Antenna Modeling for Radio Amateurs

Steve Stearns, K6OIK Northrop Grumman Electromagnetic Systems Laboratory San Jose, California stearns@ieee.org k6oik@arrl.net
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S.D. Stearns, K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA October 17-19, 2008

Outline
History of electromagnetics Computational electromagnetics
Method of Moments (MoM) BRACT, WIRA, AMP, NEC 1-4, IE3D, WIPL-D, FEKO

Four main programs for amateurs
EZNEC 4nec2 WIPL-D Lite FEKO LITE

Advanced applications
Terrain analysis by MoM

References, books, and software

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S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

Question for 2008
Is the current the same everywhere along a wire?

Iin

Iout

I in = I out

?

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S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

2008 Iout 4 . Maxwell found a way to make the answer yes Iin ∂D ∇× H = J + ∂t ⎛ ∂D ⎞ 0 = ∫∫⎜ J + ⎟ • dS ∂t ⎠ S ⎝ ∂ Iin − Iout = ∫∫ DndS ∂t S S.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19. Stearns. San Ramon.Answer: It Depends “Yes” for steady-state d-c current “Almost yes” for low-frequency a-c current or short wires But “no” for high-frequency a-c current because electrons can bunch up J.C.

D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon.History 5 S. CA October 17-19. 2008 . Stearns.

Who Does Not Belong in this Picture? 6 S. 2008 . CA October 17-19.D. San Ramon. Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

Stearns.D. CA . San Ramon. 2008 7 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.Answer: Leonardo Da Vinci and Isaac Newton Leonardo Da Vinci 1452-1519 Andre-Marie Ampere 1775-1836 Michael Faraday 1791-1867 James Clerk Maxwell 1831-1879 Isaac Newton 1642-1727 Carl Friedrich Gauss 1777-1855 Georg Simon Ohm 1789-1854 October 17-19.

The Maxwellians George Francis FitzGerald 1851-1901 Oliver Heaviside 1850-1925 Oliver Joseph Lodge 1851-1940 Heinrich Rudolph Hertz 1857-1894 John Henry Poynting 1851-1914 October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA .D. Stearns. San Ramon. 2008 8 S.

” Genesis 1:3 ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns. and there was light. Let there be light. CA . San Ramon. 2008 “And God said. K6OIK J = σ eE M = σ mH October 17-19.D.Heaviside’s Vector Equations for Maxwell’s Theory ∂B ∇ × E = −M − ∂t ∂D ∇×H = J + ∂t ∇ ⋅ D = ρe ∇ ⋅B = ρm D=ε E B=μH 9 S.

Artom Radio communication.E. San Ramon. Dolbear 1882. tunable LC matching network. counterpoise. Murray. H. Mueller and W. Hertz 1887 Phased arrays – S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Maxwell Early radiation demonstrations: Edison 1875. “impedance” – O. Henry Treatise on electrodynamics – J. Tyrell 10 S. fan dipole.C. loading coil. ground waves – Zenneck Wave-tilt antenna – H. Brown.G.D. Lodge Goniometer. J. Stearns.L. electrical steerable array.E. polar plots – G. radio directionfinding – Bellini & Tosi Ground losses. Marconi Biconical dipole. Beverage Endfire array with parasitic elements – Yagi & Uda Polyrod antenna – G.H.E. A. 2008 . CA October 17-19.Key Dates in Antennas 1842 1873 1875-87 1889-06 1895-01 1897 1907 1907 1923 1928 1947 Discovery of radiation – J.J.

J. Jasik Matrix methods for fields problems – R. Kantorovich and G. Chu Antennas – J.A. Ziolkowski and A. Harrington Vivaldi antenna – L. Kraus Advanced Antenna Theory – S.A. King “Method of moments” – A. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Schelkunoff Theory of Linear Cylindrical Antennas – R.R.W. San Ramon. Stearns. Fasset.F. CA October 17-19.Key Dates in Antennas continued 1947-75 1948 1950 1952 1956 1959 1961 1967 1974 1976 2003 2005 2006 Small antennas – H.D. Balanis Electrically Small.C. Wheeler Fundamental limit on antenna bandwidth – L. 2008 . Hansen 11 S.D. 3rd ed.M. Lewis.W. Superdirective. Akilov Antenna Engineering Handbook – H. Hunt Landstorfer antenna – F.P. Kipple Antenna Theory. – C. M.P.V.D. and Superconducting Antennas – R. and M. Landstorfer Metamaterial radomes – R.

Stearns.. 1943) – Middleton-King (J. San Ramon. 1967) Limitations and complications Not all antennas are wire antennas Not all antennas are made just of metal Math is hard 12 S. Phys. IEE. Appl. 1946) Hill’s radiation pattern integration method (Proc.D. CA October 17-19. IRE.Old Style Antenna Analysis Step 1 – Get the current distribution Assume sinusoidal – induced EMF method Solve Hallen’s integral equation (1938) Solve Pocklington’s integral equation (1897) How to do it – Mathematical solution Iterative and variational methods – Approximation as a ratio of infinite series – King-Harrison (Proc. 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.Induced EMF Method Assumes sinusoidal current distribution Method gives pattern. CA October 17-19.D. and reactance Accurate for pattern and impedance of dipoles up to halfwavelength and verticals up to quarter-wavelength Inaccurate for impedance of dipoles longer than half-wavelength and verticals longer than quarter-wavelength Used widely for the design of AM broadcast vertical towers 13 S. radiation resistance. San Ramon. 2008 .

2008 . CA October 17-19. Stearns.Induced EMF Method continued Radiation resistance 1 ⎧ Rin = ⎨C + ln(kl ) − Ci(kl ) + sin( kl )[Si(2kl ) − 2Si(kl )] 2 2 ⎛ kl ⎞ ⎩ 2π sin ⎜ ⎟ Terms vanish when l/λ ⎝2⎠ is a half integer Reactance η ⎡ ⎤⎫ 1 ⎛ kl ⎞ + cos(kl ) ⎢C + ln⎜ ⎟ + Ci(2kl ) − 2Ci(kl )⎥ ⎬ 2 ⎝2⎠ ⎣ ⎦⎭ Wire radius term ⎧ ⎡ ⎛ 2ka 2 ⎞⎤ 1 ⎪ X in = ⎨Si(kl ) + sin(kl ) ⎢Ci(2kl ) − 2Ci(kl ) + Ci⎜ ⎜ l ⎟⎥ ⎟ 2 2 ⎛ kl ⎞ ⎪ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ 2π sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎩ ⎝2⎠ 1 ⎫ − cos(kl )[Si(2kl ) − 2Si(kl )]⎬ 2 ⎭ η 14 S. San Ramon. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.D.

D. Stearns. z ′)⎥ dz ′ = − jωε E zi ( ρ = a ) ∫/ 2 ⎟ ⎜ ∂z ⎠ −l ⎣⎝ ⎦ l/2 Hallen’s equation (1938) e − jkR ε ′) ′=−j [ B1 cos(kz ) + C1 sin(k | z |)] ∫/ 2 I z ( z 4π R d z μ −l l/2 General form Linear operator L( f ) = g Unknown function Driving function 15 S. CA October 17-19.Equations for Obtaining the Current Along a Wire Pocklington’s equation (1897) ⎡⎛ ∂ 2 ⎤ 2⎞ I z ( z ′) ⎢⎜ 2 + k ⎟ G ( z . 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.Computational Electromagnetics 16 S. CA October 17-19. Stearns.D. San Ramon. 2008 .

2008 .D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns. CA October 17-19.The Universe of Antenna Modeling Methods Electrical Size Complexity of Materials Courtesy of EMSS 17 S. San Ramon.

physical. WIRA. winNECPlus. 2008 . ELNEC. Faustus MEFiSTo Geometric. MiniNEC. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns. and uniform theories of diffraction Best for electrically large antennas 18 S. CA October 17-19. 4nec2. NEC-3. NEC-2. WIPL-D.Computational Electromagnetics Method of moments (MoM) A method for solving integro-differential equations such as Hallen’s or Pocklington’s equation at a given frequency Earliest and longest legacy of software codes for antenna modeling BRACT. Zeland IE3D Finite element method (FEM) Best for design of small antennas of complex structure Ansoft HFSS Finite difference time-domain method (FDTD) Time-domain method Best for design of small antennas for broadband applications CST Microwave Studio.D. FEKO. San Ramon. EZNEC. AMP. NEC. Zeland Fidelity. NEC-4.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 . San Ramon.D. CA October 17-19. Stearns.The Method of Moments 19 S.

Richmond 1922-1990 Boris Grigoryevich Galerkin 1871-1945 Gleb Pavlovich Akilov 1924-1964 ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 20 S.G.Originators I. Stearns. K6OIK .D. Harrington 1925October 17-19. CA Roger F. Bubnov 1872-1919 Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich 1912-1986 Jack H. San Ramon.

D. Fourier series Local basis functions break antenna into small conducting line segments. Stearns. surface patches.Method of Moments Published by Kantorovich and Akilov in 1959 as a general method for solving linear integro-differential equations Introduced into electromagnetics by Roger Harrington in 1967 Currents are weighted sum of basis functions Solve for the coefficients of the basis functions for all segments Calculate radiation pattern and feedpoint impedance from currents Uses two kinds of mathematical functions: basis functions and test functions Basis and test functions can be global or local (sub-sectional) Global basis functions expand the current on a wire in an infinite series. e. 2008 .g. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon. or volumes Subsectional basis functions appear to give better results when solving Hallen’s equation rather than Pocklington’s Test functions are best thought of as projections 21 S.

San Ramon. CA October 17-19.Integro-Differential Equations Made Simple Start with an equation. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 . The analysis problem is to find f L( f ) = g Assume f can be expanded as a weighted sum of basis functions Set all projections (via test functions) of left and right sides equal ⎛ ⎞ L ( f ) = L⎜ ∑ a n f n ⎟ = g ⎝ n ⎠ n n ∑ a L( f Write as a matrix equation n • φm ) = g • φm ⎡ L( f1 • φ1 ) L L( f N • φ1 ) ⎤ ⎡ a1 ⎤ ⎡ g • φ1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥⎢ M ⎥=⎢ M ⎥ M O M ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ L( f1 • φM ) L L( f N • φM )⎥ ⎢a N ⎥ ⎢ g • φM ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 22 S. Stearns.D.

San Ramon.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19.The Solution Solve for the vector of expansion coefficients ⎡ a1 ⎤ ⎡ L( f1 • φ1 ) L L( f N • φ1 ) ⎤ ⎢ M ⎥=⎢ ⎥ M O M ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢a N ⎥ ⎢ L( f1 • φM ) L L( f N • φM )⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Obtain f −1 ⎡ g • φ1 ⎤ ⎢ M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ g • φM ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ f = ∑ an f n = [ f1 L n ⎡ L( f1 • φ1 ) L L( f N • φ1 ) ⎤ ⎥ fN ] ⎢ M O M ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ L( f1 • φM ) L L( f N • φM )⎥ ⎣ ⎦ −1 ⎡ g • φ1 ⎤ ⎢ M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ g • φM ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 23 S. 2008 . Stearns.

plates. B. Stellenbosch. San Ramon. Andreasen. Jian-Xiong Zheng. developed by Dr.M. Company in Fremont.R. CA WIPL-D (ca 2000) – Advanced MoM for wires. Stearns. Burke at MBAssociates. Serbia FEKO (ca 2000) – Hybrid method developed by U. 2008 . improved error detection Zeland IE3D (1992) – Adaptive meshing. catenaryshaped wires. South Africa 24 S.Principle MoM Computer Codes BRACT & ANTBRACT – Developed late 1960’s at MBAssociates. and dielectrics based on work of A. thick wires NEC-2 (1981) – Sommerfield-Norton ground interaction for wire structures above lossy ground. Jakobus at EMSS. end caps and insulated wires. F. Kolundzija. Tanner at TCI AMP/AMP2 – Developed mid 1970’s by G. Harris and R. numerical Green's function allows modifying without repeating whole calculation NEC-3 (1985) – Buried wires NEC-4 (1992) – Improved accuracy for stepped-radius wires and electrically-small segments. multiple wire junctions. Belgrade. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. U. San Ramon WIRA – Developed early 1970’s by M.D. San Ramon NEC-1 (1979) – Added more accurate current expansions. CA October 17-19. Djordjevic.

D. CA October 17-19.The Development of NEC 25 S. 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon. Stearns.

CA October 17-19.B. 2008 . San Ramon.D. 1939-2008 Brought the joy of antenna modeling to Amateur Radio 26 S. Cebik.L. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. W4RNL. Stearns.

Stearns.EZNEC 27 S.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19. 2008 . San Ramon.

2008 .com/ Developed by Roy Lewallen. Stearns.eznec.D.gov/technology/software/documents/NEC.llnl.5 $90 EZNEC+ v. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.0 Six products available EZNEC v.EZNEC http://www.4 $45 (on ARRL Antenna Book CD-ROM) EZNEC v.5 demo program $0 (free) EZNEC-ARRL v. This probably includes you! Form at: https://ipo. CA October 17-19.5 $650 (sold only to NEC-4 licensees) EZNEC includes either the NEC-2 or NEC-4 engines NEC-4 license for qualified US academic and noncommercial users can be obtained from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for $300.3 & v. San Ramon.5 $500 EZNEC Pro/4 v.pdf 28 S. W7EL Now in version 5.5 $140 EZNEC Pro/2 v.

San Ramon.D.Key Parts of EZNEC Specifying the antenna model Wire geometry (including radials) Excitation sources Wire loads Transmission lines Ground type and parameters Frequency or sweep range Specifying the desired outputs Radiation pattern crossection at a given frequency Gain in a specific direction Pattern beamwidth Front-to-back ratio Front-to-rear ratio Impedance SWR Output data files for other programs 29 S. Stearns. CA October 17-19. 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

2008 . Stearns. CA October 17-19. San Ramon.EZNEC Main Screen and Control Panel “Model contains loss” warning 30 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.D.

Wires and Segments Each wire in an antenna is defined by Location (coordinates) of both ends Diameter of wire Number of segments (all equal in length) Material or conductivity (x1. segments = 7 Copper σ = 58 MS/m (x2. y1. z1) Diameter = AWG #12 No. 2008 . Stearns. y2.D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. z2) 31 S. San Ramon. CA October 17-19.

Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon. K6OIK. 2008 . CA October 17-19.Wire Table for UHF Discone Antenna Steve Stearns. “All About the Discone Antenna. Jan/Feb 2007 32 S.D.” QEX.

San Ramon. 2008 .D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns. “All About the Discone Antenna. K6OIK.View Antenna Steve Stearns.” QEX. CA October 17-19. Jan/Feb 2007 33 S.

Discone SWR and Impedance Referenced to 75Ω
UHF TV band highlighted blue 470 to 710 MHz

Marker at 460 MHz 1. 2. 3. 4. Setup a frequency sweep 100 MHz to 1 GHz Write impedance data to MicroSmith .gam output file Use Word to reformat .gam to Ansoft .flp file format Import to Serenade SV project and design matching network

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S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

Improvement After Stub Matching Network

35

S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

EZNEC Gain Patterns of Discone at 470 MHz

36

S.D. Stearns, K6OIK

ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar, San Ramon, CA

October 17-19, 2008

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.D. San Ramon. CA October 17-19. 2008 . Stearns.Tips for Getting Better Accuracy from NEC-2 Segment length to wavelength rule Segment length < λ / 20 Segment length to diameter rule Segment length > 2 × diameter Equal segment length rule All segments in a model have equal length Never connect long segments to short segments Acute angle junction rule Junction angles or segment lengths large enough that middle 1/3 of joined segments don’t interpenetrate Segment alignment rule for parallel wires Closely spaced parallel and near parallel wires have their segments aligned (paired) Wires near ground All wires must be least two diameters above ground Wires cannot touch ground 37 S.

Excitation Sources Ideal voltage and current sources can be inserted in any segment Sources are used to excite a feedpoint Most antennas have a single feedpoint A unit current source of 1 + j0 amperes generally works well Phased arrays with multiple antenna feedpoints can be driven with a separate current sources at each feedpoint or with a single source driving a feed network If a segment contains both source and load. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19. they are in series A voltage sources and load can be assigned to a segment when it is desired to simulate the Thevenin equivalent of a real generator – needed for mutual impedance effects in phased array feeds A “split-feed” consists of putting two half-voltage sources in adjacent segments to simulates a source at the junction between the segments 38 S. Stearns. 2008 . San Ramon.D.

2008 . traps. they are in series Loads are used to model coils. CA October 17-19.Wire Loads Ideal. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon. Stearns. non-radiating point loads can be inserted in any segment If a segment contains both source and load.D. wire conductivity (ohmic loss) Load types available are: Constant impedance R + jX Series RLC network Parallel RLC network Trap network Laplace impedance positive-real rational function up to 5th degree P( jω ) a5 ( jω ) 5 + a4 ( jω ) 4 + a3 ( jω )3 + a2 ( jω ) 2 + a1 ( jω ) + a0 = Z( f ) = Q( jω ) b5 ( jω ) 5 + b4 ( jω ) 4 + b3 ( jω ) 3 + b2 ( jω ) 2 + b1 ( jω ) + b0 39 S. and internally to NEC.

e. twin-lead J-poles.4 and above claim to do insulated wires but use NEC-2 EZNEC Pro/4 v. Cebik compared several ad hoc approximations for insulated wire (Note 83) EZNEC v.g. and WIPL-D handle dielectrics accurately by surface and volume equivalence principles L. FEKO. Butternut radials.g. 2008 .Dielectrics and Wire Insulation Dielectrics occur in antennas in bulk form or insulated wires. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. twin-lead folded dipoles. Stearns.5 uses the accurate NEC-4 dielectric capability 40 S. buried radials NEC-4 handles insulated wires by accurate methods Newer professional codes such as IE3D. polyrod antennas. buried radials NEC-2 has no capability for dielectrics NEC-3 and NEC-4 handle dielectrics by accurate methods NEC-3 handles wires in semi-infinite dielectric media.B. CA October 17-19.D. e. San Ramon.

no. 2008 . Stearns. no. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. or D. 153-158. “Generalisation of the Concept of Equivalent Radius of Thin Cylindrical Antennas. 13-20. 11. Balmain.G. pp.Y. Nesic.H. Popovic and A.” IEE Proc.D. H. pt.Insulated Wires Done Right ! Rigorous theory J.D. “Dielectric Coated Wire Antennas. vol.” Radio Science. San Ramon. 3. 1976 J.” Radio Science.B.P. 1.H. Richmond and E. “Wire Antennas Coated with Magnetically and Electrically Lossy Material. CA October 17-19. Cebik W4RNL. vol. no.. Lee and K. vol. 437445. pp. June 1984 Larger effective radius with extra distributed inductance to offset ⎛b⎞ a' = a × ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ a⎠ ⎛ εr −1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ε ⎟ ⎝ r ⎠ <b μ0 ⎛ a' ⎞ −7 ⎛ εr −1⎞ ⎛ b ⎞ L = ln⎜ ⎟ = 2×10 ⎜ ⎜ ε ⎟ln⎜ a ⎟ ⎟ 2π ⎝ a ⎠ ⎝ r ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Equations are different from those of L. Yurkov RA9MB. Newman. Jan. Federov UA3AVR 41 S. 3. May-June 1979 Good quasistatic approximation B. 131. pp. A. 14.

CA October 17-19. San Ramon. a flat mirror Wires may touch ground Good for turning off ground losses to evaluate the ground losses of real ground Real grounds High-accuracy (Sommerfeld-Norton) ground – Most accurate and computationally expensive ground type – Best method for low horizontal wires down to λ/200 above ground – Wires may not touch ground Fast ground – Uses complex reflection coefficient method – Horizontal wires should be at least λ/10 above ground – Wires may not touch ground MININEC ground – Hybrid (compromise) calculation designed for early PCs – Assumes perfect ground for calculating currents. Stearns. 2008 .D.e. but switches to dielectric ground for far-field pattern calculation – Hence no ground losses – Horizontal wires should be at least λ/5 above ground – Vertical wires may touch ground 42 S. i. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.Five Ground Types and Their Restrictions Free space Perfect ground A lossless perfect electrically conducting (PEC) ground plane.

CA . mountainous Average: pastoral. marshy. rich. San Ramon. heavy clay Pastoral: medium hills and forest Flat.001 0.002 0. K6OIK σ 0. Concentrate on getting a good estimate of εr Ground Characteristics Extremely poor: cities. high buildings Very poor: cities.010 0. 2008 ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.001 5 εr 3 5 10 13 13 13 12 14 20 80 80 October 17-19. industrial Sandy.Ground Parameters Ground is specified by two numbers: conductivity σ and dielectric constant εr For “average” ground.005 0. densely wooded Pastoral. US Midwest Very good: pastoral. σ = 5 mS/m and εr = 13 At HF frequencies. rich soil. so don’t worry about the precise value of σ (stations near salt water excepted).001 0. central US Fresh water Salt water 43 S.030 0. dry Poor: rocky.006 0. εr has more influence than σ.002 0. Stearns.D.0075 0.

San Ramon. 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Such antenna designs do not frequency scale easily. not resolved into common and differential current modes Current modes are “noumena. Antennas made of insulated wire cannot be analyzed by NEC-2.” total current is “phenomena” Antennas that rely on interacting modes do not scale if λ/λg or vf changes Insulation on wires affects common and differential current modes differently. Stearns.General Caveats Regarding Antenna Modeling NEC is “blind” to current modes – computes total current. CA October 17-19.D. but NEC-4 and EZNEC Pro/4 work okay Twin lead folded dipole Twin lead J-pole Butternut radials 44 S.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19.4nec2 45 S. 2008 . Stearns.D. San Ramon.

ict. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 .4nec2 http://home.000 segments but can be increased by to any number by recompiling the NEC-2 or NEC-4 source codes Two versions 4nec2 – limited to machine memory 4nec2X – uses virtual memory for bigger problems Has 3D graphics and two optimizers Gradient descent optimizer Genetic optimizer Permits writing NEC script. Netherlands Runs under Windows 2000 and XP Includes standard EZNEC models as .nec files Comes with NEC-2 executables but can use NEC-4 executables Comes configured for up to 11. San Ramon.D. thereby giving access to all NEC-2 and NEC-4 commands 46 S. Stearns.nl/~arivoors/ A free full-featured GUI for NEC-2 and NEC-4 Written and supported by Arie Voors.

Stearns.4nec2 Wire-Grid Models of Boeing 747 and Automobile 47 S. 2008 . San Ramon. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19.D.

4nec2 Screen Displays Main screen Geometry screen Edit screen Wire tab 48 S. 2008 . San Ramon. CA October 17-19.D. Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

San Ramon.D. Stearns. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.4nec2 3D Pattern of Antenna on 747 – Vert Pol 49 S. 2008 .

D. CA October 17-19. 2008 . and Dielectrics 50 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. San Ramon.WIPL-D Wires. Plates. Stearns.

Contact WIPL-D for replacement “bug-free” .exe file after installation 51 S.D.com/ Originated at University of Belgrade. San Ramon. Stearns.wipl-d. near and farfield calculations. 2008 .com/ WIPL-D Lite – More capable version from Artech House.0 Capabilities include: lossy conductors. e. but has work-around Two limited versions of interest to Radio Amateurs WIPL-D Demo – Free download from http://www. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Serbia (former Yugoslavia) Handles both 3D antennas and microwave circuits Method is MoM/SIE.wipl-d. optimizer Polynomial basis functions and curved bilinear quadrilateral surface meshing give high accuracy with small computation Meshed surfaces appear flat but are really curved Lacks infinite Sommerfeld-Norton ground. dielectric and magnetic materials. ISBN 1580539653 ($399).WIPL-D http://www. surface equivalence principle Fast multipole method (FMM) added to new version 7.g. CA October 17-19.

2008 .D. Stearns. San Ramon.WIPL-D Models of Single and 4x4 Array of Polyrods 52 S. CA October 17-19. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

WIPL-D Model of Fighter Plane 53 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 . Stearns.D. CA October 17-19. San Ramon.

D.FEKO 54 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19. 2008 . Stearns. San Ramon.

2008 .D. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. but has MoM/VIE. CA October 17-19. and several optics approximations Capabilities similar to WIPL-D: lossy conductors.info/sales 55 S. FEM. dielectric and magnetic materials. near and farfield calculations.feko.feko.info/ Developed and sold by EM Software & Systems (EMSS). hence the need for multiple engines Has infinite Sommerfeld-Norton ground Limited LITE version of interest to Radio Amateurs FEKO LITE – Free download from http://www. South Africa Switches automatically among multiple “engines” like a Toyota Prius Main method is MoM/SIE. Stearns. optimizer Curved surfaces are approximated by many flat triangles Triangle surface meshing and low-order basis functions give heavy computation burden.FEKO http://www. San Ramon. FMM.

San Ramon. Stearns. 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.D. CA October 17-19.FEKO Model of Global Hawk (RQ-4A) 56 S.

D.FEKO Pattern of Horn Antenna in Wing Pod 57 S. Stearns. San Ramon. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 . CA October 17-19.

D.Advanced Applications Terrain Analysis by MoM Meshing Silicon Valley A Rigorous Alternative to Ray Tracing 58 S. Stearns. San Ramon. 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19.

Stearns. CA October 17-19. San Ramon. 2008 . K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.Earth Terrain Looking Down Saratoga-Sunnyvale Road Surface meshed terrain of Saratoga Color indicates computed earth currents Zoom to see current direction arrows 59 S.D.

CA October 17-19. San Ramon.D. 2008 . Stearns.Computer Used For Antenna Design and Electromagnetic Systems Analysis Description Processors Memory Disk storage Compute speed 6 Xi NetRAIDer network servers 12 AMD Opteron 64-bit 96 Gbytes 12 Tbytes > 53 GFLOPs/sec 60 S. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.

2008 ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.834 38.D. San Ramon.928 12. M em ory U s ed 50 40 KiloTriangles 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 Frequency (MHz) 6 8 Hours Memory GB Frequency (kHz) 1. Stearns.Required Computation 60 K triangle s.53 5.54 52. CA . R un Tim e .900 3.717 Hours 0.150 61 S.750 7.125 1.48 9.38 October 17-19. K6OIK Triangles 3.1 Memory (GB) 0.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19.Ground Currents 7. Polarization = Horizontal North South Earth’s Contribution S.D. San Ramon.15 MHz Antenna Height = 50 m. 2008 62 . Stearns.

Stearns. KI6BDR ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. K6OIK Courtesy of Keith Snyder.D.15 MHz Antenna type = 3 element Yagi Antenna height = 164 ft (50 m) Antenna polarization = horizontal Total field strength V+H shown North South 63 S. San Ramon. 2008 .3D Antenna Pattern Frequency = 7. CA October 17-19.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Stearns. 2008 .The Next Step – Modeling the Landscape 64 S. CA October 17-19.D. San Ramon.

K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. CA October 17-19. San Ramon. 2008 . Stearns.Landscaping Details Models of trees Details of leaves and branches Courtesy of WIPL-D 65 S.D.

http://www.0 by Agilent (formerly Eagleware) ISBN 1884932908 $127 from SciTech Publishing http://www. Stearns.com Excel/Visual Basic program. EZNEC.ac6la. CA October 17-19. San Ramon. AC6LA. low cost but currently unavailable Puts NEC.D.scitechpublishing. and 4nec2 on autopilot for making a series of runs Inexpensive alternative to a real optimizer Doesn’t work with EZNEC-ARRL Temporarily unavailable 66 S.com For interactive design of ladder networks for impedance matching Excellent tool for learning to use the Smith chart Grossly overpriced MultiNEC by Dan Maguire. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.Other Useful Antenna Software winSMITH 2.com/ $149 from Amazon. 2008 .

374-378.F.” IEEE Trans. 2008 . Stroitel’naia Mekhanika Korablia (Structural Mechanics of Shipbuilding). K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. IEEE. pp. Pocklington. Harrington. vol. “Electrical Oscillations in Wires. 67 S.References Current distribution in a wire H.” Vestnik Inzhenerov i Tekhnikov. Field Computation by Moment Methods. “Matrix Methods for Field Problems.G. 1959. Kantorovich and G. Stearns. 11. no. pp. vol. vol. IV. 1915. Bubnov and Galerkin methods I. (English translation: Pergamon. 1964) R. no. Feb. 2. Mei. “Theoretical Investigations into the Transmitting and Receiving Qualities of Antennae. May 1965.. Akilov. 1968. 9. (English translation: NTIS Rept.P.F. TT-63-18924) Method of Moments L. 4.K..” Proc. R. 19. 13. 324-332.” Nova Acta Regiae Soc.C. Galerkin.” Cambridge Phil. Macmillan. 55. “On the Integral Equations of Thin Wire Antennas.V. San Ramon. 3. B.D. Soc. 1-44. “Series Solution of Some Problems of Elastic Equilibrium of Rods and Plates.. 897-908. Harrington. 1914. 1897.G. Rept. Erik Hallen. 1938. no. Bubnov. K. vol. Funktsional’nyj Analiz v Normirovannykh Prostranstvakh (Functional Analysis in Normed Spaces). ser. Upsaliensis. 1967. pp. CA October 17-19. Proc. pp. Sci. Tech. 136-149. Antennas Propagat. vol. pp.

588-593. no.. 30. “Numerical Solution of Electromagnetic Problems. M. Aug. vol. Andreasen and R.” IEEE Trans. no. no.” URSI meeting. A Surface Patch Model for Polygonal Plates. and E. R. CA October 17-19. 1992. 9.H. 14. “Digital Computer Solutions of the Rigorous Equations for Scattering Problems. Miller. May 1975.” IEEE Trans. Thiele. 4.M.” IEEE Spectrum.” Proc. Tanner and M. Gilreath. ISBN 0824704967. G. Sept. no.P. 1967. Stearns. pp. vol. Richmond.S.H. Computational Electromagnetics: Frequency-Domain Method of Moments. ISBN 0879422769. “Comparison of Numerical Methods for Thin Wire Antennas. Compat. Apr. TRG Division of CDC. R. Hansen (ed. 1990.L. 1981. E.. Richmond.). N. 3. July 1982. IEEE. San Ramon.). no. L. DTIC AD0819198. 53... Castillo. et al. Artech House.L. Medgyesi-Mitschang.H. 3. 18. Antennas Propagat. Tech Rept. vol. vol. 648-649. Menlo Park. ISBN 0890064660. Marin and J. pp 123-129. also IEEE Trans.A.D.N. Monopole Antennas. Final Rept. Electromag. Investigation of General Wire Antennas. Wang and J. CA. L. 8. vol.. 1976. and M. “Sinusoidal Reaction Formulation For Radiation and Scattering from Conducting Surfaces. Lee.C. “Calculation of the Current Distribution on a Thin Linear Antenna.G. “Limitations of Wire-Grid Modeling of a Closed Surface. Antennas Propagat. M. 53-61. no. 2003. Tulyathan. Neureuther. 376-382. pp. Fall 1968. Antennas Propagat. Aug. Newman (eds. pp.K. K. 796-804.H. Weiner. 5. DTIC ADA119682. pp. Sept. 4. IEEE Press. 2008 . August 1967. Newman and P. 68 S. Moment Methods in Antennas and Scattering. pp. 1966.. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.G.C.References 2 Key papers in antenna modeling theory J.R.H. vol. 1965.” IEEE Trans. A. CRC. E.. 23. Tanner. Andreasen.

“A Beginners Guide to Modeling with NEC.D. Numerical Electromagnetics Code – NEC-4. 34-38. 40-44. and pp. Poggio.B. Miller. Part I: Program Description – Theory. pp.K.J. 21st ed. download current version from http://www. San Ramon. pp. Jan.J. J. G. Jan.References 3 NEC G. ARRL. G. Part II: Program Description – Code. W4RNL. 2002.. Feb. 4-1 to 4-23. Method of Moments. March 5-7. 2000.” 4-part article. ISBN 0872598721. Burke. QST. Zurich. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Jan. 69 S. 1981. L. 2008 . 1985. Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC2). Dec. ARRL Antenna Modeling Course. Part III: User’s Guide. pp. Stearns. W4RNL.eznec. 2007. Burke and A. Breakall. ARRL. 31-35. 1992.com L. CA October 17-19.J. Nov.K. EZNEC EZNEC User Manual. Cebik. Cebik.J. and E. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2001. 2001. ARRL Antenna Book.. ISBN 0872599876. Burke. Part II: Program Description – Theory. pp.” EMC Symp. 44-48.B. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. “The Numerical/Electromagnetics Code (NEC-3). 2000.

K. Djordjevic. Kolundzija. “A General Purpose 3D Electromagnetic Simulation and Optimization Package – IE3D. Davidson. D. B.M.ict. ISBN 0890063605.R. no. Sakar. 2008 . 70 S.1. May 23-27. 18.. ISBN 1580539653. Stearns. FEKO U. 2002. Artech House.” ACES Newsletter. Jakobus. “Review of Advanced Electromagnetic Modeling Techniques in the Computer Code FEKO based on the Method of Moments with Hybrid Extensions. CA October 17-19. J. WIPL-D Microwave: Circuit And 3D EM Simulation For RF & Microwave Applications – Software and User's Manual.D. 2. Electromagnetic Modeling of Composite Metallic and Dielectric Structures. Computational Electromagnetics for RF and Microwave Engineering. Cambridge University Press. Zheng. vol.M.nl/~arivoors/ Zeland IE3D J-X. 2006. pp. ISBN 0521838592. 1994. Artech House. 373376. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.References 4 4nec2 http://home.” IEEE MTT-S Int’l Symp. Kolundzija and A. and T. Ognjanovic.B.S. 2005. July 2003. San Ramon. WIPL-D B. vol.

ISBN 0801482348 71 S. Stearns. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 1991.D. Cornell University Press. The Maxwellians. CA October 17-19. San Ramon. 2008 .Good Reading Bruce J. Hunt.

2008 . Kraus and R. 3rd ed. First published in 1961. http://snulbug. Electrically Small. McGraw-Hill.J. JD0304. Hansen. 2006. Laport.J. CA October 17-19. 4th ed.ca. ISBN 0071475745. First published in 1982 by Harper & Row. 2001-2006 (1 DVD).edu/~orfanidi/ewa/ E. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. Wiley. Antennas. draft textbook online at http://www. Antenna Theory.Favorite Antenna Books Books for antenna engineers and students Antenna Engineering Handbook. J. Wiley.A. 2007.D. 72 S. Volakis editor.mtview. Marhefka. C. 3rd ed. Stearns. S. San Ramon. J.ece. IEEE AP-S Digital Archive. Orfanidis. Henry Jasik editor. JD0301. R. 1952..L. 2001.C. ISBN 047166782X. IEEE AP-S Digital Archive. McGraw-Hill. 2001-2003 (1 DVD). Superdirective. Radio Antenna Engineering. 1952-2000 (2 DVDs). JD0351.A..D.rutgers. Electromagnetic Waves and Antennas. 2005.. First published in 1950. Balanis. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0471782556. and Superconducting Antennas.us/books/RadioAntennaEngineering Antenna research papers IEEE AP-S Digital Archive. ISBN 0072321032.

2003. 2005. CQ Communications. 21st ed. ISBN 1872309151. Devoldere (ON4UN). ISBN 0943016223.Favorite Antenna Books continued Books for radio amateurs ARRL Antenna Book. The Short Vertical Antenna and Ground Radial. ISBN 0872599876.. L. ISBN 0872599140. ON4UN’s Low-Band Dxing. Sevick (W2FMI). American Radio Relay League. 1983. 2005.. Practical Wire Antennas 2. San Ramon. 4th ed. Stearns. J. Radio Society of Great Britain. ISBN 1905086040. Dean Straw (N6BV) editor.. Ian Poole (G3YWX) editor.D. Radio Society of Great Britain. ARRL Antenna Compendium series – Volumes 1 through 7 ARRL Antenna Classics series – six titles 73 S. J. 2nd ed. Moxon (G6XN). K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar. 2008 . 2007. HF Antennas for All Locations. CA October 17-19. American Radio Relay League.

org/docs/k6oik 74 S.k6ya. 2008 . CA October 17-19.D.fars. Stearns. San Ramon. K6OIK ARRL Pacificon Antenna Seminar.The End This presentation will be archived at http://www.