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Technical Document

Find 3G MS Position with Trilateration


Object 1

29 March 2019

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Title
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Prepared by:

John Wiratama

Authorized by:

Thomas Schatz

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Table of Changes
The following table contains all changes made since version 1.0. It is expected that any
change to the document is included in this table.
Changed Section Version Change Description Person in Charge Date of Change

All 1.0 Initial Versions Andrian Sulistyono 20 Mar 2019

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Table of Contents
Table of Changes...................................................................................................................3
1 Introduction........................................................................................................................6
1.1.1  Logical,transport,physical channels..................................................................................6
1.1.2  UMTS logical channels.....................................................................................................6
2 UMTS Transport channels.................................................................................................8
2.1 UMTS Frequency Bands Background........................................................................9
2.2 UMTS Physical channels..........................................................................................10
2.3 3G UMTS frequency bands - TDD...........................................................................13
3 Common Pilot Channel (CPICH).....................................................................................13
3.1 The CPICH RSCP (Received Signal Code Power)..................................................13
4 Primary CPICH Tx Power................................................................................................14
5 Pathloss Propagation Model............................................................................................14
5.1 COST- 231 Hata Model............................................................................................15
6 Time Difference of Arrivals (TDOA)..................................................................................18
7 Trilateration Concept........................................................................................................20
8 Latitude Longitude Coded to Number..............................................................................22
9 References.......................................................................................................................23

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1 Introduction

1.1.1 Logical,transport,physical channels

As shown in the figure, there are three types of UMTS channels viz. logical channels(RLC
layer), transport channels(MAC layer) and physical channels(PHY layer). As they
tranverse between layers they map to other layer frames. For example logical channels
are mapped to transport channels and transport channels are mapped tp physical
channels.

1.1.2 UMTS logical channels

As shown in the figure, UMTS/WCDMA logical channels are divided into control channels
and traffic channels(DTCH,CTCH). As the name suggests traffic channels carry
information(voice) annd control channels carry signalling information useful to establish
and maintain connection between UE and network(NodeB).Following are the functions of
each of these logical channels. Pls. note that DL stands for Downlink from network to UE
and UL stands for Uplink from UE to Network.

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DTCH : (DL and UL, point to point)- Dedicated Traffic channel,carry user information.
CTCH : (unidirectional point to multi-point)-Common traffic channel.
BCCH(DL broadcast)- Broadcast Control Channel, carry SYSTEM INFORMATION
CCCH(Bidirectional)- Common Control Channel
DCCH(Dedicated Control Channel, point to point bidirectional)
PCCH(Paging Control Channel,DL)-carry paging information
SHCCH(Shared Channel Control Channel,Bidirectional)

UMTS/WCDMA Duplex
Function Direction
Logical Channel Mode
Dedicated traffic carry user plane data Uplink(UL)/Downli
FDD/TDD
channel(DTCH) (speech/packet data) nk(DL)
Dedicated control carry signalling messages used
Uplink/Downlink FDD/TDD
channel(DCCH) for control operations
Shared control
carry control messages Uplink/Downlink TDD
channel(SHCCH)
Common control It is used to carry control
Uplink/Downlink FDD/TDD
channel(CCCH) messages
Common traffic It is used to carry user
Downlink FDD/TDD
channel(CTCH) traffic(e.g.cell broadcast SMS)
Paging control It is used to carry paging
Downlink FDD/TDD
channel(PCCH) messages directed towards UE
Broadcast control It is used to carry broadcast
Downlink FDD/TDD
channel(BCCH) messages towards UE

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2 UMTS Transport channels

Following are the transport type of UMTS channels :

BCH(DL broadcast) - SYSTEM/Cell related INFORMATION


FACH(DL/Forward Access Channel)- carry control information from network to UE
PCH (DL)- Paging Channel
DCH (UL or DL) - Dedicated Channel
DSCH(DL) - Downlink Shared Channel
USCH(UL)- Uplink Shared Channel
RACH(UL)- Random Access ChannelThere are many UMTS WCDMA frequency bands
around the globe used which fall within internationally agreed allocations. The channels
are given a UARFCN which uniquely d

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2.1 UMTS Frequency Bands Background

UMTS/WCDMA Duplex
Function Direction
Transport Channel Mode
Random access It is used for initial access of the network
Uplink FDD/TDD
channel(RACH) by UE
Common packet It is used as contention channel for bursty
Uplink FDD/
channel(CPCH) data
Forward access It is used to transfer user data/control
Downlink FDD/TDD
channel(FACH) signalling messages
It is used as shared channel carrying
Downlink shared
dedicated user data/control messages in Downlink FDD/TDD
channel(DSCH)
the downlink
It is used as shared channel carrying
Uplink shared
dedicated user data/control messages in Uplink TDD
channel(USCH)
the uplink
Broadcast
Broadcast channel to all UEs in a cell Downlink FDD/TDD
channel(BCH)
Broadcast of paging & notification
Paging
messages,also allows UE to make use of Downlink FDD/TDD
channel(PCH)
sleep Mode
It is used as dedicated channel to transfer
Dedicated Uplink/Down
traffic/control messages in both the FDD/TDD
Channel(DCH) link
direction

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2.2 UMTS Physical channels

Following are physical type of UMTS channels for 3.84Mcps case.

P-CCPCH- Primary Common Control Physical Channel


SCH- Synchronization Channel
S-CCPCH- Secondary Common Control Physical Channel
PICH- Paging Indicator Channel
DPCH(DL)- Dedicated Physical Channel in the downlink
PDSCH-Physical Downlink Shared Channel
DPCH(UL)-Dedicated Physical Channel in the uplink
PUSCH- Physical Uplink Shared Channel
PRACH- Physical Random Access Channel
PNBSCH- Physical Node B Synchronization Channel

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2.3 Mapping between channels

UMTS uses wideband CDMA as the radio transport mechanism and the UMTS channels
are spaced by 5 MHz. The UMTS signal bandwidth is normally considered to be 5 MHz but
this figure includes the 0.58 MHz guard bands either side. Therefore when the two guard
bands, one either side, are excluded this leaves and effective signal bandwidth of 3.84
MHz within the flat response area of the signal for the transmission itself. It is also
necessary to consider the roll-off factor for the signal of 0.22. This roll-off factor is
determined by the Root Raised Cosine filter specified by 3GPP. This means that the total
signal bandwidth increasing the skirts is 4.68 MHz. It is also worth noting that the
bandwidth used for the TD-SCDMA variant of 3G UMTS used in China is 1.6 MHz.

2.3.1 The Functions channels :

1. The Synchronization Channel (SCH) is a down link channel used for initial
synchronization purpose and cell search. The SCH consists of two sub-channels, the
Primary and Secondary SCH.

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Table 1: 3G UMTS Bands ­ FDD

2. The Secondary CCPCH (SCCPCH) is used to carry the FACH and PCH.

Channel coding- CRC, convolutional code


Symbol rate- 15/30/60/120/240/480/960 ksps
Modulation- QPSK
Spreading- predefined code broadcast on the BCH
Scrambling Gold sequence- 3.84Mcps, 10 ms periodic
Power control- not supported
Pilot symbol- include
TFCI bits- included/not include
3. PRACH describes WCDMA Physical Random Access Channel(PRACH).It
mentions links for LTE PRACH and GSM RACH channel basics. Physical Random Access
Channel (PRACH) is an uplink channel used by UE for connection request purpose.
PRACH is used to carry the RACH transport channel data.

Frequency bands 15, 16, 17, 18, 23 and 24 are now reserved frequency bands.
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WCDMA Physical Random Access Channel(PRACH).It mentions links for LTE PRACH
and GSM RACH channel basics.
Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) is an uplink channel used by UE for
connection request purpose. PRACH is used to carry the RACH transport channel data.

The following steps are carried out during a random access burst:

1. The terminal decodes the BCH (PCCPCH) of the target cell to find out the cell specific
spreading codes available for preamble and message parts, the signatures and access
slots available in the cell, the spreading factor allowed for message part, the PCCPCH
transmit power level.

2. The mobile randomly selects the signature and access slot to be used for the RACH
burst.

3. The mobile estimates the downlink path loss and calculates the required uplink transmit
power to be used for the random access burst.

4. A 1ms preamble is sent with selected signature.

5. The terminal decodes the AICH to see whether the base station has detected the
preamble.

6. In case no AICH is detected, the terminal increases the preamble transmission power by
a step given by the station, as a multiple of 1 dB and transmits in the next available access
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slot.

7.If AICH is received with the signature S of the PRACH, then the message part is sent.

Structure of the random-access message part radio frame is mentioned in the figure2
above.
Spreading of PRACH message part is mentioned below in figure3

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PICH or Paging Indicator Channel with respect to WCDMA/UMTS system.


The page indicator channel (PICH) is always associated with a paging channel (PCH) on
S-CCPCH. The PICH carries the page indicators (PIs), where PI indicates the subset of
UEs within a cell whether they should check the next S-CCPCH frame for paging
messages.

Symbol rate-15 ksps


Spreading factor-256
Spreading code-OVSF
Scrambling Gold sequence-3.84Mcps, 10 ms periodic
Number of PI-18/36/72/144

PDSCH or Physical Downlink Shared Channel with respect to WCDMA/UMTS system.


The Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH), used to carry the Downlink Shared
Channel (DSCH) transport channel, is shared by users based on code multiplexing. As the
DSCH is always associated with one or several DCHs, the PDSCH is always associated
with one or several downlink DPCHs.

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PCPCH or Physical Common Packet Channel with respect to WCDMA/UMTS system.


The Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH) is used to carry the CPCH transport
channel.

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PCCPCH or Primary Common Control Physical Channel with respect to


WCDMA/UMTS system.
The Primary CCPCH is a fixed rate (30 kbps, SF=256) downlink physical channels used to
carry the BCH transport channel.
Channel coding- CRC, convolutional code
Symbol rate- 30 ksps
Spreading factor- 256
Modulation- QPSK
Spreading- predefined code (Cch,256,1)
Scrambling Gold sequence- 3.84Mcps, 10 ms periodic, primary scrambling code of the
sector
Power control- not supported
Pilot symbol- include
TFCI bits- not included

DPDCH or uplink dedicated physical data channel with respect to WCDMA/UMTS


system.
In the uplink both DPDCH/DPCCH are transmitted in parallel. The DPDCH and DPCCH
are I/Q code multiplexed within each radio frame as shown in the figure.

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PCCH or uplink dedicated physical control channel with respect to WCDMA/UMTS


system.
In the uplink both DPCCH/DPDCH are transmitted in parallel. The DPCCH and DPDCH
are I/Q code multiplexed within each radio frame as shown in the figure.

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CSICH or CPCH Status Indication Channel with respect to WCDMA/UMTS system.


The CPCH Status Indicator Channel (CSICH) is a fixed rate (SF=256) physical channel
used to carry CPCH status information.

CPICH or common pilot channel with respect to WCDMA/UMTS system.


The pilot channel is used by the base station to provide a reference to all mobile stations
and to aid the channel estimation at the terminals. It has a predefined bit sequence (all 1s)
which is scrambled with the cell-specific primary scrambling code.
There are two types of CPICH: primary and secondary.

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CD/CAICH or collision detection with channel assignment indicator channel with


respect to WCDMA/UMTS system.
The Collision Detection Channel Assignment Indicator channel (CD/CA-ICH) is a physical
channel used to carry CD Indicator (CDI) only if the CA is not active, or CD Indicator/CA
Indicator (CDI/CAI) at the same time if the CA is active.

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AICH or Acquisition Indicator Channel with respect to WCDMA/UMTS system.


The Acquisition Indicator channel (AICH) is a physical channel used to carry Acquisition
Indicators (AI). Acquisition Indicator AIs corresponds to signature S of the PRACH.

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2.3 3G UMTS frequency bands - TDD
The main UMTS frequency bands for TDD operation are summarised below.

Table 2: 3G UMTS Frequency bands ­ TDD

It is also noted that several of the UMTS frequency bands overlap or share similar
frequencies. This is because the allocations are different in different areas, and each
frequency band definition is given a new band number for that particular band.

3 Common Pilot Channel (CPICH)


This channel is transmitted by every node B so that the UEs are able estimate the timing
for signal demodulation. Additionally they can be used as a beacon for the UE to
determine the best cell with which to communicate.

3.1 The CPICH RSCP (Received Signal Code Power)


CPICH RSCP is a parameter in dbm that describes the signal strength of the P-CPICH of
any given cell. Note that the spreading code of the P-CPICH is identical for all cells while
the primary scrambling code is different.

Table 3: Convert CPICH­RSCP to dBm Value

PrimaryCCPCH-RSCP ::= INTEGER(0..127)


CPICH-Ec-N0 ::= INTEGER(0..63)

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DTCH BLER

4 Primary CPICH Tx Power


CPICH Tx power is the power level of the CPICH at the cell, as reported by the cellDB.
Typically takes about 10% of the total NodeB power. For a 20W (43dBm) NodeB, CPICH is
around 2W (33dBm). CPICH power typically takes about 8~10% of the total NodeB
power. For a 20W (43dBm) NodeB, CPICH is around 2W (35.1 ~ 33dBm).

In urban areas where in-building coverage is taken care of by in-building installations, the
CPICH may sometimes go as low as 5%.

• The coverage area is small since users are close to the site, and

• More power can be allocated to traffic channels.

If the area is urban and dense urban, the CPICH power can be set down to 28-30 dBm
range (less than or equal to 5% of Power) and the sector still work fine. It also can go
down to 26 dBm and the sector still works fine.

5 Pathloss Propagation Model

This is the pathloss between the cell and UE. It is calculated by comparing the UE's
measurement of CPICH RSCP and the value of Primary CPICH Tx Power.

Pathloss (dB) = Primary CPICH Tx Power (dBm) - CPICH RSCP (dBm)

Pathloss ::=
INTEGER (46..158)
-- Unit: dB;

Okumura - Hata collected measurement data and plotted a set of curves for path loss in
urban areas around 900 MHz. Okumura-Hata propagation model works frequencies below
1500 MHz and thus not work e.g. the 2100 MHz band. Okumura’s propagation curves

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have been analyzed in the upper frequency band to find a suitable expression for 2100
MHz [Radio Wave Propagation Guideline, Ericsson WCDMA Radio Access Network,
Ericsson Radio Systems AB 2007].

5.1 COST- 231 Hata Model


Given the limitation of the Hata model to 1.5GHz and below, as well as the interest in
personal communications systems operating near 1.9GHz, the “European cooperation in
the field of scientist and technical research’’ (COST) organization performed propagation
measurements to extend the Hata model to 2GHz. This extended Hata model is applicable
for frequencies from 1.5 to 2GHz, with other limitations identical to those of Hata model
[Kurner, T. (1999). Propagation Models for Macrocells, Section 4.4 of Cost Action 231,
“Digital Mobile Radio. Toward Future Generation Systems: Final report”, European
Commission Technical Report EUR 18957]. The COST-231 Hata model apart from being
designed for frequency band covering 1.5 to 2GHz also contains corrections for urban,
suburban and rural (flat) environments. Although its frequency range is outside that of the
measurements, its simplicity and the availability of correction factors has seen it widely
used for path loss prediction at this frequency band.

The Okumura-Hata or the COST231-Hata can be used as an estimate for Path loss for the
Ugbor Avenue suburban region. The deviations can be considered as negligible. The
Okumura-Hata model is independent of Receiver antenna height hence the path loss for
this particular region in experiment is also independent of the antenna heights. Research
by IISTE find that the Okumura-Hata model pathloss values were closest of all the outdoor
propagation models considered classifying the environment into consideration. Thus, the
performance of Okumura-Hata model shows its suitability for path attenuation loss
prediction in UMTS networks, the effect of different parameters, such as distance from
base stations was studied and it is observed that path loss increases with distance due to
a corresponding decrease in field strength. The observed results have been compared
with various prediction methods. They find that the Okumura-Hata model pathloss values
were closest of all the outdoor propagation models considered classifying the environment
into consideration. Thus, the performance of Okumura-Hata model shows its suitability for

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path attenuation loss prediction in UMTS networks. It also shows that model can be useful
to telecommunication providers to improve their services for better signal coverage and
capacity for mobile user satisfaction in the studied area.

Figure 1: Result 1 Comparison 3G Pathloss Model

Figure 2: Result 2 Comparison 3G Pathloss Model

Figure 3: Result 3 Comparison 3G Pathloss Model

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The basic equation for the path loss in dB is

where f is the frequency in MHz


d is the distance between AP and CPE antennas in km
hb is the AP antenna height above ground level in meters (m)
The perimeter Cm is defined as 0 dB for suburban or open environments and 3 dB for
urban environment. The perimeter ahm is defined for urban environments as

and for suburban or rural (flat) environments:

where hr is the CPE antenna height above ground level.

To show the COST-231 Hata model in a simpler form, the model (Ray, sxpt, 2007) is
expressed as

where L = Median path loss in Decibel (dB)


f = Frequency of transmission, in megahertz (MHz)
hb = Base station antenna height, in meters(m)
d = Link distance, in kilometer (km)
CH = Mobile station antenna height correction factor
and
L0 = 46.3
θ= 44.9
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n = 33.9

If we have data for pathloss, BTS antenna height, MS height, frequency (ARFCN), then we
can find distance, d.

6 Time Difference of Arrivals (TDOA)


In this method, the position of a mobile station is estimated by measuring the time
difference of arrivals between the signal received at the serving BSS and the same
transmission received at other surrounding BSS.

RoundTripTimeInfo ::=
ue-RxTxTimeDifferenceType2
roundTripTime

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Figure 4: Base stations and mobile station transmit and receive timing diagrams for (a) BS1, (b)
BS2, and (c) BS3
RTT = tp + UE Rx-Tx + tp

RTT = 2tp + UE Rx-Tx

2tp = RTT - UE Rx-Tx

tp = ( RTT - UE Rx-Tx)/2

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Distance = propagation speed (light speed) x tp (meters)

7 Trilateration Concept
Local Positioning System (LPS) and GPS (not just the US system) both use several
transmitters to enable a receiver to calculate its geographical position. Several techniques
are possible, each with its advantages and drawbacks. The important thing in all these
techniques is the notion of a direct path (line of sight, or LoS). In effect, if the transmitter
signal has not taken the shortest path to the receiver, the distance between them
calculated by the receiver will be incorrect, since the receiver does not know the route
taken by the radio signal. Three mathematical techniques are usually used for calculating
the position of a receiver from signals received from several transmitters: triangulation,
trilateration, and multilateration. The last two are very similar, but should not be confused.
Triangulation can be used when the positions of the reference points are known, it is
hence possible to construct a triangle where one of the sides and two of the angles are
known.

Trilateration requires the distance between the receiver and transmitter to be measured.
This can be done using a Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), or else from the time
of arrival (ToA) or time of flight (ToF) of the signal, provided that the receiver and
transmitter are synchronized.

Figure 5:  Triliteration with 3
Distance

Figure 6—The length of the arrows corresponds to the arrival time at receiver P of the
signals broadcast by three transmitters A, B, and C. It forms a measurement of the
distances between the transmitters and the receiver.

Thus, when receiving a signal from a single transmitter, we can situate ourselves on a
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circle (for simplicity, let’s confine ourselves to two dimensions and ideal transmission
conditions) with the transmitter at the center. Not very accurate. It gets better with two
transmitters — now there are only two positions possible: the two points where the circles
around the two transmitters intersect. Adding a third transmitter enables us to eliminate
one of these two possibilities.

Figure 6: 2­D trilateration. In 3­D, another 
transmitter has to be added in order to determine a 
position unambiguously.

When we extend trilateration to three dimensions, the circles become spheres. Now we
need to add one more transmitter in order to fi nd the position of the receiver, as the
intersection of two spheres is no longer at two points, but is a circle (assuming we ignore
the trivial point when they touch). This explains why a GPS needs to “see” at least four
satellites to work.

If we have data latitude and longitude of the point, we convert first that data to cartesian
coordinate then after we find coordinat, we convert again to latitude and longitude.

The conversion is:


x = R * cos(lat) * cos(lon)

y = R * cos(lat) * sin(lon)

z = R *sin(lat)

Where R is the approximate radius of earth (e.g. 6371KM).

For 3D, distance have formula below :

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For 2D

From there equation, we will get coordinat (x,y) for 2D and (x,y,z) for 3D. After we get
coordinat then do back conversion:
lat = asin(z / R)
lon = atan2(y, x)

8 Latitude Longitude Coded to Number


The coordinates of an ellipsoid point are coded with an uncertainty of less than 3 metres.
The latitude is coded with 24 bits: 1 bit of sign and a number between 0 and 2 23 -1 coded in
binary on 23 bits. The relation between the coded number N and the range of (absolute)
latitudes X it encodes is the following (X in degrees):

except for N=223-1, for which the range is extended to include N+1.

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The longitude, expressed in the range -180°, +180°, is coded as a number between -223
and 223-1, coded in 2’s complement binary on 24 bits. The relation between the coded
number N and the range of longitude X it encodes is the following (X in degrees):

9 References

• http://www.rfwireless-world.com/Tutorials/UMTS-logical-transport-physical-
channels.html
• Radio Wave Propagation Guideline, Ericsson WCDMA Radio Access Network,
Ericsson Radio Systems AB 2007.
• Kurner, T. (1999). Propagation Models for Macrocells, Section 4.4 of Cost Action
231, “Digital Mobile Radio. Toward Future Generation Systems: Final report”,
European Commission Technical Report EUR 18957
• https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Joseph_Isabona2/publication/280253811_Radi
o_Field_Strength_Propagation_Data_and_Pathloss_calculation_Methods_in_UMT
S_Network/links/57b17fba08ae0101f17980b3/Radio-Field-Strength-Propagation-
Data-and-Pathloss-calculation-Methods-in-UMTS-Network.pdf
• https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228627037_On_Propagation_Path_Loss_
Models_For_3-G_Based_Wireless_Networks_A_Comparative_Analysis
• https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/wcm.536

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Title
Technical Document – 3G Chanelization Page

Document No Version Date 33 of 33


D/INT/TD/3GTrilateration 1.0 20 Mar 2019

List of Figures
Figure 1: 3G Spectrum IMT­2000 Frequency Band............................................................................9
 Figure 2: Result 1 Comparison 3G Pathloss Model..........................................................................16
 Figure 3: Result 2 Comparison 3G Pathloss Model..........................................................................16
 Figure 4: Result 3 Comparison 3G Pathloss Model..........................................................................16
 Figure 5: Base stations and mobile station transmit and receive timing diagrams for (a) BS1, (b) 
BS2, and (c) BS3................................................................................................................................19
 Figure 6: Triliteration with 3 Distance..............................................................................................20
 Figure 7: 2­D trilateration. In 3­D, another transmitter has to be added in order to determine a 
position unambiguously......................................................................................................................21

List of Tables
Table 1: 3G UMTS Bands ­ FDD.......................................................................................................11
Table 2: 3G UMTS Frequency bands ­ TDD.....................................................................................13
Table 3: Convert CPICH­RSCP to dBm Value..................................................................................13

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