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Sir Roger Scruton An Interview with Ryszard Legutko


“The system that we live in has
become very constraining.”
p.9 p.20


A Bi-weekly Newspaper by the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe (ACRE) |


New EU-wide legislation to tackle
terrorist content posted online
has been recently unveiled by
ECR MEP Daniel Dalton. His draft
report adds teeth to the existing
code of practice while maintaining
an emphasis on voluntary action.
The report was considered by the
Civil Liberties, Justice and Home
Affairs Committee and it is hoped it
will be voted on by all MEPs before
the European elections.


Jan Zahradil MEP

“If the EU’s two largest states want
An Interview with Giorgia Meloni, Party Leader of the Brothers of Italy (FdI) to work together that’s up to them.
But it shouldn’t be an attempt to
Will the Brothers of Italy (FdI) be Why did your party join the Euro- control everyone else – individual
running in the European elections pean Conservative and Reformist countries are best placed to decide
in May under your own name or in Group (ECR Group) in the Euro- what’s best for them, this means
an alliance with other parties? pean Parliament? keeping autonomy on foreign
My party, the Brothers of Italy, is the After Brexit, the ECR Group will be po­licy, taxation and migration.” p.2
core of a wider movement to unite led by the conservative Polish govern-
all Italian conservatives and all those ing party PiS. PiS is the most import-
that wish to maintain national sover- ant governing party in the Visegrad Anna Fotyga MEP
eignty in Europe. Our party is the nat-
ural choice for millions of Italians, and
Group, and the natural example to
emulate for those who wish to pre- TACKLING
it will certainly be on the ballot in the serve national sovereignty and stand STRATEGIC
European elections on 26 May. We
would, however, welcome other polit-
up inside the European Union. Fur-
thermore, it is a natural political
ical movements join with us in this alliance for us, since our political The EU needs to do more to counter
effort under our electoral symbol. predecessors in the Alleanza Nazio- hostile disinformation, warned
nale were affiliated with tPiS prior to ECR MEP Anna Fotyga after her
What is the fundamental objective 2009. We also hope that the Hungar- report on the Strategic Commu-
of the Brothers of Italy in the Euro- ian governing party Fidesz, Orbán’s nications (StratCom) policy of the
pean Elections? party, will join this group after the EU’s External Action Service was
Our aim is to return to Brussels with a larger elections. We also believe we could adopted by the Parliament’s For-
and combative group and to strengthen the play a role strengthening the voice of eign Affairs Committee. p.3
array of those parties that wish to preserve the Mediterranean countries in the
the national sovereignty of their member ECR group; a group which already
states. We will work with all the conserva- counts as its members important
tive groups to bridge the divide between the personalities such as Raffaele Fitto,
EPP center-right parties and the populists, Remo Semagiotto, Stefano Maullu WILLIAM F
thereby relegating the left and Macron to and Innocenzo Leontini.
the sidelines of European politics. FULL INTERVIEW ON p.18
by Roger Kimball

In Europe
“I’d rather be governed by the first
2,000 names in the Boston tele-

phone directory than by the 2,000
people on the faculty of Harvard
University.” p.22

The continuing showdown between President Trump and the Democrats MUSIC
over the promised wall along America’s southern border, has left European
Conservatives perplexed by the regressive Left’s insistence border’s don’t Riccardo Muti
work. They do! Hungary’s Prime Minister, Victor Orban has built a wall FINDING THE
and demonstrated how borders protect.

t the height of the European North Africa and Central Asia – set
migration crisis in 2015 Hun- off for Europe. For those coming from by Jay Nordlinger
gary Budapest’s railway sta- North Africa, a Mediterranean cross-
tion was transformed in to a campsite ing became the most likely route. Those Years ago, I asked Maestro Lorin
for migrants transiting via the “Balkan coming from the South and East, how- Maazel about the future of classi-
Route” to wealthier northern Euro- ever, embarked in large numbers on a cal music. The first words out of
pean countries. Over the course of the route that traveled through Turkey and his mouth were “Thank God for
SPECIAL FEATURE year, migrants numbering in the mil- Southeastern Europe to the frontiers of China.” p.27
lions – mainly from the Middle East, the European Union. CONTINUED ON p.4

Jan Zahradil MEP AFRICA SUMMIT “Looking ahead, we need to recog-

ECR MEPs call on the European Commission Geoffrey Van Orden MEP
France and Germany are By working together we can nise that our shared projects and pol-
icies, both at the national and the
to fight female genital mutilation EU must review
using their dominance to make a real difference European level, haven’t always been a
success. But we can agree on the pos-
itives that closer and better relations More funding for medical research
Zimbabwe sanctions
force their own EU agenda The future of relations between African and European nations must be
mutually beneficial and interdependent, said ECR Group co-Chair Syed Kamall
between our peoples, businesses and
countries can bring.”
and an increase in preventative
measures were cited as two key
on other Member States at the opening of the ECR’s first ever Africa Summit in Brussels. “Ahead of us we are facing a number factors in the fight against female

of incredible opportunities. Opportu- genital mutilation (FGM) at a hearing
pening the summit with Euro- “Africa is a continent of the future. In nities to show just what can be achieved on the issue organised on 5th of
pean Parliament President Europe, we have to change fundamen- through cooperation, where there is February by ECR Flemish MEP,
Antonio Tajani, Syed Kamall tally our approach. We must stop see- mutual benefit, to take on some of the Anneleen Van Bossuyt, to mark the
talked of the growing importance of ing this relationship as one of providing 21st century’s biggest challenges, such International Day of Zero Tolerance
Africa as an economic player over the development aid and financial support as security, pollution, poverty, health for Female Genital Mutilation.

coming decades as well as the need for or based on the colonialism of the past.” and education.” ■
greater cooperation in order to face eferring to the Belgian situa-
up to the biggest challenges of the 21st tion with fellow N-VA mem-
century. ber, Assita Kanko, who is “The EU should review its sanctions against individuals in Zimbabwe
Bringing together politicians, herself a survivor of FGM, Van Bossuyt following the brutal crackdown on opposition forces”, Conservative Security
international organisations, business explained that an estimated 200 mil- and defence spokesman Geoffrey Van Orden MEP has stated.

people and policy experts, delegates lion women worldwide are victims of
were taking part in a range of pan- the practice. In Belgium alone, 4000 hile arrests have been tar- to stop the shooting; to keep out of
els discussing challenges as health, girls are at risk of falling victim to FGM. geted against MPs, and people’s homes; and to release those
democracy, security and investment Together, the two Flemish poli- opposition and civil soci- detained.
as well as the shape of relations in ticians warned that the practice is ety leaders, at the same time, arbitrary “We ask what has happened to the
the future. Guests also debated the becoming an increasingly European beatings and arrests are taking place. President Emmerson Mnangagwa
growth of emerging technology and problem: “An estimated half a million A dozen rapes by out-of-control sol- who promised such optimistic, pos-
how some innovations were starting women living in the European Union, diers have been reported. Some 1,200 itive change, and mutual respect for
to create and address common chal- are either victims of FGM at risk of people have been detained in the the common humanity of all the Zim-
lenges such as financial and digital becoming victims. It is no longer a past few days. 43 opposition MPs and babwean people when he came to
exclusion. purely African problem. We Europeans councillors are known to have been power a year ago.
Speaking during the summit, Kamall cannot ignore the risk of FGM.” forced into hiding. “President Mnangagwa now needs
said: Speaking ahead of the event, Mrs. Van Mr Van Orden, who has led the par- to assert himself and regain con-
Bossuyt said: “Prevention is the most liamentary opposition in Brussels to trol over the armed forces. He should
important step. More than 90% of these Zimbabwean tyranny over nearly two release detainees immediately and
girls become victims of FGM before the decades, commented: invite leaders of the opposition, of
age of 15. Teachers, social workers, doc- “Some have described the brutality the unions, and the churches, to a
tors, and border officials can play of the last few days as worse than the National Conference on the Future of
a crucial role in preventing Mugabe era. Power struggles within Zimbabwe.
this from occurring. When the regime are being played out on the “And there must be real account-
young girls travel to coun- streets and the people are the victims. ability for the brutal abuses of the past
tries presenting a high “The main driver of the brutality few days. The EU should immediately
risk of FGM, this must seems to be army chief Constantino review its sanctions targeted against
sound an alarm, prompt- doctors who possess reverse the effects of FGM, so let us use Chiwenga pushing to entrench his abusive leading individuals in Zim-
ing a conversation with the medical knowledge them.” personal power through his predatory babwe and include General Chiwenga
families. It is often during to reverse the effects The Flemish MEP now calls on the rogue state, by crushing what has been and his cohort.
these trips that the prac- of FGM through surgical European Commission to make fight- described as ‘treasonous cockroaches’ “We must hope that action will
tice occurs. Given the increas- intervention. The Flemish ing female genital mutilation a key pol- - the vibrant opposition which gar- now be taken in Zimbabwe so that the
ing instances of FGM right here in the MEP cited budgetary proposals icy theme in the next mandate. “It is a nered over 2.6 million votes in the United Kingdom, the EU, the Common-
European Union, we also need to put in she made which would provide greater problem that must not only be tackled 2018 election. wealth and the southern African coun-
place preventative EU measures to pro- funding for research and development at the level of development coopera- “In my conversation this after- tries can once more engage in helping
tect girls from the practice.” in the field of medicine. She added that: tion, but also at the European level, and noon with senior opposition leaders put that potentially bountiful, rich
Mrs. Van Bossuyt argues for more “In the European Union, we have the thus requires more attention”, she con- in Zimbabwe returning from court country back on the road to security and
European support for victims and for resources to find medical solutions to cluded. ■ hearings, they called for the military prosperity for all its people.” ■

Blocking European Parliament calls Tackling

ECR Group Czech MEP Jan
Zahradil has raised concerns
content for close security ties with propaganda
UK post-Brexit
that France and Germany
are using their dominance to
force their own EU agenda online The EU needs to do more to
counter hostile disinformation,
warned ECR MEP Anna Fotyga
on other Member States.
New EU-wide legislation to tackle after her report on the Strategic

terrorist content posted online Communications (StratCom) policy
e was speaking after Angela intention to leave. The EU needs to has been recently unveiled by of the EU’s External Action Service
Merkel and Emman- work in the interests of all its Member ECR MEP Daniel Dalton. His draft was adopted by the Parliament’s
uel Macron met on Tues- States, not just the biggest two. report adds teeth to the existing Foreign Affairs Committee.

day in Aachen, Germany, to sign a “The Aachen treaty also proves how code of practice while maintaining
new Treaty aimed at deepening ties important it will be to maintain the an emphasis on voluntary action. oncerns over Russian disin-
between the two countries. principle of unanimity in the Coun- The report was considered by the formation campaigns that
The Treaty attempts to pave the cil on foreign policy. No other Mem- Civil Liberties, Justice and Home attempt to undermine West-
way for deeper economic integra- ber State is going to feel comfortable Affairs Committee and it is hoped ern democracies, and have contin-
tion, joint military deployments and giving up their veto if it’s just for Paris it will be voted on by all MEPs ued to grow over recent years, have
a ‘common culture’ in their armed and Berlin to take the reins, espe- before the European elections. become a priority for a number of

forces. On top of a general push to cially if there is such a strong push governments. With an annual budget
develop Europe’s military capabili- for a ‘European defence’ policy at the here would be a requirement of over €1.1m, the EEAS’s StratCom
ties, they will also seek to establish expense of NATO. on platforms to remove terror- Task Force was established in 2015 to
a new ‘Franco-German’ defence and “If the EU’s two largest states want ist content within an hour if address Russia’s ongoing disinforma-
security council. to work together that’s up to them. instructed to do so by national authori- tion campaigns, and in the past four
Commenting after the Treaty was But it shouldn’t be an attempt to con- ties, but punitive fines of up to four per years they have identified over 3 800
signed, Zahradil said: trol everyone else – individual coun- cent of a company’s turnover would disinformation cases.
“A Franco-German axis that goes tries are best placed to decide what’s only be levied if platforms repeatedly Fotyga’s report reviews the prog-
around other Member States to stitch best for them, this means keeping failed to comply. ress of the Task Force and underlines
up EU business is exactly what we autonomy on foreign policy, taxation Sites that are regularly targeted by the important role of an independent
feared when the UK announced their and migration.“ ■ terrorist content could be asked to media as the best safeguard against their territories. Today we are call-
introduce targeted monitoring of posts disinformation, while also calling for ing for this to be this to be prioritised
but must pay “particular regard to the a robust legal framework in order to at the EU level and how to change
fundamental rights of users and the better respond to hybrid threats. It the approach of our institutions and

importance of free speech. also focuses on social media and its address the role of Artificial Intel-
Mr Dalton builds upon the European EPs approved a new plan to might improve the EU’s response to the Mr Van Orden, who is also Conser- potential role both in spreading and ligence and new technologies in
Commission’s original proposals by enforcement authorities have made a fair process we risk the over-removal fight terrorism today that recent wave of attacks across Europe vative Security and Defence Spokes- countering false information and rec- advancing this threat.
providing greater protection for small clear to me that terrorist content dis- of content as businesses would under- calls for the EU to have a and its recommendations will now be man, added: “We should be under ommends that the EU should support “There is an urgent need for
businesses, which may not be able to seminates most rapidly in the first standably take a safety first approach to close security partnership with the UK voted on by the European Parliament no illusion that those who wish us civil society, private institutions, aca- in-depth analysis and research of the
Read The Conservative online at: meet the 60 minute deadline, and sug- hour and that the one hour principle is defend themselves.” after it leaves the bloc. in December. harm and seek to disrupt our societ- demia and the wider media in further impact and effectiveness of hostile gesting that cloud infrastructure ser-

vices for companies be removed from
vital. This propaganda can be linked to
actual terrorist incidents and although
“It is also important to ensure that
proactive measures introduced by plat-
The call was included in the Euro-
pean Parliament’s Special Commit-
Geoffrey Van Orden
Vice-Chairman of the committee and
MEP, ies are continuously plotting attacks.
The very same night that MEPs were
enhancing measures aimed at expos-
ing propaganda.
propaganda so that we can develop
measures to successfully counter-
the scope of the legislation as they do the existing voluntary code adopted by forms do not lead to a general monitor- tee on Terrorism’s final report which the only British member, said: “I wel- considering this report, a gunman Speaking after the vote, Fotyga, act them. We have always stated
not control data and cannot remove platforms has brought improvements, ing of content by the back door.” emphasized that it is “crucial to ensure come the decision that recognizes attacked Strasbourg’s Christmas who chairs Parliament’s Security and that it is essential to uphold free-
specific content. it now needs to be backed up with Mr Dalton added: a continuation of the mutual security Britain’s enormous expertise and capa- market. It is vital that we continue Defence sub-Committee, said: dom of speech and media pluralism,
UK MEP Mr Dalton said: legislation.” “I look forward to working with my cooperation and exchange of informa- bilities in counter-terrorism. It’s in the to work together to keep our citi- “We need to be more active in coun- which are at the heart of resilient
“There is clearly a problem with ter- “However, the steps we take must colleagues to ensure we have a strong tion between the EU and the UK post- interest of the whole of Europe for the zens safe, and not allow EU dogma to tering hostile disinformation and democratic societies, and we should
@conservative_on rorist material circulating unchecked be practical and proportionate if we and united European Parliament posi- Brexit”. The committee has spent the EU to ensure seamless continuity in weaken our common efforts to com- Member States in the EU are encour- pursue any approach to counter dis-
on the internet for too long. Law are to safeguard free speech. Without tion on this important legislation.” ■ last year examining ways in which it the security relationship with Britain. “ bat terrorism.” ■ aged to evaluate the situation within information responsibly.” ■

In Europe
New wings for the Bulgarian Air Force Soft coup averted in the European Parliament

In stark contrast to some public statements, European ver since Bulgaria joined NATO the Volya party – were, despite their National Assembly to buy a modern

parties feeling the

in 2004, successive govern- differences, united in their efforts F-16 fighter.

leaders and policy makers have been learning from
ments have been hounded by to prevent the proposed negotia- The decision is historic and has
experience the value of frontier security. the question of which NATO compati- tions from passing Parliament. They allowed for Bulgaria’s place in NATO

heat ahead of the

ble fighter jets they should acquire for formed a block whose intention was to to flourish from a mere formal mem-
their air force. There have been sev- derail the endeavour and champion a ber to one with real capabilities. Fur-

European Election
eral failed attempts to organise a deal with Russia for new MiG thermore, as part of this arrangement,
tender for modern warplanes. 29s. This effort can only be Bulgaria also looks set to become the
Amidst growing uncer- characterised as absurd, next member of NATO to commit to
tainty in the geopolitical and, ultimately, there spending 2% of its national budget on
situation of the region, was a majority in the defence. ■
the current government
looks determined to take
the necessary steps to
modernise their armed
CONTINUED FROM THE FRONT PAGE During the crisis regular Europeans forces.
During that peak year, this path, also realized the value of border secu- Minister of Defence Kra-
known as the Western Balkans migra- rity. And, since walls work, European simir Karakachanov recently
tion route, became the most traveled countries across the continent are goaded the Bulgarian National
migration route to Europe. To put it now deploying a mix of physical barri- Assembly into approving the gov-
in perspective, in 2012, the number of ers, electronic monitoring and mobile ernment’s plan to start negotiations
recorded, illegal border crossings in surveillance technologies in order to with the United States for eight mod-
Hungary was around 2,000. In 2013, the secure their external borders. Varying ern F-16 fighter jets to replace the
number grew to 18,000, and in 2014, it local geographical challenges and dif- obsolete MiG-29s that the country
climbed to 41,000. In 2015, the number ferent cultural, social and economic bought from the USSR in 1987. Bul-
of border violations reached 391,000, norms have led to the development garia’s choice of F-16 is a positive
an increase of roughly 20,000 percent of local solutions for border security, signal, which will enhance the coun-
over the three-year period and approx- but it is noteworthy that the derided try’s position in NATO by making its
imately three illegal crossings every “ancient technology” of a physical bor- air force compatible with their allies’
four minutes in the peak year. Many der barrier still is highly popular in defence systems. Bulgaria’s new
of these migrants navigated the route Europe. fighter jets will also enhance NATO’s
with the help of human traffickers. Statistics on the effect of the Hun- strategic capabilities in the Black Sea
This uncontrolled, illegal immigra- garian fence have been released. The region.
tion posed serious problems for coun- border barrier yielded immediate The pro-Russian forces in Bulgar-
tries on the receiving end. With media results. Two days after the fence was ian politics – such as the Bulgarian

reports and warnings from British intel- completed along that border, the daily Socialist Party (successor of the old
ligence that terrorist organizations entries fell below forty, according to Communist party), the ABV Party and n late January, a soft coup was the rules on how to constitute a political
were exploiting the migrant routes and official sources. On a yearly basis the averted in the European Parlia- group that risked drastic or unintended
lax border security, the migration crisis numbers are equally clear. Early in ment. A coalition of the three side-effects. Had the entire revision
raised serious security concerns. It saw 2015, records show that some 185,000 establishment political groups – the been adopted there would have been a
increased crime rates and put a heavy illegals crossed to Hungary from Cro- federalist centrist conservatives EPP, risk that parliamentary groups could
burden on the social welfare systems of atia. In 2016, only 18,207 immigrants the Social Democratic S&D, and the be dissolved because they are disliked
the EU economies. It also threatened entered Hungary’s territory illegally Social Liberal ALDE – together tabled by the majority. That would have been
one of the most significant achieve- over the same boarder: and, in 2017, an amendment to tighten the internal unacceptable and undemocratic.”
ments of Europe’s common market: the that number fell to 1,405. “The fence parliamentary rules on forming a group Three groups who backed the
freedom of borderless travel within the lived up to the fundamental expecta- in the assembly. The proposed amend- amendment in the earlier stages are
26 countries of Europe’s Schengen Area. tions that we had at the time of its con- ment gained majority support (354 some of the largest groups in the Euro-
As a country on the external border of struction,” said Bakondi, “it put an end votes in favour and 267 votes against the pean Parliament. They would never
Schengen, Hungary was among the first to mass illegal immigration, monitored key motion), but because of the need for be negatively impacted by the rule
to feel the full impact. border crossing and safeguarded Hun- a supra-majority the proposal didn’t change. Unsurprisingly, the change was
gary’s internal security.” pass. The internal rules for group for- opposed by the smaller groups, includ-
Hungary leads The cultural and psychological urge
to claim that walls don’t work maybe
mation in the parliament might sound ing the Greens, the Eurosceptic and

the way
like an esoteric and unimportant topic, populist groups; groups who could pos-
is the result of a romantic picture of but it caused major controversy since sibly stand to be dissolved as a result of
The crisis tested the resolve of the Europe, with free movement open bor- the proposed change would have cur- its passing. Those MEPs protesting the
Budapest government. In contrast with
Brussels, the government of Prime
The cultural and psychological urge to claim that walls ders that came about as a result of the
fall of the Berlin Wall. But, in fact, the
tailed the rights of opposition parlia-
mentarians in the decision-making
change pointed to it being a rule that
would have been easy for the majority
Minister Viktor Orbán viewed the
migration crisis as an existential cri-
don’t work maybe is the result of a romantic picture of Berlin Wall – and, sadly, the very case
of the Berlin Wall – may be the prime
In the European Parliament, much of
to abuse.
Jan Zahradil, ECR MEP from the
sis that had to be solved. In response, Europe, with free movement open borders that came example of the simple fact that walls do the political power lies with the political Czech Republic and Spizenkandidat

about as a result of the fall of the Berlin Wall.

the Hungarian government estab- work. ■ groups. A political group, in essence, is of the Alliance of Conservatives and
lished a policy that the border must be an agglomeration of parliamentarians Reformists in Europe, speaking ahead
strengthened and migration reduced to from different national political parties. of the vote, said: “I am more than capa-
absolute minimum. Soon, the Hungar-
GOOD FENCES In practice, the work of the political can ble of finding people and parties that

ian government announced the con- regime, asylum seekers have to wait acceptable to finance border man- While the border reinforcements be compared to political parties or fac- I’m happy to sit alongside – I don’t need
struction of a series of physical barriers. in transit zones in Serbia to have their agement and control, but there can have drastically diminished the number tions in national parliaments, though a select group of MEPs to decide if I have
Between 2015 and 2017 hundreds of
miles of border fencing were erected
application examined. The waiting
time is approximately one year.
be no spending on physical barriers.
Instead of granting the 400 million
of illegal crossings, the threats posed by
illegal migration remain. According to
NEIGHBOURS the political groups are often less cohe-
sive than parties in a domestic setting.
affinity with them or not.” He then went
on to say, “The most worrying thing is
at the country’s southern and western euro requested by the Hungarian gov- Hungarian police estimates, had there In stark contrast to some public state- Since power and resources are chan- that these establishment figures just
borders. The explicit aim of the fence
was to stop the uncontrolled influx of European ernment the EU decided to launch
multiple infringement procedures
been no fence in 2017, more than 44,000
would have crossed the Hungarian bor-
ments, European leaders and pol-
icy makers, who often criticized the
nelled to the political groups, those par-
liamentarians who belong to a political
don’t see why it’s wrong and only seem
to believe in democracy when it works
illegals across Hungary’s portion of Commission against the Hungarian government for der illegally into Europe. “Migration efforts of the US Republican party group have more privileges (e.g.finan- for them.”
the EU’s external border. The external
border was to be reinforced with the rejected walls “incompatibilities” in the country’s
asylum law.
pressure and the number of attempts to
illegally cross the border is not decreas-
to fund a border barrier, have been
learning from experience the value
cial backing and more speaking time)
than the parliamentarians who do not
Jo Leinen, German MEP for the
Socialist Democrat Group, argued
construction of a four meter-tall, high- One of the reasons Hungary’s govern- ing,” said a government spokesman, “if it of frontier security. In the heart of belong to a group. that the amendment would put an end
tech fence. “It is certain, that wherever ment took the lead was that the chaos
Media weren’t for the fence, Hungary would be Europe, France and the British gov- The rules regulating the formation of
a political groups are rather ambiguous.
to “fake groups”, by which he meant

there is great migration pressure,” said during the migration crisis undermined experiencing the same as it did in 2015, ernment are expanding an existing groups which were created to get the
György Bakondi, the prime minister’s EU Regulation commonly known as the meaning not just a dozen or perhaps border fence with an adjacent wall In summary, a political group can be financial and administrative advan-
chief security advisor, “technical bar- Dublin Convention, which demands the Illegal immigration has become a a hundred people would be attempt- intended to prevent migrants living in formed by any group of parliamentari- tages of a political group but whose
riers are an important tool for making migrant seeks asylum in the first EU front-page topic on both sides of the ing to cross the border every day, but the nearby “jungle” camp from reach- ans that have a ‘political affinity’. Since members were not aligned in voting
the movement stoppable.” country in which they set foot. Migrants Atlantic, and debate in both the Euro- they would be trying continuously, ille- ing the tracks leading to the Channel the ‘political affinity’ is determined by behaviour and didn’t meet regularly in
The first phase of Hungary’s south- do not have the right to choose which pean Union and the United States on gal migrants would be arriving in their Tunnel. Austria has erected a fence the parliamentarians themselves, most the way the more established political
ern border barrier was raised along the country they register in or where they how to respond to rising numbers has thousands.” on its border with Slovenia, and in could find a group to which they could groups typically do.
border with Serbia, a two meter-high submit the application for asylum. provoked heated discussion about bor- Having built a second line of defense, the province of South-Tyrol bordering belong. Until now, the ‘affinity’ rule Fabio Massimo Castaldo, MEP from
barbed wire obstacle followed by the The Hungarian government asked der security, particularly the question an additional layer of border fence Italy. Greece has constructed a fence only impacted small groups of isolated Italy’s 5Star Movement, which sits
erection of the main fence, reaching that the European Commission, the of walls or other physical barriers on equipped with the latest technology in on its land border with Turkey. The esoteric parliamentarians not welcome within the EFDD group, said, “Democ-
four meters. Once all the 175 kilome- EU’s executive branch to reimburse half national frontiers. border monitoring facilities, Hungary’s Spanish enclaves Ceuta and Melilla in in any group (e.g. the Greek neo-Nazi racy has always relied on protecting the
ters of the Hungary-Serbia border were of the extraordinary border protection Hungary’s move to erect a physical southern front is, according to Prime North Africa are surrounded by multi- party Golden Dawn). rights of the opposition.” The proposed
protected constructions began on the expenses arguing that their taxpayers barrier on a European border natu- Minister Orbán, “capable of keeping ple layers of 19 feet fences. Finland’s In practise, this proposed rule change, Castaldo said, could result in
Croatian and Romanian borders. Offi- had spent large amounts to keep their fel- rally courted controversy and earned out the masses potentially arriving 883-mile border with Russia is fenced change would give the Parliament’s the “dictatorship of the majority” which
cial border crossings remained open to low European citizen’s safe from uncon- the government harsh criticism in through Turkey.” Hungary’s success and surveilled electronically as well as Conference of Presidents the right to could “decide arbitrarily if it keeps alive
handle regular international traffic and trolled migration, and that protection of the media. Some critics claimed that in dramatically reducing illegal border by highly mobile K9 patrols. The Bal- recommend dissolving political groups or not political groups that are not
legal crossings. the European Union’s external borders it violated international agreements crossing stands as an example for other tic nations of Latvia and Estonia have if they didn’t believe that the group aligned with the mainstream.”
The physical border barrier, which is a prerequisite for the EU to uphold protecting asylum seekers. Others countries facing similar challenges. also erected fences on their borders shared sufficient ‘political affinity’. In One speculation as to why the pro-
in reality is a set of fences accompa- internal free movement. The European conjured parallels to the Cold War- with Russia following the migration essence, the proposal was to give the posed rule change was tabled now
nied by motion detection systems
and thermal cameras, is working as
Commission rejected the request saying era Iron Curtain and the Berlin Wall.
Significance of crisis. Bulgaria, once considered a political groups that form the majority
in parliament the right to dissolve the
is that the establishment parties are
expecting to lose their dominant role
border security
that the EU did “not financing the con- However, those countries that were gateway to Europe by ISIS, has con-
intended. It enables the Hungarian struction of fences or barriers at external bearing the largest burden of the ille- structed a 100-mile, 15 feet tall, fence minority political groups. The major- after the election this spring. If so,
government to deliver on its asylum borders […but do] support border man- gal immigration saw that stricter European heads of government are on its border with Turkey. The Bul- ity would be given the right to take away groups that the establishment might
policy. Asylum seekers can apply for agement measures at external borders [… measures had become necessary. “By keenly aware that their colleagues in garian fence alone has reduced ille- part of the rights, funding and speak- regard as ‘fake’ or lacking sufficient
refugee status, but they can no longer such as ] surveillance [… and] border con- protecting the Hungarian-Serbian Budapest in-fact helped end a precarious gal crossings from 11,000 in 2013 to ing time from minority parliamentar- ‘affinity’ could emerge as important
enter – or, cross through - the country trol equipment.” external EU border,” said German situation. If the Balkan Route would have 4,000 in 2014 and is saving millions ians. In a comment after the vote, Max players. This change was seen by some
illegally in order to file applications Curiously the European Com- Chancellor Angela Merkel in an inter- continued to supply Western Europe of euros per month in policing costs Andersson, Member of the European as a potential tool to prevent the forma-
in other European Union Member mission and the US Democratic view in June of last year, “Hungary is with millions of migrants annually, according to local newspaper reports. ZahradilJan jzahradil jan.zahradil Parliament for the Swedish Greens, tion of a major new force which might
States. As part of the new migration Party share the same view that it is protecting Germany, too.” someone else would have had to act. said, “I didn’t support those changes to challenge the status quo. ■

Questionable Media Reporting The Brain Race

s part of a new strategy, people, who would be well-prepared
Chinese universities have to join the socialist cause. Xi added
started offering scholar- that students should be encour-
ships to international students on aged to uphold the Party leadership

an unprecedented scale. According and the socialist system and guided
to China’s Ministry of Education, to love and support the Communist
the number of foreigners in full-time Party of China.
education in China has quadrupled The scholarship packages offered
in the last ten years, from around by Chinese Universities can be

55,000 students in 2006 to almost attractive for many poor students.
210,000 students in 2016. As the Chi- It includes free accommodation for
nese strategy to use higher educa- the duration of the student’s stay,
tion as a tool of cultural and political free education and a monthly sti-
leverage - targeting, it seems, pri- pend of 3,000 yuan per month (nearly
marily students from low-income forty percent of the average monthly
countries - really starts taking hold income in China). China’s spend-
this year, it is expected that the num- ing on state education increased by

ber of foreign students will exceed ten per cent from 2016 to 2017, and a
or a long-time the mainstream half a million. further sixteen per cent last year. By
medias reporting on the eco- Many observers are sceptical that contrast, India in the last year cut its
nomic and political situation the official reason for China’s com- spending by 0.4%.
in Venezuela has been questionable. mitment to increasing the number of Despite the ideological motives,
The reporting has been that the eco- foreign students attending their uni- William Vanbergen, CEO of BE Edu-
nomic problem is due to falling oil versities, to create opportunity in the cation, an English educational com-
prices. A typical example is an arti- least developed countries, is sincere. pany based in China, is positive about
cle published by The Washington It has widely been seen as a move to China’s new direction. Speaking to
Post on January 26th entitled, “Ven- compete with western scholarships The Conservative he said “There’re
ezuela’s crisis in 5 charts”. Both the like the Rhodes and Marshall Schol- some huge positives to [these schol-
first two charts – “Oil production and arships in an ideological battle to arships]; one of which is the gen-
oil exports remain on the decline” and fortify China’s unique brand of social- eral exchange of ideas that leads to
“When global oil prices tumbled from ism. President Xi Jinping gave weight greater understanding between two
The mainstream more than $100 a barrel in 2014 to less to this theory when, at a national different cultures. If people under-
newspapers have than $30 at the beginning of 2016, the
country’s economic woes deepened.” -
education conference in Beijing in
September last year, he said that fol-
stand each other then there’s less
likely to be misunderstandings in
opinion.” Mr. Vanbergen also told of
a group of British students studying
a thriving entrepreneurial club at the
university. Promoting their Western
Whatever its intention, China’s new
scholarship policy can be expected to
failed in their give the oil price as the primary rea-
son for the crisis. On the very same
lowing the path of socialist education
with Chinese characteristics would
the future, whether that be economi-
cally or politically. So, actually, it cre-
at the Fudan University in Shanghai,
on scholarships paid for by the Chi-
ideals in a socialist land, they were
doing perhaps the exact opposite of
further integrate China into the world
economy, which can only be a good
reporting of the day, the BBC posted almost the exact nurture generations of capable young ates a much more stable future, in my nese Government, that had founded what President Xi hoped for. thing, for China and the rest of us. ■
two main stories same article. Theirs offered seven,
rather than five, charts.
out of Venezuela: The comparison that these papers
Christians are now an New Direction report
the real reason GLOBAL EFFORTS TO END
avoid in their ‘in-depth analysis’

for the economic

is the discussion of why Norway is
doing fine and why all other countries endangered species CONFLICT-RELATED SEXUAL VIOLENCE
dependent on oil, whilst sometimes
crisis and the experiencing periods of suffering,
actual legal
aren’t collapsing. What the media n 2014, the UK hosted the Global and girls. The majority are; but many
isn’t discussing is that it is the policies Summit to End Sexual Violence men and boys also suffer rape, sexual
reality behind the of the ruling party which have devas- in Conflict. More than 150 states assault and systematic sexual torture.

political power tated almost all non-oil production,

leading to the situation in which oil
came together with non-governmen-
tal organisations, experts and human
Conflict-related sexual violence is not
exclusively perpetrated by ill-disci-
struggle. Instead, represents close to 80 percent of the
country’s exports and foreign cur-
rights activists. The Summit marked plined fighters when command-struc-

we are told that

a watershed in the global communi- tures break down. Often the violence
rency inflow. ty’s response to this enduring, bru- is encouraged or directed by com-
the crisis is the Adding insult to injury, main-
stream media have been referring to
tal and sickening stain on mankind’s
character. For centuries, conflict-re-
manders, frequently as a means of
suppression, control and intimida-
result of falling Juan Guaidóas a ‘self-proclaimed’ or Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV), part of the international community. of the National Assembly shall take lated sexual violence has gone vir- tion. Most shockingly the report finds

oil prices and ‘self-declared’ leader. Just to offer a

few examples: CNN posted an arti-
winning an absolute majority in the
Asamblea Nacional. The response
Furthermore, only about 20 percent
of the voting population casted their
charge of the Presidency of the Repub-
lic”, and since free and fair elections
tually unchallenged, unrecorded
and unpunished. Syed Kamall MEP,
its not always fighters from con-
flicted factions who commit the acts.
the legitimate cle on the 25th of January 2019 call-
ing him “The man who proclaimed
from the Maduro camp was to have
the hand-picked Supreme Court
ballots, most of whom worked in the
state sector, as compared to 75 per-
for the presidency never took place,
on 10th January2019 (the end of Mad-
co-chairman of the ECR Group, writ- There are records of United Nations

president is
ing for New Direction’s latest publica- peace-keepers and even aid workers
himself acting Venezuelan president”; remove all powers from the recent- cent in the 2015 elections. President uro’s term), the National Assembly tion said “turning a blind eye must no who have committed offences of sex-
‘self-proclaimed’. the BBC posted an article on the 29th
of January about “The self-declared
ly-elected legislative body, and make
all their actions null and void. The
Maduro was elected in 2013 to serve
a six-year term ending on 10th Jan-
declared the presidency abandoned
and voted the President of the
longer be deemed acceptable . While
it may take decades, even centuries,
ual violence.
For many it was events in the for-
leader of Venezuela, Juan Guaidó…” Supreme Court invested the power of uary 2019. The opposition boycot- National Assembly, Juan Guaidó, as to completely eradicate this despica- mer states of Yugoslavia which first
saying that “the opposition leader pro- the legislature in itself and Maduro ted the presidential elections for the Interim President of Venezuela. ble practice, the international mood increased public awareness and con-
claimed himself interim president fol- was given the right to rule through same reasons and the international The mainstream newspapers have has changed from one of compla- to combat sexual violence in conflict demnation of sexual violence in
lowing large protests…”.This is also decree. Maduro in 2017 decreed elec- community dismissed the results of failed in their reporting of the two cency and near- complicity to a real - and the European Union’s work in armed conflict. But as we look around
inaccurate reporting with a left-wing tions for a new body: the constitu- the vote, the election of Maduro, as main stories out of Venezuela: the real determination to tackle it head on. co-ordinating them. The report sets the world, far from being consigned
bias. ent national assembly (ANC), who illegitimate. reason for the economic crisis and the Let’s hope that sexual violence in con- out to examine the root causes and to history, it is still happening today
Here’s why: in the 2015 congressio- would then take over the functions of The democratic legitimacy of actual legal reality behind the polit- flict will no longer be dismissed as the consequences of conflict- related in countries such as Myanmar, Iraq,
nal elections, a coalition of opposition the Asamblea Nacional. The opposi- Guaidó rests on Article 233 of the ical power struggle. Instead, we are though it were somehow an unavoid- sexual violence and identifies differ- Syria and Yemen to name a few. The
political parties, named Mesa de la tion boycotted this election calling it Venezuelan constitution. It states told that the crisis is the result of fall- able by-product of warfare and strife”. ent patterns and types of such vio- world may never rid itself of the prob-
Unidad (MUD), secured a significant fraudulent and unconstitutional and that “Pending election and inaugura- ing oil prices and the legitimate presi- This excellent and timely study lence. It assesses the limitations of lem. But it has decided it can no lon-
electoral victory over Maduro and his the election was denounced by a large tion of the new President, the President dent is ‘self-proclaimed’. ■ by New Direction, combines a close international tools to end the problem, ger just accept it as a fact of life - or of
re-examination of existing data with and offers a menu of potential policy war. This report represent an import-
details of implications and applica- responses. Throughout, the report, ant impetus - along with some help-
IDU Chairman Rt. Hon. Stephen Harper tions for policy-makers to consider. the authors addresses several com- ful guidelines - for our international

“The tyranny in Venezuela ntil recently Christianity Communist North Korea, however,
It will prove to be an important step
in refocusing and redefining efforts
mon myths and misconceptions. For
example, not all victims are women
determination to tackle a global dis-
grace with renewed global resolve. ■

can come to an end.” was a relatively strong force

in the Middle East, but now
ranks as the most oppressive coun-
try of all, with an estimated 70,000 You can download report at

the number of those who follow the Christians in labour camps. Wit-
he people of Venezuela have In accordance with Article 231 of faith are in steep decline. Last month, ness accounts provide a gruesome
made a strong statement that Venezuelan Constitution, Juan Guaido it was reported that the number of picture, describing instances where
they will no longer tolerate the took oath before the National Christians in Iraq has decreased to a Christians have been crushed by
dictatorial regime of Nicolas Maduro. Assembly to become the mere 200,000. steamrollers.
The IDU stands with the people of interim President of the All world religions suffer perse- In countries like Vietnam, China,
Venezuela and supports the President Republic. “With this step” cution to some extent, but research North Korea and Myanmar there has
of the democratically elected National Harper argued “and the has repeatedly shown Christians been an increase in stricter control of
Assembly, Mr. Juan Guaido, as interim broad support of the peo- to be the most persecuted religious religious rights by the state. With the
President of Venezuela. ple of Venezuela, the tyr- group. The European Parliament has availability of personal digital tech-
IDU Chairman Stephen Harper anny in Venezuela can labeled the violence perpetrated by nology making it easier, authoritarian
stated: “The International Democrat finally come to an end. We ISIS as a genocide. The demise of ISIS states are increasingly using face rec-
Union recognizes and welcomes Juan demand a peaceful transi- has, however, not put an end to the ognition and electronic chips to con-
Guaido as interim President of Venezu- tion of power. persecution. trol their citizens.
ela. Ever since the National Assembly The IDU urges all institutions of Sadly, the Iraqi Christians are not In January, Swedish Radio’s Middle
was democratically constituted on Jan- Venezuela to act in full accordance alone in their plight. The NGO Open East correspondent Johan Mathias
uary 5th 2016, the dictatorial regime of with the Constitution, to follow legal Doors has listed the 50 most danger- Sommarström highlighted the unfor-
Nicolas Maduro has tried to destroy this processes, and to refrain from violence. ous countries for Christians to prac- giving reality of Christianity in the
last stronghold of democracy and has The IDU also calls upon its members to tice their faith. Islamism is one of the Middle East, with the laconic state-
brought the nation to a state of chaos. support interim President Guaido in strongest common denominators for ment that if we “had been talking
This once free and prosperous country his mission to bring democracy and the countries where Christians suffer about animals we would have loudly
has been dragged into tyranny and pov- rule of law back to the people of Vene- persecution, accounting for seven out proclaim them an endangered spe-
erty by a criminal group of Chavistas.” zuela. ■ of the ten worst countries. cies”. ■

The programme of Politics needs a


THE CONSERVATIVE writes for the THE CONSERVATIVE acknowledges

citizens that are rooted in – and have the unique democratic legitimacy of the
loyalties to – their neighbourhoods, nation-state, and recognises the rule of
We publish today the first edition of the bi-weekly
communities, regions and country. We law and equality of all citizens before the
want to be an outlet for those that take newspaper THE CONSERVATIVE. We aim to law as fundamental preconditions of a
pride in their country’s history and her- fill a in the newspaper market as a forthright just society.
itage without feeling the need to dispar- and unflinchingly conservative newspaper and
age or deride the same feeling in others. THE CONSERVATIVE favours the exer-
We want to give a political voice to those will serve as a counterweight to the liberal left- cise of power at the lowest practicable
that have a greater feeling of shared des- of-centre establishment internationalism that level. In an open society that respects
tiny with their fellow citizens than with dominates most news outlets. the dignity and autonomy of the individ-
the other gold card holders in the airport ual, the important role of civil associa-
lounge. tions, families and other bodies that fill
the space between the individual and the
THE CONSERVATIVE’s view is that the government must be cherished, because
key faultline in European politics isn’t it is these institutions which keep us all
between different ethnicities, religious free from state coercion.
affiliations, sexes, social classes, gener-
ations, communities, or countries. The THE CONSERVATIVE believes that the
fundamental conflict is between those natural liberties of the individual include
that believe in the citizens’ right to come the freedom of religion and worship,
together to discuss and make common freedom of speech and expression, free-
decisions (yes, even decisions with which dom of movement and association, free-
others may disagree) and those that only dom of contract and employment, and
accept common decisions when they are freedom from oppressive, arbitrary or
in accordance with the preferences of the punitive taxation.
preordained university-educated, urban
internationalist, socially liberal agenda. THE CONSERVATIVE wishes to see a
The clashes we see are between those continent-wide cooperation of indepen-
that accept the outcome of elections and dent democratic states and nations. We
referenda they dislike and those that believe such a project only can be suc-
strive to undermine the legitimacy of the cessful if it is deferential to the right

office holders with which they disagree, of each nation to preserve and trans-
or immediately demand a second refer- mit their unique version of our com- opulists recruit their fol- opposing ways to treat each other as fel- been jeopardised not only by the global
plebiscite or social media. But the obser-
enda when the voters ‘have been fooled’ mon civilisation - their culture - to future lowing by direct appeal, are low citizens, for whom the government vation also reminds us that accountable economy and the rapid decline of indig-
and ‘got it wrong’. generations. largely indifferent to their is not “mine” or “yours” but “ours”, politics depends on mutual trust. We enous ways of life, but also by the mass
opponents, and have no whether or not we approve of it. Many must trust our political opponents to immigration of people with other lan-
intention, if elected, of allowing a voice are the flaws in this system of govern- acknowledge that they have the duty to guages, other customs, other religions,
THE CONSERVATIVE believes in free THE CONSERVATIVE accepts that to those who did not vote for them. If ment, but one feature gives it an insu- represent the people as a whole, and not other ways of life and other and com-
speech and in the informative potential of there are no ideal societies and believes “populism” threatens the political sta- perable advantage over all others so far merely to advance the agenda of their peting loyalties. Worse than this is the
bility of democracies, it is because it devised, which is that it makes those own political supporters. fact that ordinary people have been
an open, polite and vigorous debate. Our that all social orders can be improved. is part of a wider failure to appreciate who exercise power accountable to
Sir Roger Scruton
But what happens when that trust forbidden to mention this, forbidden
quarrel is with those unmoored ostrich- The development of our civilisation and the virtue and the necessity of repre- those who did not vote for them. This
is a writer and philosopher who has
disintegrates? In particular, what hap- to complain about it publicly, forbid-
published more than forty books in
like sophisticates who believe that they different cultures primarily takes place sentation. For representative govern- kind of accountability is possible only pens when the issues closest to peo-
philosophy, aesthetics and politics. He den even to begin the process of com-
ment to work, representatives must be if the electorate is bound together as a ple’s hearts are neither discussed nor
is widely translated. He is a fellow of ing to terms with it by discussing what
have the moral right to ostracise their through experimentation, competition
free to ignore those who elected them, “we”. Only if this “we” is in place can the the British Academy and a Fellow of the mentioned by their representatives, the costs and benefits might be.
fellow citizens – or, as they see it, the hoi and mimicking that which is successful. to consider each matter on its merits, people trust the politicians to look after
Royal Society of Literature. He teaches
and when these issues are precisely It is in these circumstances that we
in both England and America and is a
polloi - for discussing issues that fall out- We therefore have faith in in competi- and to address the interests of those their interests. Trust enables people to Senior Fellow at the Ethics and Publicissues of identity – of “who we are” witness the rise of the populists. Marine
side the cognoscente myopia of a woke tion. Competition between individuals in who did not vote for them just as much co-operate in ensuring that the legisla- Policy Center, Washington D.C. He is and “what unites us”? This, it seems Le Pen in France, Jeremy Corbyn in
as the interests of those who did. The tive process is reversible, when it makes currently teaching an MA in Philosophy to me, is where we have got to in West- Britain, Nicola Sturgeon in Scotland
safe-space seminar. We believe that a key accordance with the meritocratic ideal; point was made two centuries ago by a mistake; it enables them to accept
for the University of Buckingham.
ern democracies – in the United States and Geert Wilders in the Netherlands
litmus test of open debate is that some- between firms in accordance with the Edmund Burke that representation, decisions that run counter to their indi- @roger_scruton just as much as in Europe. And recent have very little in common when it
one potentially could be offended. We ideal of the free market; between nations unlike delegation, is an office, defined vidual desires and which express views events on both continents would be comes to ideology. But they share one
by its responsibilities. To refer every important feature, which is that they
don’;t endorse causing gratuitous offence and states in accordance with the ideal of matter to the constituents and to act represent factions within the elector-
to others, but neither do we believe in a peaceful institutional competition. on majority opinion case by case is pre- ate, and not the electorate as a whole.
right not to be offended. Since just about cisely to avoid those responsibilities, to They seek the widest possible support,
anything can offend someone, a newspa- THE CONSERVATIVE rejects all forms retreat behind the consensus, and to We accept to be ruled by laws and decisions made by but have little or no intention of com-

politicians with whom we disagree, and whom we

cease to be genuinely accountable for promising with those who do not offer
per must risk causing offence to be a cat- of extremism, authoritarianism and what one does. it. Theirs is a politics of slogans, ban-
alyst for change. ­racism. ■ In modern conditions, in which gov-
ernments rarely enjoy a majority vote, perhaps deeply dislike. How is that possible? Why ners and people on the march.
True democrats are not like that.
most of us are living under a govern-
ment of which we don’t approve. We
don’t democracies constantly collapse, as people They are not in the business of recruit-
ing people to a cause, and imposing
DISCLAIMER MANAGING EDITOR DESIGN accept to be ruled by laws and decisions
made by politicians with whom we dis-
refuse to be governed by those they never voted for? their goals by majority opinion. They
are in the business of government,
Why do the protests of disenchanted voters crying
Alliance of Conservatives & Reformists Richard Milsom VIDEOR o.d. (
in Europe (ACRE) is a Belgian EUPP agree, and whom we perhaps deeply which means discussion and compro-

“not my president!” peter out, and why has there been

No: 0820.208.739, recognised ADVISORY BOARD HOW TO CONTACT US dislike. How is that possible? Why mise with those who disagree with
and partially funded by the Jan Zahradil MEP ADDRESS Alliance of Conservatives & don’t democracies constantly collapse, them. The populist leads a crowd, with

after all no mass exodus of liberals to Canada?

The Conservative is a bi-weekly newspaper available in print European Parliament. Anna Fotyga MEP Reformists in Europe (ACRE) as people refuse to be governed by a banner marked “Forward to victory!”
and online, owned by the Alliance of the Conservatives and Raffaele Fitto MEP Rue du Trone 4, B-1000,
those they never voted for? Why do the Victory means overcoming opposition
Reformists in Europe (ACRE). The views and opinions expressed Sir Geoffrey Clifton-Brown MP Brussels, Belgium
in the publication are solely those Prof Ryszard Legutko MEP WEB
protests of disenchanted voters crying and then destroying it, in the manner of
The Conservative can be read online at of individual authors and should not Daniel Hannan MEP EMAIL
“not my president!” peter out, and why Lenin and Hitler, who worked by cha-
be regarded as reflecting any official Dr Andrew Roberts has there been after all no mass exodus of the nation and its future that they injects hesitation, circumspection and less surprising if the media and the pol- risma, hysteria and mass enchantment
REPRODUCTION RIGHTS opinion or position of the Alliance Roger Kimball INFORMATION FOR AUTHORS of liberals to Canada? do not share. And it enables them to do accountability into the heart of govern- iticians had woken up earlier to the fact in order to ascend to the pinnacle of
All content and materials of The Conservative are copyrighted, of Conservatives and Reformists Prof Pedro Schwartz Please address submissions and The answer is that democracies are this because they can look forward to an ment – qualities that play no part in the that Western democracies – all of them power. True democrats cannot play that
unless otherwise stated. For permission to republish articles in Europe (ACRE), its leadership, Prof Sir Roger Scruton letters to the editor to: held together by something stron- election in which they have a chance to emotions of the crowd. Representative without exception – are suffering from game. They aim to lead a civil society,
appearing in The Conservative, please contact the Managing members or staff, or of the Managing Editor / The Conservative ger than politics. There is a “first per- rectify the damage. government is for this reason infinitely a crisis of identity. The “we” that is the not a crowd, and if they had a banner it
Editor at European Parliament. EMAIL
son plural”, a pre-political loyalty, That simple observation reminds to be preferred to direct appeals to foundation of trust and the sine qua would say merely “Hesitate!” – not, as
which causes neighbours who voted in us that representative democracy the people, whether by referendum, non of representative government has you will agree, a winning slogan. ■

where jingoist or chauvinist are more
On the other hand, self-govern-
ing free societies cannot exist without
patriotism, which is synonymous with
democratic nationalism. There can be
no democracy without the nation-state
and no nation (and no conservative
politics, for that matter) will survive
without nationalist sentiments. As the
National Review editor, Rich Lowry,
put it: “Nationalist sentiments are nat-
ural and can’t be beaten out of peo-
ple if you try. It would be a strange…
conservatism that lacked any founda-
tion in them.” Lowry and his colleague
Ramesh Ponnuru called on fellow con-
servatives to embrace an “enlightened
The Israeli politician Natan Sha-
ransky argued that “nationalism has
been a powerful weapon in defend-
ing the free world against aggression”.
During the Second World War, dem-
ocratic nationalism, as articulated by
Churchill, Roosevelt, and de Gaulle
was a main inspiration for resistance
to the Nazi German empire (which in
Hitler’s view was more Aryan racialist
and imperialist than a regime primar-
ily focused on German nationalism and
German national interest). 
After World War II the conservative
renaissance in the West under Rea-
gan, Thatcher, de Gaulle, and Begin
was imbued with the spirit of demo-
cratic nationalism, in opposition to a
social democratic-style Western Left
that was becoming increasingly trans-
nationalist. As democratic nationalists
(and conservatives) both de Gaulle and
Thatcher (despite their economic and
foreign policy differences) favoured

a Europe of sovereign nation-states
rather than the supranational entity rexit vote in the UK and the indifferent, and unaccountable elites.
that the EU has become.  election of Donald Trump in What is clear is that, in the end,
During the 1980s in the United
States two leading thinkers of neo-con-
the US have been described
as demonstrating “the
It’s worth recalling that the term the beliefs or principles one abides
by really do matter—and ideas, as the
servatism, Irving Kristol and Norman return of populism”. The emergence “populism” is of a rather recent American thinker Richard M. Weaver

vintage. Merriam-Webster’s
Podhoretz, unhesitatingly described over the years of other Western polit- told us nearly 70 years ago, have conse-
President Reagan as a nationalist.  ical leaders such as Hugo Chavez in quences. So it is imperative that popu-
Podhoretz defined patriotism as a
“love of” one’s country and nation-
Alvino-Mario Fantini
is the Editor-in-Chief of the bi-annual
Venezuela, Geert Wilders in the Neth-
erlands, and Beppe Grillo in Italy has dictionary informs us that its list movements be inspired by the right
alism as “pride in” one’s country, and
noted that Reagan promoted both. But
online and print magazine, The European
Conservative. A graduate of Dartmouth
also been seen as part of this phenom-
enon. Even in the East, Rodrigo Dute-
first known use was in 1891, when What are those “right ideas”? Nat-
urally, this is one of the most basic

he two most important
whatever the different definitions, the
connection between conservatives
College, he holds advanced degrees in
international development, public policy,
rte in the Philippines, Japan’s Shinzo
Abe, and Narendra Modi in India all
it was used to describe certain questions of political philosophy. But
especially apt is the term “conservative
political movements in the US.
and financial journalism. He serves on
words in politics are: who and patriotism and nationalism is fun- the boards of the Center for European seem to have been cast from a similar populism”, an outlook that prioritises
decides? Today throughout
the West the central issue is
Without patriotism no consensual damental and cannot be denied. As the
Israeli philosopher, Yoram Hazony,
Renewal, European Dignity Watch, and
The Dartmouth Review. He is a member
Although these politicians are as Those movements, according to a
sovereignty and self-determination,
the idea of ordered liberty, and a return
regime will survive.
of the Philadelphia Society, Mont Pelerin
whether government is based on the
consent of the governed or whether
observed: “Conservatives have been
nationalists since the days Disraeli
Society, l’Association Internationale
de Science Politique, and the Institut
ideologically diverse as can be, they
are all considered “populists”. This retrospective in The Week, were to “such traditional sources of self-defi-
nition as national identity, religious
previously democratic peoples will be
ruled against their consent by supra- power has been delegated by democratic If the democratic nation-state is the
wrote novels.” 
There are some who argue that con-
d’Études Politiques.
is confusing –  and raises important
questions about the very meaning and
motivated by the belief that “the will affiliation, and specific cultural root-
edness”, in the words of Roger Kimball.
John Fonte
is a senior fellow at the Hudson
national institutions and global forces
beyond their control.
nation-state officials to the EU’s supra-
national institutions. Significantly,
primary institution of a free society, its
sovereignty and liberty cannot be taken
servatives should adopt a “patriotism
good, nationalism bad” stance. But
usefulness of the term. One might even
argue that the only thing certain is that
of ordinary citizens should prevail It is important to recognise that for
the average voter frustrated with the
Institute. He is the author of
Sovereignty or Submission, winner of The Brexit referendum was a defin-
ing moment in early 21st century global
however, both the Enlightenment phi-
losopher John Locke and the American
for granted but is sustained only by the
patriotism of its citizens. As politi-
this manner of thinking makes too
many concessions to anti-national
the term “populism” is used loosely and
over that of a privileged elite.” status quo, it sometimes matters lit-
tle whether a populist movement is on
the Intercollegiate Studies Institute
(ISI) book award for 2012. politics. Through Brexit, the British statesman Alexander Hamilton specifi- cal thinkers from Plato and Aristotle identity forces and, thus, often leads It’s worth recalling that the term the Right or Left. What matters more is
people re-affirmed the greatest politi- cally repudiated this type of delegation to Montesquieu, Madison, Burke, and to a watered-down form of “patrio- “populism” is of a rather recent vintage. pensants tell us, we would have to con- Hofer in Austria or Marine Le Pen in whether such a movement ably chan-
cal right of all, the right of a free people of authority that transfers sovereignty Tocqueville have reminded us, without tism” that is hesitant vigorously to Merriam-Webster’s dictionary informs sider all of today’s populist movements France. nels their discontent.
to rule themselves. Western conserva- or self-government from one political patriotism no consensual regime will defend one’s culture, heritage, his- us that its first known use was in 1891, “dangerous” and a threat to democra- Second, not all populist movements Such indifference to core ideas
tives should not hesitate to celebrate entity to different political entity. Locke survive.     tory, and national traditions, without when it was used to describe certain cies everywhere. The political scien- or candidates can be considered threats should not be taken lightly. In fact, it
the reassertion of democratic self-gov- writes in his famous Second Treatise Conservative voters and conserva- which a free democratic society will political movements in the US. Those tist Jan-Werner Müller, from his own to democracy. As Daniel Hannan has underscores the importance of making
ernment – that is, democratic sover- that if the “legislative” (parliament) tive politicians are naturally drawn not survive.   movements, according to a retrospec- privileged perch at Princeton Univer- written, “populism is not intrinsically a sure that today’s populist movements
eignty – in the United Kingdom. delivers “the people into the subjection to patriotism, to national traditions, Conservatives, whether Anglosphere tive in The Week, were motivated by sity, even suggests that “exclusivity” bad thing”. Whether or not a given pop- and their adherents understand and
Today, the democratic nation-state of a foreign power” it “change[s] the national identity, and the patrimony of free marketeers, Gaullist continental- the belief that “the will of ordinary cit- and a “rejection of pluralism” lie at the ulist politician is “dangerous” depends are inspired by conservative ideas – so
is the primary institution that ensures legislative.” Locke states that the con- one’s own nation. But what should be ists, or some fusionist combination, izens should prevail over that of a priv- very core of populism, subtly raising principally on his policy prescriptions. that conservative populism may truly
the existence of a just political sys- cept of a “free and independent society, the conservative approach to national- such as Likud in Israel or the cen- ileged elite.” the spectre of authoritarianism. But For example, despite what alarmists be in the ascendant and Left-wing or
tem in which the rulers are respon- to be governed by its own laws: this is ism? Let us examine the different types tre-Right coalition in Denmark, should The populist movements of today nothing could be further from the case in Brussels, Washington, and the media “illiberal” populism may wither on the
sible to, and chosen by, the ruled. As lost, whenever they are given up into the of nationalism.  stand firm. We should proudly say: share this same belief – though one –  unless one willingly ignores some have averred, not all populist move- vine.
Michael Gove put it succinctly during power of another”.  There is aggressive nationalism, yes, we are for patriotism, democratic could argue that their struggle is far salient facts. ments are “on the right”. Podemos in In the end, the only way forward
the Brexit debate: “the laws we must Echoing Locke, Alexander Hamil- often exhibited by authoritarian nationalism, and the sovereign right of greater, since elites today are more First, Western populist movements Spain, and the coalition of Greek par- is for those of us who believe in the
obey… should be decided by the people ton declared that sovereign legislative states, that is belligerent towards for- a free people to rule themselves. And powerful than ever before. They have today are not toppling democratic ties known as Syriza are both consid- Anglo-American tradition of “ordered
we choose and who we can throw out.” decision-making cannot be delegated eigners and in some cases seeks mil- this includes the right of societal repro- consolidated power and influence to governments. Although populist can- ered populist, but they are on the far liberty” to seek the success of a legit-
Instead, European Union membership away under the American Constitu- itary conquests. But we already have duction – that is, the right of a free peo- unimaginable degrees, and created a didates have indeed won surprising Left of the political spectrum, advo- imate “conservative populism” – one
means that British laws “are decided by tion. Hamilton wrote that: “a delegated more precise words to deal with this ple to perpetuate their own cultures, “managerial society”, as has been doc- victories at the polls in some places, cating destructive policies that could that may dethrone the artificial oligar-
politicians from other nations who we authority cannot alter the constituting negative behaviour: jingoism for the institutions, and ways of life through umented by thinkers as diverse as they have failed elsewhere. And, con- very well put their respective societ- chies that rule over us (on both sides of
never elected and can’t throw out”. act… An agent cannot model his own glorification of war and military con- an immigration and assimilation pol- James Burnham, Charles Murray, and trary to expectations, the triumph of ies firmly on what Hayek called the the Atlantic) and which will help dem-
Supporters of the supranational commission. A treaty, for example, can- quest, and chauvinism for contempt icy that that is based on the principle of Ryszard Legutko. the “Leave” campaign in Britain and road to serfdom. The only thing they ocratic citizens everywhere, in the
authority of the European Union argue not transfer the legislative power to the for other nations. Thus the use of the government by the consent of the gov- If we were to believe what poli- Trump in the US did not translate into share with other, more benign populist words of Steve Bannon, “deconstruct
the system remains consensual because executive.”   term “nationalist” is gratuitous in cases erned. ■ cymakers, the media, and the bien electoral victories for, say, Norbert movements is an opposition to corrupt, the administrative state”. ■

The regulatory state inevitably falls
victim to what James Burnham called
“the managerial revolution.” Popu-
lism is its mythos. A technocracy, he SPECIAL FEATURE

wrote, cannot be “openly expressed [as
a] function of keeping the ruling class
in power over the rest of society. The
ideology must ostensibly speak in the

name of ‘humanity’, ‘the people’, ‘the
race’, ‘the future’, ‘God’, ‘destiny’, and
so on.”
Further, government patronage
inevitably breeds contempt for its
recipients among the ruling elites
allegedly representing their inter-
ests. Senator Huey “Kingfish” Long
of Louisiana, who likely would have
run for president had he not been
assassinated in 1935, used state lar-
gesse to corral independent-minded
state legislators. After a meeting in
which one lawmaker accepted graft in
exchange voting against his constitu-
ents’ views, Long rebuffed his hand-
shake. “I paid for you,” Long told the
elected official. “I don’t have to shake
your hand.” Multiply the amount of
largesse by a correlative level of con-
tempt, and the result is Venezuela,
where another election has been sto-
len and the government shoots citi-
zens down in the streets, in the name
of the people.
In the US context, in time govern-
ment regulations devolve into naked
favouritism. Preferred labour unions
and influential industries get guar-
anteed government loans or bailouts.
This, in turn, sparks another populist
revolt, demanding a new round of gov-
ernment regulations, starting the cycle
The good news is that the populist
moment has the potential to become
the liberty moment. The concerns that
drive the populist impulse are legiti-
mate – and give conservatives a chance
to offer real solutions.
In her speech, Warren complained
that “big banks… got bailed out” under
the Bush administration. Conserva-
tives also oppose bank bailouts, albeit
from altogether different premises.
We believe the government should not
be in the business of bailing out fail-
ing businesses, that federal handouts
encourage cronyism, and that the sur-
est way to break the power of the reg-
nant corporate-government-academic
nexus is to strip the bureaucracy of its
excess money and power.
Warren blasted “tax loopholes and

subsidies that go to rich and profitable
ince the War of Independence, corporations.” We oppose subsidies
the American self-image has of any kind, because we do not believe

Abraham Lincoln encapsulated this

set individual liberty against the government should be picking win-
oligarchic power. Abraham ners and losers. Generally, we support a
Lincoln encapsulated this when he
described the American experiment when he described the American lower, flatter, more uniform system of
taxation free of carve-outs for special
as a government “of the people, by the
people, for the people”. Perhaps it was
experiment as a government “of the interests. Without favours, there is no
The Reverend Ben Johnson
is a senior editor overseeing
inevitable that populism, in the form
of the People’s Party, was born on US
people, by the people, for the people”. The same issues impelling Amer-
ican voters toward the populist Left
transatlantic issues at the Acton are at work across the transatlantic
Institute’s Religion & Liberty
soil – and that, as it experiences a mod-
Transatlantic. A former radio presenter, ern-day resurgence, it begins in the sentimental leader, Elizabeth Warren, the name of “the people,” as Donnelly sphere. Populism has displaced “liber-
he is also an Eastern Orthodox priest. United States. shows the extent to which the party is insisted – end up moving real deci- alism” as the third most popular polit-
@TheRightsWriter The original Populists described captivated by Left-wing populism. sion-making ever further from the ical ideology in free Europe, according
themselves as “the plain people” fight- Warren pledged allegiance to popu- reach of the average citizen. One indi- to the 2017 “Authoritarian Populism
ing dark, malevolent forces seeking to lism before the Campaign for America’s vidual may exert definitive influence Index,” a project of the Swedish think
“own the people”. However, their tar- Future in 2014. “I’m told you’ve spent at a school board meeting, slightly less tank Timbro and the European Policy
get was not the unaccountable power of much of the day talking about populism sway with a state legislator, and vir- Information Centre. The study used six
absolute monarchy, but corporations. – about the power of the people to make tually none over the president. But a markers to identify populists, includ-

And their solution was not constitu- change in this country,” she told con- CFPB that cannot be influenced by ing having “the self-image that they
tionally limited government. Instead, ference attendees. “This is something two of the three branches of govern- are in conflict with a corrupt and crony
their platform stated “that the power I believe in deeply.” As an example of a ment could hardly be less democratic. elite”, they are “highly critical of the
of government – in other words, of the grassroots policy, she touted her role in Perhaps it is no coincidence that War- EU”, and they make “promises of dra-

people – should be expanded… as rap- creating the Consumer Financial Pro- ren exhorts her fellow Democrats to matic change”.
idly and as far as the good sense of an tection Bureau (CFPB). Her choice was focus on regulation instead of taxa- European conservatives battle an reedom of Religion is the European Union institutions, and force from the perspective and promotion of freedom of reli- campaign that we launched ahead
intelligent people and the teachings unintentionally revelatory. tion in her new book, This Fight is Our insular elite, largely based in Brussels. one of the most impor- many become extremely reticent of EU believers and non-believ- gion or belief. We criticize others, of the next European Parliament
of experience shall justify, to the end The CFPB, which has vast powers over Fight. EU Structural and Cohesion Funds tant fundamental when there is a question relat- ers as they would not be able to be often with good reasons, and we Election of May this year. Anyone
that oppression, injustice, and poverty wide swaths of the US economy, is one of As policy ascends the rungs of gov- “have become the largest source of rights, considered by ing to concerns about freedom of manifested through those rights have started to be active in that joining the campaign will prove
shall eventually cease in the land”. To the least responsive agencies of the fed- ernment, it becomes more swayed corruption in Central and Eastern the European Court of Human religion or belief in our member either. We abide by the European field in regard to EU diplomacy. that, the right to freedom of reli-
that end they demanded a graduated eral government. Its director serves for by the very corporate titans it was Europe”, according to the Slovakian Rights as one of the foundations states. Organisation of religion is Convention of Human Rights. Now we need to ensure freedom of gion or belief, and the right to not
income tax, nationalisation of unpop- a five-year term – deliberately longer intended to rein in. Thus, the industry MEP Richard Sulik. And while con- of a “democratic society”, and a matter falling under the compe- We abide by the Charter of Fun- religion or belief in the EU mem- being discriminated on the basis
ular industries like banks, increased than the president’s four-year tenure – codes drawn up during the first wide- servative principles demand prudent amongst the most essential fac- tence of national authorities, how- damental Rights of the Euro- ber states, in and emanating from of anyone’s religion or belief, will
federal regulation of others, and an and can only be fired for cause. Since the spread attempt at national regulation, execution, a truly conservative govern- tors that constitute the identity of ever we are not talking only about pean Union, which recognizes, European Union institutions. We be defended vigorously, as never
inflationary monetary system to water CFPB receives its budget directly from the New Deal, were written by the larg- ment would be dramatically smaller believers, non-believers and their “organisation of religion”, we are of course, freedom of religion as need to uphold and defend the before. The articles you will find in
down their debts. the Federal Reserve, Congress holds est – and most politically connected – (and less costly) than the lumbering views on life. There is no doubt talking about a fundamental right one of the fundamental rights, freedom of conscience and reli- this section have been written by
The platform was written in part by no leverage over it. The CFPB has been corporations, and ruthlessly enforced behemoths stretching from Lisbon to that every citizen in the European which is one of the most essential but also the non-discrimination gion of all individuals by rejecting renowned specialists, and will give
Ignatius Donnelly, who wrote exten- accused of violating regulatory norms in to put their competitors out of busi- Helsinki. Union should be able to enjoy free- factors making up the identity of principle, including based on reli- and speaking out against bigotry, you so many reasons to support
sive (to his mind) non-fiction about order to punish the Left’s political ene- ness. “The teachings of experience” Conservatism is prepared to offer dom of religion or belief, whatever believers and their views on life. gion or belief, which is a basis for discrimination, harassment and the campaign, that we hope you
the history of Atlantis. Some 125 years mies. This unaccountable bureaucracy tell us these policies disfranchise the a compelling counter-narrative and faith he or she chooses, as well as Without this right in place, other all EU legislation. We have cre- violence. This is the reason for will join, whoever you are, what-
later, while everyone has discarded is a perfect exhibit of the “populist” consumer, who had been able to vote proven solutions to these problems. to choose none. Meanwhile, in rights would lose their impetus ated guidelines for the protection the Faith and Freedom Summit ever your political belief is. ■
Donnelly’s geographical musings, pol- Left’s policies: imperious, centralised, with his dollars, and empower politi- Left-wing populism merely deepens
iticians continue to repeat his equally undemocratic cronyism. cians influenced by political contribu- them in its self-perpetuating cycle of
discredited economic and political pre- The CFPB reveals a central fact of tions. Today’s populist Left promotes centralisation. Like Atlantis, the eco-
scriptions. The popularity of Bernie populism: policies enacted to estab- centralisation and then wonders aloud nomic planks of populism should be
Sanders and the Democratic Party’s lish control by the government – in about “regulatory capture.” reclassified as mythology. ■
14 Special Feature: FAITH & FREEDOM Special Feature: FAITH & FREEDOM 15

The need to focus on FACILITATING TROUBLE IN

veryone knows that Euro- protection” and “good administration”

pean citizens have the stron- (whatever that is supposed to mean).

gest legal protections of their The Charter also protects “the right
human rights of any people to access a free placement service” as
in the world. And yet there are reasons a fundamental human right. We could
to question the commitment on the part ignore this as politics as usual, but the Aaron Rhodes

of courts, governments and civil society problem is that all European states have Aaron Rhodes is president of the Forum
to protecting our most basic freedoms. embraced the idea that all human rights for Religious Freedom-Europe; between
This is especially true as regards the are equal and indivisible, a utopian idea 1993-2007, he was executive director
of the International Helsinki Federation
freedom of religion. that has become a human rights dogma. for Human Rights. He is the author of
Every European Union member state Is the right to employment counseling

“The Debasement of Human Rights”
protects the freedom of religion as a just as important, just as paramount, (Encounter Books 2018). the state, there is a marked tendency to highly dubious laws restricting harm-
he fundamental rights of constitutional right, both in legislation as the prohibition against slavery or consider our fundamental freedoms as less manifestations of Islamic faith, and
freedom of thought, con- and social policy. Each has endorsed the the right to freedom of religion? Or, us toward a situation when something arbitrary and political, and all human the European Court has given the green
science, religion, belief and principles contained in the Universal put another way, are those rights no like the freedom of religion, arguably rights have lost their sacrosanct char- light for the process, one that is “part of
non-belief as expressed in Declaration of Human Rights, and reli- more important than publicly funded our first freedom, the freedom of form a acter. Indeed, one rarely hears any ref- an ongoing attempt to shame, provoke
Article 9 of the European Convention gious persecution and genocide were a employment counseling? basic moral orientation, is equated with erence to natural rights in human rights and marginalize Muslims”.
on Human Rights (ECHR) and Arti- central impetus to European leadership More generally, aren’t our most cher- banal social policy. And we should bear discourse these days, and if we do it is The reasoning of the European Court
cle 18 of the Universal Declaration of in the process of establishing the inter- ished freedoms, the freedoms that allow in mind that with the dramatic expan- when natural rights are fashionably on this issue is, quite frankly, derisory.
Human Rights (UDHR), continue to Kif Augustine-Adams national human rights system. All EU us to make moral distinctions and judg- sion of human rights since the early denied. As American Professor Had- According to the Registry statement,
represent an aspiration rather than a states have ratified the International ments, and to take those into the politi- 1990s, human rights campaigns glob- ley Arkes wrote, natural rights are often “the Court accepted that the barrier
Ivan Meitus Chair and Professor of Law;
concrete description of practical real- J. Reuben Clark Law School, Brigham Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. claimed to be political and arbitrary, raised against others by a veil conceal-
ity in 21st century Europe. The mass All have joined the European Conven- while the nonexistence of natural rights ing the face in public could undermine

Young University
movement of migrants and refugees tion on Human Rights. All have signed is seen as a hard, objective fact. the notion of ‘living together.’” Accord-
eligious freedom is a univer-
sal value, strongly affirmed
religious—and even cultural and eth-
nic—minorities but to social harmony.
to Europe in the early 21st century
-- a movement on par with the cata-
the protection of the rights and free-
doms of others.” The challenge in 21st
on to the political commitments under-
taken in the Helsinki Process, as mem- Every European Union member Another profound problem is that the
freedom of religion, as well as other basic
ing to the Court Register, the Court
ruled that “the barrier raised against
in international norms and
law as an issue of justice and
Further, they are threats to stability
and security. Alienation can lead to
strophic numbers of people moving
within, across, and away from Europe
century Europe is to avoid the excep-
tion swallowing the rule, particularly
bers of the Organization for Security
and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).
state protects the freedom of rights, is subject to numerous conditions
and derogations in European human
others by a veil concealing the face was
perceived by the respondent State as
protection of minorities. But it is also
in the vital self-interest of every state
anger and radicalization, conflict and
at the end of World War II – presents
unique challenges and opportuni-
where women and girls -- their abil-
ity to make choices, direct their own
And of course, EU members have
pledged to adhere to the standards in the
religion as a constitutional right, rights treaties. This tendency has led to
a debasement of fundamental freedoms.
breaching the right of others to live in
a space of socialisation which made liv-
to advance it.
Religious freedom strengthens cul-
In the combined experience of par-
ticipants of the International Reli-
ties to realizing freedom of belief and
practice in Europe today.
lives, and structure their families --
are concerned. Europe’s commitment
European Charter of Human Rights. The
Charter incorporates a possibly wider
both in legislation and social policy. The European Convention on Human
Rights, set up as a bulwark against total-
ing together easier”. As the Forum for
Religious Freedom-Europe stated at
Greg Mitchell
tures and provides the foundation for gious Freedom (IRF) Roundtable First, migration itself may disrupt to both religious freedom and human array of rights and freedoms than any itarianism, confirmed that “Everyone the time, “Living together, in a plural-
is the Managing Co-Chair of the
stable democracies and their com- in Washington, D.C., religious free- International Religious Freedom the structures of family, commu- rights must recognize women’s par- other human rights treaty; on the EU cal arena and to advocate for our vision ally have stalled, and indeed, human has the right to freedom of thought, con- istic society where individual rights are
ponents, including civil society, eco- dom cannot take root locally unless Roundtable in Washington, D.C. nity, and geography that previously ticipation in religious practice as website, it is written that the Charter is of social justice, being diluted by this rights are even used as a justification for science and religion”. But the Conven- respected, means tolerating differences,
nomic development and growth, and there is a holistic approach. This sustained an individual’s religious well as the choice to forgo religious a “very modern codification” and reflects kind of human rights inflation? restricting human rights. The esteemed tion says this freedom can be limited in not prohibiting them because others
social harmony. As such, it is also an approach requires the top-down of a mutual understanding, respect, trust belief and practice in her country participation. an “updated” array of human rights, I have raised this issue in public meet- Polish economist Leszek Balcerovic the interests of “public safety...the pro- ‘might not wish to see them’ ”.
effective counter-terrorism weapon government’s executive and legisla- and reliance among groups, citizens of origin. Whether the movement Finally, religion and religious suggesting an elastic quality. There are ings with top United Nations and EU observed that we have more rights, but tection of public order, health or mor- I am not aware of any universal human
as it pre-emptively undermines trib- tive branches providing a legal struc- and government. In fact, it is a model of is voluntary, involuntary, or forced, practice can be a powerful means of 50 substantive articles that make no officials, but they have just brushed it less freedom. als, or for the protection of the rights and right to “live in a space of socialization”.
alism, polarization, balkanization, ture and public policies that protect good citizenship and governance that the migratory experience dislocates integration and community building, division or conceptual differentiation aside, and these problems are typically Since some human rights, like the freedoms of others”. The result is that But it apparently trumps the freedom of
radical ideologies, religious national- and promote freedom of conscience will contribute to the long-term secu- an individual from a familiar world, allowing connections between estab- between human rights to basic freedoms papered over by thought-terminat- right to employment counseling, are it is too easy for the European Court to religion. And in spite of all our treaties
ism and extremism, and conflict and or belief as integral to the well-being rity and economic interests of Europe. requiring significant flexibility and lished and emerging populations in a like the freedom of religion, and “soli- ing clichés. But we cannot be satisfied obviously not natural or inalienable uphold interferences in religious affairs. and charters, that could spell trouble for
violence. History and modern schol- of society and the stability of the state; All majority and minority religions adaptation on her part to survive. country. Dr. Julie K. Allen’s empiri- darity rights” to things like “consumer when official human rights dogma leads rights, but rather those dependent on Numerous European states are passing the freedom of religion in Europe. ■
arship make it clear that where peo- and the bottom-up efforts of civil soci- work together and coordinate with the Successful realization of the right cal work on religion and integration
ple are allowed to practice their faith ety, demonstrating a socially-owned government on policy matters related of belief and practice within Europe among African Christian women in


freely, participate in the public square, effort to respect and protect the reli- to religion, peace, security and good requires receiving countries to meet Denmark (forthcoming in Scandina-
and love and help “the other,” they are gious other. governance. migrants’ varying experiences with vian-Canadian Studies) provides the
more likely to be good citizens and less support to allow them to recon- type of qualitative research that can
likely to be alienated from each other struct the relationships and mate- inform effective government pol-


and the government. Such conclusions rial culture integral to their sense of icy. Religious belief and practice can
are increasingly bolstered by empirical self, community, religious belief and provide hope. Hope can be a power-
research. It is becoming increasingly It is becoming increasingly practice. ful, positive motivator. At the same

clear that advancing religious freedom
should be a national and international clear that advancing religious Second, in the process of migration
and dislocation, women and girls are
time, Europe’s history reminds us of
the revolutionary force of religious Brian J. Grim
security imperative for all countries
and regions. freedom should be a national and uniquely vulnerable to violence that
may impede their religious and spir-
belief and practice. While laïcité and
secularism may be dominant belief
Ph.D. Brian J. Grim is President of
the Religious Freedom & Business
But while the European Union has
international security imperative itual lives: rape, sexual assault, sex

adopted a strong commitment in favor trafficking, forced pregnancy, and
of religious freedom in its external pol-
icy, too often, its internal application of
for all countries and regions. related exploitation. Whether private
individuals perpetrate that violence
usinesses bring people
together for a common pur-
country. Working with Muslims, Chris-
tians and others, Don Larson is help-
long-term impact on relations between
India and Pakistan, the company
their “Dual Narrative” approach allows
Israeli and Palestinian tour guides to
this fundamental right is left lacking.
According to the 2017 Annual Report of In each country, three elements, in Establishing such a multi-faith
or it occurs as part of a systematic
state-sponsored tool of oppression, Europe’s history pose that transcends cul-
tural, ethnic and religious
ing to revive Mozambique’s economy
and reverse the trend in broken fami- Recognizing believes it is a step in the right direc-
tion, and it appears to be selling more
offer varying perspectives on culture,
religion, and politics at each location.
the U.S. Commission on International
Religious Freedom, religious freedom
particular, are critical to enabling a bal- European initiative would bring faith
anced and sustained effort to imple- communities together in continuous
women and girls suffer terribly, dis-
proportionately, particularly in con-
reminds us of the identities and unites people in a com- lies. Inspired by his faith and the belief
that companies can have a profound
and drawing on of their product.
Second, businesses recognize
Third, businesses often pay attention
to boosting workforce diversity. When
revolutionary the religious
mon enterprise where differences give
issues in Western Europe include: ment religious freedom locally: and ongoing dialogue, engage civil soci- servative cultures that (wrongly) way to shared purpose. Indeed, busi- impact, Don is working with people of and even reward others for pro- businesses are sensitive to the religious

“... government registration require- • The government’s legislative body

ety and government leaders in the pro-
cess, identify and focus on issues of
blame victims for perpetrators’
actions or relate the honor of men and
force of religious nesses have the resources and incentive
to bridge differences and bring people
all faiths to transform lives by help-
ing provide jobs for over 50,000 peo-
identities and moting intercultural under - stand-
ing. Cross-cultural dialogue and
and cultural issues around them, they
not only make reasonable accommo-
ments and monitoring of disfavored must pass laws that provide a common interest and multi-faith con- families with particular perceptions belief and together because business is at the cross- ple and by donating 90% of his profits sensitivities of cooperation is an essential part of the dations for faith in the workplace, but
groups pejoratively labeled as “cults”
or “sects”; government restrictions on
legal structure that holds both the
government’s executive branch
sensus, more effectively integrate reli-
gious freedom into domestic policy,
of and limits on women. Even though
a woman or girl is not at fault, a sex- practice. While roads of culture, commerce and creativ-
ity. Wells Fargo Bank recently identified
to support orphans, empower farmers,
and strengthen the local infrastructure, employees can daily operations for multinational
companies such as BMW. In collabo-
they can also address difficult unmet
social needs. Businesses in Indonesia
and efforts to restrict certain forms of
religious expression (such as places
and the people accountable, while
linking them in a common cause;
reduce restrictions on religion, under-
mine radical ideology and deter violent
ual assault can damage her percep-
tions of herself. Although she is not,
laïcité and four important market transformations.
The first three relate to global economic
helping to bring interfaith understand-
ing, togetherness and peace.
help companies ration with the UN Alliance of Civiliza-
tions, the BMW Group offers an annual
did this by organizing a mass wedding
for interfaith couples who had lived
of worship, dress and visible symbols, • The government’s executive branch extremism and terrorism, and increase a victim may believe herself unwor- secularism may be recovery and technology. But the fourth Recognizing and drawing on the reli- successfully award for organizations that create without legal status and with no ready
and parents’ rights); the impact of
hate speech and other laws on peace-
must enact and implement policies
that enable individuals and groups
stability, security, peace and prosperity.
Among the practical effects: last-
thy, unclean, sinful. Her relationships
with her family, religious commu-
dominant belief is that business will shift from primar-
ily being about “making money” to being
gious identities and sensitivities of
employees can help companies suc-
navigate innovative approaches to intercul-
tural understanding, including inter-
means to become legitimately wed. By
obtaining legal status, thousands of
ful expressions of belief; and the impact to practice their faith, participate in ing relationships are built, creating nity, and deity may shatter. Sexual systems in Europe about “doing good”. cessfully navigate challenges and seize challenges faith understanding and peace. Among interfaith couples can now access the
of counterextremism policies on cer-
tain religious communities. Govern-
the public square, and respect and
protect others (without necessarily
mutual understanding, respect and
trust (the coin of the realm in compli-
violence can be a gendered form of
religious persecution against which today, religious In September 2013, former United
Nations Secretary-General Ban
new opportunities. A study from the UN
Global Compact Business for Peace plat- and seize new organizations that have won this award
is a tour company in the Middle East,
public health service, obtain education
for their children, and have expanded
mental restrictions on religious freedom
both arise from and encourage a socie-
lending moral equivalency to
someone who believes/behaves
cated contexts); practical actions are
taken together as citizens of the same
Europe should protect its vulnerable
wars and strife Ki-moon set up the UN Global Com-
pact Business for Peace platform to
form and the Religious Freedom & Busi-
ness Foundation shows how businesses,
opportunities. MEJDI Tours, which offers new ideas
to build bridges and bring cultures
opportunities for employment.
Fourth, businesses can provide sup-
tal atmosphere of intolerance against differently); and country, despite deep theological and The first two points underscore a convulsed Europe harness the largely untapped potential often at the initiative of people of faith together through collaborative Mus- port for social entrepreneurs. The busi-
the targeted religious groups, and limit
their social integration and educational
• The society’s different groups,
especially the faith communities,
political differences; the Roundta-
ble itself has become a model of citi-
third complexity of freedom of belief
and practice in 21st century Europe:
in the past. of businesses to bring people together
and build peace while they grow their
within companies, can promote inter-
faith understanding and peace. And it
launched a project to promote under-
standing and dialogue by installing two
lim-Jewish tourism in the Holy Lands.
Aziz Abu Sarah & Scott Cooper,
ness environment provides neutral
ground for religious differences to give
and employment opportunities. Along- must organize themselves and work zenship and governance—every faith gender, sex, and family are core sites bottom lines. That’s the theory, but is happening in countries as diverse as “small world machines” in New Delhi, Co-Founders and Co-CEOs of MEJDI way to shared concerns of enterprise
side these restrictions, in recent years together regarding the various has a seat at the table, a voice in the of tension between diverse religious what about the practice? Nigeria, Brazil, Israel, the Philippines India, and Lahore, Pakistan, areas Tours, recognized that in many Mid- and economic development. For exam-
there has been an alarming rise in soci- issues impacting all of them. process, and an equal opportunity to belief systems and secular values. systems in Europe today, religious Don Larson, a former Vice President and Indonesia, as well as in the tense where religious tensions run high. Long dle Eastern countries, social and polit- ple, Brazilian social entrepreneur Jona-
etal hostility toward Jews and Muslims speak up, propose policy initiatives and If they conflict, how should Europe wars and strife convulsed Europe at The Hershey Company and founder border between India and Pakistan. separated by a border that has seen a ical tensions have spurred violence than Berezovsky, through his company,
in Europe, including discrimination, We need to put freedom of religion or invite others to support them; nobody reconcile competing values of reli- in the past. Although neither secu- and CEO of the Sunshine Nut Company, The study pointed to at least four number of wars, Indians and Pakistanis and unrest along religious and cultural Migraflix, helps immigrants and ref-
harassment, and sometimes violence, belief in Europe back in the spotlights, and is alienated or marginalized, and the gious freedom and secular human larism nor religion has a monopoly motivated by his faith, started Sunshine distinct ways business brings people were able to use the machines’ live lines. Each group within this struggle ugees start enterprises that empower
which further isolates and marginalizes propose the establishment of a network of platform is accepted and respected by rights? Article 9 of the ECHR makes on the good nor on the vain deploy- Nuts in Mozambique. While it used to together. First, businesses use market- video feeds and large 3D touch screens has a different narrative and under- them and show their value to the local
these populations.” multi-faith religious freedom and policy governments. clear that freedom of religion is not ment of violence, the current dom- be a worldwide leader in cashew pro- ing to build bridges between people. to speak to and even “touch” the per- standing of what has led to current cul- community. Because business is at the
roundtables throughout Europe. Among the results: mutual reliance, absolute, but “shall be subject only inance of the secular belief system duction, Mozambique is now one of the Companies can make positive contribu- son on the other side. People on both ture and conflict. Aziz Abu Sarah and cross - roads of culture, commerce and
These restrictions on religious free- The multi-faith IRF Roundtable multiple policy victories and greater to such limitations as are prescribed in 21st century Europe requires a world’s poorest nations. Banking pol- tions to peace by mobilizing advertising sides of the border, who had never met Scott Cooper, co-CEOs and Founders creativity, it is a powerful force for inter-
dom alienate the disfavored from the in Washington, D.C. is a model. It is a social cohesion as the idea is lived by law and are necessary in a demo- recommitment to pluralism, a plu- icies and civil war led to extreme pov- campaigns that bring people of various before, exchanged peace signs, touched of MEJDI Tours, recognize that allow- faith understanding, religious freedom
favored religious communities and the proven platform for bringing people and practiced— religious freedom is a cratic society in the interests of pub- ralism that respects and legally pro- erty across religious and cultural lines, faiths and backgrounds together. hands and danced together. ing people to tell their story is a first and peace. It’s time governments and
government. They represent a real bar- together—despite deep political and non-partisan issue that serves every- lic safety, for the protection of the tects a diversity of religious beliefs leaving many widowed mothers and In 2013, based on suggestions from While some are skeptical that step in fostering peace and cultural advocacy organizations understand the
rier not only to effective integration of theological differences—and building one’s interests. ■ public order, health or morals, or for and practices. ■ over 1.6 million orphans throughout the employees, the Coca-Cola Company Coca-Cola’s campaign will have any understanding. In Israel, for example, power of business for good. ■
16 Special Feature: FAITH & FREEDOM OPINION 17


RECOGNIZED Freedom of religion is guaranteed by Article 9 of the European Convention on Human
Rights, which binds the 47 member-states of the Council of Europe including the 28 mem-

by the ECHR
bers of the European Union (“the EU”). It is only in the last twenty years that the European
Court of Human Rights (“the ECHR”) has been seized of applications alleging a violation
of Article 9, taken alone or in combination with other articles of the Convention or its addi-
tional protocols. Most are declared inadmissible for various reasons. The infringement
judgments delivered by the ECHR mainly concern non-EU states, in particular Russia,
Ukraine, Moldova and Turkey. Some, though few, target EU members. They can be grouped
into two chapters: manifestations of religion and religious organizations.

7 cases

5 cases

3 cases

2 cases

1 case


Convictions to prison sentences for proselytism (Kokkinakis Prolonged refusal to recognize the legal personality Government intervention in choosing the leaders of the
v. Greece, 25 May 1993, and Larissis and Others v. Greece, 24 of a religious community, which had a long history Muslim community (Hassan and Tchaouch v. Bulgaria, 26
February 1998). internationally and was already known at the national level October 2000).

(Religionsgemeinschaft der Zeugen Jehovas and others v.
DENOMINATIONAL MEMBERSHIP Austria, 31 July 2008). Organization by the government of a unifying conference
of Muslims to end a schism and consequent selection of he general trend of history exacerbate inequality, but the prob-
Decision of the State to “requalify” the membership of Refusal to conclude an agreement with Reformed participants by the government (High Spiritual Council of leans towards globalism. lem of the poor is not how rich the
members of the Old Orthodox religion, leading ipso facto to
a change of denomination (Miroļubovs and others v. Latvia,
churches to provide religious classes in public schools
and to obtain official recognition of religious marriages
the Muslim Community v. Bulgaria, December 16, 2004). Over time differences in
our identities and interests
At a deeper level their rich are, but how poor the poor are.
And the best solution to poverty the
15 September 2009). (Savez crkava “Riječ života” and others v. Croatia, 9 Government interference in a conflict tearing the National
Orthodox Church, which it had directly helped to create by
come to matter less and our common disagreements are more visceral, world has ever known is undoubtedly

and they are mostly about fairness.

Dismissal of an employee of a public school for belonging December 2010). causes matter more. But from time to capitalism. Be careful if you try to
declaring invalid the election of the Patriarch Maxim as the
to an evangelical community (Ivanova v. Bulgaria, April 12, time the current backs up, and we pay improve it; you might kill it. The left
STATE RELATIONS head of the Church (Holy Synod of the Bulgarian Orthodox
Relegation to the status of “associations” of religious
Church (Metropolitan Innocent) and others v. Bulgaria, 22
Martin Cox
Director, John Locke Institute, Oxford
too much heed to what divides us. We
live in such a time. How is it fair, the left will argue, would also take a fresh, sober look at
the limitations of government, and its
that two children born in the same
January 2009).
Obligation for a new lawyer and for individuals participating
organizations previously recognized as “churches”, resulting Economic nationalism and tendency to generate unintentional
in criminal proceedings as witnesses, complainants or
MINISTERS OF RELIGION so-called protectionism are on the consequences, which so often make
country, on the same day, can start
in the loss of rights and privileges (Magyar Keresztény
suspects to take the religious oath (Alexandridis v. Greece, 21
Mennonita Egyház and others v. Hungary, 8 April 2014). rise. Tribalism is on the rise too, as government solutions worse than the
February 2008, Dimitras and Others v. Greece, 3 June 2010, Conviction, for “usurpation of functions of minister of a identity politics makes our disagree- problems they are trying to fix.
and Dimitras and others v. Greece (No. 3), 8 January 2013). FINANCING ORGANIZATIONS known religion” and “public wearing of the dress of such ments personal, and fosters resent- their lives with such different Right now, we have the worst of

prospects? One might be rich and

a minister without having the right”, to prison sentences ment and suspicion of people who both worlds. Many on the right are
PORT OF RELIGIOUS SYMBOLS Taxation of all the donations received by religious commuted in fines of Muftis elected by Muslims but not do not share our background or our telling the poor to stop complaining

privileged, the other poor and

associations, together with interest for late payment and recognized by the State which had appointed other persons interests. Politics, by its nature, tends and get a job. Many on the left are tell-
Temporary dismissal of an employee of a private company
surcharges (Association Jehovah’s Witnesses v. France, June to these posts (Serif v. Greece, 14 December 1999, and Agga to focus our attention on our differ- ing the poor that their poverty is not
for refusing to conceal the Christian cross she bore (Eweida
and Others v. The United Kingdom, January 15, 2013).
30, 2011, and Evangelical Missionary Church and Salaûn
v. France, Religious Association of the Temple Pyramid v.
v. Greece (no. 2), 17 October 2002, Agga v. Greece (no. 3)
and (no. 4), July 13, 2006).
ences and we seem to be getting worse
and worse at talking and listening to
vulnerable, through no merit or their own fault, and that the system
is to blame. Neither message is much
FOOD PRECEPTS France and Association of Knights of the Golden Lotus v.
France, January 31, 2013). Prohibition of foreign missionaries from engaging in public
each other. So, in the spirit of rap-
prochement, I propose an exchange
fault of their own. use to the poor and both are, in their
own ways, deeply discouraging. The
Refusal of the Prison Service to provide Buddhist detainees religious activities (Perry v. Latvia, 8 November 2007).
Refusal to exonerate from the payment of inheritance and of ideas, inviting the right and the left lives of our poorest citizens are pre-
with meatless meals (Vartic v. Romania (2), 17 December At a deeper level their disagree- four-fifths combined. If five people carious, and there really are institu-
donation taxes a religious community having the simple PLACES OF WORSHIP OR PRAYER to borrow the best from each other.
2013). ments are more visceral, and they go out to dinner and one of them pays tional impediments that won’t vanish
status of a “registered religious organization” and not of a The left has always been concerned
Conviction of Jehovah’s Witnesses to prison and fine for using with inequality, not just its exis- are mostly about fairness. How is it half the total bill, it is simply non- by being ignored. But to be told that
OBJECTION OF CONSCIENCE “recognized religious society” (Jehovas Zeugen in Österreich
v. Austria, 25 September 2012). a private room, rented as a House of Prayer, without prior tence but especially the deep struc- fair, the left will argue, that two chil- sense, they will say, to criticise him you are a helpless victim of implaca-
Denial of access to the profession of accountant for authorization from the local bishop of the Orthodox Church tural causes of it. For this reason they dren born in the same country, on the for not paying his fair share. ble impersonal forces is an invitation
conscientious objector convicted of refusing to wear uniform and from the Minister of national education and religions are critical of free market economics, same day, can start their lives with But what would happen if each to give up trying. Not all successful
(Thlimmenos v. Greece, 6 April 2000). (Manoussakis and others v. Greece, 26 September 1996). and supportive of government inter- such different prospects? One might side listened, really listened, to the people were born rich, and not all of
vention to redistribute income and be rich and privileged, the other poor other? First, some people on the right them possess rare talents. What they
Impossibility for Jehovah’s Witnesses ministers to obtain a Prohibition of the gathering of followers of a religious
wealth and to dismantle institutional and vulnerable, through no merit or would become more compassion- do nearly all seem to have is optimism
complete exemption from military service and alternative community in the home of one of them, on the grounds that
obstacles that poorer, disenfranchised fault of their own. Those on the right ate. They might try hard to imagine and perseverance.
civilian service, for lack of being ministers of a “recognized it was not registered by the State (Boychev and Others v.
people face. The right are typically will ask how it is fair that somebody what life would be like under other, Abundant opportunities await
religious society” (Löffelmann v. Austria and Gütl v. Austria, Bulgaria, 27 January 2011).
more favourable to markets, which who studies hard, and then works less fortunate, circumstances and those with enough self-belief to
March 12, 2009, and Lang v. Austria, March 19, 2009).
Injunction imposed by the police on a member of an they believe have enormous power to long hours at the office, and saves and squarely face the fact that life is just search for them. We should be com-
THIRD PARTY ATTACKS evangelical community against holding meetings at her generate wealth for millions of peo- invests, should have the fruits of her harder for some people. And they passionate. We should dismantle the
home (Dimitrova v. Bulgaria, 10 February 2015). ple around the world. They fear that labour snatched away to subsidise might notice, for the first time, the obstacles that trap people in poverty
Insufficient police response to violent but regular protests too much government regulation will the lifestyle of idle strangers. The left valuable privileges and opportuni- (particularly when those obstacles
by political party activists against Muslim-held Friday prayer strangle wealth creation, high taxes will tell you that it’s about time the fat ties that they have taken for granted. are of the government’s own making,
meeting inside and outside a mosque (Karaahmed Bulgaria, will blunt the incentives of innovators cats paid their fair share of taxes. The The left would begin to see the capi- as they often are). But we must not
24 February 2015). and risk takers, and a too-generous right will answer that, in many coun- talist system not merely as the source allow our compassion to stifle opti-
welfare state will create complacency tries, the richest one-fifth already of the problem, but also as the best mism, or perpetuate a narrative of
and trap people in dependency. pays more income tax than the other hope for a solution. Yes, markets can social determinism. ■

Over the past years national

sovereignty has gradually
WE ARE THE CORE OF A WIDER MOVEMENT TO been eroded and has now been
largely lost. The core of what
used to be viewed as the natural

sovereignty of a nation has been
devolved. Political sovereignty
has been taken over by European
bureaucracies and the markets.
Economic sovereignty has also
been weakened by uncontrolled
globalization and the power of
large foreign multinationals

that shop around for the best
regulatory conditions.
immigration, core values of our civi- natural sovereignty of a nation has
lization and the relationship with EU, been devolved. Political sovereignty

An Interview with Giorgia Meloni, Party Leader of the Brothers of Italy (FdI)
the Fiver Star Movement are in agree- has been taken over by European
ment with the leftist parties. More- bureaucracies and the markets. Eco-
over, few months ago they tried to join nomic sovereignty has also been weak-
ALDE, the European party of Mario ened by uncontrolled globalization and
Monti, and in the plenary the Five Star the power of large foreign multination-
Movement usually votes alongside the als that shop around for the best regu-
Left. It is inevitable that the underly- latory conditions.
ing political conflict in the Italian gov- The political parties, especially the
In an exclusive interview with The Conservative, Brothers of Italy leader Giorgia Meloni states her Party ernment will surface and cause a crisis.
Until then the Brothers of Italy will
parties that are heirs of the Left will
have to bare the historical responsibil-
‘is the natural choice for millions of Italians, and will certainly be on the ballot in the European elections’. continue their patriotic opposition,
supporting the measures that we con-
ity of having encouraged the process of
centralizing sovereignty to the Euro-
She calls on other parties and movements to join her. sider positive for Italian people and pean Union. They have turned Euro-
opposing the worst ones. peanism and globalism into offshoots
of old internationalism. The Left has
THE CONSERVATIVE sovereignty of their member states. Alleanza Nazionale were affiliated with THE CONSERVATIVE also replaced its traditional defense
Will the Brothers of Italy (FdI) be We will work with all the conservative tPiS prior to 2009. We also hope that Will this government end in a crisis of workers, with organizing minori-
running in the European elections in
May under your own name or in an
groups to bridge the divide between the
EPP center-right parties and the pop-
the Hungarian governing party Fidesz,
Orbán’s party, will join this group after
Our aim is to return to Brussels over the relationship with EU? ties, immigrants and the LGBT lobbies.
But the Center-right establishment
alliance with other parties? ulists, thereby relegating the left and
Macron to the sidelines of European
the elections. We also believe we could
play a role strengthening the voice of
with a larger and combative GIORGIA MELONI also has its share and responsibility for
The Italian government will collapse this process. I am convinced that the
GIORGIA MELONI politics. We are also confident that this the Mediterranean countries in the group and to strengthen the when a credible alternative emerges. European establishment in Novem-

array of those parties that wish to

My party, the Brothers of Italy, is the election will demonstrate that we soon ECR group; a group which already We are committed to building this ber 2011 toppled the last legitimately
core of a wider movement to unite will be the natural second party of the counts as its members important per- alternative. We are working alongside elected government in Italy.
all Italian conservatives and all those
that wish to maintain national sover-
center-right coalition in Italy, with
sonalities such as Raffaele Fitto, Remo
Semagiotto, Stefano Maullu and Inno- preserve the national sovereignty the Lega Party, and with all Conserva- The European establish-
tives, and those seeking sovereignty ment took this action
eignty in Europe. Our party is the nat-
ural choice for millions of Italians, and THE CONSERVATIVE
cenzo Leontini.
of their member states. for the nation states, to create a credi- precisely because that
ble national governing party. We want government was try-
Why did your party join the Euro- THE CONSERVATIVE
it will certainly be on the ballot in the to renew the Center-right, save Salvini ing to recover some
European elections on 26 May. We pean Conservative and Reformist What distinguishes the Brothers of THE CONSERVATIVE Group. We hope that after the elec- from the deadly embrace of the Five- of the sovereignty
would, however, welcome other polit- Group (ECR Group) in the European Italy from Salvini and Le Pen? Forza Italia chose to join the Euro- tions, Forza Italia – and, indeed, the Stars Movement and bring back a real our nation has lost. These are differ- In light of this I cannot understand, It is a risk that I do not think we can
ical movements join with us in this Parliament? pean Peoples Party (EPP Group) and entire EPP - will abandon this deadly conservative government. ent situations. nor I can accept, the position of the accept.
effort under our electoral symbol. GIORGIA MELONI the Brothers of Italy chose to join the embrace with the Left, and choose to THE CONSERVATIVE Yet, the Compact Italian Government. If we add the To end illegal migration, there is
GIORGIA MELONI The fundamental difference is that we ECR Group. Does that complicate the take a road that will bring them closer THE CONSERVATIVE What is your opinion affirms such a uni- votes of the Democratic Party (PD) only one solution for Brothers of Italy:
THE CONSERVATIVE After Brexit, the ECR Group will be have the courage to propose an alterna- relationship between your parties? to us and Mr Orbán’s party. In your opinion, in this crisis of the on the UN agreement versal right. This will to those of the Five Star Movement a European and international mission
What is the fundamental objective of led by the conservative Polish govern- tive model. We don’t believe it is enough nation state, how much sovereignty called Global Compact create a precedent that we know now that the Global Com- for a naval blockade off the coast of
the Brothers of Italy in the European ing party PiS. PiS is the most important to say “no” to this European Union. We GIORGIA MELONI THE CONSERVATIVE remains and what responsibility do for Migration? will allow the many NGOs pact will be approved, and Italy will Libya in combination with refugee pro-
Elections? governing party in the Visegrad Group, want to realize a confederation of free Forza Italia has always had a different In Italy, Lega now governs with the the parties have for the situation? that benefit from the business of be obliged to sign. Here, Lega seems cessing centers in Africa that examine
and the natural example to emulate for and sovereign nations that coordinate position from us on the issue of sover- Five-Star Movement (M5S). Is this a GIORGIA MELONI migration to appeal court judgments to be under the thumb of the Five Star asylum applications and distribute the
GIORGIA MELONI those who wish to preserve national their policies on major issues such as eignty of Member States in Europe. For positive development? GIORGIA MELONI This Compact is a dangerous mad- and push for further uncontrolled Movement and the Left. They have yet real refugees fairly among all the Mem-
Our aim is to return to Brussels with sovereignty and stand up inside the immigration, security and the internal far too long they have voted alongside Over the past years national sover- ness. There cannot be a “universal immigration. It is for this reason that to explain what the purpose of closing ber States of the European Union. We
a larger and combative group and to European Union. Furthermore, it market, but remain free to choose their Angela Merkel. For this reason, already GIORGIA MELONI eignty has gradually been eroded right to migration” that exists regard- nations that defend their borders, for the ports and limiting humanitarian must prevent the boats from leaving,
strengthen the array of those par- is a natural political alliance for us, own path in other areas without inter- in the last part of the 2009-2014 man- The Five Star Movement is on the left and has now been largely lost. The less of whether the person is a real example, the USA, Hungary, Poland, protection if, with one signature, we and this is one of the fights we will carry
ties that wish to preserve the national since our political predecessors in the ference from European bureaucrats. date, our members abandoned the EPP on all the major issues of our time. On core of what used to be viewed as the refugee, a legal or an illegal migrant. and Austria, have decided not to sign. are condemned to suffer an invasion. to the next European Parliament. ■

The system that we live in has

become very constraining. There
are fewer and fewer things you

can do, there are fewer and fewer
things that you can say, or that
you can publish.

When it comes to changing the sys- Since we are sitting here in the Euro-
tem, do you have any concrete pean Parliament, part of probably the
solution at hand? Is it perhaps to most liberal democratic project in
strengthen civil society and the inter- the postwar era, what do you see as
mediary institutions again? the future of the European Union?


I long ago gave up on the intermedi- I speak from a position of a represen-
ary NGOs. Just two hours ago, I was tative of a medium-size country, from
at a conference where a special fund the eastern part of Europe, the major-

for giving money to NGOs that are ity of whose population has supported
supportive of liberal democracy was the European Union. I see some value
discussed. That kills the entire con- in institutionalized cooperation. But
cept of The European Conservative 11 things have gone wrong. Today, the
non-governmental institutions. They union is in conflict with what the Pol-
are governmental institutions and they ish society really wants. This creates
are subsidized by the European Com- a tension. People in both Eastern and
mission, which is a kind of govern- Western Europe are dissatisfied, and
ment. I appreciate all civic initiatives; the answer from the EU is always ‘more
I take part in several of them myself. of the same’. If that continues, the EU
But let us forget about those myths. will be in trouble. For me, it is a very
Most NGOs, and especially the most saddening experience in the European
powerful ones, have been subsidized Parliament. I’m trying to make a differ-

An Interview with Ryszard Legutko by Kai Weiss

by international organizations, indi- ence, but it is a very saddening experi-
rectly by the government or the Euro- ence. And this is a parliament that has
pean Commission, and they are part of been in the hands of the same politi-
this system. cians for many, many years.
When it comes to a concrete solu- The whole idea of democracy is that
tion, look at my country. My country there is a pendulum, that the govern-
has been treated viciously by the inter- ment can change its position. One party
national community, but this is a coun- is in power one term, but with each swing
Kai Weiss is a research fellow at the Austrian
Economics Center and a board member of the try which has in many ways preserved a of the pendulum, another comes in. But
Hayek Institute, both in Vienna. kind of plurality. There are things you not here! This is the same coalition. It’s
can say and do in my country which you like the infamous Mexican Institutional
The interview was originally published at
cannot do here [in Brussels]. There has Revolutionary Party [PRI] which was in
The European Conservative, Issue 15.
to be some kind of institutional plural- power for over 70 years. When the same
ity, and the thing to do is to break the group of people is in power for such a
monopoly of the mainstream. My con- long time, it has to become pathological
cern is that conservatives have capitu- because they are no longer used to the
Ryszard Legutko is a Member ­of the European Parliament, a member of the Foreign Affairs Committee, and Co-Chairman lated in most European countries and idea that they may lose. If you look at
even in the United States. Of course, national politics [in Poland], one always
of the Parliamentary Group of European Conservatives and Reformists. He is also a professor of philosophy at Jagellonian there have been some movements in has the feeling that in the next election,
University in Krakow, Poland. He has served as Minister of Education, Secretary of State in the Chancellery of the late the opposite direction, which is good.
But my overall perception is still that
one can be ‘sent packing’, that one could
be in the opposition. Not here [in Brus-
President Lech Kaczynski, and Deputy Speaker of the Senate. His most recent English language book is nature we were all free, because at the can somehow change the system, we
many have capitulated. Even the Cath-
olic Church seems to have a tendency
sels]! This is hubris. If the EU doesn’t
change, it will sink deeper and deeper
We have to be very critical. The word
The Demon in Democracy: Totalitarian Temptations in Free Societies (Encounter Books, 2016). same time you can envisage a different
‘critique’ or ‘critical’ has become one of can somehow reform it if we diagnose to capitulate. “But once we become into a sea of trouble.
those favourite notions of modern dis-picture of society, where you say in the the problems and influences. part of the mainstream, maybe things
state of nature we were all deprived of
course, but this is also mendacious lan- Certainly, the system that we live in will get better”, they say. No! It’s the KAI WEISS
KAI WEISS seriousness in talking about import- world or the system as it should be, freedom, we were all in shackles. Free-
guage. There is the typical politician, has become very constraining. There other way around. Make the soci- Well, that’s one negative ending...
You fought against Communism, and ant issues. And it wasn’t the case. Of with open space and a serious dis- dom is to be defended on different
and he is not critical at all because he’s are fewer and fewer things you can do, ety genuinely plural. There are liber-
when the Soviet Union fell, there was course, I didn’t see it clearly at the very
a lot of hope with liberal democracy beginning.
course of opinions. My argument,
which I put forward in the book, is that We have to be very critical. The gist of the system.
grounds. If we look at Thomas Hobbes,
not criticizing anything. He’s an apolo-
he had this notion of the state of nature
there are fewer and fewer things that
you can say, or that you can publish.
als, there are libertarians, there are all
sorts of people, but there are also con-
That’s a negative ending — but things
coming into Eastern Europe. But, as It is difficult to see things as they
you explain in your latest book, you are because there are lots of prejudices
from the very beginning liberalism was
a very restrictive, authoritarian theory. word ‘critique’ or ‘critical’ has in which all people were equal, people
Going back to your question: No, it’s
were free, but at the same time every-
not just the recent developments in lib-
This is ridiculous. Even private life and
family life have been permeated by pol-
servatives. They are not painted, beau-
tified liberals; they are conservative.
could get better, though probably not
at the next elections. But who knows?
soon realized that it was not actu- and judgements through which you
ally that different from the previous see things. But at a certain moment in
The word ‘liberalism’ comes from
‘liberty’, so etymologically people tend
become one of those favourite eral democracy. Of course, the recent
developments in liberal democracy are
body was endangered. Then, in order to
reduce this danger and increase secu-
itics. Once you have made this diagno-
sis, you see that things are going wrong.
Maybe they are Catholics — they are
not ‘open’ Catholics. I don’t want the
For many years, I was living in a sys-
tem, and everybody was telling me that
system. Could you explain how it has my life I was starting to think: “There to think that whoever is liberal must notions of modern discourse, but particularly acute, that’s why we can rity, you had to build a big bureaucratic We are more and more trapped by this Catholics to be open as long as I do not Communism was inevitable and that it

this is also mendacious language.

become surprisingly similar? is no plurality.” There is a monopoly, be for liberty. No, whoever is liberal is state, for the creation of which you had
see them. But Tocqueville saw it almost politics and by this ideology, but I can see the liberals open. I haven’t met an would win, that it would conquer the
and there is one point of view that has supportive of a certain theory which is two hundred years ago — and then to give up your freedom. The Hobbes- see a possibility that we can change the open liberal in my entire life. They are entire world. Well, it didn’t. History
RYSZARD LEGUTKO a monopoly. And there is this mendac-
Of course there are differences because, ity of language. There are many peo-
called ‘liberalism’. This is an entirely
different thing. Now, what I object to There is the typical politician, and John Stuart Mill saw it 150 years ago.ian people aren’t really free people. If
you look at Locke, his society is also a
It has been there, at various degrees of
system. so damn closed. always has some surprises for us. ■

as I write in my book, I wouldn’t have ple who use words such as ‘plurality’,
had the political position I have now ‘tolerance’, ‘democracy’. They are the
in liberalism — and it starts with John
Locke, Thomas Hobbes, and John Stu- he is not critical at all because he’s society ruled by a majoritarian gov-
intensity, but it’s one of the problems
ernment, so it’s not a very free society
of our times. The same civilization that The president of the European Commission, Jean-Claude Juncker, seated next

not criticizing anything. He’s an

to Ryszard Legutko and Geoffrey Van Orden, during a meeting with members
under Communism for obvious rea- most autocratic. So I thought: “Maybe art Mill — is that from the very begin- produced Marxism and Communism either. I don’t really believe that if you of the European Conservatives and Reformists parliamentary grouping
sons. But there are some similarities there’s something wrong with it.” So I ning liberalism was conceived as a also produced liberalism and liberal cherish freedom, you have to use the
and my feeling is that these similarities came to this notion that there is a cer-
are becoming greater. tain similarity which goes back to some
theory which considers itself to be
superior to all others. That is: “We are
apologist of the system. democracy. arguments of John Locke. Edmund
Burke was a better defender of free-
I come from a staunchly anti-­ ideas in early modernity. better than you are, so we will orga- KAI WEISS dom, he is more persuasive. Or you
communist family, so I never had a Both liberal democracy and Commu- nize a life for you where each of you will every rational, well-educated person homogeneity, the rule of the majority. But aren’t those liberal values such have Hegel, who was a better defender
moment in my life where I sort of nism tend to politicize the entire soci- have an equal amount of liberty.” has to be a liberal. And one of the sentences from Democ- as freedom of speech, natural rights, of freedom than Thomas Hobbes.
flirted with communist parties or with ety. You have to be political. There is This promise may or may not be Now, when it comes to democracy, racy in America that I quote in my book and human dignity — often derived For some reasons, liberals reserve for
Marxian and communist ideology. It no space, no area, no family, no religion true, but by the very idea, liberals posi- some people somehow think democ- is: “I know of no other country in the from Christianity — in and of them- themselves this role of the defenders of
was obvious to me from the very begin- which is discrete from politics. Every- tion themselves above all other orien- racy is a system of freedom, a sys- world in which there is less freedom selves still correct, and have simply freedom.
ning — from the day I was born, from thing had to be communist — and now, tations. They say, for example: “You tem that is ‘open’. Well, that’s not the of thought.” We have been living under been abused?
when I could start thinking — that the everything has to be liberal democratic. conservatives are one-sided, you Chris- case. It was the ancient democracy the spell of a word — that ‘democracy’ is KAI WEISS
communist system was bad and evil. I tians represent one particular religion. that was very autocratic. But what was a good thing. But look at how it works: RYSZARD LEGUTKO Does liberal democracy in general
was active in opposing the system. And KAI WEISS We liberals, we represent everybody. eye-opening to me was reading Alexis look at the institution in which I work, Natural right is a very bizarre concept lead to these ‘totalitarian tempta-
at the same time, as a university pro- In which specific way are you using And since we represent everybody, we de Tocqueville’s Democracy in Amer- the European Parliament. This is a typ- — the whole idea of a state-of-nature, tions’ or can some parts be sustain-
fessor, I was interested in what liber- the term liberal democracy? Is it will take control in terms of ideology, in ica. The first part of the book is almost ical majoritarian institution, where which you can find in Hobbes, Locke, ably retained?
alism is, what democracy is, and I was the politically correct, social justice terms of politics.” In fact, they become entirely enthusiastic about Ameri- the power is in the hand of the major- and Rousseau, too, even though he
working on the political philosophy of culture, or are there already prob- monopolists. can society because there are so many ity which has the monopoly — and who- was no liberal himself. This is a very RYSZARD LEGUTKO
antiquity and modernity. I had, I would lems in libertarian, classical liberal About three to five decades ago, NGOs — what he called associations, ever does not belong to the majority strange notion. It is a purely fictitious There is no inevitability. Of course, you
say, a good general overview of political thoughts? when you looked at political theory, civic organizations. He loves that and is and does not conform to mainstream picture of human beings living in a very can change the system. My idea was
thought. there were several political orienta- very much impressed by it — and quite politics is marginalized. strange place. This is a pure theoreti- that a better solution is a kind of mixed
When the older regime was falling RYSZARD LEGUTKO tions, both in the real world and in rightly. More and more people are trying to cal construction. You cannot say that it regime, a mixed constitution system.
to pieces, I had this idea that the new My point is that it’s not just political the academic world. Now it’s all gone. However, the closer you get to the convince us that liberal democracy is is natural. It is artificial. It’s a world of Believe me, the final months of Com-
system would be exactly the opposite correctness. See, political correctness There is liberalism. It is a monopoly. end of Tocqueville’s book, you see that a perfect invention. It isn’t. There are fiction. It’s a creation of human imag- munism, and the first months of lib-
of the one we had, that there would be is the consequence of a long process, Liberalism is, in fact, the only legiti- he is very much concerned. He sees a lot of dangerous consequences, and ination. There is nothing really natu- eral democracy, was the period when
a lot of freedom, diversity, an exchange and it’s a legitimate consequence. It’s mate philosophy out there. If you are that there is a tendency in democ- we have to be aware of those conse- ral about a Hobbesian or Lockean state we had the greatest freedom. Before
of ideas, and that there would be a plu- not like, “Let’s get rid of political cor- not a liberal, then what are you? Either racy to homogenize. Democracy is not quences, and try to either improve — or of nature. You cannot defend freedom it was bad, and afterwards things have
rality of points of view and a certain rectness” and then we will have the a fascist or simply crazy — because about plurality. Democracy is about eliminate — them. on the argument that in the state of become worse and worse. I believe we

In each issue Roger

Kimball features a
past conservative hero
about whom we should
all know more.

Athwart history, yelling:

William F Buckley Jr.

“I’d rather be governed by the
first 2,000 names in the Boston It was the same in the 1965 New York consensus in 1955 in the inaugural in 1957 or 1967 or 1977, but his essays later accep- as I can. Diverge from that dogma and you will

telephone directory than by the

mayoral race, whose chief entertain- issue of National Review. Bill noted read as if they were written yesterday, tance by But I can do quickly find that the rhetoric of diver-
ment was the candidacy of Bill Buckley that the new magazine would be out or possibly this morning. Environmen- the world of so only because sity has been replaced by talk of “prej-

2,000 people on the faculty of himself. Bill hadn’t a chance of winning.

Indeed, when asked what he would do
of place “in the sense that the United
Nations and the League of Women Vot-
talism. The oil crisis. The Religious
Right. States’ rights. Reforming health
high society, he
never completely
many of my col-
leagues are expound-
udice,” “hate speech,” and the entire
lexicon of Left-liberal denunciation.

Harvard University.” if he were to win, he famously replied:

“Demand a recount.” But Bill’s candi-
ers and the New York Times and Henry
Steele Commager are in place”. It is out
care. Immigration, illegal and the other
kind. The future of Social Security.
descended. It is diffi-
cult at this distance to rec-
ing and defending their
contrasting faiths, or skep-
Every life can be characterised by
one or two governing attitudes. Per-

dacy was viable because it enabled him of place, he said, because, in its matu- Israel. Irresponsible accusations of reate the stir –no, the tornado ticism, as openly and honestly haps the word that best characterised
s that the statement of a popu- am aware he wrote about Trump was to put before the public an articulate rity, “literate America rejected con- Roger Kimball racism. The Supreme Court. Iran and – that book precipitated. Amer- as I am mine. Bill was “relish.” The depth and vari-
list? It is one of the most famous highly critical, but it was written years case for various important conserva- servatism in favour of radical social is editor and publisher of The New the bomb. The substance as well as the ican readers may recall the apo- Sound familiar? But this, Bill ousness of Bill Buckley’s many avoca-
sayings of William F Buckley Jr ago and took no cognisance of the fun- tive ideas. experimentation”. The brash new mag- Criterion and President and Publisher subject might have been taken from plexy that greeted Allan Bloom’s book rightly noted, is “ne plus ultra rela- tions reflect the depth and variousness
of Encounter Books. He is a frequent
(1925-2008), doyen of Amer- damental datum of the 2016 Presi- The underlying point is that pow- azine had arrived with its brash young contributor to many publications in what is happening now, today. The Closing of the American Mind in tivism, idiot nihilism.” No ethical code of his attitudes. Ralph Waldo Emerson,
ican conservatism, the man who did dential election: that it came down erful ideas can have powerful con- editor to cast a cold and inquisitive the US, Europe, and Australia and In part, no doubt, the contempora- the late-1980s. My, how the Left-wing requires “honest respect” for every who wasn’t wrong about everything,
as much as anyone to make conserva- to a choice between Hillary Clinton, sequences. Goldwater didn’t stand light upon that presumption. National writes the Roger’s Rules column for PJ neous feel of so much that Bill wrote is academic establishment loved to hate divergent opinion. “Eating people is devoted a book to Representative Men,
tism intellectually and ( just as import- whom Bill held in contempt, and Don- a chance of winning in 1964, but his Review “stands athwart history,” Bill Media. He is author of several books, explained by a passage from Ecclesia- that book! Double that enmity, treble wrong,” as Flanders and Swann put it, men who epitomised some essen-
including, most recently, The Fortunes
ant) socially respectable in the United ald Trump. candidacy was part of the galvanis- announced, “yelling Stop, at a time of Permanence: Culture and Anarchy in stes: “There is nothing new under the it: that will give you some sense of the and you needn’t be Aristotle to extend tial quality: Shakespeare; or, the Poet;
States. Buckley, especially in his early I suspect that Bill would have ing force that ushered Ronald Reagan when no one is inclined to do so, or to an Age of Amnesia. sun.” But there was also Bill’s unerr- hostility that engulfed God and Man at the list of things unworthy of toleration Napoleon; or, the Man of the World;
years, could be a ferocious polemicist. invoked (another famous WFB-ism) into the White House 15 years later. have much patience with those who so @rogerkimball ing instinct for the pertinent. When he Yale. Bill’s opening credo no matter what a “diver- Goethe; or, the Writer. Bill Buckley is,
But the Bach-loving, harpsichord-play- The Buckley Doctrine, urge it.” wrote about a matter of public inter- that “the duel between gent opinion” might dic- in Emerson’s sense, a Representative
ing, yacht-skippering, Gstaad-skiing, usually formulated as the Although written more 30, argued that “There never was an age est, he went for, and generally hit upon, Christianity and atheism tate. “Complete moral Man. One cannot quite imagine Emer-
polysyllabic writer and editor was too idea that conservatives than 60 years ago, that of conformity quite like this one.” And the jugular. I do not mean only that he is the most important in tolerance,” as James Fitz- son getting his mind around a charac-
urbane and too verbally nimble to be ought to rally around the statement of purpose has today? Looking back, we understand deployed the successful debater’s trick the world” was simply In one of his earliest essays, james Stephen noted in ter like William F Buckley Jr. But if one
dismissed as another troglodytic tobac- most conservative candi- I never heard Bill Buckley a preternaturally con- that the dampening spirit of confor- of touching on spots that were sore not to be borne. His codi- Liberty, Equality, Fra- can conjure up a less gaseous redac-
from 1951, Bill wrote about
opine about “populism” per
co-chewing throwback. (For one thing, date who is also electable. temporary relevance. mity and the assault on freedom were or weak. Bill was an able debater, and cil – “I further believe that ternity (1873), “is possi- tion of Emerson, one may suppose him

Friedrich von Hayek’s Road

Bill took his tobacco in elegant little As Buckley’s friend Bill warned about “Radi- then in their infancy. They have sud- was plenty adept at ferreting out and the struggle between indi- ble only when men have writing an essay called Buckley; or, the
cigarillos.) and colleague Neal Free-
se, but I often heard him cal social experimenta- denly come of age. The question is not exposing his opponents’ weaknesses, vidualism [ie, conserva- become completely indif- Conservative.
How could such a man prefer a pro- man has demonstrated, tion”; “the inroads that whether Bill’s inaugural bulletin is still evasions, ambiguities, enthymemes, tism] and collectivism is
to Serfdom and limned ferent to each other – that I hasten to add that by “conserva-
miscuous sampling of the census rolls however – and Freeman
discourse about the virtues relativism has made on pertinent. It could hardly be more so. and unwarranted presumptions. But the same struggle repro- is to say, when society is tive” I do not mean any narrow parti-
to the educated tony-ness of Harvard? was there when the prin- the American soul”; “the The question is whether those “uncor- he also had a conspicuous talent for duced on another level”
two critical dangers facing at an end.” Besides, Pro- san affiliation. Yes, yes, Bill was known
Maybe he was just joshing, pulling your ciple was first uttered of liberty and the political, intransigence of the Lib- roded by a cynical contempt for human getting to the heart of a matter. And so – elevated disbelief into fessor Greene’s aria about above all as a conservative: the man
leg with a wink and a nod. – the usual formulation erals, who run this coun- freedom” will command the wit, rheto- whether his subject was environmen- rage. The liberal estab- liberty: the external threat of tolerance would have who made American conservatism
Alas, no. Not only did Buckley repeat is not the accurate for- social, and moral liabilities try.” If those yelling ric, and moral courage to stand athwart talism, school choice, race relations, lishment, Dwight Mac- been sweeter – or at least respectable again. That’s all very well,
Communist imperialism and
of the Left-liberal consensus;
that declaration on many occasions, he mulation. Freeman went “Stop!” in 1955 were “out tomorrow whispering, confiding, religious observances, foreign policy, donald observed at the ostensibly more plausible but unfortunately the term “conser-

the homegrown threat of

also often elaborated on it. “I rejoice in back to 1964 when the of place,” how much more explaining –sometimes even yelling or encroaching statism, what he wrote time, “reacted with all of – had he deigned to prac- vative” (like its opposite number, “lib-
the influence of the people over their choice in the Republi-
ie, Harvard for short. out of place now, in 2017, “Stop!” – in order that freedom might was likely to touch upon what was cen- the grace and agility of an tice what he preached. eral”) has degenerated into an epithet,
elected leaders,” he said on one occa-
sion, “since I think that they show more
can primary was between
Nelson Rockefeller, the
when what Bill called “the
relationship of the state
have an opportunity to prevail.
In one of his earliest essays, from
tral and enduring. That is one of the
benefits of conservatism: embracing
elephant cornered by a
mouse.” McGeorge Bundy “government paternalism”. “An honest respect by him
for my divergent convic-
positive or negative depending on the
communion of the person who wields
wisdom than their leaders or their Republican establish- to the individual” has 1951, Bill wrote about Friedrich von the permanent, one may be unfash- pronounced anathema tion,” Bill wrote, “would it, but virtually without content. (In
intellectuals.” ment’s darling, and Barry Goldwater, Bill’s mayoral race didn’t see him into become one of the most fraught ques- Hayek’s Road to Serfdom (itself only ionable, but one is never out of date. upon the book in The have been an arresting this respect, it is a lot like the word
I never heard Bill Buckley opine the impossible (may I say “populist”?) Gracie Mansion, the mayor’s official tions now facing Western polities? seven or eight years old) and limned Literature, said Ezra Pound, is news Atlantic Monthly. The (then) well- Macdonald mentioned. The frighten- application at once of his theoretical “populist.”)
about “populism” per se, but I often firebrand. Whom should National residence, but it was one of the pro- Ideas, Bill observed in that editorial, two critical dangers facing liberty: the that stays news. I have met few people known Yale philosopher TM Greene ing part comes when you realise how and his charitable convictions.” Being conservative may commit one
heard him discourse about the virtues Review endorse? The debate raged paedeutic elements that helped see his “rule the world.” What ideas? Liberty external threat of Communist impe- better informed about public affairs deployed the word “fascist” three times contemporary Bill’s travails seem. Pro- The nerve that Bill struck with to certain political positions or moral
of liberty and the political, social, and for some time in the sancta sancto- brother Jim into the US Senate a few for one. The United States was “con- rialism and the homegrown threat of than Bill Buckley. But his mastery of in as many sentences. “What more,” fessor Greene went on to pontificate God and Man at Yale is still smarting; dogmas. But it also, and perhaps more
moral liabilities of the Left-liberal con- rum of NR’s editorial offices, some years down the road. Can something ceived in liberty,” as Lincoln put it. “government paternalism.” The fall the day’s ephemera was only a prelude Professor Greene asked, “could Hit- that: indeed, it is throbbing uncontrolla- important, disposes one to a certain
sensus; ie, Harvard for short. editors arguing one side, some the similar be said about Donald Trump? I The idea of individual freedom and its of the Soviet colossus signaled not the to his embrace of the principles that ler, Mussolini, or Stalin ask for?” Well, What is required is more not less tol- bly, as anyone can attest who has con- attitude toward life. Walter Bagehot
I am morally certain that Bill Buckley other. In the fullness of time, the dic- think so, but I appreciate that opinions guarantor, limited government, were end but the dissipation of the former underlay the controversies. as Bill observed in his response, “they erance – not the tolerance of indiffer- templated the discrepancy between touched upon one essential aspect of
would have supported Brexit – Brus- tum came down from WFB himself: on that score vary sharply. the country’s cynosure, its guiding threat, its distribution over a more Like Athena, Bill seems to have asked for, and got, a great deal more.” ence, but the tolerance of honest respect proclamations of “diversity” on cam- the conservative disposition when, in
sels, after all, is a sort of super-Harvard, National Review would support “the Let me therefore move on to a Buck- principle. By 1955, that principle had amorphous field of action. The threat sprung forth fully armed. He was In retrospect, the reaction to Gamay for divergent convictions and the deter- puses in Western academia and the writing of an essay on Walter Scott, he
at least in its smugness, lack of account- Rightwardmost viable candidate” – leyism even more famous than his been insidiously undermined by the of government paternalism is today barely graduated from Yale College (as the book was nicknamed by the mination of all that such divergent opin- practice there of enforcing a politi- observed that “the essence of Toryism
ability, and sense of entitlement. What ie, Goldwater, unelectable in 1964 but mot about the advantages of the Bos- well-intentioned dispensations of “lit- more patent than ever. Indeed, read- when he published God and Man at Beaujolais-minded publisher) is partly ions be heard without administrative cally correct orthodoxy on any conten- is enjoyment.” Whatever else it was,
he would have thought about the can- viable in the sense of representing ton phone book compared to the erate America,” intoxicated as it was ing through Bill’s essays, I am often Yale. The book catapulted its 20-some- amusing, partly frightening. The amus- censorship. I try my best in the classroom tious subject. The bottom line: there is Bill Buckley’s life was an affidavit of
didacy of Donald Trump is more diffi- a robust and coherent conservative faculty of Harvard. I mean Bill’s dec- by “radical social experimentation.” brought up short by a sense of histor- thing author to an atmosphere of hos- ing part arises from the elephant- to expound and defend my faith, when it plenty of room for “diversity,” so long enjoyment: a record of, an homage to,
cult to discern. The one column that I vision of the world. laration of war against the Left-liberal Think of it: in 1955, Bill Buckley, not yet ical foreshortening: Bill was writing tile notoriety from which, despite Bill’s cornered-by-mouse aspect Dwight is relevant, as honestly and persuasively as you embrace the Left-liberal dogma. a life greatly, and gratefully, enjoyed. ■


Next weekend in by Imogen Bath

oving house is stressful over-priced whites from Burgundy. What an ordeal... What did I find of note open when my son comes of age in 2022
enough, and then comes London wine fans are spoilt for choice. in my move among the cases of Gig- if, God willing, I am still upright and
the moment when the The UK capital city is particularly well- ondas? A stray bottle of Taylor’s port functioning by then. “The wine will still
removal team begins served with grand and not so grand 1985, brought by a friend in Edinburgh be far too young!” said a leading wine
packing your wine. Even with the best wine merchants. Nationally, the Wine to a dinner party in the mid2000s who writer when the subject came up, but
operation, something can easily go Society, owned by its members, pro- said at the front door, “keep this, lay it then he thinks the Bordeaux 1945s are
wrong. A prized bottle can slip out of vides an exemplary service, although down”. Good advice. I can see him say- still on the young side. Fretting over the
the most experienced hands and fall to too little, say critics, in the way of the ing it now. Then a random bottle of good perfect age to drink that Margaux is not
the floor. That means it is best not to eclectic and unusual. The supermarkets Iain Martin quality pink stuff from Provence, for- the point, though. I bought it, and keep
watch as each one is removed, wrapped drive the bulk of consumption. Even is a commentator on politics and finance. gotten from the 2010 vintage. It will be it, in the hope and expectation that we
and then loaded into a box and shipped so, with all that wine on tap with a reg- His latest book Crash Bang Wallop: the vile now. There were some Champagne will share every bottle, and laugh, with
ular trip to the shops, for some reason inside story of London’s Big Bang and a gems though, including a magnum of family and friends. ■
away for transportation.
financial revolution that changed the world
A recent house move in London this is not enough and almost anyone is published by Sceptre. He is Pol Roger 1999 that will be over-the-hill
brought all this home. Mercifully, who can afford to will look for a way to based in London. but interesting, and a bottle of Pol Roger
everything – all my odds and assort- keep and age some wine. Which is how I @iainmartin1 Winston Churchill from 1998 that will
ments – made it to the new house in came to be moving, or having moved for be perfect. I will open it to mark the
one piece, but the nerve-wracking me, some of my favourite bottles await- publication of Andrew Roberts’s sin-
experience prompted me to reflect on ing the corkscrew. There are solutions gle-volume life of Churchill due later
WHEN TO GO? WHERE TO GO? WHERE TO STAY? why we – those of us with the inclina-
tion – keep wine at all. What is it that
to the storage and
moving dilemma,
this year. Obviously,
I will not open it
we’re looking for? Why not buy stuff as say super-wealthy at the book launch
and when and drink it there and then
when the occasion demands? After
friends. Store the
bulk of your collec-
There are others collecting wine party, as one bottle
will not go far and
all, there is no shortage of wine in the
shops, and in Britain an extraordinary
tion at one of those
vast cellaring facili-
who barely seem to drink or even could cause a fight.
Anyway, Andrew will
range of wine from across Europe and ties carved into the like it. For them it is a status have sourced Cham-

symbol, a means of showing off,

the rest of the world is on offer. side of a hill, or at a pagne by the case-
On the continental mainland, in my warehouse where a load for his friends
experience, the situation is different.
There, local shops and supermarkets
team will monitor
temperature con- the alcoholic equivalent of sports for that party.
Collecting wine
cars, cigars, and chasing sexual
Rome is a great year-round destination, depending on what kind A natural choice for a visit to Rome is The Vatican City. This Depending on the time of year you visit, staying in Rome can be outside the main cities offer primar- trol. The wine collec- saves money, it is
of climate suits you. There is always something on offer. unique and remarkable place has its own gems. It offers St. Peter’s expensive. Luckily, there are lots of options available. Rome offers ily the fruits of what has been grown tor can then by email said, because it can
In spring, Rome is bursting with colour. The city’s birthday is
celebrated on 21st April, and festivities are held to mark the occa-
Basilica, the famous Sistine Chapel and many museums. On
Wednesdays, the Pope gives an
an abundance of AirBnB accommodations, hostels and hotels,
guaranteed to suit everyone.
in that region. Even driving ten miles
further north in the Rhône can make a
or app summon up
supplies at the opti-
partners. be bought young and
drunk when it has
sion. The bougainvillea throughout the city, notably by the Span- address in the city, providing The luxury end of Rome has hotels right in the city’s historic major difference. The best place to buy mal moment when matured, risen in
ish Steps, are at their best in May. Spring in Rome offers free tourists with a memorable and centre. Hotel Campo de’ Fiori offer of rooms with private balco- Gigondas – my favourite in the region the wines are drinking perfectly. That sufficient wine to require mass storage. price and can hardly be found, although
concerts at San Giovanni, too, singular experience. nies that overlook the city, and – is in Gigondas itself. Even in large way wine will not have to be lugged Most of us do not have that problem. I have never thought the process is
and the Festa Della Donna. For those with a passion for stands out for its commitment supermarkets there is understand- about by removal men during any house Enthusiastic amateurs – the category much of a bargain. The fun and plea-
During the summer, Rome history, Palatine Hill is a must- to classical Roman architecture able regional pride and a determina- move either. It seems the problem with into which I fall – have special bottles sure are what are foremost for most
becomes a tourist hotspot. It’s see. Here, you can walk through - in a move away from a typical tion to support growers long embedded storing wine off site is that managing and cases put aside in a cupboard. If you us, I suspect. In a small way, via sen-
a great time of year for Rome’s the oldest parts of the city, boutique hotel, Campo de’ Fiori in the local soil. Britain is different. It the process becomes a pain, according do this, make sure it is a cool and dark sation and the sparking of memories,
outdoor events like the cinema parts of which date back to the has an ivy-covered front facade is a mongrel nation when it comes to to some of those who do it. What should space and try to avoid using a cupboard good wine kept and opened years later
in the piazza and evenings on 10th century B.C. It is within and rooms adorned with Pom- wine, with a long tradition of import- be a pleasure is turned into more of a under the stairs. Feet thumping on the brings the past to life and can make the
rooftop bars. August in Rome an easy walking distance of peii-style furnishings, typifying ing. England has only recently begun logistical chore. I know one extremely stairs, time after time, day after day, can future look brighter. Call it sentimen-
is the hottest month, and cele- the Colosseum and the Roman Roman beauty. to make serious inroads in wine pro- rich person who found it so unrelaxing create just enough movement to unset- tality, if you must. I prefer – as I have
brates Feeragosto, the feast of the assumption. The major attrac- Forum, making it a perfect spot For affordable places to stay, check out Hotel San Anselmo. duction, and the volumes remain small. and fiddly that he sold his entire col- tle the wine and spoil its development. said in this column before – to think
tions are cursed with long lines and the city reaches temperatures for discovering the traditions, Perfectly situated within walking distance of the Circus Maxi- Gleefully, British buyers scavenge from lection. He started again, with a much Keeping too much at home brings other in Tory terms of Edmund Burke and
in the high 30s. customs and history of Rome. mus, this 4-star hotel offers around the world – picking meaty Aus- smaller and manageable store of wines problems. A journalist colleague with a the connection between the genera-
The autumn boasts new Known as a city of romance, rooms from £51. It offers a lav- tralia one minute, the hot red wines of at home. There are others collect- first-rank palette told me recently that tions, with our obligation to the dead,
museum exhibitions, making Rome is a great place for cou- ish downstairs lounge as a calm Sicily the next, and then the cool Sau- ing wine who barely seem to drink or he has bought so much that he now has the living and to those unborn or mak-
it a perfect time for a cultural ples. Forget the canals of Venice, and visit the Residenza di Rip- getaway from the bustle of the vignons of New Zealand. My mission even like it. For them it is a status sym- an estimated 2,000 bottles stored in the ing their way in the world. One case of
visit. Crowds have thinned and etta, a hotel near the Spanish steps. Far-reaching views across city. An even trendier stay can continues to convince friends that New bol, a means of showing off, the alco- cellar underneath his house. Supplies claret I had stored at the very back, and
hotspots such as the Vatican Rome coupled with a beautiful garden and fine dining make for a be found at Nerva boutique Zealand’s new generation of up-scale holic equivalent of sports cars, cigars, are so backed up, and space so tight, that lifted especially carefully, was a Mar-
easier to visit. Rome’s famed magical evening. Hotel, a stay so abundant with chardonnays from Kumeu River rival, and chasing sexual partners.  Collect- he will have to drink his way through to gaux from the superb 2009 vintage, a
Orange Garden is a great place charm it far exceeds the expec- and sometimes outdo, the increasingly ing assumes a large enough wallet and access the oldest stuff. It will take years. Marquis de Terme bought to keep and
to see sunsets in October. tations of a 3-star hotel.
The winter months see cooler temperatures and rain, but even Rome is a great city for fam-
as late in the year as November you can happily go around with ily holidays, and there lots of
just a light jacket. Accommodation prices are much lower between places which accommodate
October and April, making it a good time of year for a budget visit. groups. Located near the Trevi fountain and the Colosseum, the
In December the city takes on a festive feel, with many services in Hotel Cosmopolita offers a central location and affordable stay.
the Vatican. The city’s most well-loved wine bars come into their The hotel offers sightseeing tours and taxi services, making for a
own in winter, as a cosy retreat away from shoppers. fulfilling and safe visit to the city.


Pyramid of Cestius
1 2
Take a Vespa tour by night Visit Santo Stefano Rotondo
3 Gladiator school
4 Explore Quartiere Coppedè
5 See street art in Ostiense
A 2,000 year old pyramid, this Become a true native for the The First Circular Church in Rome Experience Rome back in the day This is a neighbourhood of Rome If you aren’t able to enjoy the
structure was built during the evening and experience Rome and one of the oldest in the world, with a session at gladiator school little know by tourists. Here colours of the flowers in May,
peak of the Roman Empire as on their famous Vespas! Find the Santo Stefano dates back to - a perfect activity for children! tourists can enjoy a mishmash of another place to find such unique
a means of bringing Egyptian out more here: the 5th century A.D. Visit their celebrated architectural periods, beauty is in Ostiense. Located
culture into their people’s lives. vespa-tour-rome. website from Baroque to Ancient Greek to in the south of the city, Ostiense Poster’s adapted from those used by the UK’s Conservative Party c1877-2007. New Direction is a not-for-
It’s a good way to avoid the to find out more about opening Art Nouveau. boasts bold and colourful street profit organisation and is partly funded by the European Parliament. The European Parliament assumes no
responsibility for the opinions expressed in this publication. Sole liability rests with the author.
crowds at other more popular hours and admission fees. art wall murals, and is the perfect
attractions. spot for a riverside walk.


iccardo Muti is one of the
senior conductors of the


world. For almost 50 years,
he has worked at the highest
levels: in London, Philadelphia, Milan,
Vienna, and elsewhere. Today, he is the
music director of the Chicago Sym-
phony Orchestra.


On a recent tour with the orchestra,
he stopped in New York, for two con-
certs at Carnegie Hall. I sat down with
him to talk about music and about life.
Muti was born in 1941 in Naples (not

Florida, although Naples, Florida, hap-
pens to be his very next stop). He grew
up on the Adriatic coast, in the town of
Molfetta. He was one of five brothers,
whose father was a doctor. Each boy
Sweden’s Dark Soul - The Unravelling of a Utopia was expected to take up a profession.
by Kajsa Norman - C. Hurst (Publishers) Limited, 2018 For example, “I was supposed to study
law,” says Muti.
But his father was also an opera-
lover, and an amateur tenor. He Tchaikovsky’s. Is it still a privilege to
required that his boys learn an instru- conduct these works, after a lifetime on
ment, because “he believed that music the podium? A great one, answers Muti.
is an important element for every per- “You go more deeply into the score and
son,” as Muti says. “Music helps people you love it more. The horizon widens.
to be better. To become deeper in their Every piece, I restudy from the begin-
thoughts. To be more refined inside.” ning. I start again and again and again,
At eight, Riccardo was given a vio- because ‘The End’ exists only in the
lin. Then he studied the piano, which movies.”
would be his main instrument. He He also acquires new copies of
studied at conservatories in Naples and familiar scores, free of his previ-
Milan. ous markings. The late maestro Otto
It was Nino Rota who convinced Klemperer did the same, says Muti.
him that he could be a full-time musi- You want a virgin score, to look at
cian. Today, Rota is best known as a film music afresh. “Mozart said that
composer – La Strada, The Godfather – music lies between the notes,” Muti

You go more deeply into the score

he Swedish establishment non-Swedish, but Norman makes a and you love it more. The horizon
are emotionally invested
in an identity based on the
convincing case that this actually was
the reason. Here, she puts her finger on
widens. Every piece, I restudy from
image of their country as a
successful social-liberal post-national
a sore spot in a country that commends
itself on being progressive on gender
the beginning. I start again and
utopia. As this image becomes harder equality: Swedish feminists go into again and again, because ‘The End’
exists only in the movies.
to maintain, the establishment need total paralysis when women’s rights
not only to confront the actual prob- collide with immigration.
Charlie Weimers lems, but also, and more importantly, In the book’s later chapters Nor-
Candidate for the European Parliament, deal with the issue of who they are. If man usefully contrasts two people - the
Sweden Democrats
your Swedish identity is that of being Swedish journalist Chang Frick and the but he was a musician of many parts. observes. It is the conductor’s job –
part of a national utopian project, who Armenian immigrant Samvel. She sug- “He could play Wozzeck from memory,” any musician’s job – to find the music
are you if utopia unravels? This is the gests that only a character like Chang says Muti, referring to Alban Berg’s between the notes.
background to Kajsa Norman’s book Frick, a natural outsider because of his modernist opera. But, in his own music, One of Muti’s non-musical features
Sweden’s Dark Soul. Roma background, could find the cour- Rota “had the courage to express his has been his hair – a great, enviable,
Norman starts the book by depict- age to reveal the truth about the festi- own nature”. He “did not try to be a much-commented-upon head of hair.
ing hundreds of sexual violations of val in his online newspaper, Nyheter ‘contemporary’ composer”. Call it “la forza del destino,” he says
teenage girls, and younger, during the
festival, “We Are Stockholm” in the
Idag. Further, she shows why courage is
required, in a country with the world’s Swedish feminists go into total In addition to piano, Muti stud-
ied composition and, of course, con-
with a chuckle. (La Forza del Destino, or
“The Force of Destiny,” is the title of a
summer of 2015. Despite hundreds of
witnesses and police reports, the media
oldest free press, by describing how
mainstream media tried to maintain
paralysis when women’s rights ducting. His conducting teacher was
Antonino Votto, who had been the
Verdi opera.) He does not fuss with his
hair, he says. It is cut by a simple barber.
did not report on the crimes commit-
ted at the festival - which was funded by
and defend the unraveling utopian con-
sensus by discrediting Chang Frick with
collide with immigration. right hand of Arturo Toscanini. At
the first lesson, Votto taught you how
And, no matter what people claim, it’s
natural. It is what it is.
local government and situated only few accusations of peddling “fake news.” to beat time, says Muti. Then he said In his career, this mane has been Jay Nordlinger
hundred yards from Parliament and The Armenian immigrant Samvel, an Norman’s use of life stories as a lit- write the book, had she lived in Swe- how important it was to study music both “croce e delizia,” says Muti, both is a senior editor of National Review and
the royal castle. Norman interviews a albino called “the Dane” during child- erary tool provides a thought-provok- den and been dependent on a local through and through. You would later cross and delight – a mixed bless- the music critic of The New Criterion.
psychologist who saw girls harassed hood in Yerevan, is the second per- ing portrayal that she weaves skillfully context for her livelihood. To date her find your own ways of communicating ing. (That is a line from another Verdi He is the author of Peace, They Say:
and violated by groups of men. She son described in the book. Norman into the overarching historical context. book has not been able to find a Swed- with an orchestra. opera, La Traviata.) ­A History of the Nobel Peace Prize
(Encounter Books). His latest book is
describes how eyewitness tried to per- touchingly illustrates one man’s strong The book gives a deeper understanding ish publisher, despite good reviews “I was a good pianist,” says Muti, Years ago, I asked Maestro Lorin a study of the sons and daughters of
suade Sweden’s largest daily to cover yearning to assimilate and acquire of why the political establishment and in British media and the first edition “but I was too nervous when I per- Maazel about the future of classical dictators: Children of Monsters (also
the matter and how they fail. everything Swedish. She contrasts this Swedish officials act as they do. being sold out. The author will not be formed, and I did not want to spend my music. The first words out of his mouth Encounter). He lives in New York.
The newspaper – Dagens Nyheter – yearning with the lukewarm response The narrative of the book comes overly surprised: she did after all write life sitting at a keyboard in front of a were “Thank God for China.” Muti @JayNordlinger
has refused to acknowledge that their of the country’s officialdom that to life in a particularly surreal man- the book in English hoping for it to be wall.” He became Maestro Muti. sympathizes with this sentiment. In
decision not to publish was due to replaced the policy of assimilation with ner when Norman herself admits that translated in to Swedish, not the other These days, he says, people become East Asia, he says, they believe in West-
the fact that all the perpetrators were multiculturalism back in 1975. she probably would not have dared to way around. ■ conductors all too easily, without suffi- ern culture practically more than we
cient training or depth. “It’s a disaster,” do in the West. We must not take for for example (by Domenico Modugno). He always needs Mozart, he says. of the conducting heap for a long time.
he says. “Somebody plays the flute, and granted what we have, he cautions. And “some symphonies, it is better to “You can conduct him every night.” “But, in a way, I remain provincial as a
the next day he starts to conduct.” This I raise the subject of pop music. burn.” Muti admires Céline Dion, the And Beethoven, “almost every night.” person,” he says. “After the last note of
problem is especially felt in the opera “In music with a capital M,” he says, Canadian pop singer. And he quotes the Tchaikovsky, “maybe two times a week every concert or opera I conduct, I go
house, he says. “there is no distinction” – no distinc- Bible: There is a time for everything, – not because he is less important but back to being the normal person from
ACROSS 63. Vlad Tepes’s favorite punishment 26. “Steady ___ goes!” I ask him about familiar music tion between the classical and the pop- including all sorts of music. Some- because you need more time to rest. the south of Italy. Every time, it’s a sort
1. World soccer league, for short 66. Entr’____ (play intermission) 27. Regarding birth
5. Fess up (to) 67. Verse 28. One way to order ham – ultra-familiar music, such as ular. He notes that some pop songs times you need one thing, another time You don’t want to get overexcited.” of miracle that I am able to conduct an
10. Dame of comedy 68. Cart behind a horse 29. “Yes, captain!” Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony, or touch the heart and live forever: Volare, another. Riccardo Muti has been at the top orchestra.” ■
14. Shoot-____ (gangster movie) 69. In footwear 31. Seemed gloomy
15. Richards of the Rolling Stones 70. Calmed down 32. Suffer ___ worse than death
16. Shark’s offer 71. Memorization method 33. Consumer advocate
17. Made known 38. Perches

19. Gridiron kick DOWN 40. Card game with king high
20. Guilty, in a way 1. Org. bringing relief 41. Three ft. mong conservatives, Hugo Chávez many glamorous stars, he died before it We all die in the end. Stars such as
21. Not clear 2. “____ your service!” 44. Bite the dust never really got credit for how all went wrong. Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, Jim Morrison,
22. Weakens the consistency of 3. Five, in Frankfurt 45. Serb. neighbor skilled a politician he was. Many Nicolás Maduro has continued the poli- Kurt Cobain and Amy Winehouse live
26. Put ___ in (meddle) 4. Samoan city 46. Subjugate wrote him off as a cruel joke and few put cies of Chávez but without the panache of fast, die young and leave a good-look-
30. Sooner 5. Kipling’s pack leader 49. Mixed
34. Word on many stereos 6. Lay waste to 50. Mule’s dad in the effort to understand his ideologi- his predecessor. There is absolutely noth- ing corpse. Some socialist revolution-
35. Assents 7. Cambridge sch. 53. Added lubrication to cal make-up which unusually combined, ing which suggests that Venezuela’s recent aries like Chávez and Che Guevara might
36. Two-kind link 8. Suffix with krypton 54. Lesage hero Gil among others, Karl Marx, Simon Bolivar history would have been different in any not be eligible to join the 27 Club, but
37. Spreads around 9. Religious deg. 55. Pained interjection and the teachings of Jesus Christ. Chávez substantial way if Chávez hadn’t died. The have nevertheless been lucky enough
39. Feature of some locks 10. Rio Grande city 56. Outside: Prefix
42. Bale stuff 11. “The King of Queens” hubby 58. USN rank will undoubtedly remain a popular hero economy was already headed for a break- to die before the mess they made of
43. “____ happy to!” 12. When repeated, Mork’s TV sign-off 59. Deli offering for a small part of the Venezuelan pop- down under Chávez’s tenure and large parts things becomes obvious to all. Maduro
47. Mediterranean island 13. Initial poker stake 60. ____ the start ulation and an icon for an astonishingly of Venezuelan democracy had already been isn’t that lucky. Like his namesake Nico-
48. Height 18. Rut (present from the beginning) large part of the t-shirt ideologues of abolished to protect the revolution. Maduro lae Ceaușescu, Nicolás Maduro will never
51. Abacus user 21. Part of VIN (abbr.) 61. Eye ailment
52. Appraiser 23. Supplement, with “out” 63. Guitar closer the Western left for a long time to come. simply finished the job by destroying what be pictured on any t-shirts, shackled as
54. Orange Free State colonizers 24. Miami’s st. 64. Kingston Trio hit of 1959 Why? Not because he found the holy grail was left of the economy and dissolving the he is to what is left of the rotting zombie
57. Chinese fruits 25. “All ____ of You” 65. Cooking spray brand of socialism that works, but because, like last remnants of democracy. corps of a failed revolution. ■
62. One of Lyndon’s daughters (Phantom of the Opera number)

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