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Figure: Human Resource Planning and Development (HRPD): A Temporal

Development Model
Society and Environment
Individuals as career
Organizations as employers, choosers and occupants
sources of careers

Recruitment, Selection,
Job Placement, Training
Planning for Staffing Career Choice

Planning for Growth and Early Career Issues:

Development How to Establish an area of
Job Rotation,
Performance Appraisal,
Developmental Training

Planning for Leveling Off Midcareer Issues:

and Disengagement Generalizing, locating one’s
career anchors
Continuing Education, Job
Redesign or rotation,
part-time work, creative
assignments, counseling

Late-career Issues:
Planning for Replacement, Mentoring, using one’s
Re-staffing experience and wisdom,
letting go and retiring

Stages and tasks of career cycle of an individual

1) Growth stage: fantasy, exploration Age: 0 – 21

2) Entry into the world of work, (Age: 16 – 25)
3) Basic training (Age: 16 – 25)
4) Full membership in early career (Age: 17 – 30)
5) Full membership in mid-career (Age: 25+)
6) Mid-career crisis (Age: 35 – 45)
7) Late career, (Age: 40 to retirement)
8) Decline and disengagement, (Age: 40 to retirement)
9) Retirement (Age: 40 to retirement)
Career development stages

1. Occupational choice – preparation for work

2. Organisational entry
3. Early career – establishment and achievements
4. Mid-career
5. Late career
1. Occupational choice
• Last until around age 25
• Involves the development and occupational self-image
• The most important issue – matching strengths/weaknesses, values and desired life-style of
a person and the requirements and benefits of a range of occupations
• Often lack of self-awareness of an individual

2. Organisational entry
• Between age 18 and 25
• Finding a job related to self-image and starting working
• Differences between expectations about the first job and the reality
• Formal education often ignores such skills as communication, interpersonal relations,
dealing with organisational politics

3. Early career
• Between the 25 and 40
• Fitting into the organisation
• Understanding how things work around here – what activities are awarded and punished
• Individuals want to be recognised as belonging to the organisation ad need some form of
approval from the organisation
• Achievements are very important
• Employees gain greater responsibility and authority
• Access to opportunities for career development – promotion or looking for new
organisations to work in
• Feedback is important
4. Mid-career
• Between age of 40 to 55
• Further growth or the maintenance of an existing position
• Middle-age syndrome – sometimes causes a kind of „revolution” in life and work
• Some employees need organisational support for the further career
• Some employees reach stability (plateau) and this situation frustrates them
• Motivation and job performance can decrease
• Organisational support – lateral career path, developing these employees as mentors of
others, training to keep them up to date, flexible reward system
5. Late career
• Over the age of 55
• Organisational support – encouraging employee to perform effectively, offering flexible
work patterns, set up clear performance standards, training, avoiding discrimination
• Preparation for retirement

A temporal development model:

Organizational issue Matching process Individual issue

Society and environment

Organization & employee Individual at career

Source of career and occupents

Planning for staffing Career choices

Recruitment, selection,
job placement, training

Planning for growth and Early career issues: how

development to establish and area of
Job rotation, performance contribution.
appraisal, developmental

Planning for leveling off Mid-career issue:

And dis-engagement locating once career

Continuing education, job redesign

or rotation, part time work,
creative assignments, counseling,

Late career issue:

Planning for replacement, using one’s experience and
re-stuffing. wisdom letting go and
Define career:
Ans: The term career has a number of meanings. It can mean advancement, a professional or a
lifelong sequence of jobs.
A career is the sequence of work related position a person occupied throughout life. A career is
often composed of the job held, title earned and work accomplished over a long period of time not
just referring to one position.

Career planning:
Career planning is the self-assessment, exploration of opportunities, goal setting and other activities
necessary for making inferred career related choices.
Career development:
Career development is engaging in the development activities required to attain career goals. It is
not something like a short term training program or career planning workshop. Rather it has a wider
focus, longer time frame and border scope.
Thus career programming is at ongoing formalized effort that focuses on developing enriched and
more capable human resources in the organization to meet the organization need and the
employees need.

Objective of career development:

Following are some of the objectives of career development:
1. Supply of human resources:
Career development facilitates the immediate and future needs of human resource in the
organization on a timely basis.
2. Career paths:
Career development is resorted to better inform the organization and the individual about potential
career paths within the organization.
3. Acquisition and retention:
To keep abreast of technological development and employee must update their knowledge. Career
development is directed to this end.
4. Utilization: Another objective is to utilize existing human resource program optimally.
5. Equity and fairness: Career development program are laid down with a view to providing fairness
and equity to disadvantaged section of people.
6. Ongoing process: It’s an ongoing process.
7. Professional development: It can also give professional directions, as they relate to career goals.

Importance of career development:

Well planned and executed career programs can benefit both the organization and the employees in
a number of ways:
1. Commitment
2. Reduced turnover
3. Interest
4. Positive effect
5. Continuous supply
6. Motivation
7. Reduced frustration
Organization-centered vs. individual-centered career planning
Career planning can be somewhat confusing, because two perspectives exist. Career planning can be
organizational centered, individual centered or both.
Constructive career paths, that provide for the logical progression of people between jobs in an
organization. For example, a person might enter the sales department as a sales representative,
then be promoted to account director, to sales manager, and finally to vice president of sales.

Organizational Perspective
• Identify future organizational staffing needs
• Plan career ladders
• Assess individual potential and training needs
• Match organizational needs to individual abilities
• Audit and develop a career system for the organization

Individual Perspective
• Identify personal abilities and interests
• Plan life and work goals
• Assess alternative paths inside and outside the organization
• Note changes in interests and goals as career and life stage changes

Organizational retrenchment and downsizing has changed career plans for many persons. They have
found many career transitions- in other words, in need of finding other job.

Advantages of Career Planning:-

For Individuals:
1. The process of career planning helps the individual to have the knowledge of various
career opportunities, his priorities etc.
2. This knowledge helps him select the career that is suitable to his life styles, preferences,
family environment, scope for self-development etc.
3. It helps the organization identify internal employees who can be promoted.
4. Internal promotions, upgradation and transfers motivate the employees, boost up their
morale and also result in increased job satisfaction.
5. Increased job satisfaction enhances employee commitment and creates a sense of
belongingness and loyalty to the organization.
6. Employee will await his turn of promotion rather than changing to another organization.
This will lower employee turnover.
7. It improves employee’s performance on the job by taping their potential abilities and
further employee turnover.
8. It satisfies employee esteem needs.

For Organizations: –
A long-term focus of career planning and development will increase the effectiveness of
human resource management. More specifically, the advantages of career planning and
development for an organization include:
i. Efficient career planning and development ensures the availability of human resources
with required skill, knowledge and talent.
ii. The efficient policies and practices improve the organization’s ability to attract and retain
highly skilled and talent employees.
iii. The proper career planning ensures that the women and people belong to backward
communities get opportunities for growth and development.
iv. The career plan continuously tries to satisfy the employee expectations and as such
minimizes employee frustration.
v. By attracting and retaining the people from different cultures, enhances cultural diversity.
vi. Protecting employees’ interest results in promoting organizational goodwill.

Who is responsible for career development?

For career development, employees, managers and also the company are responsible. It is
the responsibility of the employees to be prepared themselves and also for the managers to
promote the people under them to set up the framework for preparing and promoting

Employees: They have to do the following things:

 Identifying the desired directions of development.

 Setting up a realistic and relevant development plan, focused on action.
 Getting the way in the involvement with the managers.
 To collaborating with managers to work out the best suited development method.
 Executing the plan

Directors/Managers of company

 Providing the fund

 Facilitating the development plan
 Encouraging employees to invest in their own development
 Engaging employees in increasingly complex activities to help them capitalized on
their newly acquired abilities.
 Establishing development goals in line with business prioriries.
 Following up.


 Cultivating a mentality of growth, progress and development.

 Providing an adequate framework for development.