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IGCSE Chemistry

Separating Solid/Liquid Mixtures:

Solute – the solid which dissolves in a solvent

Solvent – the liquid that the solute dissolves in

Solution – formed when a solute dissolves into another solvent: solute + solvent  solution

Saturated solution – a solution which contains as much dissolved

solute as it can at a particular temperature

Soluble – when the solute can dissolve in a solvent

Insoluble – when the solute cannot dissolve in a solvent

Filtration – the process of separating a solid from liquid using a fine

filter paper which does not allow the solid to pass through. The
solid (residue) will stay in the filter and the liquid (filtrate) will be in
the container under the filter.

Decanting – the process of separating a liquid from solid (which has settled) or an
immiscible heavier liquid by pouring the solution into another container. The solid
or the immiscible heavier liquid will stay at the bottom while the liquid will pour out.

Centrifuging – the separation of the

components of a mixture by rapid spinning. The denser particles
are flung to the bottom of the containing tubes. The liquid can
then be decanted off.

Evaporation – the separation of a liquid and a dissolved solid by

heating the solution. The liquid will evaporate completely
leaving the solid behind.

Crystallisation – the process of forming crystals from a

liquid. This occurs when a solution is saturated the salt
begins to crystallise and can be removed with large

Simple Distillation – the process of boiling a liquid and

then condensing the vapour produced back into a liquid.
It is used to purify liquids and to separate mixtures of
Separating Liquid/Liquid Mixtures:

Miscible – description of liquids that form a homogeneous layer

when two are mixed together

Immiscible – description of liquids that form two layers when

two are mixed together

Separating Funnel – funnel that allows the layers in immiscible

liquids to separate

Fractional Distillation - process used to separate miscible liquids

into liquids that have different boiling points. When the mixture
is heated, liquids with low boiling points evaporate and turn to
vapour and can then be separated as liquids. Those with high
boiling points remain liquids

Separating Solid/Solid Mixtures:

Sublimation – heating of substances, in which one will sublime (I2 and CO2 will sublime)

Magnetism – takes out those things which are attracted to a magnet (Like Fe, Co and Ni).

Chromatography – substances dissolved in water (or other solvents) travel along chromatography
paper at different speeds. This difference in properties is used to separate some chemicals in
analytical laboratories. The substances move at different speeds due to their different solubilities in
the solvent.

Locating Agent – used in chromatography to make the spots show when the substance is not visible

Rf Values – used to identify which spot is which item

Solvent Extraction – when substances are extracted from a mixture by using a solvent which
dissolves only those substances required

How the purity of a substance can be shown:

Pure Impure
Melting Point Sharp Melting Point; usually high Range of temperatures
Boiling Point Sharp Boiling Point; usually low Range of temperatures
Chromatography One well-defined Spot on chromatogram Several spots on chromatogram
Element - the simplest building blocks of the physical world. There are 92 naturally occurring
elements. The periodic table is a list of elements in order of atomic number.

Atom – the defining structure of an atom which typically includes a nucleus of protons and neutrons
with electrons orbiting the nucleus

Molecule - Two or more atoms joined together discreetly. (Usually non-metals; can be elements or

Compound - two or more elements (different types) chemically bonded. With compounds you can
always give formula.

Mixture - two or more substances not chemically bonded

Charge Mass
Proton + 1
Electron - 0
Neutron NO CHARGE 1

Ion - Charged particles that are formed when an atom loses or gains an electron

Cat-ion - A positive ion

An-ion - A Negative ion

Valence Electrons - Electrons on the outer shell of an element

Bohr Diagram Example Element: Lewis Diagram Example


9P Electron
Configuration: F
10 N

24 Mass
The Atomic Number is the number of Protons and Electrons unless it is an ion. (Protons = Electrons)

The Mass Number is the number of Protons + Number of Neutrons. To work out the number of
neutrons you must calculate: Mass Number - Atomic Number = Number of Neutrons

Isotope - An element that occupies the same place in periodic table but has a different number of
neutrons. The number of protons and electrons are the same.

Alloy – a mixture of a metal and another element (usually a metal)


Metal + Electrons = Metallic Bonding

Metal + Non-Metal = Ionic Bonding
Non-Metal + Non-Metal = Covalent Bonding

Metallic Bonding:

 Metallic Bond is the attraction between the metal ions and the delocalised electrons
 Too many atoms to count, unlike small molecules like H2O
 Number of delocalised electrons = number of electrons in out shell of element
 Metals conduct electricity because the electrons can move
 Metals are easily shaped (malleable) because cat-ions are in compact layers and can move

+ + + + + + Free (delocalised)
A electrons, they can
+ + + + + + move anywhere
+ + + + +
+ Cat-Ions
Metallic Lattice – the regular arrangement in metal ions in solid metals

Ionic Bonding:

 Ionic Bond is the electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions
 Only show valence electrons in diagrams.
 Show transfer of electrons with arrow
 Write the correct formula
 Both atoms should end up with full valence shells
+ -

Na Cl Na Cl
Polyatomic ions – ions containing more than one atom. Brackets must be used to write formulae
involving more than one of these ions. E.g. Al2(SO4)3; SO4 is a polyatomic ion

Covalent Bonding:

 Covalent bond is the sharing between atoms

to gain full valence shells
 Only show valence electrons on diagrams
 No arrows
 Atoms will be connected
Polar Bonds

Non-Polar Bonds – covalent bonds that involve exactly equal sharing of the bonded pair(s) of
electrons (e.g. Cl with Cl, O with O) or close enough to equal sharing (e.g. C with H) that the shared
pair of electrons is equidistant between the two atoms and thus the electronic charge is evenly
balanced around all atoms

Polar Bonds – covalent bonds involve uneven sharing of the electron pair or pairs, with one of the
atoms (e.g. F, O or Cl) having a slightly stronger attraction for the shared pair of electrons in the
bond than the other atom (e.g. C or H). As a result the covalent bonds are closer to that atom with
stronger attraction. This gives that atom a slightly negative charge (-) and the other atom a slightly
positive charge (+)

Polar Molecules – molecules with at least one polar bond and an asymmetrical shape so the dipoles
do not cancel
 Oxygen atom has stronger attractions + +
and hydrogen has weaker attractions.
 Covalently bonded electrons are
closer to oxygen making it slightly H H
negative and the hydrogen atoms

slightly positive creating dipoles
Molecule in asymmetrical shape
therefore dipoles do not cancel
- O -

 Two polar bonds

 Water is Polar

Non-Polar Molecules – molecules where all bonds are non-polar or with a symmetrical shape causing
the dipoles to cancel out
 Carbon and Hydrogen have the same

Covalently bonded electrons are
shared almost equally creating no

All bonds are non-polar
Molecule is in symmetrical shape so
if there were polar bonds they would

cancel out
Methane is Non-Polar H H
Shapes of Molecules

Molecule Example Shape Bond Angle

CO2 Linear O-C-O = 180°
H2O Bent/V-Shaped H-O-H = 105°
BF3 Triangular Planar F-B-F = 120°
NH3 Pyramidal H-N-H = 107°
CH4 Tetrahedral H-C-H = 109.5°

Radioactivity – when the nucleus in a radioactive atom is unstable and so it emits particles/waves to
form a more stable atom

Radioisotopes – a radioactive isotope; one having an unstable nucleus and emitting radiation during
its decay to a stable form

Radiation – the particles/waves emitted by radioactive substances

Radioisotopes and their Uses

Radioisotopes Uses
Carbon – 14 Carbon Dating; When an organism dies it stops taking in new carbon atoms so the
amount of carbon-14 slowly drops as the atoms decay. By measuring the radiation
from the carbon-14 atoms the age of the remains can be determined.
Cobalt - 60 Cancer Treatment; weak beams of radiation will kill cancer cells more easily than
healthy cells. Cobalt-60 is also used to kill germs and bacteria.
Krypton – 81 Tracers; a small amount of krypton is breathed in, it decays in the lungs and the
radiation can be detected and viewed on a screen where it shows up as bright spots.
Dark patches show where the lungs are not working properly.
Cesium - 137 Kill Germs and Bacteria; a low dose of gamma radiation is used to kill bacteria in food
that causes it to decay. They also kill germs and bacteria on surgical equipment.

States of Matter

Solid Liquid Gas

Fixed shape and volume No fixed shape, fixed volume No fixed shape or volume
Particles are held together by Particles have weaker forces so Particles are very far apart
relatively strong forces are further apart
Incompressible Slight compressibility Compressible
Particles do not have free Particles can move throughout Particles are very spread out
movement but can vibrate bulk of liquid and move in random fashion
around fixed positions

Solidification Condensation

Melting Evaporation


Matter – all the substances and materials from which the physical universe is composed

Kinetic Particle Theory – a theory which accounts for the bulk properties of matter in terms of the
constituent particles. It states that:

 All matter is made up of tiny, moving particles, invisible to the naked eye. Different
substances have different types of particles (atoms, molecules or ions).
 The particles move all the time. The higher the temperature, the faster they move and the
forces of attraction weaken
 Heavier particles move more slowly than lighter particles at a given temperature

Diffusion – the process by which different substances mix as a result of the random motions of their
particles. Particles with smaller Mr diffuses faster.

Intimate mixing – when diffusion takes place between a liquid and a gas

Brownian Motion – random motion of particles caused by smaller and faster moving water particles
constantly colliding with them and moving them around
When the object is melting or vaporising, heat energy is
Liquid being added but temperature is not changing. The average
kinetic energy stays the same. Energy changes to potential
energy by separating.


Absolute Zero – the theoretical temperature (which can never be reached) at which all particle
motion stops. Absolute zero is -273°C or 0 Kelvin. To calculate Kelvin = °C + 273. A 1K change equals
a 1°C change.

Pressure of a Gas

 The free moving particles of a gas will spread evenly within a container and collide with the
walls. This will exert a force on the wall when it bounces off.
 When this happens on a large scale (billions of particles) there is an average force exerted on
the wall. This creates a pressure due to Pressure =

Vapour Pressure – particles that gain enough energy to become gaseous at the top of a liquid
Ionic Compounds

 Solid ionic compounds have no moving charged particles, they do not conduct electricity.
 Liquid and aqueous ionic compounds have free moving charged particles (ions) in solution
which can carry charge under the influence of an electric filed.

Ionic Bond Covalent Bond

Bonding - Results from the attraction - Formed by the sharing of
between positive and negative electrons between atoms
ions - Occurs when two non-metals
- Occurs when a metal reacts react
with a non-metal
Properties - Does form ions so it will - Does not form ions so does
conduct electricity as liquid or not conduct electricity
aqueous - Forms a shared electron
- Forms a crystal lattice structure
structure - Has a low melting and boiling
- Has a high melting point point

Intermolecular – these are attractions between molecules when they are close together and are
broken when substances melt or boil.

Intramolecular – this refers to the covalent bonding. These bonds are only broken during a chemical
reactions and never when melting or boiling. There are three varying degrees of strength of these
bonds that depend on the type of molecules:

1. Temporary dipole attractions – the weakest attraction between non-polar molecules

2. Permanent dipole attractions – the next strongest attraction between polar molecules
3. Hydrogen bonding – strongest attraction between polar molecules and extremely reactive non-
metals (like F, O, or N)

Physical Changes – when the appearance/form of the substance changes but the actual identity and
characteristics of the substance remain the same

Chemical Change/Reaction – when substances chemically combine and alter one another forming
new substances with different properties and characteristics.


 To conduct, charged particles must be present and these charged particles must be free to
 There are two types of conductors:
o Elements which conduct in both solid and liquid because their outer shell electrons
are mobile e.g. metals
o Electrolytes conduct because they contain positive and negative ions. In electrolytes,
the mobile ions carry the current under the influence of an electric field, and the
electrolyte is decomposed/discharged as the ions gain or lose electrons at the
electrodes e.g. Sodium Chloride solution
Allotropes – different forms of the same element.

Allotropy – when an element can exist in more than one physical form in the same state

Giant covalent structures – structures with a network of covalent bonds throughout it. They take a
lot of energy to break and have high boiling and melting points.

Diamond Graphite Silicon Dioxide (Silica)


Each carbon atom has four Each carbon atom has three Each silicon atom has four

covalent bonds with other covalent bonds with other covalent bonds with oxygen
carbon atoms carbon atoms. Van der atoms.
Waal’s forces hold the layers
Carbon atoms link together Arranged in hexagons and are Atoms link together to form

to form a giant lattice arranged in layers on top of giant lattice structure

structure each other. Electrons move
throughout layers

Does not conduct electricity, Conducts Electricity, high Does not conduct electricity,

high melting point, insoluble melting point, insoluble high melting point, insoluble

A hard, colourless, A soft dark grey, shiny solid A hard, colourless,


transparent crystal which with a slippery feel transparent crystal which

sparkles in light sparkles in light (Quartz)
Jewellery, Glass Cutters, Pencils, Electrodes, Cement

Polishers Lubricants
Calculating Ar (Relative Atomic Mass/RAM):

 The Ar of an element is defined as the average mass of its isotopes compared with one-
twelth of the mass of one atom of Carbon 12
 Carbon 12 has a mass of 12 therefore, one-twelth of the mass of one atom of Carbon 12 is 1.
 To calculate Ar you use the equation: Ar = .

Average mass of isotopes of the elements =

Calculating Mr (Relative Formula Mass/Relative Molecular Mass):

To calculate the Mr of a compound, you add the mass number of each of the elements
NaCl = 23 + 35 = 58 or MgBr2 = 24 + 80 + 80 = 184
The Mole Concept

Avogadro’s Constant – equal volumes of all gases measured under the same conditions of
temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules

Moles – the amount of a substance which contains 6x1023 atoms, ions or molecules. This number is
called the Avogadro’s constant. One mole of atoms has a mass equal to the relative atomic mass (Ar)
in grams. One mole of molecules has a mass equal to the relative molecular mass (Mr) in grams.

The calculation of no. of moles is moles =

The calculation of Molar Mass is Molar Mass =

The calculation of mass is mass = number of moles x Molar Mass n M

The calculation of concentration is concentration =

The calculation of Volume is Volume =

The calculation of no. of moles is moles = concentration x Volume c V

The calculation of no. of moles is moles =

One mole of any gas at rtp = 24

The calculation of Volume = Volume x 24 n 24

Empirical Formula

 Percentage composition by mass gives a ratio by mass of the elements contained in a

 This ratio by mass can be converted to a ratio by moles if the % figures (or the known mass)
are divided by the respective relative atomic masses
 Ratios of moles will seldom be whole number ratios
 To calculate the ratio of numbers or atoms in the empirical formula divide all the mole ratios
by the smallest calculated mole value
 The amount of water associated with a particular salt (water of crystallisation) can be
calculated using this method as well.

Step Calcium Bromine

1 - % By Mass (or Mass) 20% 80%
2 – Mole Ratio 20/40 = 0.5 80/80 = 1
3 – Ratio by atoms 0.5/0.5 = 1 1/0.5 = 2
4- Empirical Formula Ca = 1 Br = 2
Percentage Yield – the percentage of the reactants that are converted to products. In some reactions
this will be 100% but others it is much less than 100%.

Theoretical Yield – the amount of a substance that should be produced through a chemical reaction

Actual Yield – the amount of a substance that is actually produced through a chemical reaction

Percentage Yield = e.g.

(30.7g) CaCO3  (11.7g) CO2 + CaO; 100 = Mr of CaCO3, 44 = Mr of CO2

n(CaCO3) = = 0.307 moles
44 x 0.307 = 13.508
= 86.6%

Types of Reactions

Single Displacement - one element displaced

Most Metals + Water  Metal Hydroxide + Hydrogen Gas
Most Metals + Acid  Metal Salt + Hydrogen Gas e.g.

Cu + HCl  CuCl2 + 2H
A + BC  A + B

Double Displacement - two elements displaced

Acid + Base  Salt + Water e.g.

2KI + Pb(NO3)2  PbI2 + 2KNO3

AB + CD  CB + AD

Synthesis - two elements combine to form one compound

Most Metals + Oxygen Gas  Metal Oxides e.g.

2Mg + O2  2MgO
A + B  AB

Decomposition - one compound becomes two (breaks apart/decompose)

Most Metal Hydroxides  Metal Oxide + Water Liquid
Most Metal Nitrates  Metal Oxide + Nitrogen Dioxide Gas + Oxygen Gas
Group One Metal Nitrates  Group 1 Metal Nitrate + Oxygen Gas
Most Metal Carbonates  Metal Oxide + Carbon Dioxide Gas e.g.

CuCO3  CuO + CO2

AB  A + B

Combustion – oxygen combines with another compound to form water and CO2
Organic Molecule + excess Oxygen Gas  Carbon Dioxide + Water e.g.

C10H8 + 12 O2  10 CO2 + 4 H2O

AB + C  AC + BC
Redox Reactions

Oxidation – the gain of oxygen; the loss of hydrogen; the loss of electrons; increase in the oxidation

Reduction – the loss oxygen; the gain of hydrogen; the gain of electrons; decrease in the oxidation

Oxidising Agents (Oxidants) – the molecule that is reduced (lost oxygen, gained hydrogen etc.)

Reducing Agents (Reduced) – the molecule that is oxidised (gained oxygen, lost hydrogen etc.)

Oxidation Number – numerical bookkeeping system to help keep track of electron movements
between substances. The oxidation number of ions is there electric charge. Elements have an
oxidation number of 0.

Photochemical Reactions

Photosynthesis – the conversion of water and carbon dioxide into glucose and oxygen for energy.
The glucose produced is used to make sugars and starch as carbohydrates.

Carbon Dioxide + Water  Glucose + Oxygen Gas

6 CO2 + 6 H2O  C6H12O6 + 6 O2

Respiration – reverse of photosynthesis; combustion reaction

Glucose + Oxygen Gas  Carbon Dioxide + Water

C6H12O6 + 6 O2  6 CO2 + 6 H2O

Photography – this photochemical reaction is used as the basis of black and white photography. The
photographic film is made of flexible plastic, coated with a layer of gelatine with millions of particles
of silver bromide spread through it which is changed to silver when light falls on the exposed parts of
the film.

Silver Bromide  Silver + Bromide

2AgBr  2Ag + Br2

Hydrogen as a fuel:

 Hydrogen is considered to be the fuel of the future and is being trialled by motor
manufacturers as an alternative to fossil fuels such as petrol.
 Hydrogen is non toxic, produces more energy per gram than any other fuel and burns cleanly
to form water so there is no exhaust pollution. It has a lower flammability than fossil fuels.
 Hydrogen is obtained from the electrolysis of water which is plentiful. So far this is not a cost
efficient alternative to using fossil fuels and non-renewable if produced using fossil fuels or
nuclear energy.
 Hydrogen is difficult to transport and store. Because it is too light to liquefy easily, a large
fuel tank would be needed.
 It is explosive in correct proportions with air.

Exothermic Reactions – when energy is lost to the surroundings during a reaction.

Energy Profile for an Exothermic Reaction – the graph shows the variation in energy during the
course of a chemical reaction where heat is released.

Energy Level

Energy Lost

Reaction Progress
Endothermic Reactions – when energy is absorbed by the products from the surroundings during a

Energy Level

Energy Absorbed

Reaction Progress
Activation Energy (Ea) – the initial energy that is required for a reaction to begin

Calorimeter – determines the amount of heat generated in a chemical reaction by the rise in
temperature of the reaction chamber and the water jacket around the reaction vessel.

Bond Energy – the amount of energy needed or released to break or form a bond. Bond breaking is
endothermic. Bond forming is exothermic.

ΔH = Total bond energy of all bonds broken – Total bond energy of all bonds formed

Equilibrium Reactions

Irreversible Reactions – reactions that has products that cannot turn back into their reactants.

Reversible Reactions – reactions that has products that can react back into the original reactants.

Dynamic Equilibrium – when there is no overall change in the amount of products and reactants
even though the reaction is ongoing. Dynamic Equilibrium can only take place in a closed system.
The position of dynamic equilibrium is not always at a half-way point, as in it may be at a position
where there are more products than reactants.

Le Chatelier’s principle – if a closed system at equilibrium is subject to a change then the system will
adjust in such a way as to minimise the effect of the change.
Factors affecting Equilibrium

Factor Increase of Factor Decrease of Factor

Equilibrium shifts to decrease Equilibrium shifts to increase
Temperature the temperature so it shifts to the temperature so it shifts to
the endothermic direction the exothermic direction
Equilibrium shifts to decrease Equilibrium shifts to increase
Concentration the concentration the concentration

Equilibrium shifts to decrease Equilibrium shifts to increase

Pressure the pressure so it shifts in the the pressure so it shifts in the
direction of the least molecules direction of the most molecules
Speeds up the time it takes to
Catalyst reach equilibrium but does not -
change the position

Haber Ammonia Process

Haber Process – the process by which ammonia is made from nitrogen and hydrogen. Nitrogen is
obtained from air and hydrogen is obtained from methane. It follows the following equation:

N2 + 3 H2  2 NH3 ΔH = -92 kJ/mol

 Increasing the temperature will produce less ammonia because this will use up the added
heat. Lowering the temperature will produce a greater yield of ammonia but will decrease
the rate of the overall reaction.
 Increasing pressure should move the equilibrium to the right to produce more ammonia.
However this will increase the cost because of the thickness of the walls of the plant needed
to contain the reaction and it means the temperature will increase and its disadvantages.

Conditions of the Haber Process

 Pressure of 200 atm and Temperature between 380 and 450 °C

 Ground Iron catalyst to increase the rate of reaching equilibrium at the lower temperature
 The equilibrium mixture is cooled, allowing ammonia to liquefy and be removed.
 Unused Nitrogen and Hydrogen is continuously recycled back into the system.
Rates of Reaction

Rates of reactions can be measured by the:

 Time for a solid to dissolve or form

 Loss in Mass (gas given off) over time
 Volume of Gas collected per time
 Time for a colour to appear or disappear

Collision Theory - in order for a chemical reaction to occur the particles must collide with each other
and have sufficient energy to react. The rate of reaction depends on the number of successful
collisions there are in a given time. When particles move faster, they have more kinetic energy.

Rates of reaction are affected by:

1. Concentration - adds more

particles so they can collide
with each other. At the
beginning of the reaction, the
concentration is at its
highest, so the initial rate is
the fastest as there are a
large number of reactant
particles per unit volume and
more collisions will occur. As
the reactants decrease in
concentration, there will be less
collisions and the rate slows

2. Particle Size/Surface Area -

larger area means there is more
room for the particles to roam
and will collide easier. The
amount of product remains the
same but the surface area is

3. Gas Pressure – an increase in pressure forces the particles to come closer together and
increases the chance of successful collisions.

4. Temperature – a higher temperature gives particles more energy for collisions and makes
the particles move faster so they are more likely to collide.

5. Catalysts – provides particles an alternate way of reacting if the activation energy of the
particle is too low, without itself being consumed. E.g. Iron in Haber process, Enzymes in
human body
Acids and Bases

Acid – a substance that acts as a donor of hydrogen ions

Base – a substance that acts as an acceptor of hydrogen ions

Alkali – soluble bases

Acid Base
Sour Taste Bitter Taste
pH less than 7 pH greater than 7
In solution, contains hydronium ions (H3O+) In solution, contains hydroxide ions (OH-)
Turns blue litmus red Turns red litmus blue
Turns phenolphthalein colourless Turns colourless phenolphthalein pink
Corrosive Soapy feel
Reacts with metals to produce salt and hydrogen Cannot react with metals
Examples of Acids Examples of Bases
Hydrochloric Acid HCl Sodium Hydroxide NaOH
Nitric Acid HNO3 Potassium Hydroxide KOH
Sulphuric Acid H2SO4 Calcium Hydroxide Ca(OH)2
Ethanoic Acid CH3COOH Ammonia Solution NH3 (aq)

Hydronium Ion – same as a single proton because when a hydrogen atom loses an electron, only a
proton remains. H+ is irresistibly attractive to water molecules and therefore it would form H3O+.

Dissociation – breaking apart

Strong Acids – in aqueous solutions, strong acids donate all their protons to water molecules.

Weak Acids – there is only a slight tendency to donate protons to water molecules, therefore an
aqueous solution of a weak acid contains mainly undissociated molecules and a low concentration of

Strong Acids Weak Acids

Dissociation in Aqueous Solution Completely dissociate Partially dissociate
Equilibrium None (forward only) Equilibrium reaction
Electrolyte Good Poor
Electrical conductivity Good Poor
[H3O+] Higher Lower
pH value Lower Higher
Examples HCl, HNO3, H2SO4 CH3COOH, NH4+

Amphiprotic – substances can act as both an acid and a base e.g. H2O, HCO3-, HSO4-

Amphoteric – substances will undergo chemical reactions with both acids and bases

Neutralisation – an alkali or base can neutralise an acid by removing the H+ ions and converting them
to water. Neutralisation always produces a salt.
Concentration – a measure of the amount of acid per dm3, refers to the proportion or ratio of acid to
water in the solution

Concentrated Acids – high proportion of acid to water

Dilute Acids – low proportion of acid to water

Monoprotic – having one transferrable proton

Diprotic – having two transferrable protons

Titration – an indicator shows when the acid properties are just destroyed by the alkali. The salt can
then be recovered by evaporating the water away allowing the salt to crystallise. This method is
used when the base, acid and salt are all soluble.


 Oxides of metals are bases (they will react with acids to form salts)
 Oxides of non-metals are acids (they will react with acids and bases)
 Some metal oxides are amphoteric (they will react with acids and bases)
 Some non-metal oxides are neutral
 Oxide ions immediately react with water and then dissolve to form hydroxide ions. Although
potassium hydroxide solution exists, potassium oxide solution does not exist

Metal Oxides – compounds of metal cations and the oxide anion O2-. Few metal oxides react or
dissolve in water. The main metal oxides which are considered soluble are potassium and sodium
oxides, as well as barium, calcium, and magnesium oxides in decreasing amounts. Metal oxides are
either basic or amphoteric. The basic oxides will only react with acids, while the amphoteric oxides
will react with both acids and bases.

Non-metal Oxides – covalently bonded compounds of a non-metal with oxygen. They are either
acidic or neutral oxides. The acidic oxides react with water immediately and dissociate to form acid
solutions while the neutral oxides do nothing when placed in water. The acidic oxides will react only
with bases, while the neutral oxides are unreactive with both acids and bases.

Solubility of Ionic Compounds in Water

Precipitate – a solid formed in a solution.

Sparingly Soluble (SpSol) – materials have very low solubilities

Hydrolyse (Hyd) – reacts with water

Always Soluble Usually Soluble Usually Insoluble

All NO3- All SO42- EXCEPT Ba, Pb, Ag, Ca All CO32- EXCEPT Group 1
All NH4+ All Cl- EXCEPT Ag, Pb All O2- EXCEPT Group 1 and 2
Group 1 All I- EXCEPT Ag, Pb All OH- EXCEPT Group 1;
All Br- EXCEPT Ag, Pb Ca and Ba are slightly soluble
NO3- Cl- Br- SO42- CO32- OH- O2- I-
NH4+ White White White White White - - White
Soluble Soluble Soluble Soluble Soluble Soluble
Na+ White White White White White White White White
Soluble Soluble Soluble Soluble Soluble Soluble Hyd Soluble
K+ White White White White White White White White
Soluble Soluble Soluble Soluble Soluble Soluble Hyd Soluble
Al2+ White White White White - White White White
Soluble Soluble Soluble Soluble Insoluble Insoluble Hyd
Zn2+ White White White White White White White White
Soluble Soluble Soluble Soluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble Soluble
Ca2+ White White White White White White White White
Soluble Soluble Soluble Insoluble Insoluble SpSol Hyd Soluble
Cu2+ Blue Blue Black Blue Green Blue Black -
Soluble Soluble Soluble Soluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble
Ag+ White White White White White - Brown Yellow
Soluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble
Fe2+ Green Yellow Green Green Grey Green Black Grey
Soluble Soluble Soluble Soluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble Soluble
Fe3+ Violet Brown Red Yellow - Brown Red -
Soluble Hyd Hyd Soluble Insoluble Insoluble

Identification of Cations

Add a few drops of NaOH Add excess NaOH Add Ammonia to fresh sample
NH4+ No precipitate formed When warm = litmus blue -
Cu Blue precipitate formed - -
Fe2+ Green precipitate formed - -
Fe3+ Orange/Brown precipitate - -
Al3+ White precipitate Precipitate dissolves Insoluble white precipitate
Ca2+ White precipitate Precipitate remains -
Zn2+ White precipitate Precipitate dissolves Soluble white precipitate

Identification of Anions

Test with red litmus Add HNO3 and Add dilute HNO3 and Add Al and NaOH to
Ba(NO3)2 AgNO3 to fresh sample fresh sample; warm
CO3- Litmus turns blue - CO2 released (HNO3 only) -
SO42- No change Precipitate forms - -
Cl- No change No precipitate White precipitate -
I- No change No precipitate Yellow precipitate -
NO3- No change No precipitate No precipitate NH3 produced

Identification of Gases

Ammonia Turns damp litmus blue; forms white smoke when in contact with HCl fumes
Carbon Dioxide Turns limewater milky
Chlorine Bleaches damp litmus paper
Hydrogen ‘Pops’ with lighted splint
Oxygen Relights a glowing splint
Physical Properties of Metals, Non-Metals and Metalloids

Metals Non-Metals Metalloids

Lustre (shiny) No lustre Can be shiny or dull
Good conductor of heat Poor conductor of heat Fair conductor of heat
Good conductor of electricity Poor conductor of electricity Fair conductor of electricity
Malleable Not Malleable Malleable
Ductile Not Ductile Ductile
High Density Low Density Solids
High Melting Point Low Melting Point

Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals

Metals Non-Metals
Easily loses electrons Tends to gain electrons
Oxides generally basic and amphoteric Oxides generally neutral
Corrodes easily

Alkali Metals

 Group One Metals

 Very low density and therefore floats on water. The densities increase down the group.
 Silvery and shiny when freshly cut, however they quickly tarnish
 Low melting point
 Low boiling point
 The reactivity increases down the group. Since the valence electron is further from the
nucleus, the attractive force holding it is weaker and therefore other stronger forces can
easily remove it.

Transition Metals

Physical Properties (compared to Group 1) Chemical Properties (compared to Group 1)

Much harder Much less reactive
Higher tensile strength Many have excellent corrosion resistance
Higher density Show more than one valency (e.g. Fe2+ or Fe3+)
Higher melting point and boiling point Them and their compounds are useful catalysts
Many of their compounds are coloured Some are strongly magnetic


Alloy Mixture Use

Solder 70% Tin, 30% Lead Joining wires and pipes
Brass 60-95% Copper, 5-40% Zinc Taps, hose/pipe fittings, zips, screws
Bronze 90% Copper, 10% Tin Ornaments, bells, bearings
Mild Steel 99.5% Iron, 0.5% Carbon General structural purposes, cars
Hard Steel 99% Iron, 1% Carbon Blades
Stainless Steel 74% Iron, 18% Chromium, 8% Nickel Corrosion resistance
Alnico Iron/Aluminium/Nickel/Cobalt Permanent Magnets
Metals Uses

Metal Property Uses

Aluminium Does not corrode Food containers
Low density, unreactive Containers and packaging buildings
Low density, strong, conducts Long distance wiring
Low density, strong, cheap Transport vehicles
Low density, conducts heat Car Engines
Zinc Reactive Dry cells (“batteries”)
More reactive than iron Galvanising Iron
Iron Similar expansivity Reinforcing concrete
Strong, cheap Nails
Strong and abundant Ship building
Copper Good conductor of electricity Electrical wiring
Unreactive, workable Alloys – brass and bronze
Unreactive Coinage (with Nickel)
Unreactive Hot water piping

Reactivity Series
Most Reactive K Potassium Any metal higher on the reactivity
Na Sodium series will displace another lower
Ca Calcium
metal’s ions from solution.
Mg Magnesium
e.g. Ca (s) + Cu2+ (aq)  Ca2+ (aq) + Cu (s)
Al Aluminium
BUT Cu (s) + Ca2+ (aq)  No Reaction
C Carbon
Zn Zinc The more reactive metals are difficult
Fe Iron to extract from their ores in compound
Sn Tin
form as they are stable.
Pb Lead
H Hydrogen The less reactive metals have the
Cu Copper greater tendency to form atoms and
Ag Silver therefore their compounds are less
Au Gold stable.
Least Reactive Pt Platinum

Corrosion – when metals react with water and oxygen. The metal ions lose electrons to form ions.

Rusting – the corrosion of iron metal to form a red-brown compound (hydrated iron (III) oxide)

Covering with Protective Coat Preventing Oxidation of Metal

Painting Galvanising – zinc atoms react before the iron
Greasing of metal parts Sacrificial protection – a more reactive metal
Oiling of bike chains reacts before the metal that it is protecting
Tin Plating – In cans Carthodic protection – an electric power source
Plastic covering on electric wires pushes electrons into the metal to prevent the
Galvanising – zinc coating for galvanised steel loss of electrons
Chromium plating of car parts
Reduction of Metal Oxides

By Hydrogen: only the metals below Hydrogen in the reactivity series are reduced by using this
method (mainly only CuO)

CuO (s) + H2 (g)  Cu (s) + H2O (l)

By Carbon: only the metals below Carbon in the reactivity series are reduced by using this method

2 PbO (s) + C (s)  2 Pb (l) + CO2 (g)

By Carbon Monoxide: only metals below Carbon in the reactivity series are reduced by using this

CuO (s) + CO (g)  Cu(s) + CO2 (g)

Blast Furnace

 Iron is extracted from Haematite or Ironsand in a Blast Furnace

 A charge is a mixture of limestone, coke (carbon) and iron oxide (as well as it’s impurities,
mainly consisting of SiO2)
 The charge is placed in the top of the blast furnace and hot air is blasted through at the
bottom, making the charge glow white hot.
 The following reactions take place:

C (s) + O2 (g)  CO2 (g) CaCO3 (s)  CO2 (g) + CaO (s)

CO2 (g) + C (s)  2 CO (g) CaO (s) + SiO2 (s)  CaSiO3 (l)
This is known as slag.

3 CO (g) + Fe2O3 (s)  2 Fe (l) + 3 CO2 (g)

If the iron from the blast furnace solidifies, it is called

cast iron and is mostly turned into steel. Steel is
manufactured the following way:

 Unwanted impurities are removed in an oxygen

furnace where the molten metal is poured into a
furnace along with some scrap iron (to recycle
it). Calcium oxide is added and a jet of oxygen is
blasted into it. The calcium oxide reacts with the
impurities forming slag that can be skimmed off.
 Oxygen reacts with the excess carbon, burning
most of it away as CO2, leaving some to mix with
the iron to make the metal hard but not brittle.
 Other elements are then added to gain the
desired steel properties.
Zinc from Zincblende

1. The ore zincblende (made mostly from Zinc Sulphide) is crushed and put into water through
which air is blown. Rock particles sink and the zinc sulphide floats in a froth which is
skimmed off and dried. The product of this stage is 55-75% Zinc Sulphide.
2. The Zinc Sulphide is converted to Zinc Oxide by strong heating in a furnace:

ZnS + 3 O2  2 ZnO + 2 SO2

3. Zinc Oxide is mixed with coke in a furnace and heated to 1400 °C where it is reduced to zinc:

ZnO + C  Zn + CO

4. The zinc metal produced cools and the carbon monoxide is burnt, with the heat given out to
help reduce costs of the furnace.

Heating Metal Compounds

Hydroxide Nitrate Carbonate

Potassium Stable Decomposes Stable
Sodium No Reaction 2NaNO3  2NaNO2 + O2 No Reaction
Carbon Decomposes Decomposes Decomposes
Zinc Cu(OH)2  CuO + H2O 2Ca(NO3)2  2CaO + MgCO3  MgO + CO2
Iron 4NO2 + O2


 Group VII elements are known as Halogens

 They are non-metals
 They are poisonous
 Melting point and Boiling point will increase as it goes down the group because the size
increases, meaning an increase in the strength of the Van der Wall forces holding them
together, causing a higher temperature to be needed to break them
 Colour goes darker as it goes down the group
 Less reactive as it goes down the group because the bigger the atom, the smaller attraction
between the nucleus and incoming electron
 All have similar properties because they all have seven electrons in the outer shell
 Reacts with metals to form ionic compounds, containing halide ions
 A more reactive halogen will displace a less reactive one from solution

Sulfur – mined from solid underground deposits of elemental sulphur, extracted from fossil fuels,
received from metal sulphide ores when the metal is extracted. It is used in the manufacture of
sulfuric acid.

Sulfur Dioxide – is prepared from when sulphur burns in air or oxygen (burns with a blue flame):

S(s) + O2(g)  SO2(g)

 Sulfur dioxide dissolves in water to form sulfurous acid (a weak acid) which can lead to the
problem of acid rain

H2O(l) + SO2(g)  H2SO3(aq)

 Sulfur dioxide can cause bronchiospasm in asthmatics

 It is used as a bleaching agent when paper is made from wood pulp
 It is used as a preservative for food by killing bacteria.
 Sulphites and hydrogen sulphites are also used as preservatives because they liberate SO2 in

Sulfuric Acid – a typical acid used in fertilisers, paints, pigments, dyestuffs, chemical manufacture,
soaps and detergents and fibres.

Contact Process – the industrial preparation of sulfuric acid. All reactions in it are exothermic.

1. Sulfur is burned in air:

S(s) + O2(g)  SO2(g)

2. The SO2 is reacted with further oxygen over a catalyst bed (vanadium (V) oxide). The
vanadium (V) oxide is a catalyst which speeds up the reaction without being used up. It
melts at 400 °C, spreading to give a larger area. The yield of SO2 is sufficiently high for this
stage to be carried out at atmospheric pressure.
2 SO2(g) + O2(g)  2 SO3(g)

3. The sulfur trioxide is reacted with 98% H2SO4 to form oleum, which then reacts with water to
form more sulfuric acid. The SO3 must be reacted with sulfuric acid first and not immediately
with water as it is too exothermic/violent to carry out directly.

SO3(g) + H2SO4(l)  H2S2O7(l)

H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l)  2 H2SO4(l)


Electrolyte – molten or dissolved metal compounds that conduct electricity. When electrolytes
conduct electricity, ions move.

Electrode – most electrodes are metals or graphite. When metals conduct electricity, valence
electrons move from ion to ion, from the negative to positive electrode. When graphite conducts,
the delocalised electrons between the layers can flow. The two electrodes are called the cathode
(which is negatively charged and attracts cations) and the anode (which is positively charged and
attracts anions). Reduction occurs at the cathode and oxidation occurs at the anode. The mobile ions
of the electrolyte carry the current between the electrodes. Graphite electrodes must be replaced
periodically because graphite will react with oxygen to form CO2.

Electrochemical Cells – produce electricity spontaneously via a chemical reaction (redox) between
two metals.

 When two metals of different reactivity are connected electrically in a complete circuit with
a conducting wire and an electrolyte, electrons flow from the more reactive metal to the
least reactive metal.
 The electron flow is called current, and the energy
transfer from the higher to lower reactivity metals is
called the voltage.
 The greater the difference in reactivity between the two
metals making up the electrodes, the greater the energy
transfer and therefore greater voltage of the cell.
 A dry cell uses a damp paste of ionic material (salt
bridge) between the electrodes instead of a liquid
 More than one cell connected together is called a
 The more reactive metal is always the negative electrode.

Hydrogen Fuel Cell

Hydrogen at the anode and Oxygen at the cathode combine to form water. The reduction of
Hydrogen at the anode causes the lost electrons to form a current on their way to reducing oxygen
at the cathode.

2 H2  4 H+ + 4 e-
O2 + 4 e-  2 O2-
2 O2- + 4 H+  2 H2O

Advantages Disadvantages
Only product is H2O (no CO2) Risk of explosions/gases takes up a lot of volume
Hydrogen is very abundant (in compounds)
It is renewable

Electrolysis - the passing of a direct current through a conducting solution or liquid and the
resultant decomposition of the electrolyte. It uses electricity from a power source in order to
cause a chemical reaction (redox). It will force the oxidation or reduction of substances that are
high in reactivity that do not naturally oxidise or reduce using normal chemical processes.

Direction of electron flow

- +

- +

 Cations are attracted to the cathode and are discharged (converted to a new substance)
 Anions are attracted to the anode and are discharged
 The electrolyte is decomposed
 The electrodes are usually made of graphite or a completely unreactive metal (e.g. platinum)

Selective Discharge Rules

The ease of discharge of an ion depends on several factors, including the nature of the electrode,
and the nature of the electrolyte (molten/aqueous, concentrated/dilute).

1. Cations always discharge at the cathode

2. Anions always discharge at the anode
3. The ions of the more reactive metals are more difficult to discharge than those of less
reactive metals
4. The sulphate and nitrate ions are never discharged (but not when altered)
5. Halide ions will be difficult to discharge
6. The more concentrated the solution, the more chance the ions will be discharged

Note: if chloride ion is present it is most likely always going to be the anode product. The following
equation represents the discharging of Hydroxide ions:

4 OH- O2 + 2 H2O + 4 e-
Production of Caustic Soda

Caustic Soda – a common name of sodium hydroxide. The electrolysis of a concentrated sodium
chloride solution (brine) produces three products: hydrogen, caustic soda and chlorine.

The Membrane Cell method – the membrane is permeable to cations so only the sodium ions can
flow through and the hydroxide ions cannot flow back to the anode. The membrade is a porous,
thin, flexible sheet.

The m em brane cell for m aking N aOH

chlorine hyd rogen

m em brane

35 % N aOH
d ep leted N a+
brine w ater

anod e cathod e
+ ve - ve
(Ti or grap hite) (steel or graphite)

Anode: 2Cl-  Cl2 + 2e- Cathode: 2H2O + 2e-  2OH- + H2

 At the cathode, Hydroxide ions are formed (produced together with the hydrogen)
 As the sodium ions move towards the cathode, a solution of sodium hydroxide is thereby
 The water molecules are reduced at the cathode
 The sodium ions are not reduced and apart from moving through membrane do not change
 Chlorine is used in PVC and in water
 Sodium Hydroxide is used in pulp and paper, and soap.

Production of Aluminium

1. Mine the bauxite ore (a mixture of Al2O3 and SiO2 as well as other impurities such as Fe2O3)
2. Purify the ore by dissolving it in sodium hydroxide solution. This dissolves the alumina
(aluminium oxide) which is amphoteric but not the basic impurities e.g. Fe2O3
3. At the aluminium smelter, the alumina is dissolved in cryolite (Na3AlF6) because this gives
the mixture a much lower melting temperature (900 °C) and it conducts electricity better.
The mixture is 95% alumina and 5% cryolite.
4. Large amounts of electrical energy are passed through the mixture. The anodes are carbon
rods. The cathode lining is graphite in steel casing. The passing of electric current causes
electrolysis to occur.

Anode: Al3+ + 3 e-  Al Cathode: 2 O2-  O2 + 4e-

Overall: 4 Al3+ + 6 O2-  3 O2 + 4 Al
5. The molten aluminium is poured into ingots and used for many purposes.
Purification of Copper

 Copper metal is readily extracted by roasting copper ores malachite (impure CuCO3) and
copper pyrites (CuFeS2) to obtain copper.
 Impure copper was at the anode and pure copper was at the cathode
 Aqueous copper(II) sulphate was the electrolyte
 At the anode, metals more active than copper are oxidised to their cations and remain as
cations and must be removed as they accumulate.
 Copper is oxidised to Copper(II), while metals less reactive than copper are not oxidised but
instead fall to the bottom of the cell and are removed through filtration of the electrolyte.
 The impurities are mainly Ag and Au and are called the anode sludge.
 At the cathode, copper ions are reduced to copper metal (almost 100% pure).

Cu2+ (aq) + Cu (s)  Cu (s) + Cu2+ (aq)

Electroplating Metals

Electroplating – the process involving electrolysis to coat one metal with another. Often the purpose
of electroplating is to give a protective coating to the metal beneath or as a decorate coat.

 To plate an object with a metal, the object to be electroplated is made the cathode in an
electrolysis cell.
 The anode is made from the metal that is to be the coating
 The electrolyte will be a salt solution of the metal to be electroplated

Hydrocarbons - a substance made of Hydrogen and Carbon

Homologous Series – a series of carbon compounds differing from each other only by the addition of
more CH2 groups to increase the length of the carbon chains.

Isomers – different forms of the same molecular formula with different structural formulae

Alkanes Alkenes
 Non-polar molecules  Non-polar molecules
 Weak intermolecular attractions  Weak intermolecular attractions
 Low melting point and boiling point (but  Low melting point and boiling point (but
increases as size increases) increases as size increases)
 Lower density than water  Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
 Saturated Hydrocarbons  Contain a double bond
 Single bonds only  Formula = CnH2n
 Formula = CnH2n +2  Extremely reactive due to double bonds
 Gas state between 1-4 C’s breaking
 Liquid state between 5-17 C’s  Turns bromine water from red to colourless
e.g. Ethane (C2H6) e.g. Ethene (C2H4)

Alcohols Carboxylic Acids

 Polar molecules (decreases as more carbons  Polar molecules
added)  Formula = CnH2n+1COOH
 Strong intermolecular attractions  Strong intermolecular attractions
 Formula = CnH2n +1OH  Weak acids
 Colourless volatile liquids  Formed through the oxidation of Alcohols
 Burn cleanly and efficiently, but with less  Reacts with Alcohols to form Esters
energy from presence of oxygen

e.g. Ethanol (C2H5OH) e.g. Ethanoic Acid (CH3COOH)

Alkane Reactions

1. Combustion – alkanes burn in oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water as long as sufficient
oxygen is present; if insufficient, carbon monoxide or carbon will be produced instead of
carbon dioxide
2. Substitution – alkanes will react with halogen molecules in a substitution reaction e.g.

C2H6 + Br2  C2H5Br + HBr

Alkene Reactions

1. Hydrogenation - Addition by hydrogen. Alkanes are formed when the H2 adds to the alkene
molecule. A catalyst of nickel or platinum is used at a temperature of about 150 °C e.g.

CH2 = CH2 + H2  CH3CH3

2. Halogenation – Addition of bromine or other halogens. Halogen alkenes are formed when
halogens attach to the carbons in the double bond by covalent bonds e.g.

CH2 = CH2 + Br2  CH2BrCH2Br

3. Hydration – Addition of water. Alcohols form when water is added to alkene molecules. A
catalyst of dilute H2SO4 or H3PO4 is used.

CH2 = CH2 + H2O  CH3–CH2–OH

Number of Alkane Alkene Alcohol Carboxylic Acids

1 Methane --- Methanol Methanoic Acid
2 Ethane Ethene Ethanol Ethanoic Acid
3 Propane Propene Propanol Propanoic Acid
4 Butane Butene Butanol Butanoic Acid
5 Pentane Pentene Pentanol Pentanoic Acid
6 Hexane Hexene Hexanol Hexanoic Acid
7 Heptane Heptene Heptanol Heptanoic Acid
8 Octane Octene Octanol Octanoic Acid
9 Nonane Nonene Nonanol Nonanoic Acid
10 Decane Decene Decanol Decanoic Acid
Crude Oil

Fossil Fuel - organic matter (once living) e.g. coal (dead plant matter), oil (dead sea creature

Crude oil - made of hydrocarbons. It is the result of heat and pressure on plant and (sea) animal
remains over millions of years in the absence of air. This oil (and gas) rises up through permeable
rocks and becomes trapped under impermeable rocks, so they have to be extracted by drilling. The
oil is called crude oil because it is unrefined which makes it of little use as it is hard to transport.

Fractional Distillation - process used to separate a mixture of liquids that have different boiling
points. When the mixture is heated, liquids with low boiling points evaporate and turn to vapour and
can then be separated as liquids. Those with high boiling points remain liquids.

Cracking – allows large hydrocarbon molecules to be broken down into smaller, more useful
hydrocarbon molecules. Fractions containing large hydrocarbon molecules are vaporised and passed
over a hot catalyst. This breaks chemical bonds in the molecules, and forms smaller hydrocarbon
molecules. Cracking is an example of a decomposition reaction. e.g.

Polymers - very large molecules made when hundreds of monomers join together to form long
chains. They have no double bonds.

Synthetic Polymers (Plastics) – man-made polymers

Monomers - a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer.

Polymerisation - the combining of monomers to form polymers

Addition Polymers – the monomer is thousands of the same alkene molecules, whose double bond is
broken to join the molecules together in one long chain e.g.

If you had n (number) of this monomer:

Then n of the monomers would join together, by breaking the double bond and connecting to the
other monomers to form a long chain:

This would then be written as a repeated unit:

Condensation Polymers – a polymer formed by a condensation reaction (one in which water is given

Artificial Polymers – where a product is formed from two different types of monomers arranged
alternately and linked together. In this case the monomers usually contain a minimum of two of the
same/different functional groups at the end of their molecules. When the polymer forms, a small
molecule such as H2O or HCl is lost at each junction. Artificial polymers include:

 Ester Linkage – a polymer found between di-carboxylic acids and a diols. (-COO-) e.g. Terylene

n HO C C H
OH + O



O C C O C C + n H2O
Ester Link
 Amide Linkage - a polymer formed between di-carboxylic acids and diamines (-CONH-) e.g. Nylon

n H N C C N H + HO C C OH



N C C N C C + n H2O
Amide Link
Natural Polymers – those polymers found in nature and are usually condensation polymers

 Peptide (Amide) Linkage – a protein (polypeptide) formed between amino acid molecules



H N C C N C C OH + n H2O

Amide Link
 Polysaccharides – complex carbohydrate molecules made my polymerizing simple sugar
molecules such as glucose

n HO OH O O O O + n H2O
Proteins – polymers of amino acids formed by condensation reactions.

Amino Acids – naturally occurring organic compounds which possess both an –NH2 group and –
COOH group on adjacent carbon atoms. There are 20 naturally occurring amino acids, of which
glycine is the simplest.

Carbohydrates – a group of naturally occurring organic compounds which can be represented by the
general formula Cx(H2O)y

Sugars – any of the class of soluble, crystalline, typically sweet-tasting carbohydrates found in living
tissues and exemplified by glucose and sucrose. They are tested by warming with Benedicts or
Fehlings solutions; if the sugar is present, the colour changes from a blue solution to an orange-red
suspension or precipitate.

Starch – made up of 200-300 glucose monomers. Starch turns iodine solution from red-brown to
blue-black colour.

Cellulose – made up of about 3000 glucose monomers.

Fats and Oils

Fats – naturally occurring polyesters with the same link between ester monomers as Terylene. The
chains typically contain 12 to 20 carbon atoms. Fats and oils are rich in energy and this is their
normal function to us. They are also important in soap and detergent products. A fat molecule is
made of two components, a glycerol (the “backbone” of the molecule) and fatty acids (which are
attached to the backbone.

Glycerol Fatty Acids Formation of Triglyceride

R is the fatty acid


Soaps – long chains derivatives of fatty acids. The fatty acid is reacted with a base such as caustic
soda. This causes the formation of the sodium salt of the fatty acid which is used as soap. Soap
(sodium stearate) is an ionic compound and can remove dirt
with the covalent end (non-polar) attracting to the dirt and
the ionic end attracting to water molecules. Soap molecules
can make oils and water form a stable emulsion. However, it
forms a scum with hard water by reacting with Ca2+ or Mg2+

Gas Percentage in Air Percentage in Inhaled Air Percentage in Exhaled Air

Nitrogen 79 79 79
Oxygen 20 20 17
Argon 0.9 1 (with other Inert Gases) 1 (with other Inert Gases)
Carbon Dioxide 0.03 Trace 4
Others 0.07 - -
Water - Variable Saturated

Fractional Distillation of Air – the main industrial method of preparation of pure oxygen and nitrogen

 Air is liquefied by compression and cooling to below the boiling point of both oxygen and
nitrogen, so that most of the “air” becomes a liquid.
 The liquid “air” is allowed to warm slowly and the nitrogen (b.p. -195°C) boils off first and thus
can be extracted.
 The oxygen (b.p. -183°C) boils off after the nitrogen and can then also be extracted.

Pollutants Cause Effect Solution

Sulphur Dioxide Combustion of Sulphur Forms acid rain when Scrubbing – converts
(found in fossil fuels) reacted with water in SO2 to H2SO4
S(s) + O2(g)  SO2(g)
SO2(g) + H2O(l)  H2SO3(aq)
Nitrogen Oxides Reaction between Contributes to Acid Rain Catalytic Converters
nitrogen and oxygen at and are a major
high temp and pressure component of
in motor vehicle engines photochemical smog
2N2(g) + 3O2(g)  2NO(g) + 2NO2(g)
Carbon Monoxide Incomplete combustion Strong bonds with Catalytic Converters
in motor vehicle engines haemoglobin,
decreasing the amount
of oxygen distributed
around the body
Lead Combustion of petrol Brain damage, nervous Catalytic Converters,
containing lead system problems using unleaded fuel

Catalytic Converter –catalysts that convert poisonous exhaust fumes into harmless gasses in cars.

 The reduction catalyst uses platinum and rhodium to help reduce the NOx emissions by ripping
the nitrogen atom out of the molecule, freeing the oxygen.
2NO  N2 + O2 / 2NO2  N2 + 2O2
 The oxidation catalyst removes the unburned hydrocarbons
and carbon monoxide by burning them over a platinum and
palladium catalyst.
2CO + O2  2CO2
 2NO2 + 4CO  4CO2 + N2

Laboratory Preparation of Oxygen

1. Heating Potassium Manganate (VII)

2 KMnO4 (s)  K2MnO4 (s) + MnO2 (s) + O2 (g)

purple  green + black + colourless

2. Decomposing hydrogen peroxide by a catalyst of manganese (IV) oxide

2 H2O2 (l)  2 H2O (l) + O2 (g)

Industrial Uses of Oxygen

 Steel making
 In oxy-acetylene welding
 In hospitals and ambulances for treatment of trauma patients
 In rockets to combine with the fuel
 In deep sea diving helium-oxygen mixtures
 Compressed air is avoided in deep sea diving because the nitrogen causes ‘nitrogen narcosis’
when the diver surfaces too rapidly and the nitrogen bubbles out of the blood due to the
rapid decrease in pressure.



 Very slightly soluble in water

 Very unreactive because of its strong intramolecular nitrogen to nitrogen triple bond
 Will react with some substances under the right conditions
 Has low boiling point of -196°C
 Non-polar molecule with weak intermolecular attractions
 Has a low melting point of -210°C


 Filling spaces in food packaging and oil tanks

 Liquid nitrogen is used for freezing food, gametes, and other delicate materials
 Production of Ammonia in the Haber Process
 Creating a non-oxidising environment for fruit storage


1. Ammonia gas (NH3) can be conveniently prepared in the laboratory by heating together an
ammonium salt with a strong alkali e.g.

Ca(OH)2 (s) + 2 NH4Cl (s)  CaCl2 (s) + 2 H2O (l) + 2 NH3 (g)

2. Ammonia can be collected by the downward displacement of air since it is lighter than air
3. Ammonia cannot be collected by the displacement of water because it is very soluble in
4. Ammonia can be collected through the Haber Process

Properties of Ammonia

 Colourless
 Strong choking smell
 Less dense than air
 Liquefies at -33°C. This makes it easy to transport and store as a liquid
 Extremely soluble in water, as it is a polar molecule and can hydrogen bong with itself and
water molecules, to produce an alkaline solution
 The only common alkaline gas

Uses of Ammonia

 Making nitric acid

 Making fertilisers such as urea, ammonium nitrate, and ammonium sulphate
 Household cleaners
 Dyes
 Explosives

Urea Production

Urea – an important nitrogenous (nitrogen containing) fertiliser. It is a white, water-soluble solid.

Urea is less soluble than inorganic fertilisers and so releases the nitrogen slowly to plants; CO(NH2)2.
The process occurs at 190°C and 230 atm.

CO2 (g) + 2 NH3 (g)  CO(NH2)2 (s) + H2O (g)

Ammonium Compounds

Ammonia – NH3; polyatomic molecule

Ammonium – NH4+; polyatomic charged ion, only found in ammonium compounds

Ammonium Salts – formed through the reaction of ammonia with the appropriate acid. They are
used as fertilisers to supply nitrogen to plants. Fertilisers are given an NPK rating (Nitrogen,
Phosphorus and Potassium are best used in fertilisers). Ammonia can be displaced from its salts
through decomposition by heating or by the action of strong bases.

Limestone – CaCO3; various forms of lime are used to put on pastures to raise the pH because many
soils are naturally acidic. Intensive cropping also lowers the pH. The lime is basic so it neutralises the
soil and brings the pH closer to 7.

Quicklime – CaO; formed from limestone in a lime kiln (oven with extremely high temperatures).

CaCO3 (s)  CaO (s) + CO2 (g)

Slaked Lime – Ca(OH)2; the solid product, in a form of white powder, of the exothermic reaction that
occurs when a minimal amount of water is added to quicklime.

CaO (s) + H2O (l)  Ca(OH)2 (s)

Limewater – a solution of slaked lime in excess water. The slaked lime is only sparingly soluble but
produces an alkaline solution containing calcium and hydroxide ions.

Ca(OH)2 (s)  Ca2+ (aq) + 2 OH- (aq)

Mortar – a mixture of slaked lime, sand and water and is a thick paste. It sets when it dries, then
over a long period of time becomes hard due to the formation of calcium carbonate as it absorbs
carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Ca(OH)2 (s) + CO2 (g)  CaCO3 + H2O (l)

Cement – made from heating limestone with sand and silicates such as clay. It is a mixture of calcium
silicates and aluminates. When water is added, a complex series of reactions occur which make it

Carbon Cycle

Methane – can be sourced from natural gas trapped in oil-bearing rocks, partial decomposition of
plant materials under anaerobic conditions, waste product of digestion in animals.


 Colourless, odourless liquid

 0°C Melting Point
 100°C Boiling Point
 V shaped or bent; 105° bond angle
 Molecules join via hydrogen bonding
 Turns anhydrous copper sulphate from white to blue
CuSO4 (s) + 5 H2O (l)  CuSO4.5H2O (s) + heat
 Turns anhydrous cobalt chloride from blue to pink
CoCl2 (s) + 6 H2O (l)  CoCl2.6H2O (s) + heat
 Water is used in generating electricity, cleaning, cooling, dissolving, manufacturing products,
making concrete, and consumption in the house (e.g. toilets and showers)

Desiccator – sealed glass basins used to keep substances and papers (e.g. cobalt chloride paper) dry

The Hoffman’s Voltamater

Since water is not ionic, we cannot electrolyse pure

water as there are no charged particles to carry the
current. If we add some dilute sulphuric acid this
dissociates in the water and allows electrolysis to
occur. The apparatus is known as Hoffmann’s

Cathode: 4 H2O (l) + 4 e-  2 H2 (g) + 4 OH- (aq)

Anode: 2 H2O (l)  O2 (g) + 4 H+ (aq) + 4 OH- (aq)

Full: 2 H2O (l)  2 H2 (g) + O2 (g)

Water of Crystallisation

Ionic solids often have molecules of water bonded into their ionic crystal lattice. This water is
called water of crystallisation and often has a consistent, simple ratio in the formula. Formulae
are often quoted with the water of crystallisation included. E.g.Copper sulphate pentahydrate,
Sodium carbonate decahydrate.


Drying Agents – various drying agents are used to absorb water out of air or gas mixtures. Common
drying agents are:

 Concentrated sulphuric acid is used as a drying agent in the preparation of some neutral or
acidic gases
 Calcium oxide which is used to dry alkaline ammonia gas
 Anhydrous calcium chloride is used to prepare dry hydrogen
 Silica gel is used as a drying agent in equipment which is sensitive e.g. cameras

Dehydrating Agents – drying agents that are so powerful that they will remove all atoms required to
make up water from certain substances in the solution of solid form. The most common example of
a dehydrating agent is concentrated sulphuric acid which will dehydrate sucrose and hydrated
copper sulphate. It will also extract the elements of water from cloth or skin.

Purification of Water

 Water is stored in dams and reservoirs. It is never completely pure and may contain
bacteria, dissolved substances and solid material which need to be removed.
 Concerns over levels of pesticides in river water have led to improvements in water
 Water treatment essentially involves the stages, filtration, sedimentation, (ozone
treatment) and chlorination.
Pestle and Grinding or
Mortar breaking
Laboratory Equipment