. Using this method we have got fewer values than
in the case of the approximate statical calculation. In the standard we can find for the
force coefficient, Strouhal numbers in the case of special cross section parameters only.
Using the Fluent program system we can get the result for these parameters without
standards and wind channel experiments.

wind effect changes. Calculation of soil flexibility, the natural


1 INTRODUCTION frequencies of the system are decreasing, which has a large effect
on the critical velocity in the case of vortex excitation. Therefore,
In engineering practice during the wind calculation of structures the calculation of soil-structure interaction can be important for high
the standard (MSZ EN 1991-1-4:2007) is very important. We buildings and chimneys, which we can see in Györgyi (2006). We
have got the most important parameters for the calculation of analysed this problem in the case of a chimney on Fig. 1.
different structures from the standard, but the parameters are only
in the case of some kind of structure, and if we want to calculate
special structures with a special form, we have to do wind channel 2 CALCULATION OF WIND DIRECTION EFFECTS
experiments. The standard uses the quasi-statical calculations.
It can be very conservative and gives larger displacements and 2.1 Application of the MSZ EN 1991-1-4:2007
internal forces. The first results of correct dynamic calculation are
in Györgyi and Szabó (2007). In the MSZ EN 1991-1-4:2007 the peak velocity pressure is
The results of dynamic calculations depend upon the natural
frequency of the structure. If we calculate the soil-structure . (1)
interaction the value of the natural frequency decreases, and the

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Fig. 1 The dates of the analysed chimney

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Here the vm(z) is the mean wind velocity: power spectral density function from the Eurocode, and δ is the
logarithmic decrement of the damping.
. (2) If we calculate the Re(v(zs)) Reynolds number at the given roughness
of the structure, we can calculate the cf,0 coefficient. Multiplying it
The value of the basic wind velocity in Hungary is 20 m/s, cr(z) is with the end-effect factor, we can get the cf force coefficient in the
the roughness factor in different terrain categories, and c0(z) is the formula (4).
orography factor. The Iv(z) is the turbulence intensity function:
2.2 Dynamic calculation for wind direction excitation
if zmin = ≤ z ≤ zmax,
In the standards there are some quasi-statical methods for calculation
of the displacement from wind excitation. But the wind velocity is
if z < zmin. (3) changing; therefore, the Eurocode applies the dynamic and size
factors and calculates with the turbulence intensity function. If we
The z0 and zmin have different values in the case of different terrain know the wind velocity functions overthe height of a structure, we
categories; from these we can calculate the kI turbulence factor. The can calculate the dynamic forces. From the dynamic calculations we
σv is the standard deviation of the turbulence. The wind force is can get the time-dependent displacements and internal forces.
calculated from the The EN uses the SL (z, n) non-dimensional power spectral density
function. From it we can calculate the Sv (z, n) one-sided variance
. (4) spectrum in the form:

The ze is the reference height for external wind action, and Aref . (8)
is the reference area. The cs size factor takes into account the
reduction effect on the wind action due to the nonsimultaneity of the
occurrence of peak wind pressures on the surface: The σv standard derivation can be calculated by multiplying the
terrain factor by the basic wind velocity. In (7) we saw the redaction
effect of Rh (ηh) and Rb (ηb) aerodynamic admittance functions;
. (5) therefore, the v(z,t) was multiplied by . If we know
the Sv (z, n), we can calculate at the z height of the structure the
artificial wind function of the dynamic part of the wind function
Here B2 is the background factor, which depends on the height - Bucholdt, H. A. (1999) - in the form:
and width of a structure and the L (zs) turbulent length scale at the
reference height. zs is the reference height for calculation of cs and (9)
cd factors. The cd dynamic factor can be calculated from the

(6)
In the formula ϕi changes randomly between 0 and 2π. In Fig. 2 we
can see three different functions on the top of the structure using the
formula. Here kp is the peak factor and the R2is the resonance EN at terrain category III.
response factor: Calculating by the time dependent dynamic force:

. (7) (10)
.
The peak wind’s velocity: . (11)
Rh (ηh) and Rb (ηb) are the aerodynamic admittance functions,
which depend on the size of the structure and from the fL (zs, The turbulent part depends on the turbulence intensity function,
n1,x) non-dimension frequency (n1,x is the first frequency of the which changes during the height. The cs size factor takes into
structure at a wind direction). The SL (z, n1,x) is a non-dimensional account the reduction effect on the wind’s action due to the

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Fig. 2 The artificial wind function at the top in the case of different random
v [m/s]

Fig. 3 The artificial wind function at a different level

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nonsimultaneity of the occurrence of the peak wind pressures on the Here M is the mass and K is the stiffness matrix of the structure; x
surface. The velocity of the turbulent part during the height: is the displacement vector of the system and q is the force vector.
If we know the M normalised eigenvectors of the system in the
. (12) V matrix:

VTMV = E, , (15)
Fig. 3 shows the wind velocities at a different height.
During the calculation we have to allow for the changing of the we can calculate the displacement vector in x(t) = Vy(t) form.
turbulence during the height and the correlation between the Multiplying the equation from the left by VT:
velocities of the neighbouring height points’ velocity. If we know
the wind function, we can calculate the wind force using the force . (16)
coefficient from the standard. On one part of the structure it will
be: Because of the orthogonality, we have to solve some one degree of
freedom system:
(13)
. (17)

If we calculate the Re(v(zs)) Reynolds number at the given For the solution of this differential equation we can use the
roughness of the structure, we can calculate the cf,0 coefficient. numerical integration methods from Bathe and Wilson (1976).
Multiplying it with the end-effect factor, we can get the cf force On Fig. 4 we can see the displacement at the top and on Fig. 5 the
coefficient in formula (13). bending moment at the bottom from the dynamic calculation in the
The matrix differential equation of the system - if we want to function of the time, the results of statical calculation and from the
calculate by structural damping - Györgyi (1996) – is: Eurocode. We can see that the Eurocode gave larger values.
Fig. 6 shows the bending moment at the bottom from the dynamic
. (14) calculation in the function of the time in the case of a different
random. In the maximum of the moment, are not too large

Fig. 4 The displacement at the top from the dynamic calculation and from the Eurocode

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Fig. 5 The bending moment at the button from the dynamic calculation and from the Eurocode

Fig. 6 The bending moment at the button in the case of a different random

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Fig. 7 The effect of reduction of the turbulent part’s velocity during the height

differences, but during the correct analysis we have to calculate of the structure the 31.2 m length force and calculates the critical
more than one wind function. velocity in the middle of the 31.2 m. The mean wind velocity at the
Fig. 7 shows the effect of the reduction of the turbulent part’s centres of the correlation length is vm,L1 = 25,00 m/s
velocity during the height. The reduced values are equivalent to the In the EN the value of the clat force coefficient changes between 0.2
effect of the cs size factor on the structure in Fig. 1. and 0.7 depending on the Reynolds number, which is:

3 CALCULATION OF THE VORTEX EXITATION


In our case the clat force coefficient is 0.2. The logarithmic
3.1 Application of the MSZ EN 1991-1-4:2007 decrement of the structure in the EN is 0.03. The Eurocode gives the
procedure for calculating the displacement of the top:
If we know the natural frequency’s cross direction (ni,y), we can
calculate the critical velocity: (19)

. (18)
Here Kw is the correlation length factor, K the mode shape factor
In the EN it is 0.18 and from (18), the critical velocity is 12.42 m/s. and Sc is the Scruton number from the standard. Using the φ1(z)
In the case of vortex excitation, there is a look-in effect. In this case vibration form, the accelerations are:
the frequency of the vortex shedding is the same. In the Eurocode
the correlation length is 6b, where the b is the diameter of the . (20)
cylinder. Under the above correlation length there is excitation too,
but here the frequency of the vortex shedding is different from the If we know the accelerations, we can calculate the inertial forces
natural frequency of the system; therefore, during this part of the and from them the internal forces of the structure.
chimney, there is no resonance. The Eurocode puts from the top

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Tab. 1 Maximum of the displacement, moment and shear force at the dynamic calculation of the vortex shedding
H 40 H 60 H 80 H 100 H 85 EN 2007
Displacement at top [cm] 9,18 17,39 26,91 15,41 26,48 29,70
Moment at bottom [kNm] 15882 29003 44346 25379 43598 45810
Shear force at bottom [kN] 221 403 616 352 605 623

3.2 Dynamic calculation of vortex excitation 4 APPLICATION OF THE FLUENT PROGRAM


SYSTEM
If we want to get the dynamic calculation, we can calculate the force
during all the chimneys, but the frequency will change. 4.1 Calculation model
In Tab. 1 in the last column there is the displacement, moment
and shear force from the quasi-statical calculation using the EN In the case of simple shapes we can obtain the needed force
procedure, when there is a statical distributed force from the top coefficients and the Strouhal numbers from the standards or the
to the correlation length. In the other column there are the results literature. If we have a complex shaped cross section, we can
of the dynamic calculation at different positions of the correlation apply the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) to calculate the
length. We can see that the larger values are from the application of flow pattern around the structure and the aerodynamic forces.
the standard. There is one application of this software in the work of Lajos, et
In Fig. 8 we can see the moments at the button from different al. (2006).
positions of critical velocity, the dynamic calculation, the correlation For the calculations we used Fluent commercial CFD software too.
length excitation from theEurocode and the statical calculation This code solves the Navier-Stokes differential-equation system
by the Eurocode. We can see that the statical calculation by the (21) numerically.
Eurocode gives the largest values.

Fig. 8 The moments at the button from different positions of critical velocity

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Fig. 9 Computational grid

an unsteady solution to model the vortex shedding phenomena.


, The unsteady solution is solved using a second order difference
scheme over time. We considered two boundary conditions with
, 1m/s and 10m/s velocity inlet boundary conditions. For these two
velocities the time stepping was 0.002 and 0.0002 s respectively.
The turbulence was modelled with the k-ε model.
,
4.2 Results
. (21)
The unsteady solutions provide the velocity field around the
cylinder. The contour of the velocity field can be seen on Fig. 10.
Here v is the kinematic viscosity, ρ is the air density, v is the wind The velocity vector plot around the wall is shown on Fig. 11.
speed, p is the pressure and g is the gravity. The Fluent software shows us the forces acting on the body
The first step during the modelling is to determine the contour of immersed in the fluid flow. From the force’s time histories, the force
the structure and the computational domain. Secondly, the flow field coefficients can be visualized (Figs. 12 and Fig. 13).
must be divided into a certain number of cells. The two-dimensional As we can see, the lateral coefficients (cy) oscillate around
mesh applied can be seen in Fig. 9. zero value, giving a periodical force to the structure. The force
If the purpose is to determine the force coefficient in the wind’s coefficient in the wind direction (cx) oscillates too, but around
direction, a steady state solution can be enough , but we must apply a well-determined value with very small amplitudes. From the

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Fig. 10 The contour of the velocity field Fig. 11 Velocity vector plot

Fig. 12 Force coefficients at 1m/s Fig. 13 Force coefficients at 10 m/s

forces, the coefficients and the Strouhal number were calculated


using the following expression:

, (22)

In the above expression ρ is the air density, v is the wind speed, D is


the chimney diameter and nx the frequency of the vortex shedding.
As the calculated case is simple, we have the possibility of checking
our results as shown on the following figures. On Fig. 14 from
Zuranski (1986) and on Fig. 15 from the Eurocode, the calculated
force coefficients are compared with the measured results (the black
dots symbolize the calculated results at the wind velocities of 1 and
10 m/s). On Fig 16 from Zuranski (1986), the calculated Strouhal
numbers are shown.
Fig. 14 Force coefficient in the wind direction

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Fig. 15 Force coefficient laterally

Fig. 17 Computational grids of the considered sections

On Fig. 20 we compared the Strouhal numbers with the standard


values.
Fig. 16 Strouhal number as a function of the force coefficient The inlet velocity was 10 m/s, we used t=0.0002 sec for a time step.
We applied a k-ε model for modelling turbulence.

4.3 Results of the other type of cross section


5 CONCLUSIONS
Besides the circle we tried other types of sections. We considered
a rectangular section with two different side ratios: d/b=1 and d/ The calculations with the artificial wind function in the case of
b=2.5. On Fig. 17 the computational grids can be seen. On Fig. 18 a structure, which does have not the formulas in the standard, is
we showed the velocity field of the solution. a real solution method.
During the solution we recorded the forces acting on the body. On If we do not have information about the force coefficients or the
Fig. 19 we compared the calculated force coefficients in the wind Strouhal number, we can use CFD software for simulations. We
direction with the standard values. applied the Fluent commercial code for our analysis. A simple
As in the case of the circle the frequencies of the force fluctuations circular shape was considered. We obtained the needed coefficients
can be calculated, and the Strouhal numbers can be obtained. and Strouhal number from the calculations. Good agreements were

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Fig. 18 The contour plot of the velocity field

found with the values from the measurements and standards. We tried other types of cross sections. We investigated rectangular

Fig. 20 Comparison of the force coefficients in the wind direction

sections with different side ratios. We got acceptable differences in


the case of the force coefficients in the wind direction. In case of the
d/b=1, ratio the Strouhal number matches with the standard value,
but in the other case we overestimated it.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Fig. 19 Comparison of the Strouhal numbers
The authors are grateful for the support of the Department of Fluid
Mechanics (University of Technology and Economics, Budapest)

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• Bucholdt, H. A. (1999) An introduction to cable roof structures. Slovakia, October 18-19, 2007 Bratislava: Slovak University of
Second edition, Thomas Telford Publications Ltd., London Technology in Bratislava, pp. 9-12, CD Author index 47, pp.1-
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