0 views

Uploaded by Bitbitter

Dynamic Analisys Of Wind Effects

Dynamic Analisys Of Wind Effects

© All Rights Reserved

- Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Two-Phase Flow in a Packed Bed Reactor
- Numerical Simulation of the Air Pollutants Dispersion Emitted by CHP Using ANSYS CFX
- Lanzafame, Mauro, Messina - 2D CFD Modeling of H-Darrieus Wind Turbines Using a Transition Turbulence Model
- Exercise A1 - Simple Ogee Setup
- Effects of Nasal Spray Device_computerbio_SUBMIT_Blog
- NCERT Ph 2 M P of Fluids
- Abstracts MDY10
- Modeling Dams With Computational Fluid Dynamics Past Success and New Directions
- 2010 Summer Xu Qing
- Validation of CFD Modeling and Simulation of a Simplified Automotive Model
- Euler-finite Volume Method
- 10.Mechanical Properties of Fluids
- Dejstvo vetra na halu prema Evrokodu
- Analisis Turbina Pelton
- MKEP4 SS11 12 Gas Transfer
- Turbulent Pipe flow
- Advances in Combustion and Propulsion Applications
- Cebe 2016 artigo Water quality modelling in kas¸ bay
- 52_patil
- Age Effects on Iron-Based Pipes in Water Distribution Systems

You are on page 1of 13

2008

Dept. of Structural mechanics, Arany János 96/b,

H-1221 Budapest

Civil engineer, PhD student

Dept. of Structural mechanics, Arany János 96/b,

H-1221 Budapest

of on structures, wind effect

During the application of standards for calculating wind effects, we used the quasi- • wind effect

statical analysis calculated with the dynamic factor, size factor and force coefficient. • artificial wind function

From the Eurocode we can get these factors only in the case of special structures. If we • fluent program system

know the power spectral density function (calculated from the nondimensional power

spectral density function given by the Eurocode), we can calculate the artificial wind

velocity function and determine the dynamic calculation of the effect of dynamic and

size factors. During the calculation of vortex shedding we calculated by the correlation

length given in the Eurocode and used the modal analysis to calculate the displacement

and initial forces from vortex shedding. Using this method we have got fewer values than

in the case of the approximate statical calculation. In the standard we can find for the

force coefficient, Strouhal numbers in the case of special cross section parameters only.

Using the Fluent program system we can get the result for these parameters without

standards and wind channel experiments.

1 INTRODUCTION frequencies of the system are decreasing, which has a large effect

on the critical velocity in the case of vortex excitation. Therefore,

In engineering practice during the wind calculation of structures the calculation of soil-structure interaction can be important for high

the standard (MSZ EN 1991-1-4:2007) is very important. We buildings and chimneys, which we can see in Györgyi (2006). We

have got the most important parameters for the calculation of analysed this problem in the case of a chimney on Fig. 1.

different structures from the standard, but the parameters are only

in the case of some kind of structure, and if we want to calculate

special structures with a special form, we have to do wind channel 2 CALCULATION OF WIND DIRECTION EFFECTS

experiments. The standard uses the quasi-statical calculations.

It can be very conservative and gives larger displacements and 2.1 Application of the MSZ EN 1991-1-4:2007

internal forces. The first results of correct dynamic calculation are

in Györgyi and Szabó (2007). In the MSZ EN 1991-1-4:2007 the peak velocity pressure is

The results of dynamic calculations depend upon the natural

frequency of the structure. If we calculate the soil-structure . (1)

interaction the value of the natural frequency decreases, and the

2008/3 PAGES 21 — 33

2008/3 PAGES 21 — 33

Here the vm(z) is the mean wind velocity: power spectral density function from the Eurocode, and δ is the

logarithmic decrement of the damping.

. (2) If we calculate the Re(v(zs)) Reynolds number at the given roughness

of the structure, we can calculate the cf,0 coefficient. Multiplying it

The value of the basic wind velocity in Hungary is 20 m/s, cr(z) is with the end-effect factor, we can get the cf force coefficient in the

the roughness factor in different terrain categories, and c0(z) is the formula (4).

orography factor. The Iv(z) is the turbulence intensity function:

2.2 Dynamic calculation for wind direction excitation

if zmin = ≤ z ≤ zmax,

In the standards there are some quasi-statical methods for calculation

of the displacement from wind excitation. But the wind velocity is

if z < zmin. (3) changing; therefore, the Eurocode applies the dynamic and size

factors and calculates with the turbulence intensity function. If we

The z0 and zmin have different values in the case of different terrain know the wind velocity functions overthe height of a structure, we

categories; from these we can calculate the kI turbulence factor. The can calculate the dynamic forces. From the dynamic calculations we

σv is the standard deviation of the turbulence. The wind force is can get the time-dependent displacements and internal forces.

calculated from the The EN uses the SL (z, n) non-dimensional power spectral density

function. From it we can calculate the Sv (z, n) one-sided variance

. (4) spectrum in the form:

The ze is the reference height for external wind action, and Aref . (8)

is the reference area. The cs size factor takes into account the

reduction effect on the wind action due to the nonsimultaneity of the

occurrence of peak wind pressures on the surface: The σv standard derivation can be calculated by multiplying the

terrain factor by the basic wind velocity. In (7) we saw the redaction

effect of Rh (ηh) and Rb (ηb) aerodynamic admittance functions;

. (5) therefore, the v(z,t) was multiplied by . If we know

the Sv (z, n), we can calculate at the z height of the structure the

artificial wind function of the dynamic part of the wind function

Here B2 is the background factor, which depends on the height - Bucholdt, H. A. (1999) - in the form:

and width of a structure and the L (zs) turbulent length scale at the

reference height. zs is the reference height for calculation of cs and (9)

cd factors. The cd dynamic factor can be calculated from the

(6)

In the formula ϕi changes randomly between 0 and 2π. In Fig. 2 we

can see three different functions on the top of the structure using the

formula. Here kp is the peak factor and the R2is the resonance EN at terrain category III.

response factor: Calculating by the time dependent dynamic force:

. (7) (10)

.

The peak wind’s velocity: . (11)

Rh (ηh) and Rb (ηb) are the aerodynamic admittance functions,

which depend on the size of the structure and from the fL (zs, The turbulent part depends on the turbulence intensity function,

n1,x) non-dimension frequency (n1,x is the first frequency of the which changes during the height. The cs size factor takes into

structure at a wind direction). The SL (z, n1,x) is a non-dimensional account the reduction effect on the wind’s action due to the

2008/3 PAGES 21 — 33

Fig. 2 The artificial wind function at the top in the case of different random

v [m/s]

2008/3 PAGES 21 — 33

nonsimultaneity of the occurrence of the peak wind pressures on the Here M is the mass and K is the stiffness matrix of the structure; x

surface. The velocity of the turbulent part during the height: is the displacement vector of the system and q is the force vector.

If we know the M normalised eigenvectors of the system in the

. (12) V matrix:

VTMV = E, , (15)

Fig. 3 shows the wind velocities at a different height.

During the calculation we have to allow for the changing of the we can calculate the displacement vector in x(t) = Vy(t) form.

turbulence during the height and the correlation between the Multiplying the equation from the left by VT:

velocities of the neighbouring height points’ velocity. If we know

the wind function, we can calculate the wind force using the force . (16)

coefficient from the standard. On one part of the structure it will

be: Because of the orthogonality, we have to solve some one degree of

freedom system:

(13)

. (17)

If we calculate the Re(v(zs)) Reynolds number at the given For the solution of this differential equation we can use the

roughness of the structure, we can calculate the cf,0 coefficient. numerical integration methods from Bathe and Wilson (1976).

Multiplying it with the end-effect factor, we can get the cf force On Fig. 4 we can see the displacement at the top and on Fig. 5 the

coefficient in formula (13). bending moment at the bottom from the dynamic calculation in the

The matrix differential equation of the system - if we want to function of the time, the results of statical calculation and from the

calculate by structural damping - Györgyi (1996) – is: Eurocode. We can see that the Eurocode gave larger values.

Fig. 6 shows the bending moment at the bottom from the dynamic

. (14) calculation in the function of the time in the case of a different

random. In the maximum of the moment, are not too large

Fig. 4 The displacement at the top from the dynamic calculation and from the Eurocode

2008/3 PAGES 21 — 33

Fig. 5 The bending moment at the button from the dynamic calculation and from the Eurocode

Fig. 6 The bending moment at the button in the case of a different random

2008/3 PAGES 21 — 33

Fig. 7 The effect of reduction of the turbulent part’s velocity during the height

differences, but during the correct analysis we have to calculate of the structure the 31.2 m length force and calculates the critical

more than one wind function. velocity in the middle of the 31.2 m. The mean wind velocity at the

Fig. 7 shows the effect of the reduction of the turbulent part’s centres of the correlation length is vm,L1 = 25,00 m/s

velocity during the height. The reduced values are equivalent to the In the EN the value of the clat force coefficient changes between 0.2

effect of the cs size factor on the structure in Fig. 1. and 0.7 depending on the Reynolds number, which is:

In our case the clat force coefficient is 0.2. The logarithmic

3.1 Application of the MSZ EN 1991-1-4:2007 decrement of the structure in the EN is 0.03. The Eurocode gives the

procedure for calculating the displacement of the top:

If we know the natural frequency’s cross direction (ni,y), we can

calculate the critical velocity: (19)

. (18)

Here Kw is the correlation length factor, K the mode shape factor

In the EN it is 0.18 and from (18), the critical velocity is 12.42 m/s. and Sc is the Scruton number from the standard. Using the φ1(z)

In the case of vortex excitation, there is a look-in effect. In this case vibration form, the accelerations are:

the frequency of the vortex shedding is the same. In the Eurocode

the correlation length is 6b, where the b is the diameter of the . (20)

cylinder. Under the above correlation length there is excitation too,

but here the frequency of the vortex shedding is different from the If we know the accelerations, we can calculate the inertial forces

natural frequency of the system; therefore, during this part of the and from them the internal forces of the structure.

chimney, there is no resonance. The Eurocode puts from the top

2008/3 PAGES 21 — 33

Tab. 1 Maximum of the displacement, moment and shear force at the dynamic calculation of the vortex shedding

H 40 H 60 H 80 H 100 H 85 EN 2007

Displacement at top [cm] 9,18 17,39 26,91 15,41 26,48 29,70

Moment at bottom [kNm] 15882 29003 44346 25379 43598 45810

Shear force at bottom [kN] 221 403 616 352 605 623

SYSTEM

If we want to get the dynamic calculation, we can calculate the force

during all the chimneys, but the frequency will change. 4.1 Calculation model

In Tab. 1 in the last column there is the displacement, moment

and shear force from the quasi-statical calculation using the EN In the case of simple shapes we can obtain the needed force

procedure, when there is a statical distributed force from the top coefficients and the Strouhal numbers from the standards or the

to the correlation length. In the other column there are the results literature. If we have a complex shaped cross section, we can

of the dynamic calculation at different positions of the correlation apply the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) to calculate the

length. We can see that the larger values are from the application of flow pattern around the structure and the aerodynamic forces.

the standard. There is one application of this software in the work of Lajos, et

In Fig. 8 we can see the moments at the button from different al. (2006).

positions of critical velocity, the dynamic calculation, the correlation For the calculations we used Fluent commercial CFD software too.

length excitation from theEurocode and the statical calculation This code solves the Navier-Stokes differential-equation system

by the Eurocode. We can see that the statical calculation by the (21) numerically.

Eurocode gives the largest values.

Fig. 8 The moments at the button from different positions of critical velocity

2008/3 PAGES 21 — 33

, The unsteady solution is solved using a second order difference

scheme over time. We considered two boundary conditions with

, 1m/s and 10m/s velocity inlet boundary conditions. For these two

velocities the time stepping was 0.002 and 0.0002 s respectively.

The turbulence was modelled with the k-ε model.

,

4.2 Results

. (21)

The unsteady solutions provide the velocity field around the

cylinder. The contour of the velocity field can be seen on Fig. 10.

Here v is the kinematic viscosity, ρ is the air density, v is the wind The velocity vector plot around the wall is shown on Fig. 11.

speed, p is the pressure and g is the gravity. The Fluent software shows us the forces acting on the body

The first step during the modelling is to determine the contour of immersed in the fluid flow. From the force’s time histories, the force

the structure and the computational domain. Secondly, the flow field coefficients can be visualized (Figs. 12 and Fig. 13).

must be divided into a certain number of cells. The two-dimensional As we can see, the lateral coefficients (cy) oscillate around

mesh applied can be seen in Fig. 9. zero value, giving a periodical force to the structure. The force

If the purpose is to determine the force coefficient in the wind’s coefficient in the wind direction (cx) oscillates too, but around

direction, a steady state solution can be enough , but we must apply a well-determined value with very small amplitudes. From the

2008/3 PAGES 21 — 33

Fig. 10 The contour of the velocity field Fig. 11 Velocity vector plot

using the following expression:

, (22)

the chimney diameter and nx the frequency of the vortex shedding.

As the calculated case is simple, we have the possibility of checking

our results as shown on the following figures. On Fig. 14 from

Zuranski (1986) and on Fig. 15 from the Eurocode, the calculated

force coefficients are compared with the measured results (the black

dots symbolize the calculated results at the wind velocities of 1 and

10 m/s). On Fig 16 from Zuranski (1986), the calculated Strouhal

numbers are shown.

Fig. 14 Force coefficient in the wind direction

2008/3 PAGES 21 — 33

values.

Fig. 16 Strouhal number as a function of the force coefficient The inlet velocity was 10 m/s, we used t=0.0002 sec for a time step.

We applied a k-ε model for modelling turbulence.

5 CONCLUSIONS

Besides the circle we tried other types of sections. We considered

a rectangular section with two different side ratios: d/b=1 and d/ The calculations with the artificial wind function in the case of

b=2.5. On Fig. 17 the computational grids can be seen. On Fig. 18 a structure, which does have not the formulas in the standard, is

we showed the velocity field of the solution. a real solution method.

During the solution we recorded the forces acting on the body. On If we do not have information about the force coefficients or the

Fig. 19 we compared the calculated force coefficients in the wind Strouhal number, we can use CFD software for simulations. We

direction with the standard values. applied the Fluent commercial code for our analysis. A simple

As in the case of the circle the frequencies of the force fluctuations circular shape was considered. We obtained the needed coefficients

can be calculated, and the Strouhal numbers can be obtained. and Strouhal number from the calculations. Good agreements were

2008/3 PAGES 21 — 33

found with the values from the measurements and standards. We tried other types of cross sections. We investigated rectangular

the case of the force coefficients in the wind direction. In case of the

d/b=1, ratio the Strouhal number matches with the standard value,

but in the other case we overestimated it.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Fig. 19 Comparison of the Strouhal numbers

The authors are grateful for the support of the Department of Fluid

Mechanics (University of Technology and Economics, Budapest)

2008/3 PAGES 21 — 33

REFERENCES

• Bathe, K.J. - Wilson, E.L. (1976) Numerical methods in finite Proceedings of 6th International Conference on New Trends in

element analysis. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Statics and Dynamics of Buildings. 6th International Conference

Inc.,528 pp, ISBN 0-13-627190-1 on New Trends in Statics and Dynamics of Buildings, Bratislava,

• Bucholdt, H. A. (1999) An introduction to cable roof structures. Slovakia, October 18-19, 2007 Bratislava: Slovak University of

Second edition, Thomas Telford Publications Ltd., London Technology in Bratislava, pp. 9-12, CD Author index 47, pp.1-

• Györgyi, J. (1996) Application of direct integration in the case 14, ISBN 978-80-227-2732-7

of external and internal damping. Proceedings of the Estonian • Lajos, T., Balczó, M., Goricsán, I., Kovács, T., Régent,

Academy of Sciences Engineering, 2, 2, 1996, pp. 184-195 P., Sebestyén, P. (2006) Prediction of wind load acting on

• Györgyi, J. (2006) Effect of soil-structure interaction in case telecommunication masts, paper, No. A-0206, pp.1-8, IABSE

of earthquake and wind calculation of towers. In F. Darne, I. Symposium on Responding to Tomorrow’s Challenges in

Doghri, R. El Fatmi, H. Hassis & H. Zenzri eds., Advances Structural Engineering, Budapest

in Geomaterials and Structures, pp. 681-686, The First • MSZ EN 1991-1-4:2007, Eurocode 1: A tartószerkezetet

Euromediterranean Symposium on Advances in Geomaterials érő hatások. 1-4, rész: Általános hatások. Szélhatás. Magyar

and Structures, Hammamet, Tunisia Szabványügyi Testület, Budapest

• Györgyi, J.- Szabó, G. (2007) Calculation of wind effect by • Zuranski, J. A. (1986) A szél hatása az építményekre. Műszaki

dynamic analysis using the artificial wind function Dynamic Könyvkiadó, Budapest

train-bridge interaction at arc bridge, In: Jendželovský, N. (ed.)

- Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Two-Phase Flow in a Packed Bed ReactorUploaded bySuresh Yadav
- Numerical Simulation of the Air Pollutants Dispersion Emitted by CHP Using ANSYS CFXUploaded byhmxa91
- Lanzafame, Mauro, Messina - 2D CFD Modeling of H-Darrieus Wind Turbines Using a Transition Turbulence ModelUploaded byJamie Santiago
- Exercise A1 - Simple Ogee SetupUploaded byCarlos Luis Oyuela Gomez
- Effects of Nasal Spray Device_computerbio_SUBMIT_BlogUploaded bykinthavong
- NCERT Ph 2 M P of FluidsUploaded bykdsiddhant
- Abstracts MDY10Uploaded byAlessandro Pani
- Modeling Dams With Computational Fluid Dynamics Past Success and New DirectionsUploaded byZaid Hadi
- 2010 Summer Xu QingUploaded byCarla Silva
- Validation of CFD Modeling and Simulation of a Simplified Automotive ModelUploaded byVyssion
- Euler-finite Volume MethodUploaded byTudorel Afilipoae
- 10.Mechanical Properties of FluidsUploaded byPalash Swarnakar
- Dejstvo vetra na halu prema EvrokoduUploaded byMilan Stojanovic
- Analisis Turbina PeltonUploaded byOscar Choque Jaqquehua
- MKEP4 SS11 12 Gas TransferUploaded bypia_shupa
- Turbulent Pipe flowUploaded bysamadony
- Advances in Combustion and Propulsion ApplicationsUploaded byricljr
- Cebe 2016 artigo Water quality modelling in kas¸ bayUploaded byJoão Paulo Mendes Ferreira
- 52_patilUploaded byalkadyas
- Age Effects on Iron-Based Pipes in Water Distribution SystemsUploaded bysamadony
- WSEAS-FLUIDS09-Paper19Uploaded byMohd Nasim
- req3Uploaded byMarion Lee
- a13v30n4Uploaded byDeryl B. Aryfiyanto
- fluidosUploaded byOsvaldo Salinas
- Bluestein ThrombosisUploaded byAtieh Yousefi
- MIT2_094S11_bajoriaUploaded byGeorge Harrison
- CFD 2008 Quality Assurance of CFD Calculations_BPG by Thorsten HansenUploaded byMoh Sen
- 1-s2.0-S0894177707001793-mainUploaded bysrichmech
- Chapter for explain wind load.pdf.pdfUploaded byAnand.5
- energies-11-00330Uploaded bysrinu85raju

- Lecture 19Uploaded byPeteris Skels
- DeflectionUploaded byJonathanDiaz
- DM7.2Uploaded bybastosdaniela
- Analysis of the interoperability from BIM to FEM.pdfUploaded byBitbitter
- Equivalent Linear StiffnesUploaded byBitbitter
- Lecture Machine FoundationUploaded byvijaystructural
- Robertson SCPT Bolvia 2015Uploaded byRodrigo Rivera
- JCE-69-2017-1-2-1574-EN.pdfUploaded byBitbitter
- Volume (9) Issue (1) 027-046Uploaded byJuan Pablo Lemus Ibacache
- CPTu - Lo PrestiUploaded bymel_pop_2
- 2112b614-7ba7-421b-b3aa-0deb3d622a44Uploaded byingchiara85
- Relationship_between_static_and_dynamic modulusUploaded byBitbitter
- Foundation VibrationsUploaded byBitbitter
- 9783319403571-c2Uploaded byLee GP
- Mandal Across WindUploaded byBitbitter
- PiekarczykM_ExamplesDesigning.pdfUploaded byBitbitter
- Eleastic Imperfect TipLoaded CantileverUploaded byBitbitter
- Global Buckling Cylindrical Liquid StorageUploaded byBitbitter
- Application of Computational Fluid DynamicsUploaded byBitbitter
- Comparison of Calculation Methods for Cross Wind VibrationUploaded byBitbitter
- Stress Distribution as a Cause of Industrial SteelUploaded byBitbitter
- Frequency-domain Approach for Calculating Wind-Induced Vibration and Aeroelastic Stability Characteristics of Long-span BridgesUploaded byBitbitter
- Eurocode 7 Geotechnical Design-General Rules-Guide to en 1997-1Uploaded byBitbitter
- Silo Design Codes-limits &Inconsistancies-2015 PaperUploaded byAnonymous wWOWz9UnW
- CJ Tech Update No 4-2016Uploaded byBitbitter
- a55b0p11 Kyoto.pdfUploaded byanlekgen
- Machinery Vibration Related to Poor Bolting PracticesUploaded byBitbitter
- Lateral Pressure in Squat Silos Under Eccentric DischargeUploaded byBitbitter

- Claytronics ProjectUploaded byamit mahajan
- Rr311701 Microwave EngineeringUploaded bySrinivasa Rao G
- Generalized InverseUploaded byherpderp97
- 7 - Transport Mechanisms and Reference TestsUploaded byaskarah
- 2011-0021 22 Research MethodologyUploaded byahmedbalo
- AWS90 Emag Ch03 Keeper AnalysisUploaded bynosiv
- Set TheoryUploaded byAnonymous d70CGo
- Harts Horne - Foundations of Projective GeometryUploaded bySahid Bernabe Catalan
- A Mathematical Theory of CommunicationUploaded byjared_davis_9
- IFIR Filtr using MatlabUploaded bysafu_117
- IMC_PIDUploaded bybmaulana52
- ptreeUploaded bynobeen666
- GMT_APIUploaded byjmejugon
- Stabilized conforming nodal integration in the natural element method Jeong.pdfUploaded byEndless Love
- FULL MODEL.docxUploaded byandrewanlyonus
- 5-4 smartUploaded byapi-240724606
- PhotometryUploaded bycronnin20044967
- GAS Electricity IntegratedUploaded bypouyan
- User Defined Subroutines for Heat Transfer CoefficientUploaded byDan Wolf
- CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Notes _ Chemical Equilibrium _ AglaSem SchoolsUploaded byAJAY KUMAR
- Software Engineering.docxUploaded byOmer Ali
- 2.0[1]Uploaded bySimónAndrés
- His to Grams ExtractUploaded byTrishnee Munusami
- 10 Must Know ABAP Skills for Functional ConsultantsUploaded byvaldevy694
- Utkarsh Bangla Communication StrategyUploaded byNajmul Puda Pappadam
- 85.Intelligent Fire Detector With Automatic Water Sprinkler System To Avoid Fire Accidents (1).docUploaded byvenkeyharish
- 06_articol_41_44Uploaded byFelicia Damian
- chapter 6 (1)Uploaded byAnnerlynn Solano
- TOK Language GuideUploaded byazkoul3016
- Neurocomputing Research PaperUploaded byanon_950085524