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Solid Waste

Engr. Mary Jane C. Calagui, PhD
ChE Department
Cagayan State University

February 2019
Unit 1. Introduction and Basic
Solid Wastes

All discarded household, commercial waste, non-

hazardous institutional and industrial waste, street sweepings,
construction debris, agricultural waste, and other non-
hazardous/nontoxic solid waste.

-Republic Act 9003

Solid Wastes

❑ Arising from human and animal activities, normally

solid, and are discarded as useless or unwanted

❑ Heterogenous mass of throwaways from urban


❑ More homogenous accumulation of agricultural,

industrial and mineral wastes
Other definition of waste

❑ Resource that is out of place

❑ Resource that can be recovered and reused

❑ At the right place and at the right time, waste is a

Life Cycle of a Fly

Adult Egg

Pupa Larva
Properties of SW

❑ Physical – bulk density or specific weight

- moisture content
❑ Chemical – proximate
- ultimate
❑ Biological – biodegradability of the material
- ability to produce odor
Solid Waste Analysis

• Bulk Density = wt sample/vol of container

• Water Content = (Wti – Wtf)/ Wti

• Ash Content = wt final/wt initial

• Other parameters:

combustible = Total waste – (Incombustibles +

Ash Content)

LCV – method by estimation formula

RA 9003 Providing for an Ecological Solid Waste Management Program,
Creating the Necessary Institutional Mechanisms and Incentives
DAO 98-49 Technical Guidelines for Municipal Solid Waste Disposal
DAO 98-50 Adopting the Landfill Site Identification and Screening Criteria for
Municipal Solid Waste Disposal Facilities
PD 825 Providing Penalty for Improper Disposal of Garbage and Other Forms
of Uncleanliness and for other Purposes
MC 88-39A Creation of Presidential Task Force on Waste Management as amended
by MC 94-88
AO – 93-90 Creating a Project Management Office on Solid Waste Management
under the Presidential Task Force on Waste Management
Ecological Solid Waste Act of
2001 (RA 9003)
❑ Promotion of source separation/segregation, recycling and

❑ Adoption of sanitary landfill as the ultimate disposal site

❑ Upgrading of all open dumpsites to controlled landfills within 2

years and SLF within 5 years

❑ Creation of the National Solid Waste Board headed by the DENR

❑ Prohibition of burning of solid wastes in any form

❑ Gradual phase-out of composite packaging materials

❑ Emphasis on municipal solid waste

Factors which Contribute to
the Solid Waste Problem
Emerging Trend in SWM
Integrated Solid Waste

- Selection and application of suitable

techniques, technologies, and
management programs to achieve specific
waste management objectives and goals
Solid waste management in accordance
with the best principles of:
❑ Public health

❑ Economics

❑ Engineering

❑ Conservation

❑ Aesthetic and environmental consideration

Functional Elements
of an ISWM Program
Waste Generation

Activities in which materials are identified as

no longer of value and are thrown away or
gathered together for disposal
Factors that Affect Waste
Generation Rates
❑ Source reduction and recycling Activities

❑ Public attitude and Legislation

❑ Geographic and Physical Factors

Source Reduction

- It is the most preferred method of waste

management. Any procedure to reduce waste at
point of generation

➢ Good housekeeping :5S

➢ Cleaner raw materials

➢ Design/manufacture/packaging of materials
Hierarchy of Recycling
Reduce materials Content

Reuse components/refurbish assemblies


Recycle materials

Incinerate for Energy

Public Attitude

• Habits

• Lifestyles

• Willingness to change
Geographic and Physical
• Location

• Season of the year

• Waste collection frequency

• Characteristics of the service area

Project 1
Pollution Prevention and Control Manual for a Certain College
in the Campus
I. Introduction
about the manual
waste management hierarchy
industry profile – process flow; inputs & outputs;
applicable environmental regulations
II. Pollution Prevention Options
III. Pollution Control Options
IV. Worksheets, Resources and References
Waste Handling and Separation,
Storage and Processing at Source
Waste handling and separation – management of waste until
they are placed in containers for collection

Waste handling – encompasses the movement of loaded

containers to the point of collection

Processing at source - may involve compaction and waste

Separation at Source for Recycling
Most positive and effective way to achieve recovery and re-use of

Some viable waste for recycling:

• Wastepaper

• Cardboard

• Aluminum cans

• Glass

• Plastic containers
Effects of Storage on Waste
❑ Biological decomposition

❑ Absorption of fluids

❑ Contamination of waste components

Transfer Station

• Needed or considered if the disposal site is more

than 10 km from the collection area

• A storage area for garbage from small collection


• Garbage maybe compacted, sorted and recovery of

recyclable resources
Processing and Recovery
• Material recovery

• Biological reclamation

• Thermal reduction
Waste Transformation
Physical, chemical, biological alteration of wastes


- improve efficiency of SWM operations and systems

- recover reusable and recyclable materials

- recover conversion products

Uses of materials that can be
▪ Direct reuse

▪ Raw materials for remanufacturing

▪ Feedstock for production of biological and conversion


▪ Fuel source

▪ Land reclamation
Equipment for material
Equipment Function

Shredder Size reduction

Screen Separation of over & under sized material

Cyclone separator Separation of light combustible materials from air

stream/prepared waste
Density separator Separation of light combustible materials from air stream

Magnetic separator Separation of ferrous metal from commingled wastes

Can crusher Compaction and flattening of aluminum and tin cans

Baler Compaction into bales/ paper, cardboard, plastics, textiles

Biological reclamation
• Composting – process whereby the organic component
of waste stream is biologically decomposed under
controlled conditions to a nuisance-free, humus like
compost, which can be easily handled, stored or applied
to land.


oxygen usage


Thermal reduction

• Pyrolysis

• Incineration

• Fluidized bed combustion

Unit II. Generation and
Types of solid waste:

• Residential

• Commercial

• Special/Unusual waste
MSW Characteristics
• Composition by identifiable items (steel cans, office paper etc)

• Moisture Content

• Particle size

• Chemical composition

• Heat value

• Density

• Mechanical properties

• Biodegradability
1.Composition by identifiable
Input – Output method

• Manual sampling

• Photogrammetry
2. Moisture Content

𝑤 −𝑑
M= x 100


M – moisture content, wet basis, %

w - initial (wet) weight of sample

d – final (dry) weight of sample

Component Moisture Content
Range Typical

Residential: 2-4 3
Aluminum cans
Cardboard 4-8 5
Fines (dirt etc.) 6-12 8
Food waste 50-80 70
Glass 1-4 2
Grass 40-80 60
Leather 8-12 10
Leaves 20-40 30
Paper 4-10 6
Plastics 1-4 2
Rubber 1-4 2
Steel cans 2-4 3
Wood 15-40 20
Component Moisture Content
Range Typical

Residential: 6-15 10
Yard Waste 30-80 60

Food waste 50-80 70
Mixed commercial 10-25 15
wood crates and pallets 10-30 20
Construction (mixed) 2-15 8
Sample Problem:

A residential waste has the following components:

Paper 50%
Glass 20%
Food 20%
Yard waste 10%

Estimate its moisture content using the typical values in the

previous table.
3. Particle Size

Formula: (water engineering)

UC =

Where: UC – uniformity coefficient

D60 – particle (sieve)size where 60% of the

particles are smaller than that size

D10 - particle (sieve)size where 10% of the

particles are smaller than that size
Diameter for non-spherical particles:
D = (h + l + w)/3
D= ℎ𝑤𝑙
D = 𝑙𝑤
D = (w + l)/2
Where: D – particle diameter
l – length
w – width
h - height
4. Chemical Composition

• Proximate analysis –fraction of volatile organics/

fixed carbon

• Ultimate analysis – elemental analysis

5. Heat Value
• HHV – gross calorific energy
• LHV – net calorific energy
Ultimate analysis- uses the chemical make up of
the fuel to approximate its heat value
HV = 334.1C +1559H + 14.4O + 96S – 25.1N
Proximate analysis- it is assumed that the fuel is
composed of 2 types of materials :
volatiles and fixed carbon
HV = 18560A + 33640B
Where A = volatiles, fraction of all dry matter lost at 600oC
B = fixed carbon , fraction of all dry matter lost between
600oC and 950oC
Example. A sample of refuse is analyzed and found to
contain 10% water 9 measured as weight loss on
evaporation). The heat value of the entire mixture is
measured in a calorimeter and is found to be
8000kJ/kg. A 1.0 g sample is placed in the calorimeter,
and 0.2 ash remains in the sample cup after
combustion. What is the comparable, moisture-free
heat value and the moisture- and –ash free heat value?
6. Bulk and Material Density

90 < Bulk density of MSW < 150 kg/m 3

Bulk density of steel can : 0.4 g/cm 3

Material density : 7.7 g/cm 3

7. Mechanical Properties
-stress-strain curve
8. Biodegradability
-only 45% of MSW is
potentially biodegradable