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Candidate’s Name:

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(Do not write your School/Centre Name or Number anywhere on this booklet)

P525/1
CHEMISTRY
Paper 1
2 ¾ hours
Uganda Advanced Certificate of Education
CHEMISTRY
Paper 1

2 hours 45 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES:
Answer all questions in section A and six questions in section B
All questions must be answered in the spaces provided
The Periodic Table, with relative atomic masses, is supplied.
Mathematical tables(3 – figure tables) are adequate or non-programmable scientific
electronic calculators may be used
Illustrate your answers with equations where applicable.
Where necessary, use the following:
Molar gas constant R = 8.31 JK-1 mol-1
Molar volume of a gas at s.t.p is 22.4 litres.
Standard temperature = 273 K
Standard pressure = 101325 N m-2
For Examiner’s Use Only
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Total

Turn Over
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SECTION A (46 MARKS)
1. Chromium has atomic number 24.
(a) State two stable oxidation states of chromium (01 mark)

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(b) When 0.2665 g of a sample of chromium(III) chloride hexahydrate,


CrCl3.6H2O was treated with aqueous silver nitrate, 0.286 g silver
chloride was precipitated.
(i) Calculate the number of moles of chloride ions, 𝐶𝑙 − in one mole
of the sample. (3 marks)

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(ii) Write the structural formula of the isomer of the hydrate and
structure of the complex cation in the sample. (01 mark)

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2. Write equations and indicate the conditions under which the following
conversions can be effected
CH2 CH2 I C CH
(a)
to
(3 ½ marks)

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(b) 𝐶𝐻3 𝐶𝑂𝐶𝑙 𝑡𝑜 𝐶𝐻3 𝐶𝐻𝐶𝑙2 (1 ½ marks)

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Cl CH3
(c)
to
(1 ½ marks)

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3. An aqueous solution of ammonium iron(III) sulphate is acidic. Explain this


observation. (05 marks)

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4. Sulphur trioxide decomposes according to the equation:

2𝑆𝑂3(𝑔) ⇌ 2𝑆𝑂2(𝑔) + 𝑂2(𝑔)

3.4 moles of sulphur trioxide were decomposed at 60oC in a 50 dm3


container. When equilibrium was established, the amount of 𝑆𝑂2 formed
was 0.06 moles. Calculate:
(a) the concentration in moles per dm3 of 𝑆𝑂3 and 𝑂2 at equilibrium
(05 marks)

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(b) the Kc at 60oC (02 marks)

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(c) Explain what would happen to the concentration of 𝑆𝑂3 if the pressure
in the container was increased while the temperature was kept constant
(02 marks)

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5. Name a reagent that can be used to distinguish between each of the following
pairs and in each case state what is observed when the reagent named is used
(a) 𝐶𝐻3 𝐶𝐻2 𝐶𝑂𝐶𝐻2 𝐶𝐻3 and 𝐶𝐻3 𝐶𝑂𝐶𝐻2 𝐶𝐻2 𝐶𝐻3 (03 marks)

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2− 2−
(b) 𝑆𝑂4(𝑎𝑞) 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑆𝑂3(𝑎𝑞) (03 marks)

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6. The electronic configuration of R is …ns2np3.


(a) Write the formula of the hydride of R ( ½ mark)

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(b) Deduce the shape of the hydride molecule of R and write its structure.
(02 marks)

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7. Equations for some half-cell reactions are given below:



𝐻𝑔2 𝐶𝑙2(𝑙) + 2𝑒 − → 2𝐻𝑔(𝑙) + 2𝐶𝑙(𝑎𝑞) 𝐸𝑜 = +0.334𝑉
2− + 3+
𝐶𝑟2 𝑂7(𝑎𝑞) + 14𝐻(𝑎𝑞) + 6𝑒 − → 2𝐶𝑟(𝑎𝑞) + 7𝐻2 𝑂(𝑙) 𝐸𝑜 = +1.33𝑉

a) Write the convention for the cell (1 mark)

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b) Write equation for the overall cell reaction (1 mark)

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c) Calculate the cell voltage (1 mark)

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8. Complete the following equations for the nuclear reactions.

0 233
(a) ………………………… −1𝛽 + 92𝑈 (½ mark)
219 4
(b) ………………………… 86𝑅𝑛 + 2𝐻𝑒 (½ mark)

207
(c) 81𝑇𝑖 ………………………… + 207
82𝑃𝑏 (½ mark)

216
(d) 85𝐴𝑡 ………………………… + 42𝐻𝑒 (½ mark)

9. 2.3 g of a piece of sodium metal was dropped in ethanol.


(a) Write an equation for the reaction (1 mark)

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(b) Calculate the volume of gas evolved measured at s.t.p. (2½ marks)

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(c) Bromomethane was added to the resultant in (b).


(i) Name the type of reaction that takes place. (1 mark)

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(ii) Write an equation for the reaction and outline the mechanism.
(2½ marks)

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SECTION B: (54 MARKS)


Answer six questions from this section.
Additional questions answered will not be marked.

10. Acids can either be strong or weak.


a) State three factors on which the strength of an acid depends
(03 marks)
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(b) The dissociation constant of ethanoic acid is 1.84 × 10-5 mol dm-3.
(i) Calculate the percentage degree of dissociation of a 0.01M
ethanoic acid (4 marks)

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(ii) Determine the concentration of hydrogen ions and ethanoic acid present
at equilibrium. (2 marks)

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11. (a) State one example and write a general equation for the reaction in each
case to show:
(i) an elimination reaction (2½ marks)

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(ii) an electrophillic substitution reaction (2½ marks)

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(iii) an electrophillic addition reaction (2½ marks)

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(b) Name the main organic products in each case in (a) above.

(i)........................................................................................... (½ mark)

(ii).......................................................................................... (½ mark)

(iii)......................................................................................... (½ mark)

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12. Explain each of the following observations.
(a) A concentrated solution of copper(II) chloride is green, but on dilution
with water a pale blue solution is formed. (3 marks)

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(b) Water is a liquid at room temperature and pressure whereas hydrogen


sulphide is a gas under the same conditions. (3 marks)

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(c) Lead forms stable compounds in which its oxidation sate is +2 whereas
carbon forms stable compounds only in the +4 oxidation state.
(3 marks)
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13. (a) State the type of bond that exists in:

(i) lead(II) chloride: ............................................................. (1 mark)

(ii) lead(IV) chloride: ............................................................. (1 mark)

(iii) silicon(IV) chloride: .......................................................... (1 mark)

(iv) Aluminium oxide: ............................................................. (1 mark)

(b) State two physical properties which show that lead(II) chloride has the
type of bond you have stated in (a)(i) above. (02 marks)

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(c) Write an ionic equation for the reaction between aqueous sodium
hydroxide solution and.

(i) Aluminium oxide: (1½ marks)

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(ii) Silicon(IV) oxide: (1½ marks)

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14. Study the table below and answer the questions that follow:

Element Na Mg Al Si P S Cl
Atomic radius (nm) 0.156 0.136 0.125 0.117 0.110 0.106 0.099

Melting point /oC 98 650 660 1423 44 120 -101

(a) Define the term atomic radius. (01 mark)

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(b) Explain the trend in atomic radius. (02 marks)

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(c) Write the formula of the hydrides of aluminium and silicon and state
what is observed when each of the hydrides is reacted with water. In
each case write an equation for the reaction. (04 marks)
Aluminium

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Silicon:

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(d) (i) Define the term melting point. (01 mark)

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(ii) State two factors that determine the melting point of a substance.
(01 mark)
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15. A bluish - green solid A dissolves in water to form a pale blue solution. When
aqueous ammonia is added to the solution, a pale blue precipitate which is
soluble in excess ammonia forming a deep blue solution is formed. The
solution forms a reddish – brown solution when reacted with iron(III) chloride
solution. When A is heated with concentrated sulphuric acid, compound B is
formed which, has a pungent sharp smell. Compound B was isolated and
reacted with ethanol in presence of an acid, giving compound C, which had a
sweet fruity smell.
(a) Identify compounds A, B and C and write their structural formulae.
(03 marks)
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b) Write equation(s) for the reaction of


(i) ammonia solution with an aqueous solution of A. (3 marks)

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(ii) A with concentrated sulphuric acid. (1½ marks)

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(iii) Heating B with ethanol and concentrated sulphuric acid.


(1½ marks)

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16. Complete combustion of 0.15 g of an organic compound W containing carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen gave 0.22 g of carbon dioxide and 0.09 g of water. When
0.225 g of W was vaporized at 1 atmosphere pressure and 210oC, it occupied
145.5 cm3.
Calculate the
a) (i) empirical formula of W. (4 marks)

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(ii) molecular formula of W. (3 marks)

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b) Write the structure and name the functional group of W (2 marks)

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17. a) Complete the following equations and write the mechanism for the
reaction.
OH
conc. HNO3
(i)
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conc. H2SO4, warm

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FeCl3
(ii) + CH3CH2 I ...........................................................(03 marks)

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b) Complete the following reaction equations and state one use of the
product.
O
sodalime
(i) H3C C + 2NaOH(s) ................................(1 mark)
fuse
OH
Use of product
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O2 cat
(ii) n H2C C CH CH2 ................................................................(1 mark)

CH3
Use of product
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catalyst, 200oC
(iii) n H2C CH2 .................................................................(1 mark)
1500-2000 atm

Use of product

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PERIODIC TABLE

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 1 2
H H He
1.0 1.0 4.0
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Li Be B C N O F Ne
6.9 9.0 10.8 12.0 14.0 16.0 19.0 20.2
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
23.0 24.3 27.0 28.1 31.0 32.1 35.4 40.0

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
39.1 40.1 45.0 47.9 50.9 52.0 54.9 55.8 58.9 58.7 63.5 65. 69.7 72.6 74.9 79.0 79.9 83.8

37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
85.5 87.6 88.9 91.2 92.9 95.9 98.9 101 103 103 108 112 115 119 122 128 127 131
55 56 57 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86
Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Ti Pb Bi Po At Rn
133 137 139 178 181 184 186 190 192 195 197 201 204 207 209 (209) (210) (222)
87 88 89
Fr Ra Ac
(223) (226) (227)
57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71
La Ce Fr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
139 140 141 144 (145) 150 152 157 159 162 165 167 169 173 175
89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103
Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Ea Fm Mv No Lw
(227) 232 231 238 237 (244) (243) (247) (247) 251 (254) (257) (256) (254) 260

1
1. H – indicates Atomic number

2. H – indicates relative Atomic mass


1.0

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