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# FIITJEE

PHYSICS
FIITJEE
PINNACLE
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## Syllabus for IITJEE and Karnataka Board:

Electromagnetic induction, Faraday’s laws, Induced emf and current, Lenz’s law.
Eddy currents, self and mutual inductance.
Alternating current, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage, reactance
and impedance; LC oscillations, LCR series circuit (Phasor diagram)Resonant
circuits and Qfactor; power in AC circuits, wattless current
AC generator and Transformer.

Electromagnetic Induction
We have studied that moving charges or current produces magnetic field. Then normally we get
a doubt whether the converse of this is also true? Does nature permit such a symmetrical
relation? Two physicists Micheal Faraday and Josheph Henry demonstrated the fact that
changing magnetic fields and electric currents with the help of the following simple experiments.

## If we bring a magnet near a coil connected with a

galvanometer, the galvanometer shows deflection indicating N S
flow of current in the coil. This current flow as long as the
magnet is moving, i.e. the magnetic flux through the coil is
changing. Once the magnet becomes stationary, the current
stops.

## If we take two coils wound on an iron cylinder, one fitted with a

battery and a switch, the other fitted with a galvanometer, when S

## value. During this brief time, the galvanometer deflects

showing flow of current. The changing currents in coil (1) gives 1
rise to a changing magnetic field which induces an emf and a
G
current in the coil (2). This phenomenon of inducing electricity
by changing magnetic field is known as electromagnetic
induction.

Magnetic Flux

The magnetic flux B through an area dS in a
   B
magnetic field B is defined as, B =  B.dS


ds
`

## Exercise 1. A thin conducting spherical shell is placed in a uniform magnetic field.

Find the flux associated with the shell.

Illustration 1. At a given place, horizontal and vertical components of earth’s magnetic field BH
and BV are along x and y axes respectively as shown in the figure. What is the
total flux of earth’s magnetic field associated with an area S, if the area S is in
the

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## (a) x–y plane (b) y–z plane?

y
Solution: The earth’s magnetic field
 Bv
 
B  BH ˆi  Bv ˆj
 S
(a) Given the area A  Skˆ BH x
 
 
xy = B.A = BH ˆi  Bv ˆj .Skˆ  0 z

y

(b) For the case A  Siˆ Bv

yz = BH ˆi 
 B v ˆj .S ˆi  BHS S

x
BH

(i) When the flux of magnetic induction through a loop is changing, an electromotive force
(emf) is induced in the loop. It lasts as long as the magnetic flux changes.

(ii) This induced e.m.f. is equal to the negative rate of change of flux, i.e.,
d   
 
dt
. where  = n B.dS , n = number of turns
 
B = magnetic induction , dS = area element
 1 d
If the resistance of the loop is R, the current in the loop will be i = =  .
R R dt

Illustration 2. A conducting circular loop having a radius of 5.0 cm, is placed perpendicular to a
magnetic field of 0.50 T. It is removed from the field in 0.50 s. Find the average
emf produced in the loop during this time.

 Area (S) = 25   104m2

 = B.S = BS cos 00
= 3.927  103

 Average induced emf =  7.85  103 volt
t
2
Illustration 3. A coil of area 500 cm having 1000 turns is placed such that the plane of the coil
is perpendicular to a magnetic field of magnitude 4  105 weber/m2. If it is
rotated by 180 about an axis passing through one of its diameter in 0.1 sec, find
the average induced emf.
(A) zero (B) 30 mV
(C) 40 mV (D) 50 mV

Solution: (C)
Total flux through the loop is
 = B.NA = 4  105  1000  500  104
Since loop is rotated by 180
Total change in flux = 2

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## Pinnacle Study Package-57 PH-EMI&AC-3

2  4  5  104
i.e. emf = 2/0.1 = change in flux / time = = 40 mV
0.1

## Illustration 4. A ring of radius 10 cm is placed in a circular magnetic field, which is varying at

the rate of 10 tesla/sec. The electric field intensity at any point on the
circumference of the ring is
(A) 1 N/C (B) 1.5 N/C
(C) 0.5 N/C (D) zero

Solution: (C)
 
Magnetic flux  = B  A
d dB
e=  r 2 and
dt dt
e =  E.d  2rE

1 dB
 E r  0.5 N/C
2 dt

Lenz's law
It states that the polarity of the induced e.m.f. and the       
direction of induced current is such that it opposes the very B C
      
cause which produces it. Consider the figure shown. A
      
rectangular loop ABCD is being pulled out of the magnetic B V
      
field directed into the plane of the paper and perpendicular
      
to the plane of the paper. As the loop is dragged out of the A D
field the flux associated with the loop which is directed into       

## the plane of the paper decreases.

The induced current will flow in the loop in the sense to oppose the decreasing of this flux. For
this to happen magnetic field due to induced current in the loop must be directed into the plane
of the paper. Hence the current in the loop must flow in the clockwise sense.

Exercises 2. (i) A metal ring is held horizontally and a bar magnet is dropped
through the ring with its length along the axis of the ring. Will the
acceleration of the falling magnet be equal to, greater than, or less
than due to gravity?
(ii) What is the direction of induced current loop
in the loop as shown in figure, if the
current in the straight wire from A to B
is A Wire B
(a) Constant (b) Increasing
(c) Decreasing

Illustration 5. A circular loop of a radius a having n turns is kept in a horizontal plane. A uniform
magnetic field B exists in a vertical direction as shown in the figure. Find the
e.m.f. induced in loop if the loop is rotated with a uniform angular velocity 

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## PH-EMI&AC-4 Pinnacle Study Package-57

(a) an axis passing through the centre and perpendicular to the plane of the
loop.
(b) a diameter.

Solution: (a) The e.m.f. induces when there is change of flux. As in this case there is no
change of flux, hence no e.m.f. will be induced in the coil.
(b) If the loop is rotated about a diameter there x x x x x x x x
will be a change of flux with time. In this x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x
case e.m.f. will be induced in the coil. The
2 x x x x x x x x
area of the loop is A =  a . If the normal of x x x x x x x x
the loop makes an angle  = 0 with the
magnetic field at t = 0, this angle will become
 = t at time t. The flux of the magnetic x x x x x x x x
field at this time is  = n.B.a2 cos x x x x x x x x
2
= n.B.a cost x x x x x x x x
The induced e.m.f. is x x x x x x x x
d x x x x x x x x
2
 =  na B sint
dt

Illustration 6. A squareshaped copper coil has edges of length 50 cm and contains 50 turns .
It is placed perpendicular to a 1.0 T magnetic field. It is removed from the
magnetic field in 0.25 s and restored in its original place in the next 0.25 s. Find
the magnitude of the average emf induced in the loop during
(a) Its removal,
(b) its restoration
(c) its entire motion in the field

## Solution: No. of turns = 50, Area of square = 0.25 m2

Magnitude of magnetic field = 1 T
(a) Average rate of complete removal = s / t = 1m/s2
S
 average induced emf = NB = 50 volt
t
(b) Average rate of complete restoration = s / t = 1m/s2
S
 average induced emf = NB = 50 volt
t
(c) For entire motion in the field S = 0
S
 average induced emf = NB = 0 volt
t
Illustration 7. A rectangular flat loop of wire with P Q P Q
× × × × × × ×
dimensions  and b has N turns
× × × × × × ×
and a total resistance R. The loop 
× × × × × × ×
moves with constant velocity v from
× × × × × × × R
position PQRS to PQRS through S
b R 2b
S b
a region of constant magnetic field x=0 x = 2b
B as shown in figure
(a) Plot the graph of the flux linked
with loop vs x. (Where x is the
distance moved by the loop)
(b) Plot the graph of the emf induced in the loop vs x

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## Pinnacle Study Package-57 PH-EMI&AC-5

 
Solution : (a)  =  B.dS = B.S
d B.dS
(b)  =  
dt dt
 e

e = +BNl v
BN b

2b 3b x
x
0 b e = -BN/v
3b

## Illustration 8. In the coordinate system shown in the Y B C

figure magnetic field is directed along
negative
zaxis and its magnitude varies as B =B0/x , D
A
where B0 is a positive constant. A square
X
loop ABCD of side ‘a’ and resistance per unit
length ‘’ is moved with constant speed v Z

## with its plane parallel to xy plane. Initially

side AB was on the yaxis. Find the current
induced in the loop as a function of time.

ax
B0 a x
Solution: =  ad  B0 a n 
x
  x  I x v
 a
= B0a n1   
 vt  d
 vt a
 =  B  B0a
dt a  vt  vt 2
B0 a
I= .
4(a  vt )t
Motional e.m.f.
Consider a straight conductor PQ moving in a         P         B

magnetic field. The  electrons inside it 
  V
experience a force F  ev x B and   

## accumulate at the end of the conductor near 

Q
Q. Thus, an electric field

is established across
its ends. Then  ev x B is balanced by

e E in the opposite direction, at
equilibrium.
  
 ev xB  eE  0 ,
       
 
    E.d    vxB .d  =  B.(d x v)

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## PH-EMI&AC-6 Pinnacle Study Package-57

     P
As d   v is the area swept per unit time by length d and hence B.(d   v) is
the flux of induction through this area. Therefore, the motional emf is equal to
vB
the flux of induction cut by the conductor per unit time. If the , B and v are
Q
mutually perpendicular to each other then  = Bv

We can replace the moving rod by a battery of emf vB with positive terminal
at P and the negative terminal at Q.
Exercise 3. A rod of length  is dropped along the axis of a
circular current carrying conductor of radius r
with current I. What is the e.m.f. developed
i
across the length of the rod?

          
Illustration 9. An angle AOB made of a conducting wire moves A
         
along its bisector through a magnetic field B as
  O       v
 
suggested by figure. Find the emf induced
         
between the two free ends if the magnetic field is       B    
perpendicular to the plane at the angle. 

A
Solution: The rod OA is equivalent to a cell of emf
vB sin /2. The positive charges shift towards 'A'  = vBsin /2
  O 
due to the force qv  B . The positive terminal of the
 = vBsin /2
equivalent cell appears towards A. Similarly, the B
rod OB is equivalent to a cell of emf vB sin /2
with the positive terminal towards O. The
equivalent circuit is shown in figure. Clearly, the
emf between the points A and B is 2 Bv sin /2.

Illustration 10. A copper rod of length '' rotates at an angular         B  
           
velocity '' in a uniform magnetic field B as
 
shown. What is the induced emf across its ends?   dl   
 

 
   A        
               
Solution:    E.d    (v  B).d    Bvd
 1
As v = ,   B 0 d  B 2
2
1
The rod AB may be replaced by a battery of emf = B2 with positive terminal
2
towards A.

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## parallel to a long straight wire carrying a current dx

x V
'i'. Calculate the induced emf in the rod, if the b
ends of the rod from the wire are at distances 'a' +
a I
and 'b'.

   b  oi  iv b
Solution:    B.(d l  v)   v dx = o .ln  
a 2 x 2 a

x x
Illustration 12. A conducting rod of length  is rotating with x x
constant angular velocity  about point O in a x
x
/4 3/4 
uniform magnetic field B as shown in the figure. Q
P O x
The emf induced between ends P and Q will be x
x
1 5 x x x x
(A) B 2 (B) B 2
4 10
1 2
(C) zero (D) B
2
Solution: (A)
3 / 4
1
=  Bxdx  B2
 / 4 4

## Illustration 13. Two infinitely long conducting parallel rails are   B 

connected through a capacitor of capacitance C 

as shown in the figure. A conductor of length   v0
 
is moved with constant speed v0. Which of the
following graph truly depicts the variation of  
current through the conductor with time ?
(A) (B)

Current  Current 
I (t) I (t)

t (time) t (time)

(C) (D)

Current  Current 
I (t) I (t)

I=0
t (time) t (time)

Solution: (C)
q = C (Bv 0) = const.
 q is constant

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## PH-EMI&AC-8 Pinnacle Study Package-57

dq
I= 0
dt
 Current is zero.

## Fleming's right hand rule for direction of induced emf

Stretch your right hand thumb, the index finger and middle finger such that all the three are
mutually perpendicular to each other. If the thumb represents the direction of the motion of
conductor, the index finger the direction of magnetic field, then the middle finger represents the
direction of the current.

## Time varying magnetic field

If a conducting loop is placed in a time varying magnetic field, this changing magnetic field acts
as a source of electric field and hence induces an emf; infact the electric field is induced even
when no conductor is present. Faraday discovered that
  d
 E. d   
dt

This field E differs from an electrostatic field, it is nonconservative. × E× × ×
We can not define the potential corresponding to this field in the usual × × × × ×E ×
  × × × × × × ×
sense i.e..dV = E .d r does not hold here. ×
E

  E
× × × × ×R× ×
E has to have a direction shown when B is increasing,
  ×
d
because  E .d  has to be negative when is positive. × × Er × × E × ×
dt × × × × × × ×

## Exercise 4. (i) Can electric lines of force ever be closed × × ×

curves? × × × ×r P× ×
× × × × × × × 10 r
(ii) Consider a cylindrical magnetic field × × × × × × ×
which is increasing with time. How are the × × × ×R × × ×
electric field at points P and Q related? × × × × ×× Q
× × ×

## Illustration 14. Consider a cylindrical magnetic field which × × ×

increases with time. Find out the electric field at a × × × × ×
× × × × ×
distance r from its centre (i) r < R, and (ii) r > R. × × × R× ×
××× × × ×
× ×× × ×
× ×

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## Solution : (i) Consider (r < R) or loop 1. x ×E× × × 1

× × × × × ×E ×
E at all points in the loop has the same value due
× × × × × × ××
to symmetry. E
× × × × × × × ×
  d E
× × r× × R××x
Usin g  E.d l  x
dt
× × ×E
× × E× × x
dB × × × × ×
E(2r)  (r 2 )
dt
r dB
or E (for cylindrical region only)
2 dt

(ii) Consider (r > R) or loop 2. E
E at all points on the loop has the same value  2
E
from symmetry. 
  d    R   
Using,  E.d l  r
dt  
 E
dB R2  dB  1 
or E.(2r)  R2 .  E .  
dt 2  dt  r E
 dB
E dt
(for cylindrical region only)
Eddy currents: If a metal plate, e.g. copper is passed through a
magnetic field (see figure). During entry into the field and exit from x x x x
the field, the magnetic flux through a loop (Consider an arbitrary loop x x x x
as shown in the figure) changes. This change in flux cause current to x x x x
x x x x
be set up in the loop. There may be many such loops and currents
will flow through them. These are called eddy currents.
Eddy currents flow in many loops in a plate and cause heating. This thermal energy is produced
by conversion of kinetic energy and thus the plate slows down. This is called electromagnetic
damping.

To avoid eddy currents, slots are cut in the plate due to which the flow of eddy current is broken.

To reduce the losses due to eddy currents, conducting parts are made
in large number of thin layers , separated by lacqueran insulator.
These are called laminations. These break paths of eddy currents.
x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x
Uses of eddy currents:
x x x x x x x x
1. Used for braking systems in trains. x x x x x x x x
2. For electromagnetic shielding.
3. Used in speedometers
4. Used in induction furnaces

Self Induction
A changing current in a circuit causes a change in the magnetic flux associated with itself, which
induces an opposing e.m.f. in it. The net magnetic flux linked with itself is proportional to the
current in the loop.
Thus  = Li

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## PH-EMI&AC-10 Pinnacle Study Package-57

Where L is a constant called coefficient of selfinduction or self inductance. Also e.m.f induced
di
in loop is  =  L
dt
The induced emf in case of self inductance opposes the change in the current. Physically it is
analogous to inertia in mechanics.

## Self inductance of an ideal solenoid

For a solenoid of length  and crosssectional area A having number of turns N, the flux linked is
given by N, where  is the flux linked by each turn.
 N = nBA (n = N / )
2
The magnetic induction of a solenoid is given by B = 0nI  N = 0n AI
But, N =LI  L = 0n2A.
If the inside of a solenoid is filled with a material of relative magnetic permeability r (e.g. soft
iron)
then, L(r) = r 0 n2A
Self inductance of a coil depends on its geometry and on r of the medium inside it.
Note: When a current flows from a to b through a resistor, Vab a
a
is always positive; the potential is higher at a than b.
When a current flows from a to b through an inductor i R
i L
of negligible resistance, Vab is positive for an
increasing current, negative for a decreasing current,
and zero for a constant current. b
b
Vab =iR Vab =L(di/dt)

Exercise 5. Does the coefficient of self induction depend upon the rate at which the
current is changing through it?

15V 5mH
Illustration 15. The network shown in the figure is part of 1
a complete circuit. What is the potential A I B
difference VB  VA, when the current I is 5A
3
and is decreasing at a rate of 10 A/s?
Solution: In accordance with law of potential distribution, for the given network,
dI
VA  IR + E  L = VB
dt
And as here I is decreasing (dI/dt) is negative.
VB – VA =  5  1 + 15  5  103 (103)
VB – VA =  5 + 15 + 5 = 15 V

Illustration 16. An average induced emf of 0.20 V appears in a coil when the current in it is
changed from 5.0A in one direction to 5.0A in the opposite direction in 0.20s.
Find the self-inductance of the coil.

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## Pinnacle Study Package-57 PH-EMI&AC-11

di
Solution: As  =  L
dt
di ( 5.0)  (5.0)
  50A / s
dt 0.20
 0.20
Self inductance L =    = 4 mH
(di / dt) ( 50)
Illustration 17. An average emf of 20 V is induced in an inductor when the current in it is
changed from 2.5 amp in one direction to the same value in the opposite
direction in 0.1 s. The selfinductance of the inductor is
(A) zero (B) 200 mH
(C) 400 mH (D) 600 mH

di
Solution: As  =  L
dt
di ( 2.5)  (2.5)
  50A / s
dt 0.10
 20
Self inductance L =   = 400 mH
(di / dt) 50

Mutual Inductance
A changing current in one circuit causes a changing magnetic flux and an induced emf in a
neighboring circuit. The net flux linked with the second circuit is proportional to current in first
circuit .
i.e. N22 = Mi1
The proportionality factor is called mutual inductance.
N N
Also M = 2 2  1 1 i
i1 i2
di1 di
Or, 2 =  M & 1 =  M 2
dt dt R

Note : Proceeding in the same way as in self inductance the mutual inductance M of solenoid of
length  and area of crosssection A and with number of turns N1 and N2 in primary and
secondary coils is found to be M = N1N2A /.

## Illustration 18. A solenoid S1 is placed inside another solenoid S2

as shown in the figure. The radii of the inner and S2
S1
the outer solenoids are r1 and r2 respectively and
the number of turns per unit length are n1 and n2
respectively. Consider a length  of each solenoid,
calculate the mutual inductance between them.

Solution: Suppose a current i is passed through the inner solenoid S1. A magnetic field B
= 0 n1i is produced inside S1 whereas the field outside it is zero. The flux
through each turn of S2 is, B r12 = (0 n1i)  r12

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## The total flux through all the turns in a length  of S2 is,

2 = (0 n1i r12 ) n2   (0 n1n2  r12  ) i ; Thus, M =  0n1n2 r12 

I
Illustration 19. What is the self inductance of a system
of coaxial cables carrying current in
opposite directions as shown? Their I a

## radii are 'a' and 'b' respectively. b

Solution: The 'B' between the space of the cables is, B = oI/2r.
Ampere's law tells that 'B' outside the cables is zero, as the net current through
the amperian loop would be zero.
Taking an element of length  and thickness 'dr', the magnetic flux through it is
 oI  I b 1  I b I
d  .dr    o  dr  o .ln
2r 2 a r 2 a
 o   b  I a
L  ln
I 2  a  b

Illustration 20. The coefficient of mutual induction between the primary and secondary of a
transformer is 5 H. Calculate the induced emf in the secondary when 3 ampere
current in the primary is cut off in 2.5  104 second.
diP 3
Solution: Induced emf in the secondary S= M  5  6  10 4 V
dt 1/ 4000
The negative sign merely indicates that the emf opposes the change.

Illustration 21. A very small square loop of side ‘’ is placed inside a
large square loop of wire of side L as shown loops O L
are coplanar. What is the mutual inductance of
system? 
0  2
(A) zero. (B)
L
 0 4 2 2  2 2 2
(C) (D) 0
L L

Solution: (D)
Using relation 45
40I O 45
B0 =
4r
sin   sin 
I
= 0 [sin45 + cos45]
r
Also r = L/2
 0I  2   0I2 2
B0 =   =
L  2  L

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## Pinnacle Study Package-57 PH-EMI&AC-13

 0I2 2 2
 = B02 =  = LI = flux through smaller loop
L
 0 2 2 2
L=
L

R  L Circuit
Growth of current in an inductor
When current is allowed through an inductor the growing current induces an e.m.f. which
opposes the growth of current in the inductor. When the switch is connected to the terminal 1,
the current grows in the inductor.
R
At position 1 of the switch, applying 1
Kirchhoff’s law to the closed circuit. 
S
2 L
LdI
IR   0
dt
Solving the differential equation, we get,
 Rt
  L
I 1  e L
 ,  
R  R /R
0.63 /R 

1  e Rt L 
where  is called the time constant of R
I
the circuit.
t = L/R t

Time constant
It measures the rapidity with which the final state or the steady state is approached and may be
defined as the time in which the steady state would have been reached if the current were
allowed to increase at the initial rate.

## Decay of current in an inductor

As the switch is turned off, i.e. the emf is disconnected the current decays in the inductor through
the resistor. It decays as the switch is turned to 2.
Applying Kirchhoff’s law to the closed circuit thus
LdI
formed we have,  IR  0
dt 0.37 /R   Rt L
e
  Rt  R
Solving we get, I  Io e L  , I
 
t = L/R t
Where I0 = current in the circuit at t = 0

Note: The time constant may also be defined in the same way as we have done in growth

Exercise 7. A real inductor has some resistance. Can it ever be possible that the
induced e.m.f. in an inductance be greater than e.m.f. applied across it?

## Energy stored in the magnetic field of an inductor

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## PH-EMI&AC-14 Pinnacle Study Package-57

LdI di
As,   IR  , I  I2R  LI
dt dt
i is the power supplied by the battery, I2R is the electrical power dissipated in the resistance and
dI
LI is the rate of energy stored in the inductor.  Idt = I2Rdt + LIdI
dt
I 1
 Energy stored in the inductor is UB = 0 LIdI  LI2
2

Note: It is important not to confuse with the behavior of resistor and inductors where energy is
concerned. Energy flows into a resistor whenever a current passes through it, whether the
current is steady or varying and this energy is dissipated in the form of heat. By contrast, energy
flows into an ideal, zero resistance inductor only when the current in the inductor increases. This
energy is not dissipated; it is stored in the inductor and released when the current decreases.
When a steady current flows through an inductor, there is no energy flow, in or out. This energy
is associated with magnetic field of the inductor. If the field is in vacuum, the magnetic energy
B2
density u (energy per unit volume) is given by, U = .
20

Illustration 22. As shown in the figure, a metal rod makes B = 0.25 T(into page)
contact with a partial circuit and completes the          
circuit. The circuit area is perpendicular to a          
magnetic field with B = 0.25T. If the resistance          
50 cm v = 4m/s
of the total circuit is 3, what force is needed to          
move the rod with a constant speed of 4 m/s as          
indicated in the figure ?          

Solution: The induced emf in the rod causes a current to flow counter clockwise in the
circuit. Because of this current in the rod, it experiences a force to the left due
to the magnetic field. In order to pull the rod to the right with constant speed, the
force must be balanced by the puller.
The induced emf in the rod is
|= BLv = (0.25) (0.5)(4) = 0. 5 V
I = /R = 0. 5/3 A
F = iLBsin90o = (0.05)(0.5/3)(0.25) = (0.0625 /3)N = 0.021 N

## Illustration 23. Find the current provided by the R2 = 10  L= 1 mH

source immediately after the switch is
closed at t = 0 and also at t = infinity.

R1 = 10 

Sw
E = 10 V
Solution: At t = 0 current through inductor will be zero.
Therefore current provided by the source I = E/R1 = 10/10 = 1 amp.
At t = , inductor will be shorted.
E
Therefore current provided by the source I = = 2 amp.
R1R2
R1  R2

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## Pinnacle Study Package-57 PH-EMI&AC-15

Illustration 24. When current (I) in RL series circuit is constant where L is a pure inductor. The
following statements are given
(i) voltage across R is RI.
(ii) voltage across L is equal to voltage across R.
(iii) voltage across L is equal to supply voltage.
1 2
(iv) magnetic energy stored is Li
2
(A) (i), (ii) and (iv) are true. (B) (i), (ii) and (iv) are true.
(C) (i) and (iv) are true. (D) (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) are true.

Solution: (C) R L
I
VR  RI
1 2
Energy stored in inductor = LI
2 Supply
dI Voltage
Voltage across inductor [ v L ] = 0 as here 0
dt

## Illustration 25. A solenoid of inductance 100 mH and resistance 20  is connected to a cell of

emf 10 V at t = 0. The energy stored in the inductor when the time t = 5 ln2
milliseconds is
1 1
(A) J (B) J
640 320
1 1
(C) J (D) J
180 80

Solution: (B)
The current at any time can be given by the expression, i = i0 (1  et/)
L 100mH
Where  =   5  103 s
R 20
5ln 2
  
i  0.5A  1  e 5 
 
 1   1 i
= io  1  ln 2   io  1    o
 e   2 2
10V
Where i0 =  0.5A
20
1
 The energy stored = Li2
2
2
1 1
=
2

 100  10 3  41  =
320
J.
 

L.C. Oscillations
A capacitor is charged to a p.d. of V0 by connecting it across a battery and then it is allowed to
discharge through a pure inductor of inductance L.

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## At any instant, let the charge on the capacitor be q qoq (qo-q)

and current in the circuit be i.
C
q2 1 2
 Li  const (1) i
2C 2
L
Differentiating w. r. t. time we get
1 dq 1 di
 .2q  L 2i 2  0
2C dt 2 dt
d2 q 1 q
i.e. 2
 q   2 q q0
dt LC
(where,  = 2f) O time
1
which gives f =
2 LC
Current i in the circuit and the charge q on the plates of the capacitor vary sinusoidally as
i = io sin t ; q = qo cos t.

## Illustration 26. (a) Find the frequency of the L

L
LC circuit shown in figure
L

## (b) A circuit containing a two position switch S R3 C

is shown in figure. 2 2F
(i) The switch S is in position 1. Find the 1 R5
R1 E1
potential difference VA  VB and the rate
2 12V
of production of joule heat in R1. 1 E2 R2 B
S
(ii) If now the switch S is put in position 2 A
3V 2
2 at t = 0, find the time when the current in 3 R4
R4 is half the steady value. Also calculate 10 mH
the energy stored in the inductor L at that
time.
L.L 3
Solution: (a) Equivalent Inductance = + L= L
L L 2
1
 f= m
2( 3 / 2)LC

## (b) (i) Applying kirchhoff's second law to R3

meshes (1) and (2)
2 (1)
2I2 + 2I1 = 12  3 = 9 (I1-I2)
R1 E1
and 2I1 + 2(I1 I2) = 12 I1R1 I1
Solving I1 = 3.5 A, I2 = 1A 2 12V (2)
I2 I2
P.D.between AB = 2I2 + 3 = 5 volt S E2 R2 B
Rate of production of heat A
3V
 dQ  2
   i1 R1  24.5 J
 dt 

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## Pinnacle Study Package-57 PH-EMI&AC-17

R2 = 2
(ii) i =
E
R
  
1  eRt / L = i0 1  e Rt / L  E2 = 3V

Rt R4 = 3
i = i0/2  = loge2
L
 t = 0.0014 sec.
10 mH
1 2
Energy stored = Li = 0.00045
2
J.

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## PH-EMI&AC-18 Pinnacle Study Package-57

ALTERNATING CURRENT
Voltage and Currents in AC Circuits
Up to now we have considered voltage source and current in one direction only. In many cases
we come across situations where the direction of current changes with time and the source
provides voltage varying with time. One such case is when voltage and current vary like a sine
function with time. These are called alternating voltage (a.c. voltage) and alternating current
(a.c. current). Electricity supply provided at our homes and offices fall in this category. Main
advantage of using this a.c. voltage and a.c. current is that a.c. voltage can easily be converted
to lower or higher value by use of transformers and these can be economically transmitted over
long distances.

## Mean Value of Voltage and Current

The mean value of sinusoidal current or voltage in one complete cycle is zero. For half cycle,
the mean value can be found as given below.
 T 2 I dt  T/2
 0  1  I0 
I = I0 sin t; Imean =  T 2  =   cos t 
  dt  T / 2   0
 0 
2IT 2I 2Vo
= 0 1  (1)  0 , Similarly v mean =
T 2  
Root Mean square value of voltage and current (Vrms and Irms)
1/ 2
 T I2 dt 
  
I = I0 sin t; Irms =  0T 
  dt 
 0 
2 1T I2 T
Irms   I02 sin2 tdt = 0  (1  cos2t)dt
T0 2T 0
T
I20  sin 2t  I20
= T  =
2T  2  0 2
I0 V0
 Irms = , similarly Vrms = .
2 2

Exercise 8. What is the value of current measured by a hot wire ammeter attached to
a.c. supply (peak value, rms value or mean value)?

Impedance
In any circuit the ratio of the effective voltage to the effective current is defined as the
impedance Z of the circuit. Its unit is ohm.
Phasors and phasor diagrams
In the study of A.C. circuits, we shall come across alternating voltage and currents which have
the same frequency but differ in phase with each other. It is found that the study of A.C. circuits
becomes simple, if alternating currents and voltages are treated as rotating vectors or more
correctly as 'phasors'. The phase angle between the two quantities is also represented in the
vector diagram.

A diagram representing alternating voltage and current as vectors with the phase angle between
them is known as phasor diagram.

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## AC circuit with a resistor

R VI
Voltage
Instantaneous current
E e0
i=  sin t t
R R
= i0 sin t ~ current

e = e0 sin t

eo
where i0 = = current amplitude. Thus the voltage and the current in an A.C. circuit containing
R
pure resistance are in phase.

## AC circuit with a capacitor

Instantaneous charge on the Capacitor C
dQ
Q = CV =Ce0 sin t, I =   Ce0cos t = i0 cos t
dt
e0 e
= i0 sin (t+ /2) where i0 =  Ce0 =  0
1/ C Xc ~
1 e=eosint
where Xc = is known as capacitive reactance.
C

The following diagrams show graphical representation and phasor treatment of current and
voltage illustrating the phase difference between them.
VI Ic
Voltage
/2

t (sec.)
t

Current Vc

In capacitor, voltage lags the current or the current leads the voltage by /2

## AC circuit with an inductor

di L
L = inductance in an ac circuit, e = e0 sin (t) = L
dt
e0
i= cos (t) + c = i0 cos (t) + c
L
e0 e ~
= i0 sin (t  /2)  0
where i0 =
 L XL
[  Voltage is sinusoidal so current should be also sinusoidal so c = 0)
where XL is known as inductive reactance
v I current vL

t
Voltage Ic

## In an inductor voltage leads the current by /2

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## PH-EMI&AC-20 Pinnacle Study Package-57

LCR Circuit
VL

VR VL Vc
(VL- VC) V

~
   
V= VR+ VL+ VC 
I
2 2 2 2 Vr
V= (VL  VC )  V R
= I (XL  XC )  R , VC
1
where XL=L & XC=
C
 V = IZ, where Z = (XL  XC )2  R2 is known as the impedance of the circuit.

VL  VC XL  XC
Phase angle , tan  = 
VR R
Let us study the phase relationship between current and e.m.f. in L.C.R. series circuit in the
following case
1
1. Where L > , it follows that tan is positive, i.e.  is positive. Hence, in such a case,
C
1
2. When L < , it follows that tan is negative, i.e.  is negative. Hence in such a case,
C
voltage lags behind the current.
1
3. When L = , it follows that tan is zero, i.e.  is zero. Hence in such a case, current and
C
voltage are in phase with each other.
1
4. In fact, when L = , the impedance of the circuit would be just equal to R (minimum). In
C
other words, the LCRseries circuit will behave as a purely resistive circuit. Due to the
minimum value of impedance, the current in LCRseries circuit will be maximum. This
condition is known as resonance.
1 1
 o = where  = o resonant frequency; f o =
LC 2 LC

## If R, L and C are constant, and the frequency f of the applied

E/R
emf is raised continuously from zero, the peak current varies
as shown in figure. At first the current is very small, increases
R
Current

## to maximum when the frequency increase to the resonance E/2R

value f o, and then falls again. 2R

## It is interesting to note that before resonance the current

leads the applied emf, at resonance it is in phase, and after fo
Frequency
resonance it lags behind the emf. Series resonant circuit is
also called acceptor circuit.

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## Illustration 27. An LCR circuit has L = 20 mH, C = 50 F and R = 10  connected to a power

source of 100 sin 400 t volt. Find out the rms value of current in the circuit.

## Solution: L = 20  103 H, C = 50  106 F and R = 10 ,  = 400 rad/sec.

Impedance
1
z= (400  20  10 3  )2  102 = 43.17 
400  50  106
100 1
irms = . = 43.17 A = 1.64 A
2 43.17

POWER
In an a.c. circuit the instantaneous power is the product of the instantaneous value of the current
0 0
and the voltage. e = e0 sin t; ; I = i0 sin (t  ) 90    90
P = e0 i0 sin t sin (t  )
T

 Pdt 1
0
Pav = T
 E0I0 cos  = Erms Irms cos  = apparent power x cos
2
 dt
0

## where cos  is known as power factor.

R R
Power factor in LCR circuit is cos = =
Z R2   XL  XC 
2

## If cos = 0, or  = /2  Pav = 0

i.e. when the current and the voltage differ in phase by 90,

Under this condition, the current is known as wattless current, because the average power
consumed in the circuit is zero.

## Exercise 9. Through what a.c. components a wattless current can be attained?

Illustration 28. A series LCR circuit containing a resistance of 120  has angular resonance
frequency 4  105 rad s1. At resonance the voltages across resistance and
inductance are 60 V and 40 V respectively. Find the values of L and C. At what
frequency the current in the circuit lags the voltage by 450 ?
V 60 1
Solution : At resonance as X = 0, I =   A and VL = IXL = IL,
R 120 2
VL 40
L= = = 2  104 Henry
I (1/ 2)  4  105

1 1
at resonance, L = so C = 2 i.e.,
C L
1 1
C=  F
0.2  10 3  (4  105 )2 32
XL  X C
Now in case of series LCR circuit, tan  =
R

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## For the current to lag the applied voltage by 450

1
L 
tan 45 =  C
R
1
i.e., 1  120 =   2  104 
(1/ 32)  106
2 5 10
i.e.,  – 6  10   16  10 = 0
6  105  10  105 5
i.e.,  = = 8  10 s .
2
4
Illustration 29. In the figure shown the steady state current
through the inductor will be
1
(A) zero (B) 1A 5V 3mH
(C) 1.25 A 4F
(D) can not be determined
Solution: (C)
At steady state, current through the capacitor = 0
Therefore the current through the inductor = 5/4 = 1.25 A.
Illustration 30. A coil of inductance L = 300 mH and is connected to a constant voltage
source. Current in the resistance R = 140 m coil will reach to 50% of its
steady state value after t is equal to
(A) 15 s (B) 0.75 s
(C) 0.15 s (D) 1.5 s
Solution: (D)
At steady state i = /R
At any time t, I = /R (1 – eRt/L) = /2R
L
 t = ln 2  1.5sec.
R

CHOKE COIL
A coil with low resistance and high inductance can reduce the current in an a.c. circuit without an
appreciable heat loss. Such coils are called choke coils. Choke coil is preferred as it does not
dissipate power. Physically a choke coil is a coil of insulated copper wire which offers a high
reactance (L) to A.C. (but a low D.C. resistance), thus reducing the A.C. appreciably without the
loss of energy.
eo eo
In LR circuit, current amplitude Io = 
Z R  2L2
2

E0i0
The average power consumed in A.C. circuit is P = cos 
2
R
And the power factor is given by cos =
L 
2 2
 R2 

The inductance 'L' of the choke coils is quite large on account of the large number of turns and
the high permeability of iron core, while the resistance R is very small. Thus cos   0, therefore
the power absorbed by the coil is extremely small. Thus the choke coil reduces current without
any appreciable loss of energy. The wastage of energy is only due to the hysteresis loss in soft
iron core. Eddy current loss is reduced by laminating the soft iron core.
A.C. GENERATOR

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## An AC generator is a machine which converts mechanical energy to electrical energy based on

electromagnetic induction.

Principle:
When the magnetic flux through a closed loop changes, it induces an emf in the coil. It lasts as
long as the change in flux continues. A coil forming a closed loop is rotated in a magnetic field
and change in flux due to rotation of coil produces induced emf.

Construction:
1. Armature: Armature is a rectangular coil. It consists of a large no. of turns of insulated
copper wire wound over a soft iron core. The soft iron core is used to increase the magnetic flux.

2. Field Magnet: A strong electromagnet is provided with a magnetic field of the order of
12 tesla. It has concave north and south poles. The armature rotates between these poles.

## 3. Slip Rings: These are two hollow metallic rings. Ends

of the armature coil are connected to these two rings R1
B1
and R2 separately. These provide moving contact hence R1

## these are called slip rings.

R2 B2

4. Brushes: Graphite brushes B1 and B2 keep contact with slip rings R1  R2 and pass on current
from the armature coil to the external resistance load.

Working:
As the coil rotates between the N S poles, magnetic flux linked with the coil changes. When
normal to the coil area is parallel to the magnetic field lines, flux through it is maximum but rate
of change of flux is minimum hence induced emf is zero.

In the position where normal to the coil area is perpendicular to the magnetic field lines, rate of
change of flux is maximum as coil wire move perpendicular the field lines. Hence at this
position, induced emf is maximum.

The direction of induced emf can be determined by Fleming’s right hand rule.
After half the rotation, the directions of current changes as the motion of arms are just opposite
to the motion in first half. Applying Flemings right hand rule, the current direction is reversed,
position III to V as compared to position I to III.
B
B C
B C
C B
C A
C A B D
N S
A D
D A D
A
D

## (I) (II) (III) (V)

(IV)

(Figure1: Variation of induced emf with time (I, II, III and IV are positions of coil as shown in the figure I)

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## PH-EMI&AC-24 Pinnacle Study Package-57

O x
I II III IV V  t

(figure 2)
d
If the magnetic field is B, the angular of the coil is  (i.e.   ), there are n no. of coils and
dt
area of coils is A, magnetic flux.
d
 = nBA cos  = nBA cost   nBA. sin t
dt
d
Induced emf, e = 
dt
e = nBA sin t = e0 sin t
Here e0 = nBA
emax = nBA 
e e0
Current i =  sin t  i0 sin t (here i0 = e0/R)
R R

TRANSFORMER
A transformer is an electrical device used to
convert AC current from low voltage & high current Secondry coil
to high voltage and low current and viceversa.
Primary coil P S
~ Es
EP NP Ns
A transformer which increases the ac voltage is
called step up transformer and which decreases the
AC voltage is called step down transformer.
NP. = No. of turns, of primary coil
Ns = No. of turns of secondary coil
Principle:
A transformer works on the principle of mutual induction. When two coils are indirectely
coupled, change in current or magnetic flux in one coil induces an emf in the other coil.

Construction:
Two coils Primary P and secondary S are wound around a soft iron core. A.C. input is applied to
the primary coil and A.C. output is taken at the secondary coil. Laminated soft iron sheets are
used in core to minimise eddy current and increase magnetic flux.

Step up transformers: Number of turns in secondary coil are more than those in the primary
coil
(Ns > Np). It converts a low voltage high current to a high voltage low current.

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## Pinnacle Study Package-57 PH-EMI&AC-25

Step down transformer: Number of turns in secondary coil are less than those in the primary
coil. It converts a high voltage, low current to a low voltage, high current.

Working
When primary coil is connected to AC source, the magnetic flux linked with the primary changes.
The magnetic flux of primary is passed through the secondary through the iron core. Therefore
magnetic flux through secondary also changes. Due to the change in magnetic flux the induced
emf is produced across the ends of secondary coil.
Np=no of turns in primary
Ns=no of turns in secondary
Ep=voltage across primary
Es=voltage across secondary
Since magnetic flux in directly proportional to no. of turns
N
 s Ns

p Np

Ns
s   p
Np

d
Es  
dt

d  Ns  N  d 
   p    s  p 

dt  Np  Np  dt 

Ns
Es   Ep
Np

Es Ns

Ep Np
If Ns< Np then Es<Ep, such type of transformer is called step down transformer.

## Energy Losses in a Transformer:

Various types of losses are
(a) Flux losses:  Flux of primary does not get 100 % linked up with secondary coil.
(b) Copper losses:  Energy lost as heat due to resistance in copper coils.
(c) Iron Losses:  Loss as heat in iron core due to eddy current losses.
(d) Hysteresis losses: Energy lost due to repeated magetization and demagnetization of iron
core.
(e) Humming losses: Due to alternating current, the iron core vibrates producing humming
noise. Some energy is lost in this.

Use of transformers:
Use of transformer are

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## PH-EMI&AC-26 Pinnacle Study Package-57

1. Transmission of AC over long distances: Transmission losses are less when transmitted at
very high voltage.
2. In induction furnaces  to heat metallic parts.
3. For welding where low voltage high current is required.
4. Voltage regulators in electrical devices.

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SUMMARY

## Electromagnetic induction: The production of electromotive force in a conductor when there is

change in the magnetic flux linkage with a coil or when there is a relative motion of the
conductor across a magnetic field.

 
Magnetic flux: Magnetic flux through an area dS in a magnetic field B is
 
B =  B.dS

Faradays Law: When the flux of a magnetic field through a loop changes, an emf is induced in
the loop which is given by
d
= 
dt
 
where  =  B.dS is the flux through the loop.
This emf lasts as long as the magnetic field changes.

Lenz’s law: Lenz’s law states that the polarity of the induced emf and the direction of the
induced current is such that it opposes the change that has induced it.

Motional emf: When a conducting rod of length  moves with a constant velocity v in a
magnetic field B such that B, v and  are mutually perpendicular then the induced emf is

 = Bv
This is called motional emf. If the circuit is completed the direction of the current can be worked
out by Lenz’s law.

Induced Electric field: A time varying magnetic field induces an electric field. If a conductor is
placed in this field, an induced emf is produced.
 
 =  E.d 
d
also,  = 
dt
  d
or,  E.d   
dt

Eddy current: Changing magnetic field induces currents in closed loops of irregular shapes in a
conductor. These are called eddy currents. These dissipate thermal energy at the cost of kinetic
energy, thus causing electromagnetic damping.

Self induction: A current carrying loop produces a magnetic flux through the area
 = Li where L is self inductance of the loop.
If current changes in the loop the induced emf  is given by

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## PH-EMI&AC-28 Pinnacle Study Package-57

d di
=  L
dt dt
For a solenoid of n turns,
d  
=n  B.ds
dt
self inductance of a long solenoid is
L = r0n2A

where r is relative magnetic permeability of the core, n is no. of turns per unit length,  is the
length of the solenoid and A is the crosssectional area of the solenoid.

Mutual inductance: A changing current in one circuit causes a changing flux and hence an
induced emf in a neighboring circuit.
N22 = Mi1
where M is mutual inductance of ciols 1  2.
N2 2 N11
M= 
i1 i2
di1 di
or, 2 =  M , 1 =  M 2
dt dt
Alternating voltage & Alternating current: Voltage and current varying sinusoidally with time
are called alternating voltage (Alternating voltage) and alternating current (Alternating current)
V = V0 sint
I = I0 sin t
Mean values of voltage and current:
(a) In one complete cycle,
V 0, I 0
(b) In half cycle,
2V0 2I
V , I  0
 
(c) Root mean square values
V0 I0
Vrms = ,Irms  where v 0 and I0 are the peak voltage and current.
2 2
E0
AC circuit with a resistor: E = E0 sin t = sin t
R
Resistance: R

## AC circuit with a capacitor: V = E0 sint

E0
I= sin ( + /2) (voltage lagging)
1/ C
1
xc = is capacitive reactance.
C

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## AC circuit with an inductor: V = E0 sin t

I = I0 sin (t  /2) (voltage leading)
Xc = L inductive reactance

1 2
LCR circuit: Impedance, z = ( L  )  R2
C
XL  X C
for phase angle , tan =
R
Resonance:
1
L =
c
the impedance of the circuit is equal to R only.
1
0 =
LC
1
f0 = (resonant frequency)
2 LC
Power:
1
Average power, Pav = Erms Irms cos = E0I0 cos 
2
where cos  is power factor
Power factor in LCR circuit,
R R
cos  = 
Z 1 2
(L  )  R2
C
Choke coil:
A coil with low resistance and high inductance used to reduce current in AC circuit without much
heat loss is called a choke coil.
R
Power factor, cos =
 L  R2
2 2

## R is low and L is high thus reducing current.

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## PH-EMI&AC-30 Pinnacle Study Package-57

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISE

1. Define magnetic flux. What is the magnetic flux through an area A kept at an angle 
from the magnetic field B ?

## 3. What is Lenz’s law ? Explain with an example.

4. Explain how motional emf is generated starting with the force acting on a moving
charge. How do you decide the polarity of the induced emf depending on the direction of
motion of conductor and the direction of magnetic field.

5. Can we define a potential associated with an induced electric field due to a changing
magnetic field? Is the induced electric field a conservative field ?
6. Describe an expression for self induction of a solenoid of length , crosssectional area
A and having n turns per unit length.

7. Derive an expression for the energy stored in the magnetic field of an inductor of
inductance L.
8. Define resonance in an LCR circuit. Why is current maximum at resonance ?

9. Derive an expression for power factor in an LCR circuit. What is wattless current?

10. Explain how a choke reduces current without appreciable loss of energy.

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[

SOLVED PROBLEMS

Subjective:

BOARD TYPE

## Prob 1 . A connecting rod AB of mass m slides without friction B

A
over two long conducting rails separated by a
distance . 
 R VO × B
Initially, the rod is moving with a velocity v0 to the
right. Find :
(a) The distance covered by the rod until it comes to A
rest.
(b) The amount of heat generated in the resistance R
during the process.
 B v t B2 2 v t
Sol. (a) t = Bv t ; lt  t  ; F(retarding)  It B 
r R R
mdv t B2  2 v t mdv t ds B 2 2
    vt
dt R ds dt R
Rm m o
 ds  2 2 .dv   ds  R 2 2  v dv
B B o

Rmv 0
 s=
B2 2
1
(b) Heat generated = loss in K.E. = mv 20 .
2

Prob 2 . A closed circular coil having a diameter of 50 cm made of 200 turns of wire with a
total resistance of 10 is placed with its plane at right angles to a magnetic field of
strength 102 tesla. Calculate the quantity of electric charge passing through it when
the coil is turned through 180 about an axis in its plane.

2 2 2
Sol. Area of the coil = A = r = (0.25) m
Number of turns of coil = n = 200; Field strength = B = 102 Wbm2
Since the plane of the coil is perpendicular to the magnetic field, the magnetic flux
through the coil is 1 = nAB when the coil is turned through 180 about an axis in its
plane, the magnetic flux through the coil is 2 = nAB.
 Change in the magnetic flux = d = |2  1|

 d = 2nAB = 2  200    (0.25)2  102 = Wb
4

change of magnetic flux 4 
 Quantity of electric charge =  
resistance R 4R
It is independent of the time taken to turn the coil.
Resistance of the coil = 10

 Quantity of electric charge passing through the coil = =0.078 C
4  10

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## PH-EMI&AC-32 Pinnacle Study Package-57

Prob 3. A small square loop of wire of side  is placed inside a large square loop of wire of
side L (>>). The loops are coplanar and their centres coincide. What is the mutual
inductance of the system?

## Sol. Considering the larger loop to be made up of four rods

each of length L , the field at the centre, i.e., at a
distance L/2 from each rod, will be L
I
B  4x 0  sin   sin  
4d
 0I
i.e. B  4x 2sin 450
4  L / 2 
0 8 2
i.e. B1  I
4L
So the flux linked with smaller loop
 8 2
2  B1S 2  0 2I and
4 L
2  2
hence, M  2 2 0
I L

## Prob 4 . A conducting rod makes contact with a partial B = 0.25 T

         
circuit and completes the circuit as shown. The          
         
circuit area is perpendicular to a magnetic field with 50 cm   
v = 4m/s
 F     
B = 0.25 T. If the resistance of the total circuit is          
         
5 , how large force is needed to move the rod as
indicated with a constant speed of 4 m/s apart from
the force F = 1/80N already acting on it in the
direction shown ?

## Sol. The induced emf in the rod is

| = BLv = (0.25) (0.5)(4) = 0. 5 V
I = /R = 0.1 A
o
F = ILBsin90 = 1/80 N
Thus the total force acting on the rod on left is 1/40 N.
Hence 1/40 N of force is to be applied on the rod in the right side to move it with a
constant velocity.

Prob 5. A rectangular frame ABCD made of a uniform metal wire has a straight connection
between E and F made of the same wire as shown in figure (A) AEFD is a square of
side 1 m and EB = FC = 0.5m. The entire circuit is placed in a steadily increasing
uniform magnetic field directed into the plane of the paper and normal to it. The rate
of change of the magnetic field is 1 Ts1. The resistance per unit length of the wire is
1m1. Find the magnitude and direction of the currents in the segments AE, BE and
EF.

## Sol. As in case of changing field, induced emf

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## Pinnacle Study Package-57 PH-EMI&AC-33

A E B 1
A I1 ½ I2 B
x x x x x 1V
I ½V
x x x x x
b
x a x x x x 1 a 1 b
1
x x x x x
I1 I I2
C
D 1 I1 F ½
D F C
1m 1/2m (B)
d d dB
E=
dt

dt
 BS   S
dt
So for loops a and b we have, e1 = ( 1x1) x 1 = V and
1  1
e2 =  x 1 x 1  V
2  2
The direction of induced emfs e1 & e2 and currents I1 & I2 in the two loops in
accordance with Lenz’s law of the junction are shown in Fig. (B)
Now by Kirchhoff’s law at junction E, I + I2 – I1 = 0 i.e., I =I1 – I2
And by Kirchhoff’s II law in mesh a,
I1 + 1 (I1 – I2) x 1 + I1 x 1 + I1 x 1 – 1 = 0 i.e., 4I1 – I2 = 1 . . . (I)
While in mesh b,
1 1 1 1
I2   I2 x1  I2 x   I1  I2  x1-  0 i.e., I1  3I2  . . . (II)
2 2 2 2
7 6
Solving Eqn. (i) and (ii), I1 = A and I2 = A
22 22
7
So current in segment AE, I1 = A from E to A while in BE,
22
6 7 6 1
I2 = A from B to E and in EF, I=I1–I2=   from F to E.
22 22 22 22

IIT-JEE TYPE

## Prob 6. A conducting square loop of side a2 is rotated in a uniform 

magnetic field B about P in the plane of the paper as shown  
B
in the figure. Find the induced emf between P and Q and
indicate the relative polarity of the points P and Q. Q

 P 

## Sol. The rotation of the ring about point P generates an 

Q B
emf. The ring within P & Q is equivalent to a rod of
length PQ. a2
+
Now PQ = a 2 as given  P
As we know the emf across a rod of length 
1
rotating with angular velocity  is =B  2
2
Then emf between P and Q is given by
1 2

 = B a 2 = Ba
2
2

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## Prob 7. A conducting rod of length  attached to a rod of 

B  90
insulating material of length L is rotated with constant
angular speed in a plane normal to the uniform L
magnetic field B, as shown in the figure.
O 
Find the emf produced across the ends of the
conducting rod.

## Sol. Consider a small elemental length dx of the rod

o
90
at a distance x from the end of the rod as shown x
in the diagram. dx
B 
The emf across the elemental rod will be
E    dx  v .B ; dx  v  rdx sin  r 

v = r
 dx  v  .B  B  r sin   dx  B x dx 
d
O
 1 
 E  Bo x dx  B  2
2
The result is same as if the rod is rotated about one of its ends.

## Prob 8. A square wire frame with side a and a straight conductor aa O

carrying a constant current I are located in the same
plane as shown in the figure. The inductance and the I a
resistance of the frame are equal to L and R
respectively. The frame was turned through 180 about
the axis OO' which is located at a distance b from the b
O
currentcarrying conductor. Find the electric charge
which passes through the frame.

change in flux
Sol. Electric charge through a loop =
resis tance
1  oI  Ia b dr
 q = ( f - i ); since d = adr  i = o 
R 2r 2 b  a r
 Ia  b   Ia  b + a 
i = o ln  ;  f =  o ln 
2  b - a  2  b 
1   oIa  b + a  
q =  ln 
R  2  b - a  

## Prob 9. A metallic cylindrical rod PQ of resistance R slides

Q B
without friction on a rectangular circuit composed of
perfectly conducting wires fixed on inclined plane as P
 v
shown in the figure. A vertical magnetic field B exists L
in the region of the above mentioned setup. Find the 
velocity of the rod PQ when it starts moving without
any acceleration ?

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## Sol. Induced emf in the rod  = BL (v cos )

BLv
i = /R = cos 
R v cos
Mg cos 
 F = BiL = BL  BLv cos  
 R 
v
for uniform velocity force on rod up the Mg
Mg sin 
plane = force on rod down the plane
B2L2 v
 cos2   mg sin 
R
Rmg  sin  
v=  
B2L2  cos 2  
v = Rmg tan sec 
B2L2

Prob 10. A very small circular loop of radius a is initially coplanar and concentric with a much
larger circular loop of radius b (a < < b). A constant current i is passed in large loop,
which is kept fixed in space, and the small loop is rotated with angular velocity 
about a diameter. The resistance of the small loop is ‘R’. If its self inductance is
negligible. Find
(a) current in small loop as a function of time.
(b) induced emf in large loop as a function of time.

## Sol. (a) Magnetic induction due to large loop at its centre is

0ib
B=
2b
 i 
0 b
and B = B.A    a2 cos 
 2b 
where ‘’ is angle between loops and  = t
d a20ib 
 induced emf  =   sin t
dt 2b
  a 2 0ib  
 current ia =   sin t … (i)
R  2bR 
d a 2 0
(b) Mutual inductance M =  cos t
dt 2b
d d
 =   (Mia )
dt dt
from (i)
d  a 20 a 2 0ib sin t 
=   cos t. 
dt  2b 2bR 
2
i  a2 0  d  sin 2t 
= b 
R  2b  dt  2 
2
ib  a2 0  cos 2t
=   2

R  2b   2

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## PH-EMI&AC-36 Pinnacle Study Package-57

2
ib  a2 0 
=   cos 2t
R  2b 

Y
Prob 11. A conducting rod 'OA' of mass 'm' and length 'l' x x x x x x
is kept rotating in a vertical plane about a fixed x x
x
 A x x
horizontal axis passing through 'O'. The free S
x x x X
end 'A' is arranged to slide on a fixed conducting x O B
x x
ring without any friction. A uniform and constant R x
x C x
x
magnetic field 'B' perpendicular to the plane of x x x

## rotation is applied. The point 'O' and the point

L
'C' (on the ring) are connected by a series
combination of' a resistor 'R' and an inductor 'L'
through a switch 'S'. The angular frequency of
the rod is . Initially the switch is opened.
Neglect any other resistance.
(a) Find the e.m.f. induced across the length of the rod.
(b) The switch is closed at time t = 0 .
(i) Obtain an expression for the current in the resistor as a function of time
(ii) In the steady state find the torque needed to maintain the constant angular speed
of the rod. The rod was initially along the positive Xaxis.

Sol. A conducting rod 'OA' of mass 'm' and length 'l' is kept rotating in a vertical plane . . .
. . any other resistance.
1 2
(a) Bl  = 
2
di dt di
(b) E = iR + L
dt
  L   E  iR
Rt
  log(E  iR)  c
L
 E  iR = EeRt/L
E
 i = 1  e Rt /L 
R
1 1 2 
i= BI  1  e Rt / L 
R  2 
Bl2
i= At t   steady state
2R
Power = Torque ()
i2 R = J
i2R B2l42R
J=  + torque due to weight of the rod
 4R2
B2l4 B2l4
J= + torque due to weight of the rod = + Mg (/2)cos t
4R 4R

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## Pinnacle Study Package-57 PH-EMI&AC-37

L1 2
Prob 12. In the circuit shown, if the switch S is suddenly shifted
S
to position 2 from 1 at t = 0. Find the current in the
1
circuit as a function of time. Assume that, initially the R
L2
circuit is in a steady state condition and the
+
connection is switched from 1 to 2 in a continuous 
manner. E

E
Sol. Let I0 be the initial current in the steady state condition, I0 
R
Since inductors have the tendency to maintain the flux constant, therefore,
 = I0(L1 + L2) = I'0L1
Where I0 is the current in the circuit at t = 0 when switch position is changed.
If I is the instantaneous current in the circuit, then applying Kirchoff’s voltage law,
dI
L1  IR  E ;
dt
I dI 1 t
or    dt
'
0I E  IR L1 0
 E  IR  R
or ln    t ;
 E  I0R  L
R
 t
or, E  IR =  E  I'0R  e L1

R
1  t

E   E  I0R  e 
' L
or, I = 1

R 
 L  L 2  E  L1  L 2 
Since I0'  I0  1   
 L1  R  L1 
Rt
E L 
 I = 1  2 e L  1

R  L1 

Prob 13. A solenoid of resistance 50 and inductance 80 henry are connected to a 200V
battery. How long will it take for the current to reach 50% of its final equilibrium
value? Calculate the maximum energy stored.

## Sol. The current i in R L circuit is given by

E E
i= 1  e Rt L  , When t  , i =
R  R
Suppose that the current reaches half of this value in a time t0.
1 E E
= 1  eRt L 0

2 R R
1 E 1 1
= 1  eRt L  ;
0
1  e Rt L  = 1 – =
0

2 R  2 2
L 80
t0 = loge  2  = 0.693  1.11s
R 50
2
1 1  200 
Emax = Li2   80     640J
2 2  50 

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## PH-EMI&AC-38 Pinnacle Study Package-57

Prob 14. A 10F capacitor is connected with 1henry inductance in series with a 50Hz source
of alternating current. Calculate the impedance of the combination.

## Sol. The impedance of the LC circuit is

 1   1 
Z =  L ~   1 2  50 ~
 C   10  10  2  50 
6

##  103   1002 ~ 103 

Z = 100 ~    
     
or Z = 4.15 

Prob 15. 200V A.C. is applied at the ends of an LCR circuit. The circuit consists of an
inductive reactance XL = 50, capacitive reactance XC = 50 and ohmic resistance
R = 10. Calculate the impedance of the circuit and also potential differences across
L and R. What will be the potential difference across LC?

## Sol. The impedance of LCR circuit is

2 2 2
Z= X L
~ XC   R2   50  50   10   10
Now the r.m.s. current flowing in the circuit is
E 200
i.e.   20 amp
Z 10
 The potential difference across the inductance is
VL = iXL = 2050 = 1000V, VR = iR = 2010 = 200V
The potential difference across LC is (50  50)20 = 0

Prob 16. To a circuit of 1 resistance and 0.01 henry inductance is connected a 200 volt line
of frequency 50 cycles/ second. Calculate the reactance, the impedance and the
current in the circuit and also the lag in phase between alternating voltage and
current.

## Sol. The reactance of the circuit = XL = L = 2fL

 XL = 0.01250 =  = 3.14
The impedance of the circuit = XL2  R2
2
 Z=  3.14   12  10.86 = 3.3
The phase difference (lag) is, tan = L/R = /1 = 

Prob 17. A 20 volts 5 watt lamp is used on AC mains of 200 volts 50 cps. Calculate the value
of
(i) capacitance, (ii) inductance to be put in series to run the lamp.
(iii) how much pure resistance should be included in place of the above device so
that lamp can run on its voltage

5 20
Sol. For lamp, i = = 0.25 A, R= = 80 
20 0.25
Current through the lamp should be 0.25 A

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## (i) when condenser C is placed in series

200
i= 2
= 0.25
2  1 
R  
 C 
Putting the value of  = 2  50  C = 4.0 F
200
(ii) When inductor is used, I = = 0.25  L = 2.53 H
R2  (L)2
200
(iii) When resistance is used, I = = 0.25  r = 720 
Rr

Prob 18. When a 15 V dc source was applied across a choke coil then a current of 5 Amp
flows in it. If the same coil is connected to a 15 V, 50 rad/s AC source, a current of
3 A flows in the circuit. Determine the inductance of the coil. Also, find the power
developed in the circuit and its resonance frequency if a 2500 f capacitor is
connected in series with the coil.

V V
Sol. For a coil, Z = R 2  2L2 , I= =
Z R  ω 2 L2
2

V 15
For dc source,  = 0 I= i.e., R = = 3 . . . (i)
R 5
When ac is applied
V 15
I= i.e. Z= = 5
Z 3.0
 R2 + xL2 = 25
xL2 = 25 – 9 = 16  xL = 4
4
L= = 0.08 Henry.
40
Now when the capacitor is connected is series.
1 1
 xC = =  8
C 50 x 2500 x 10 6
2 2
Z= R 2   xL  xC  = 3  4  8 = 5 
15 2 2
I= = 3A  Pav = v rmsIrmscos = Irms R = (3) x 3 = 27 W.
5
Resonance frequency:
1 1 1000
= = =
2 LC 2  0.08  x 2500 x 10 6
2 x 5 x 2 2

25 2
= = 11.25 Hz

Prob 19. A current of 4A flows in a coil when connected to a 12 V DC source. If the same coils
is connected to a 12 V, 50 rad/s, AC. source, a current of 2.4 A flows in the circuit.

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## PH-EMI&AC-40 Pinnacle Study Package-57

Determine the inductance of coil. Also find the power developed in the circuit if a
2500 F condenser is connected in series with the coil.

## Sol. When connected to d.c. source

V 12
R=  =3 …(1)
I 4
When connected to a.c. source
Vrms 12
Z=  =5 …(2)
Irms 2.4
2
Z= R 2  L …(3)
From (1), (2) and (3)
L = 0.08 H
When the condenser is also connected.
2 2
2 1  
2 1 
Z = R   L   = 3   50  0.08  6

 C   50  2500  10 
=5

R
cos  =  0.6
Z'
 P = Vrms.Irms cos 
= 12  2.4  0.6 = 17.28 volt

Prob 20. (a) A 100 V potential difference is suddenly applied to a coil of inductance 100 mH
and resistance 50 . Find the rate at which the current increases after one second.

(b) The current in the circuit is given by I = I0 (t / ). Calculate the rms current for the
period t = 0 to t = .

L 100  10 3
Sol. (a) L =  = 2  103 sec.
R 50
t
V  
 I = I0 (1 – et/) =  1 e  
R 
0.001
dI v t /  100 
210  3
 e = 3
.e
dt .R 2  10  50
= 103 (0.606) = 606 Amp/sec.

2 2 1 2
(b) Heat produced, H =  I (t / ) Rdt  3 I R
0
0 0

(1/ 3)I02R I0
 Irms =  .
R 3

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Objective:

## resistance R. A variable magnetic field of induction X X

t R
B = e is established inside the coil. If the key (K) is X X X
X rX K
closed at t = 0, the electrical power developed is equal to
r 2 10r 3
(A) (B)
R R
2 r 4 R 10r 4
(C) (D)
5 R

d
Sol. The induced emf,  = 
dt
dB d
=A =  (r2) (e t )  r 2 e t
dt dt
 o =  r2 e  t t  0 =  r2 [ 2  10]
 The electrical power developed in the resistor just at the instant of closing the key
2 2 r 4 10 r 4
=P= 0   . Hence (D) is correct.
R R R

## Prob 2. Shown in the figure is a small circular loop that is

coaxial with the bigger circular loop. If the slider moves
2
from A to B, then
(A) current flow in both the loops will be opposite. 1 R B
(B) clockwise current in loop 1 and anticlockwise current A
in loop 2 flow.
(C) no current flows in loop 2.
(D) clockwise current flows in loop 2.

Sol. When the slider moves towards B, the resistance of the circuit (bigger loop)
decreases. Therefore, the current in the bigger loop increases. The increasing
current results in increasing flux (  i) linked by the smaller coil. Consequently,
induced emf will be generated in the smaller loop causing an induced current so as
to oppose the increase in flux. Therefore, the current flows anticlockwise in the inner
loop. Hence (B) is correct.

## Prob 3. A rod of length b moves with a constant velocity v in the i

magnetic field of a straight long conductor that carries a current i a
as shown in the figure. The emf induced in the rod is
 iv a  iv b
(A) o tan1 (B) 0 ln(1  )
2 b 2 a b v
oiv ab oiv(a  b)
(C) (D)
4(a  b) 4ab

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## Sol. The induced emf between two ends of a segment i

dx=dE = Bvdx
x
 where B = magnetic field due to straight current carrying wire
i  ivdx
at the segment dx = 0  dE = 0 dx v
2x 2 x
 The induced emf between the ends of the rod
 iv a  b d x
= E =  dE  0 a
2 x
 iv b 
 E = 0 ln   1 Hence (B) is correct.
2 a 

B
Prob 4. A conducting loop is pulled with a constant velocity towards a
region of constant (steady) magnetic field of induction B as X X X X
shown in the figure. Then the current involved in the loop is (d v
X X X X
r
> r) X X X X
(A) Clockwise (B) Anticlockwise d
(C) Zero (D) All of these

Sol. When the loop is drawn into the magnetic field, the area of the portion of the loop in
the magnetic field will increase. That means, the flux linkage increases. Therefore,
an (anticlockwise) current is induced in the loop so as to oppose the change. When
the loop is fully inside. When the loop emerges out of the magnetic field the flux
decrease, following the previous argument, the direction of induced in it will be
eversed (clockwise).
Hence (D) is correct.

## Prob 5. A conducting bar pulled with a constant speed v on a smooth B

conducting rail. The region has a steady magnetic field of induction
X v
B as shown in the figure. If the speed of the bar is doubled then
the rate of heat dissipation will be
(A) constant. (B) quarter of the initial value.
(C) four fold. (D) doubled.

## Sol. The induced emf between A and B =  = B v A

 B  v
 The induced current = i =  i= v
R R
B 2
 v
2 2

## The electrical power = P = i2R =

R B

Since, v is doubled, the electrical power, becomes four times. Since heat dissipation
per second is proportional to electrical power, it becomes four fold.
Hence (C) is correct.

Prob 6. If all the linear dimensions of a cylindrical coil are doubled, the inductance of the coil
will be (assuming complete winding over the core)
(A) doubled (B) four fold
(C) eight times (D) remains unchanged

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## Pinnacle Study Package-57 PH-EMI&AC-43

0N2 A
Sol. The inductance of a coil is given as L = where N = total number of turns of

2
the coil; A = area of cross section of the coil =  r ; r = radius of the core of the coil, 
= length of the coil. If  is doubled the total number of turns will be doubled
2 2
L N   A 2    1   N2   r22    1 
 2  2        2  
L1  N1   A1    2   N1   r1    2 
L  1 N r 
 2  (2)2 (2)2 2  8 ( 2  2  2  2) .
L1   N1 r1 1
Hence (C) is correct.

## Prob 7. A sinusoidal voltage Vosint is applied across a series combination of resistance R

and inductor L. The amplitude of the current in the circuit is
Vo Vo
(A) (B)
2 2 2
R +  R - 2 2
2

Vo
(C) sint (D) Vo/R
R + 2 2
2

## Sol. Impedance of the circuit = R 2  2L2

Amplitude of voltage = Vo
Vo
 Amplitude of current = .
R  2L2
2

## Hence (A) is correct.

Prob 8. An ideal choke takes a current of 8 A when connected to an a.c. source of 100 volt
and 50Hz. A pure resistor under the same conditions takes a current of 10A. If two
are connected in series to an a.c. supply of 100V and 40Hz, then the current in the
series combination of above resistor and inductor is
(A) 10A (B) 8A
(C) 5 2 A (D) 10 2 A

## 100 100 100 1

Sol. XL = ,R=  10  ; L  100 = or L = H
8 10 8 8
2
 1 
Z=   2  40   102  10 2
 8  
E 100 10
I=    5 2A
Z 10 2 2
Hence (C) is correct.

## Prob 9. A resistor R, an inductor L and a capacitor C are connected in series to a source of

frequency n. If the resonant frequency is nr then the current lags behind voltage,
when
(A) n = 0 (B) n < nr
(C) n = nr (D) n > nr

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## PH-EMI&AC-44 Pinnacle Study Package-57

Sol. Below resonant frequency the current leads the applied e.m.f., at resonance it is in
phase with applied e.m.f. and above resonance frequency it lags the applied e.m.f.,
Hence (D) is correct.

Prob 10. An ac source of angular frequency  is fed across a resistor R and a capacitor C in
series. The current registered is I. If now the frequency of source is changed to /3
(but maintaining the same voltage), the current in the circuit is found to be halved.
The ratio of reactance to resistance at the original frequency  will be
3 5
(A) (B)
5 3
3 5
(C) (D)
5 3

## Sol. According to given Problem,

V 2 2 1/2
I=  V / [R + (1/C )] . . . (1)
Z
I V
and  . . . (2)
2 [R2  (3 / C)2 ]2
Substituting the value of I from equation (1) in (2),
 1  9 1 3
4  R2  2 2   R2  2 2 i.e., 2 2  R2
 C   C  C  5
X (1/ C) [(3 / 5)R 2 ]1/ 2 3
So that   
R R R 5
Hence (A) is correct.

## MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE CHOICE ARE CORRECT)

Prob 11. When a magnet is released from rest along the axis of a hollow S
N
conducting cylinder situated vertically as shown in the figure,
(A) The direction of induced current in the cylinder is anticlockwise as
seen from the above
(B) the magnet moves with an acceleration less than g = 9.8 m/s2
(C) the cylinder gets heated.
(D) the magnet attains a terminal speed inside the cylinder if the cylinder is very
long.

Sol. Initially the current induced in the hollow conductor is zero because
the magnet was at rest. When the magnet falls, due to the variation N
of magnetic flux, induced current develop in the hollow conductor so N
as to resist the cause of increment of flux; that means the velocity of
the magnet is resisted. S
In the other word we can say that the magnet is retarded before entering into the
hollow conducting cylinder. Consequently its acceleration will be less than g because
magnetic force opposes the gravitational force, equally after sometime when the

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## Pinnacle Study Package-57 PH-EMI&AC-45

magnet attains acting on the magnet. If the cylinder is very long, the magnetic force
opposes the gravitational force, terminal velocity. Hence (A), (B), (C) & (D) all are
correct.

Prob 12. A loop is kept so that its center lies at the origin of the y
coordinate system. A magnetic field has the induction B B
pointing along Z axis as shown in the figure XX
XX XX
(A) No emf and current will be induced in the loop if it X XX X x
X X XX
rotates about Z axis X X
X
(B) Emf is induced but no current flows if the loop is a
fiber. When the loop is rotated about yaxis.
(C) Emf is induced and induced current flows in the loop if the loop is made of copper
(D) If the loop moves along Z axis with constant velocity, no current flows in it.

Sol. If the loop rotates about Z axis, there is no variation of flux linkage. Therefore, no
emf is induced. Consequently, no current flows in the loop
When rotated about y axis, its flux linkage changes. Therefore an emf is induced.
Since the loop is a fiber it is non conducting. Therefore induced current is zero.
If the loop is made of copper, it is conductive therefore induced current is set up.
If the loop moves along the Z axis variation of flux linkage is zero. Therefore the
induced emf and current will be equal to zero.
Hence (A), (B), (C) and (D) all are correct.

Prob 13. Shown in the figure is an RL circuit. Just after the L R

## Key (K) is closed

(A) the current in the circuit is zero
(B) no potential drop across the resistor E
(C) potential drop across the inductor is E
(D) no heat is dissipated in the circuit

Sol. The current in the circuit at the instant of closing the Key (K) is equal to io. Current at
any time in transient state is given as
t
i = i0  1  e   where   L Putting t = 0, i = 0
  R
 The voltage drop across the inductor is E that oppose the applied emf E
 E = E (numerically).
2
Since the circuit current is zero, the heat loss (proportional to i0 R) will be zero
Hence (A), (B), (C), and (D) are correct.

## Prob 14. A constant current flows in RL circuit. Then

(A) VR = 0 and VL 0 (V = potential difference)
(B) Energy lost per second in the resistor is equal to energy gained by the inductor
per second
(C) VAB = i R (numerically)
(D) VR  0 and VL = 0

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## PH-EMI&AC-46 Pinnacle Study Package-57

di di
Sol. When i = constant,  0  Induced emf across the inductor = EL =  L 0
dt dt
 Potential drop across the inductor is zero  VL = 0
Therefore potential drop across the resistor = VR = i R  VAB = VR + VL = i R
Electrical power = P = i2 R,  Energy loss per second in the resistor  i2 R
1 2 d UL
The energy stored in the inductor = UL = Li  constant  0
2 dt
 The energy gained by the inductor per second = 0
Hence (C) & (D) are correct.

## center at the origin of the coordinate system in a magnetic

B
field of induction B along xaxis axis when it is rotated
x
about Yaxis through 90°, the induced charge in the coil is
directly proportional to
(A) B (B) R
(C) r2 (D) r

Sol. Induced emf loop when the variation of flux d during time dt is given as
d
E=    d     Edt
2
…(1)
dt 1

##  The total charge induced in the loop = q =  i dt

E
q = dt …(2)
R

Using (1) and (2), q=
R
Where  = change in flux given as  = 2  1 = B. (r2) because initially the flux is
linked with the coil and it has maximum flux linkage 2 = B r2 when turned through
90°.
 B r2
 q=  i.e. q  B
R
q  r2
q  (1/R).
Hence (A) & (C) are correct.

##  in a magnetic field as shown. The emf induced across     

AC is __________________________.    

    
B O C
 
1
Sol.  B 2
2
Induced emf across AO is zero
 EBO = EOC = zero

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## Prob 17. A conducting loop of radius R is present in a uniform    B

magnetic field B perpendicular to the plane of the ring.   
R

If radius R varies as a function of time t as R = R0 + t    
the emf induced in the loop is __________________    

## Sol. 2(R0 + t) anticlockwise

2
A = r
d
 = BR2, e =  2  R 0  t  B
dt

## Prob 18. There is a uniform magnetic field B in a circular region of radius R O

dB
as shown in the figure whose magnitude changes at a rate .   
dt    R 
The emf induced across the ends of a circular concentric A
   
conducting arc of radius R1 having an angle  as shown   
R1
________________________(OAO = )
O

 dB 
Sol. QR2  
 dt 
dB  R  dB 
Required emf = R2 =  
dt 2 2  dt 

R 2  dB 
=  
2R  dt 

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## PH-EMI&AC-48 Pinnacle Study Package-57

ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

Subjective:

Level  O

## 1. Derive the value of v rms for a power source, v = v 0 sint.

2. Explain phasor and phasor diagram in relation to alternating voltage and associated
alternating current in a circuit.

## 3. Fill in the blanks:

In an LCR circuit having inductance L, capacitance C and resistance R connected in series
to a source v 0 sint,
1
(a) If L = , voltage ………………current.
C
1
(b) If L > , voltage……………..current.
C
1
(c) If L < , voltage ………………current.
C
4. A rod of length  rotates with a constant angular velocity  in a uniform magnetic field B,
plane of motion of the rod is perpendicular to the magnetic field. Find the induced emf
generated between the ends of the rod.

5. A square coil of side 10 cm having 200 turns is placed in a magnetic field of 1 W/m2 such
that its plane is perpendicular to the field. The coil is rotated by 1800 in 0.5 seconds. What is
the induced emf.

6. A railway track running north south has two parallel rails 1.0 m apart. Calculate the value
of induced emf between the rails when a train passes at a speed of 90 km/h. Horizontal
component of earth’s field at the place is 0.3  104 Wb/m2 and angle of dip 600.

7. A current i = 0.5 sin 300 t is passed through a coil with self inductance 50 mH. What will be
the maximum magnitude of induced emf in the coil.

8. The self inductance of an inductance coil having 100 turns is 20 mH. Find the magnetic flux
through the crosssection of the coil corresponding to a current of 4 milliampere. Also, find
the total flux.

9. Circular coil A with radius 10 mm and 50 turns and coil B with radius 0.5 m and 600 turns are
placed coaxially. Find out mutual inductance of the coil.

2
10. An aircored solenoid is of length 0.3 m, area of crosssection 1.2  103 m and has
2500 turns. Around its central section, a coil of 350 turns is wound. The solenoid and the coil
are electrically insulated from each other. Calculate the emf induced in the coil, if initial
current of 3A in the solenoid is reversed in 0.25 sec.

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## 11. A wire is bent to form a semicircle of 40 cm radius. It is moved perpendicular to a magnetic

field B = 0.25 T with a velocity 25 m/s. Find out the induced emf across its ends.

## 12. In figure 1 and 2, find the direction of induced x x x x x x …………………….

xx x x x x x x …………………….
c
current x x xx b x x cx x …………………….
b d
(a) Figure 1 wire loop of irregular shape turning …………………….
x x x x x a x x dx …………………….a
into a regular shape. x x xx x x x x …………………….
x x
(b) A circular loop turning into a narrow straight fig. 1 fig. 2

wire.
13. In a circuit, capacitance 60 F, inductance 15 mH and resistance 20  are connected to a
power source having frequency 100 Hz. What are
(a) Capacitative reactance (b) inductive reactance
(c) total impedance of the circuit.

14. A resistance of 15 ohm, capacitance and an ammeter of negligible resistance are connected
in series to a source of 110 V  60 Hz. If the reading of ammeter shows 5 A, what is the
reactance of the capacitance?

L =50mH R1 =10
15. In the circuit shown, the switch is operated to
complete the circuit at time t = 0. Calculate the time
required for current in R1 to become half of the S
steady state current. What is the energy stored in the
inductor when the current reaches steady state.
6V R2 =15

16. A lamp having a hot resistance of 25  is not allowed to pass current more than 5A. Find the
value of inductance which must be used in series with the lamp, which is supplied by an AC
of maximum rms 325 V at 50 Hz.

## 17. A resistance of 60 , capacitance of 20 F and an inductance of 0.25 H are connected in

series to a source of 30 V, 50 Hz. Find out the time by which the temperature of the
resistance will rise by 150C. Thermal capacity of resistance is 1.8 J/C.

18. An ac source of 220 volts and 60 Hz is connected in series with an inductance of 1.0 H and a
resistance of 377 ohm. Find the wattless component of current in the circuit.

## 19. A circuit containing 8 mH inductor and a 60 F capacitor in series is connected to a 230 V,

50 Hz supply. If the circuit has a resistance of 15 ohm, obtain the average power transferred
to each element of the circuit and the total power absorbed.

20. An AC generator consists of a coil of 2000 turns each of area 80 cm2 and rotating at an
angular speed of 200 rpm in a uniform magnetic field of 4.8  102 T. Calculate the peak
and rms value of emf in the coil.

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Level  I

## region of radius 10 cm as shown in figure. A uniform 


wire of length 80 cm and resistance 4.0  is bent into a 
square frame and is placed with one side along a 
 20cm
diameter of the cylindrical region. If the magnetic field 

increases at a constant rate of 0.010 T/s, find the 

current induced in the frame. 

## 2. The figure shows a wire sliding on two parallel, 

conducting rails placed at a separation ‘’. A 
magnetic field B exists in a direction perpendicular to F
 R
                
the plane of the rails. What force is necessary to 
keep the wire moving at a constant velocity v? 

## 3. An inductorcoil of inductance 20 mH having resistance 10  is joined to an ideal battery of

emf 5.0 V. Find the rate of change of the induced emf at
(a) t = 0
(b) t = 10 ms and
(c) t = 1.0 s.

4. A metal disc of radius 2 m is rotated at a constant angular speed of 60 rad s1 in a plane at
right angles to an external uniform field of magnetic induction 0.05 Wbm 2. Find the emf
induced between the centre and a point on the rim.

## 5. An LR circuit having a time constant of 50 ms is connected with an ideal battery of

emf . Find the time elapsed before
(a) the current reaches half its maximum value,
(b) the power dissipated in heat reaches half its maximum value and
(c) the magnetic field energy stored in the circuit reaches half its maximum value.

6. Find the inductance of a coil in which a current of 0.1 A increasing at the rate of 0.5 A/s
1
represents a power flow of W.
2

## 7. If the voltage in an ac circuit is represented by the equation, V = 2202 sin(314t) V.

Calculate (a) peak and rms value of the voltage (b) average voltage
(c) frequency of AC.

8. A coil of resistance 300 and inductance 1.0 henry is connected across an alternately
voltage of frequency 300/2 Hz. Calculate the phase difference between the voltage and
current in the circuit.

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## Pinnacle Study Package-57 PH-EMI&AC-51

9. A 0.21H inductor and a 12 resistance connected in series to a 220V, 50Hz AC source.
Calculate the current in the circuit and the phase angle between the current and the source
voltage.

10. A 100mH inductor, a 25F capacitor and a 15 resistor are connected in series to a 120V,
50Hz AC source. Calculate
(a) impedance of the circuit at resonance.
(b) current at resonance.
(c) Resonant frequency.

11. Find the value of an inductance which should be connected in series with a capacitor of 5F,
a resistance of 10 and an ac source of 50Hz so that the power factor of the circuit is unity.

12. A voltage of 10V and frequency 1000Hz is applied to a 0.1F capacitor in series with a
resistor of 500. Find the power factor of the circuit and the average power dissipated.

13. Fig. Shows a square loop of side 5 cm being moved towards B=0.6T
       
right at a constant speed of 1 cm/s. The front edge enters the
5 cm        
20 cm wide magnetic field at t=0. Find the emf induced in the        
loop at        
(a) t = 2s, (b) t = 10 s, (c) t = 22 s and (d) t = 30 s. 20 cm

Find the total heat produced during the interval 0 to 30 s if the resistance of the loop is
4.5 m.

14. A long solenoid of radius 2 cm has 100 turns/cm and carries a current of 5A. A coil of radius
1 cm having 100 turns and a total resistance of 20  is placed inside the solenoid coaxially.
The coil is connected to a galvanometer. If the current in the solenoid is reversed in
direction, find the charge that flows through the galvanometer.

15. A square frame with side a and a long straight wire carrying a a
x v
current I are located in the same plane as shown in (Fig) . The I
frame translates to the right with a constant velocity v. Find the emf
induced in the frame as a function of distance x.

16. The magnetic field in the cylindrical region shown in the figure. 
e   d   c
increases at a constant rate of 20.0 mT/s. Each side of the square        
loop abcd and defa has a length of 1.00 cm and a resistance of S 1         S 2
4.00 . Find the current (magnitude and sense) in the wire and if     
f  a  b
(a) the switch S1 is closed but S2 is open,

(b) S1 is open but S2 is closed,
(c) both S1 and S2 are open and
(d) both S1 and S2 are closed.

17. An inductor having inductance L and resistance R carries a current I. Show that the time
constant is equal to twice the ratio of energy stored in the magnetic field to the rate of
dissipation of energy in the resistance.

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## PH-EMI&AC-52 Pinnacle Study Package-57

 B 
18. The magnetic field in a region is given by B  k  o y  where L is a fixed length. A
 L 
conducting rod of length L lies along the Yaxis between the origin and the point

(0, L, 0). If the rod moves with a velocity v = v o i , find the emf induced between the ends of
the rod.

19. Consider the situation shown in the figure. The wire B=1.0T
P 10
PQ has a negligible resistance and is made to slide  
2 cm  
on the three rails with a constant speed of 5 cm/s. S
2 cm  
Find the current in the 10  resistor when the switch  
S is thrown to Q
(a) the middle rail (b) the bottom rail.
R2
20. Consider the circuit shown in fig.
(a) Find the current through the battery a long time R1 L
after the switch S is closed.
(b) Suppose the switch is again opened. What is the
time constant of the discharging circuit?
E S
(c) Find the current through the inductor, after one time
constant, during discharging.

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## Pinnacle Study Package-57 PH-EMI&AC-53

Level  II

1. A flat coil with radius 8 mm has fifty loops of wire on it. It is placed in a magnetic
field = 0.3 T so that the maximum flux goes through it. Later it is rotated in 0.02 s to a
position such that no flux goes through it. Find the average emf induced between the
terminals of the coil.

## 2. It is desired to set up an undriven L  C circuit in which the capacitor is originally charged to a

difference of potential of 100.0 V. The maximum current is to be 1.0 A, and the oscillation
frequency is to be 1000 Hz. What are the required values of L and C?

## 3. A 50W, 100V lamp is to be connected to an ac mains of 200V, 50Hz. What capacitance is

essential to be put in series with the lamp.

## 4. A coil of negligible resistance is connected in series with 90 resistor across a

120V  60Hz line. A voltmeter reads 36V across the resistance. Find the voltage across the
coil and inductance of the coil.

5. An alternating current of 1.5mA and angular frequency  = 300 rad/s flows through 10K
resistor and a 0.50F capacitor in series. Find the r.m.s. voltage across the capacitor and
impedance of the circuit?

6. The inductance of a chokecoil is 0.2 henry and its resistance is 0.50. If a current of 2.0
ampere (rms value) and frequency 50Hz be passed through it, what will be the potential
difference across its ends?

## connected to alternating power source of angular frequency of

2 rad/s. Box has power factor 1 2 and circuit has overall
power factor 1. Find the impedance of the box.
~

## 8. A coil of wire with n loops swings with speed v into a uniform

     
magnetic field B as shown in the figure. If the ends of the coil      
are connected together and the resistance of the coil is R, find    B  
     
the force exerted on the coil by the field when the coil is in the a      
position shown.      
     
v      

9. A long solenoid that has 800 loops per meter carries a current i = 3 sin(400t) A. Find the
electric field inside the solenoid at a distance 2 mm from the solenoid axis. Consider only the
field tangential to a circle having its center on the axis of the solenoid.

10. A circular ring of diameter 20 cm has a resistance of 0.01. How much charge will flow
through the ring if it is turned in a uniform magnetic field of 2.0 T from an initial position
perpendicular to the field to a position parallel to the field ?

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## 11. A thin wire of crosssectional area A is bent into the shape of a   

numerical figure 8, as shown in the figure. A time varying 2a

## magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the figure is  a 

applied. B = B0sint. If  is the resistivity of the wire, find the
  
maximum current through the loop.

12. A closed coil having 100 turns is rotated in a uniform magnetic field B = 4.0  104 T about a
diameter which is perpendicular to the field. The angular velocity of rotation is 300 revolutions per
minute. The area of the coil is 25 cm2 and its resistance is 4.0 . Find
(a) the average emf developed in half a turn from a position where the coil is perpendicular
to the magnetic field,
(b) the average emf in a full turn and
(c) the net charge displaced in part (a).

13. Two parallel wires of radius r, whose centres are a distance d apart, carry equal currents in
opposite directions. Neglecting the flux within the wires, find the inductance of length  of
such a pair of wires.

x x x x
14. A metal rod AB of length L is placed in a magnetic field B as x x x x x x
R
shown in the figure. If the rate of change of B with respect to xxx x x x x x
x x x x x x x x
dB xx x x x x xxx
time is , find the emf produced across AB. x x x x x x x x
dt A B
x x x x x

P
15. A conducting rod PQ of mass m is free to slide on
frictionless rails in the horizontal plane as shown in the v0
L  
figure. At t = 0 the rod is given an initial velocity v 0. Find B

## the variation of x with respect to time. Neglect the Q

x
resistance of the rod, rails and the inductor L. Assume that
the rod remains within the magnetic field B .

## 16. A long straight wire carries a current I0. At distances a and b

from it there are two other wires, parallel to the former one,
R v
which are interconnected by a resistance R (Fig.). A connector b
slides without friction along the wires with a constant velocity
a
v. Assuming the resistances of the wires, the connector, the
I0
sliding contacts, and the selfinductance of the frame to be
negligible, find:
(a) the magnitude and the direction of the current induced in the connector;
(b) the force required to maintain the connector's velocity constant.

17. A LCR circuit has L =10 mH, R = 3 ohms and C = 1 F connected in series to a source of 15
cos t volts. Calculate the current amplitude and the average power dissipated per cycle at
a frequency that is 10 % lower than the resonance frequency.

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## Pinnacle Study Package-57 PH-EMI&AC-55

18. A current of 4 A flows in a coil when connected to a 12 V dc source. If the same coil is
connected to a 12 V 50 rad/s ac source a current of 2.4 A flows in the circuit. Determine the
inductance of the coil. Also find the power developed in the circuit if a 2500 F capacitor is
connected in series with the coil.

19. A box P and a coil Q are connected in series with an ac source of variable frequency. The
emf of the source is constant at 10 V. Box P contains a capacitance of 1 F in series with a
resistance of 32 . Coil Q has a selfinductance 4.9 mH and a resistance of 68  in series.
The frequency is adjusted so that the maximum current flows in P and Q. Find the
impedance of P and Q at this frequency. Also find the voltage across P and Q respectively.

20. An LCR series circuit with 100 resistance is connected to an ac source of 200 V and
angular frequency 300 rad/s. When only the capacitance is removed, the current lags behind
the voltage by 60. When only the inductance is removed, the current leads the voltage by
60. Calculate the current and the power dissipated in the LCR circuit.

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Objective:

Level – I

## 1. A capacitor of capacitance C farad is charged by a battery of e.m.f. V0 volt. The battery is

then disconnected and a pure inductor of L henry is connected across it so that LC
oscillations are set up. Then the frequency of oscillations is :
1
(A) 2 LC  (B)
2  LC 

1 L 1 C
(C) (D)
2  C  2  L 

2. A rectangular loop of wire is placed in a uniform magnetic field B acting normally to the
plane of the loop. If we attempt to pull it out of the field with a velocity v, the power needed is
:
B 2 2 v 2
(A) Biv (B)
R
B v
2 2
Bv
(C) (D)
R R

## 3. A bulb is connected in series with an inductance and a 6 V DC source Bulb

as shown in figure. A soft iron core is inserted in the coil quickly. During
L
this process, the intensity of bulb:
(A) remains unaltered (B) increases
6V
(C) decreases
(D) may increase or decrease depending on the size of core

4. A coil of resistance R and inductance L is connected to a battery of emf E volts. Then the
final current in the coil is :
(A) E/R (B) E/L
(C) E /  R2  L2   (D) EL / R2  L2  
 

5. If L and R represent inductance and resistance respectively, then the dimensions of L/R will
be:
(A) M0L0T1 (B) M0LT
(C) M0L0T (D) cannot be represented in terms of M, L & T

## 6. A rectangular coil pqrs is moved away from an infinite, straight wire

s r
carrying a current as shown in figure. Which of the following
statements is correct? i
(A) There is no induced current in coil pqrs p q
(B) The induced current in coil pqrs is in the clockwise sense
(C) The induced current in the coil pqrs is in anticlockwise direction

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## (D) None of the above

7. A rectangular coil is placed in a region having a uniform magnetic field 
B, perpendicular to the plane of the coil. An e.m.f. will not be induced X
O
in the coil if the:
(A) magnetic field increases uniformly.
(B) coil is rotated about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the coil and passing through its
centre O, the coil remaining in the same plane.
(C) coil is rotated about the axis OX.
(D) magnetic field is suddenly switched off.

8. A metal disc of radius R rotates with an angular velocity  about an axis perpendicular to its
plane passing through its centre in a magnetic field of induction B acting perpendicular to the
plane of the disc. The induced e.m.f. between the rim and axis of the disc is
(A) BR2 (B) BR2
(C) BR2/2 (D) BR2/2

9. In LC circuit the capacitance is changed from C to 4C. For the same resonant frequency, the
inductance should be changed from L to:
(A) 2L (B) L/2
(C) L/4 (D) 4L
2H
10. The equivalent inductance between points P and Q in figure is :
2/3H
(A) 2 H (B) 6 H P
Q
(C) 8/3 H (D)4/9 H
4H

11. The frequency for which a 5.0F capacitor has a reactance of 1000 is given by
1000 100
(A) cycles / sec (B) cycles / sec
 
(C) 200 cycle /sec (D) 5000 cycles /sec

12. In an AC circuit V and I are given by V = 50 sin50t volt and I = 100 sin(50t + /3) mA. The
power dissipated in the circuit
(A) 2.5 kW (B) 1.25 kW
(C) 5.0 kW (D) 500 watt

13. The rootmeansquare value of an alternating current of 50Hz frequency is 10 ampere. The
time taken by the alternating current in reaching from zero to maximum value and the peak
value of current will be
(A) 2102 sec and 14.14 amp. (B) 1  102 sec and 7.07 amp.
(C) 5  103 sec and 7.07 amp. (D) 5103 sec and 14.14 amp.

14. A coil of resistance 2000 and selfinductance 1.0 henry has been connected to an a.c.
source of frequency 2000/2 Hz. The phase difference between voltage and current is
(A) 30 (B) 60
(C) 45 (D) 75

15. In a series resonant circuit, the AC voltage across resistance R, inductance L and
capacitance C are 5V, 10V and 10V, respectively. The AC voltage applied to the circuit will
be

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(C) 5V (D) 25V

## Fill in the blanks

8
16. The switch in the figure is close date time t = 0. The current 4

## in the inductor and current through the switch as function of

4
time these after are ______________and 10 V 1H

__________________

S R2 R3
17. For the circuit shown, E = 50 V, R1 = 10 , R2 = 20, R3 =
30, L = 2.0 mH. The current through R1 and R2 are
R1 L
_________________________ and ____________________ E
immediate after the switch is closed.

xP   r2 P2
18. For the situation described in the figure. The magnetic field 1
  
changes with according to B = (2t3  4t2 + 0.8)T and r2 = 2R = 5    
cm. Then the force on an electron located at P2 at t = 2.0 sec is    
 R 
____________________.

19. In the above question the magnitude and direction of the electric field at P1 when t = 3.00
and r1 = 0.02 m are ___________________________ and _____________________.

z
20. A rectangular loop (10  15 cm) lies in xy plane as shown in the

figure. A time dependent magnetic field B  B0 x sin tjˆ  y cos t kˆ ,  y

with B0 = 120 gauss/m and  = 10000 rad/sec exist within the loop. 15 cm

## Induced emf in the loop due to the changing magnetic field is x 10 cm

___________________

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## Pinnacle Study Package-57 PH-EMI&AC-59

Level  II

L R
1. Which one of the following graphs represent correctly the variations
of current (i), time (t) when key k is pressed in the circuit shown in the
figure:
K
(A) (B)
i
i

O t O t

(C) (D)
i i

O t O t

## 2. A metal rod of resistance 20  is fixed along a diameter of a conducting ring of radius 10 cm

and lies on the xy plane. There is a magnetic field B = 50(T) k̂ . The ring spins with an
angular velocity 20 rad/s about its axis. An external resistance of 10  is connected across
the centre of the ring and rim. The current through external resistance is
1 5
(A) A (B) A
3 3
1 1
(C) A (D) A
4 2

3. A metallic wire is folded to form a square loop of side a. It carries a current i and is kept
perpendicular to the region of uniform magnetic field B. If the shape of the loop is changed
from square to an equilateral triangle without changing the length of the wire and current.
The amount of work done in doing so is
 4 3  3
(A) Bia2  1   (B) Bia2  1  
 9   9 
 
2
(C) Bia2 (D) Zero
3

## 4. A rigid conducting wire bent as  shaped, is released to fall freely        

       
in a horizontal magnetic field which is perpendicular to the plane    90    
of the conductor. If magnetic field strength is B then the emf        
induced across the point A and C when it has fallen from rest     v   
  A    C 
through a distance h will be
(A) B  2gh (B) B  gh
(C ) 2B  gh (D) 2B 

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## 5. A conducting ring of radius r is rolling without slipping with a      

constant angular velocity  . If the magnetic field strength is B and      

     P
is directed into the page then emf induced across PSQ is      
(A) Br2 (B) Br2/2     S 
2 2
(C) 4 Br (D) Br /4  Q

## 6. A coil of inductance 1H and negligible resistance is connected to a source of supply whose

voltage is given by V = 4t volt. If the voltage is applied when t = 0 and switched off at time 4
sec., the energy stored in the coil will be
(A) 512 J (B) 256 J
(C) 1024 J (D) 144 J

7. Two coils A and B have 200 and 400 turns respectively. A current of 1 A in coil A causes a
flux per turn of 103 Wb to link with A and a flux per turn of 0.8  103 Wb through B. The
ratio of selfinductance of A and the mutual inductance of A and B is
(A) 5/4 (B) 1/1.6
(C) 1.6 (D) 1

Q
8. QR is a wire moving with a speed v as shown in figure. The P X
conducting rails PX and SY are smooth. The induced current is in
v
anticlockwise direction. The magnetic field in the region is : i
(A) directed from left to right in the plane of page.
S Y
(B) directed from right to left in the plane of page. R
(C) perpendicular to the plane of page and directed away from reader.
(D) perpendicular to the plane of page and directed towards reader.

## 9. A plane rectangular coil of one turn and area A is spun at a

frequency n about one of its sides, which is placed at 90o to a
uniform magnetic field having flux density B. The peak e.m.f.
induced in the coil is :
(A) BAn (B) BAn
(C) 2BAn (D) 2BAn

20 
10. An ideal inductance of 0.2 H is connected as shown in figure. After the key
L=0.2H
k is pressed, the current in 20  resistance reaches a steady value of
(A) 0.1 A (B) 0.25 A
(C) 0.017 A (D) zero 30 

V=5V K

11. In the given figure, which voltmeter will read zero voltage at V1 V2 V3

R L C
(A) V1 (B) V2
V4
(C) V3 (D) V4

E=Eosint

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## 12. In a R, L, C circuit, three elements is connected in series by an AC source. If frequency is less

than resonating frequency then net impedance of the circuit will be
(A) capacitive (B) inductive
(C) capacitive or inductive. (D) pure resistive.

13. Using an AC voltmeter, the potential difference in the electrical line in a house is read to be
234 volts. If the line frequency is known to be 50 cycles per second, the equation for the line
voltage is
(A) V = 165 sin(100t) (B) V = 331 sin(100t)
(C) V = 234 sin(100t) (D) V = 440 sin(100t)

14. In LCR circuit the inductance is changed from L to 4L. For the same resonant frequency, the
capacitance should be changed from C to
(A) 2C (B) C/2
(C) C/4 (D) 4C

## 15. In an AC circuit, the current is I = 5 sin(100/2) A and the AC potential is

V = 200 sin(100t) volt. Then the power consumption is
(A) 20 watts (B) 40 watts
(C) 1000 watts (D) 0 watts

16. Two long solenoids having their radii R1 andR 2 and number of turns N1 andN2 carry current
1 4 1
i1 and i2 respectively. If the ratio of R1 / R2 
, N1 / N2  and i1 / i2  the ratio of their self
4 1 2
inductances L1/L2 will be (ignore mutual inductance),
(A) 1:2 (B) 2:1
(C) 1:4 (D) 1:1

17. A given LCR series circuit satisfies the condition for resonance with a given AC source. If the
angular frequency of the AC source is increased by 100%, then in order to establish
resonance, and without changing the value of inductance the capacitance must be
(A) Increased by 100 % (B) Reduced by 50 %
(C) Increased by 75 % (D) Reduced by 75 %.

## 18. A conducting rod of length  is hinged at point O. It is free to 

rotate in vertical plane. There exists a uniform magnetic field B in O

horizontal direction. The rod is released from position shown in
the figure. Potential difference between two ends of the rod is 
proportional to B
(A) 3/2 (B) 2
1/2
(C) sin  (D) (sin )

## 19. A conducting wire of length  and mass m can slide

B
without friction on two parallel rails and is connected to C

capacitance C. Whole system lies in a magnetic field B F
and a constant force F is applied to the rod. Then

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## (A) the rod moves with constant velocity

F
(B) the rod moves with an acceleration of
m  B2  2 c
(C) there is constant charge on the capacitor.
(D) charge on the capacitor increases with time

20. A circular loop of radius r, having N turns of a wire, is placed in a uniform and constant
magnetic field B. The normal of the loop makes an angle  with the magnetic field. Its
normal rotates with an angular velocity  such that the angle  is constant. Choose the
correct statement from the following.
NBr 2
(A) emf in the loop is cos  .
2
(B) emf induced in the loop is zero.
(C) emf must be induced as the loop crosses magnetic lines.
(D) emf must not be induced as flux does not change with time.

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Subjective:

Level – O

## 3. (a) in phase with (b) leads (c) lags

1
4. B2 5. 8 volts
2
6. 1.3  103 V 7. 7.5 V
5 3
8. 8  10 Wb, 8  10 wb 9. 1.18  105 H
10. 0.1056 V 11. 5V
12. (a) along abcda (b) along abcda
13. (a) 26.5 , (b) 9.42 , (c) 26.3 
14. 16.09  15. 1.39 ms, 1.44 mJ
16. 0.19 H. 17. 5.06 s.
18. 0.29 A
19. Pav(R) = 789.6 W, Pav(L) = 0, Pav(c) = 0, Pav(total) = 789.6 W.
20. 16.085 V, 11.375 V

Level I
B2l2 v
1. 3.9  105 A 2.
R
3. (a) 2.5  103 V/s (b) 17 V/s (c) 0 V/s
4. 6V 5. (a) 35 ms, (b) 61ms, (c) 61 ms
6. 10 H
7. (a) 311V, 220V (b) 0 (c) f = 50Hz
8. /4 9. I = 3.28A,  = 79.7
20
10. (a) 15 (b) 8A (c) 100.7Hz 11.  2H
2
12. (a) PF = 0.3, PAV = 0.018 W
13. (a) 3  104 V, (b) zero, (c) 3  104 V and (d) zero. 2  104 J
 o 2Ia2 v
14. 1.967  104 C 15. E= .
4 x(x  a)

16. (a) 1.25  107 A, a to d, (b) 1.25  107 A, d to a, (c) zero (d) zero
B o v oL
18. 19. (a) 0.1 mA (b) 0.2 mA
2
E(R1  R2 ) L E
20. (a) , (b) (c)
R1R 2 R1  R 2 R1e

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## PH-EMI&AC-64 Pinnacle Study Package-57

Level  II

1. 0.15 V
2. 15.9 mH, 1.59 F 3. C = 9.2F
4
4. Vl = 114V, L = 0.76H 5. 10V, 1.210 
1
6. 125.6V 7.
C 2

## 8. n2a2v B2 /R 9. 960o cos(400t)V/m.

aAB0
10. 6.28 C 11.
2

0   d  r 
12. (a) 2.0  103 V (b) zero (c) 5.0  105 C 13. ln
  r 

2
dB L L v0 B 2 2
14. R2    15. x =  sin t where  
dt 2  2  ML

2
 vI b v  I b
16. (a)I  o o ln (b)F   o o ln  17. 0.704 A, 5.2  103 J
2R a R  2 a 

## 20. 2A, 400W

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Objective:

Level  I

1. B 2. B

3. C 4. A

5. C 6. B

7. B 8. D

9. C 10. A

11. B 12. B

13. D 14. C

15. C

## Fill in the blanks

16. 0.5(1  e10t)A, 1.50  0.25e10t A

## 20. 0.009 sin t V

Level II
1. C 2. C

3. A 4. C

5. A 6. A

7. B 8. C

9. D 10. D

11. D 12. A

13. C 14. C

15. D 16. D

17. D 18. A, D

19. B, D 20. B, D

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