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DYB 654: ADVANCED STEEL

STRUCTURES - II
Assoc Prof Bülent AKBAŞ
Assoc.Prof.Bülent

Department of Earthquake and


Crown Hall at IIT Campus
Chicago . Illinois
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
St t l Engineering
Structural E i i

Composite Beams
and
d Shear
Sh St d
Studs
Composite Beams and Shear Studs

•Composite Beams
•Nominal Bending Strength of Fully Composite Beams
•Nominal Bending Strength of Fully Composite Beams
•Elastic Behavior and Moment of Inertia of Composite Beams for Deflection 
Elastic Behavior and Moment of Inertia of Composite Beams for Deflection
Calculation
Composite Beams
Composite Beams
Composite Beams
Composite Beams
Composite Beams
Composite Beams
Composite Beams
Nominal Bending (Flexural) Strength of Fully Composite Beams
Nominal Bending (Flexural) Strength of Fully Composite Beams
b

Ycon tc=Ycon‐hr
hr

Concrete below the top of the


top of the
deck is neglected

deck ribs perpendicular (beam)

Ycon tc=Ycon‐hr/2
hr

average thickness can be used

deck ribs parallel (girder)

Figure . Effective slab depth


Nominal Bending (Flexural) Strength of Fully Composite Beams

b 0.85 f c'
C = 0.85 f c'ba ((compression)
p )
tc=YYcon‐h
hr

a
hr Y2
In this case the concrete
e compression flange thickness “a” 
is less than the slab thickness
PNA 
d (plastic neutral axis)
T = f y As (tension)

Fy
Y2=Ycon‐a/2

PNA in concrete slab

M n = Ce = Te
Nominal Bending (Flexural) Strength of Fully Composite Beams

b 0.85 f c'
Cc = 0.85 f c' Ac (compression)
tc=Ycon‐hr

a
hr Y2 Y1 C fl = b f Y1 Fy (compression)

PNA 
d (plastic neutral axis)
Tb = f y Ast = f y As − b f Y1 Fy (tension)

Fy Ac = ab

Y2=Ycon‐a/2
PNA within beam flange
PNA within

Fy As − 0.85 f c' Ac
Y1 =
2b f Fy

Y d
φb M n = φb [(0.85 f c' Ac (Y1 + Y2 ) + 2b f FyY1 ( 1 ) + As Fy ( − Y1 )]
2 2
φb = 0.90
Nominal Bending (Flexural) Strength of Fully Composite Beams

b 0.85 f c'
Cc = 0.85 f c' Ac (compression)
tc=Ycon‐hr

a
hr Y2 C fl (compression)
Y1 Cw (compression)

d PNA
PNA 
(plastic neutral axis) Tb (tension)

Fy

Y2=Ycon‐a/2
PNA within beam web
PNA within

f y As − 0.85 f c' Ac − 2b f t f Fy
Y1 = +tf
2t w Fy

tf Y1 − t f d
φb M n = φb [(0.85 f c' Ac (Y1 + Y2 ) + 2b f t f Fy (Y1 − ) + 2t w Fy (Y1 − t f )( ) + As Fy ( − Y1 )]
2 2 2
φb = 0.90
Nominal Bending (Flexural) Strength of Fully Composite Beams
Nominal Bending (Flexural) Strength of Fully Composite Beams

(MPa)

21 MPa
21 MPa 70 MPa
70 MPa

21 MPa 42 MPa

525 MPa
Nominal Bending (Flexural) Strength of Fully Composite Beams

kN
kN
tension area
Nominal Bending (Flexural) Strength of Fully Composite Beams
Example

2250 mm 28 MPa
82.5 mm
120 mm
37.5 mm 2
16 26
16x26 250MP
250MPa 4,960 mm
4 960 399
399 mm

23.2 mm

+Ycon‐a/2=308mm
/

382 kNm
Nominal Bending (Flexural) Strength of Partially Composite Beams
Nominal Bending (Flexural) Strength of Partially Composite Beams
Nominal Bending (Flexural) Strength of Partially Composite Beams
Elastic Behavior and Moment of Inertia of Composite
Beams for Deflection Calculation

(mm)

200 000 MPa


200,000 MPa

Ec = 0.043w1c .5 f c' ( MPa )


for 1.44 t/m3< wc < 2.5t/m3
(kg/m3)

(Mpa)

Ec = 4700 f c' ( MPa ) For wc > 2.5t/m3


Elastic Behavior and Moment of Inertia of Composite 
Beams for Deflection Calculation
Elastic Behavior and Moment of Inertia of Composite 
Beams for Deflection Calculation
mm2
mm2
Elastic Behavior and Moment of Inertia of Composite 
Beams for Deflection Calculation
Elastic Behavior and Moment of Inertia of Composite 
Beams for Deflection Calculation
Elastic Behavior and Moment of Inertia of Composite 
Beams for Deflection Calculation
Elastic Behavior and Moment of Inertia of Composite 
Beams for Deflection Calculation

AISC 360‐05 , Commentary I3.1
Shear Connectors
Shear Connectors

mm2
mm2
Shear Connectors
Shear Connectors
Shear Connectors
Shear Connectors
Shear Connectors

kN

kN
Shear Connectors

Top flange
Shear Connectors
Shear Connectors

345MPa

=450MPa) 28MPa

12cm 7.5cm
4.80kN/m2 1.0kN/m2
Shear Connectors

3.65m=10.95m

12cm 12.80m

7.5cm
Shear Connectors

3.2m

12cm
3 60kN/m2
3.60kN/m
7.5cm
0.40kN/m2 =4.50kN/m2
0.50kN/m2

4.80kN/m2
3.65m
=4.50x3.65=16.43kN/m
=4.80x3.65=17.52kN/m
=(3 60+0 40)x3 65=14 60kN/m
=(3.60+0.40)x3.65=14.60kN/m
=(1.00)x3.65=3.65kN/m
Shear Connectors

=1.2x16.43+1.6x17.52 =16.43+17.52
=47 75kN/m
=47.75kN/m =33 95kN/m
=33.95kN/m

47.75*12.802=977.92 kNm 33.95*12.802=695.30 kNm

47.75*12.80=305.6 kN 33.95*12.80=217.28 kN
Shear Connectors

28MPa =345MPa =450MPa)

mm
Shear Connectors

{12.80/4, (3.65/2+3.65/2)}=3.20m
345 x 8709.66
= 39.45mm = 120mm
0.85 x 28 x 3200
Shear Connectors

458.72 39.45
195 404.64mm

345 x 8709.66 x 404.64 = 1216 kNm

0.9 x 1216  1216/1.67 

1094.4 kNm > 977.92 kNm


1094.4 kNm > 977.92 kNm 728.1 kNm > 695.30 kNm
728.1 kNm > 695.30 kNm
Shear Connectors

Ec = 0.043wc1.5 f c' = 0.043(2400 kg / m )1.5 28 = 26,753MPa


3

Es
n= = 7.46
Ec
Es = 200,000 MPa

8709.66 * 458.72 / 2 + (120 * 430)(458.72 + 75 + 120 / 2) beff / n = 3200 mm 3.2m


/ 7.46 = 430mm
yb = = 541.10mm
8709.66 + (120 * 430)
52.62mm 120mm

75mm
I tr = [2.964 x108 + 8709.66(541.10 − 458.72 / 2) 2 ]
430 x1203
+[ + 120 x 430 x52.62 2 ]
12 yb = 541.10mm
d = 458.72mm
I tr = 1.348 x109 mm 4

0.75 I trt = 1.011x109 mm 4


Shear Connectors

5wL L4 5 x17.52 N / mm x12,800 4 L 12,800


Δ= = = 30 . 29 mm < = = 35.56mm O.K.
384 E (0.75 I tr ) 384( 200,000)(1.011x109 ) 360 360
Shear Connectors

=1.2x14.60+1.6x3.65 =14.60+3.65
=23.36kN/m =18.25kN/m
23 36*12
23.36 802=478.41 kNm
12.80 =478 41 kNm 25*12 802=373.76 kNm
18.25*12.80
18 =373 76 kNm

0.9(F
0 )=0 9(345x1 486 307mm3)
9(FyZx)=0.9(345x1,486,307mm (FyZx)/1.67=(345x1,486,307
)/1 67=(345x1 486 307mm3)/1.67
1 67
=461.5kNm<478.41kNm =307.1kNm<373.76kNm
Shear Connectors

mm
Shear Connectors

345 x 10,451,59
= 47.35mm < t = 120mm
0.85 x 28 x 3200

460 47.35
195‐ 401.33mm

345 x 10,451. x 401.33 =1,447.2 kNm
Shear Connectors

0.9 x 1,447.2  1,447.2/1.67 

1,302.5 kNm > 977.92 kNm 866.6 kNm > 695.30 kNm
Shear Connectors

0.85x28x3200x47.35=3,606kN

10,451.59 (345)==3,606kN

1,302.5
1.33 (33% over‐strength)
977.92
Shear Connectors

977.92kNm

977.92kNm
Shear Connectors

kN

kN

partially composite beam


Shear Connectors
Shear Connectors
Shear Connectors
Shear Connectors

try to make 977.92kNm

Also assume 55% composite action

As Fy = (10452)(345) = 3,606 kN for a W18x55 beam

∑Q n = 0.55(3,606) = 1,983 kN

a' =
∑Q n
=
1,983,000 N
= 26.04mm
0.85 f c'beff 0.85(28)(3,200)

a' 26.04
Y2 = Ycon − = 195 − = 181.20mm
2 2
Shear Connectors

Assume that Y1 is within the top flange of the beam:

Fy As − 0.85 f c' Ac 345(10,452) − 0.85(28)(3200 x 26.04)


Y1 = = = 12.30mm < t f = 16.00mm O.K .
2b f Fy 2(191.26)345

12.30 460
M n = [(0.85(28)(3200 x 26.04)(12.30 + 181.20) + 2(191.26)(345)(12.30)( ) + (10,452)(345)( − 12.30)]
2 2
M n = 1,179kNm

1,061kNm > 977.92kNm 706kNm > 695.30kNm

φb = 0.90 Ω b = 1.67
Shear Connectors

Ec = 0.043wc1.5 f c' = 0.043(2400 kg / m )1.5 28 = 26,753MPa


3

Es
n= = 7.46
Ec
Es = 200,000 MPa

10,452 x 460 / 2 + (120 x 430)(460 + 75 + 120 / 2)


yb = = 533.5mm
10,452 + (120 x 430) beff / n = 3200 mm 3.2m
/ 7.46 = 430mm

61.5mm
120mm
75mm
I tr = [3.704 x108 + 10,452(533.5 − 460 / 2) 2 ]
430 x1203
+[ + 120 x 430 x61.52 ]
12 yb = 533.5mm
d = 460mm
I tr = 1.590 x109 mm 4

0.75 I tr = 1.193 x109 mm 4


Shear Connectors

5wL L4 5 x17.52 N / mm x12,800 4 L 12,800


Δ= = = 25 . 67 mm < = = 35.56mm O.K.
384 E (0.75 I tr ) 384(200,000)(1.193 x109 ) 360 360
Shear Connectors

W 18x55

=1.2x14.60+1.6x3.65 =14.60+3.65
=23.36kN/m =18.25kN/m
23 36*12
23.36 802=478.41 kNm
12.80 =478 41 kNm 25*12 802=373.76 kNm
18.25*12.80
18 =373 76 kNm

W 18x55
0.9(F
0 )=0 9(345x1 835 351mm3)
9(FyZx)=0.9(345x1,835,351mm (FyZx)/1.67=(345x1,835,351
)/1 67=(345x1 835 351mm3)/1.67
1 67
=570kNm<478.41kNm =379kNm<373.76kNm

5wL L4 5 x3.65 N / mm x12,800 4 L 12,800


Δ= = = 17 . 22 mm < = = 35.56mm O.K.
384 E ( I x ) 384(200,000)(3.704 x108 ) 360 360
Shear Connectors

19 mm 28MPa concrete

Qn = 76.5kN (See the next slide)

∑Q n = 1,983 kN

1,983
= 25.9 (use 26) 
76.5
26 x 2 = 52
150 mm (150 mm apart )
3.30 m (300 mm apartt )

upper flute
6 x19 = 114 mm
lower flute
8 x120 = 960 mm

Note: usual rib (deck flute) 


spacing is about 150mm
Shear Connectors

π (19) 2
Asc = = 283.5mm 2
4

Ec = 0.043wc1.5 f c' = 0.043( 2400 kg / m )1.5 28 = 26,753MPa


3

Qn = 0.5(283.5) 28(26,753) = 122.7 kN ≤ (1.0)(0.6)(283.5)(450) = 76.5kN


Shear Connectors

CL

84 @150 mm = 12,600 mm

150 mm ribspacing

4650mm(everytwoflute) 3300mm(everyflute) 4650mm(everytwoflute)


16 @150mm 20 @150mm 16 @150mm

12.800mm
Shear Connectors

0.6(345)(9.91)(460) = 944kN
0.9(944) = 850kN 305.6kN

944 / 1.67 = 565kN 217.28kN

Fy = 345MPa
fiftytwo 19 mm
Shear Connectors

N C
Non‐Composite
it Design
D i of the
f th Beam:
B

=1.2x16.43+1.6x17.52 =16.43+17.52
=47 75kN/m
=47.75kN/m =33 95kN/m
=33.95kN/m

47.75*12.802=977.92 kNm 33.95*12.802=695.30 kNm

47.75*12.80=305.6 kN 33.95*12.80=217.28 kN

977.92 x106 695.30 x10 6


Z x ,req = = 3,150 x103 mm3 Z x ,req = = 3,366 x103 mm3
0.9(345) (345 / 1.67)

use W 18 x97
Z x = 3,450 x103 mm 3
References

• Shen, J., Advanced Steel Structures, Class Notes, IIT, 2009.
h d d l l