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PROPELLER DISPLAY

AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED TRAINING INSTITUTION

NETTUR TECHNICAL TRAINING FOUNDATION

PROJECT REPORT
ON

PROPELLER DISPLAY

PROJECT DONE BY

PARANDHAMAN. K
NEC1818007

POST DIPLOMA IN EMBEDDED SYSTEMS

NTTF TECHNICAL TRAINING CENTRE


ELECTRONIC CITY

2018 – 2019
POST DIPLOMA IN EMBEDDED SYSTEM Page 1
PROPELLER DISPLAY

AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED TRAINING INSTITUTION

NETTUR TECHNICAL TRAINING FOUNDATION

Certificate
This is to certify that the project titled

PROPELLER DISPLAY
Is a bonafide record of the project work done by

PARANDHAMAN. K

In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of POST Diploma in


EMBEDDED SYSTEMS under the institution NETTUR TECHNICAL TRAINING
FOUNDATION, Electronic city Training Centre, during the Academic year
2018– 2019

PROJECT GUIDE EXTERNAL EXAMINER PRINCIPAL

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PROPELLER DISPLAY

SYNOPSIS

With further resources and time we could implement a system


that would be superior to today’s methods. So in my project I am
making a PROPELLER DISPLAY. Which is controlled by 8051
family microcontroller. Heart of the project is AT89S52
Microcontroller IC which is developed by ATMEL Company.

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PROPELLER DISPLAY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I feel privileged to acknowledge the contribution of those who


helped me for the successful completion of the project. First of all
I would like to give my regards to our Principal Mr. R. AYYAPPAN
for his contribution and valuable guidance for making this project
a grand success. I am thankful to our Vice-Principal Mrs. JASMI
K.K for valuable information and guidance. I would also like to
express my immense gratitude to our Course in-charge Mr. ARUN
PADDAKI Section-Head Mrs. JASMI K.K and our project guide Mr.
SANDEEP M who guided me and gave their maximum support to
make this project workable one. Also in this opportunity I thank
the staffs of NTTF and my classmates for supporting me in each
step and making this project into reality

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PROPELLER DISPLAY

INDEX

PAGE
SL NO CONTENTS
NUMBER
1.0 INTRODUCTION 7
2.0 AIM 8
3.0 OBJECTIVES 8
3.1 PROJECT RELEVENCE 8
3.2 PROJECT TARGET 9
3.3 PROJECT LIMITATIONS 9
4.0 MODULAR BLOCK DIAGRAM 10
5.0 BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION 11
5.1 DC MOTOR BLOCK 11
5.1.1 12V ADAPTER 11
5.1.2 DC MOTOR 11
5.2 PROPRLLER DISPLAY BLOCK 11
5.2.1 POWER SUPPLY 11
5.2.2 IR MODULE 11
5.2.3 AT89S52 MICROCONTROLLER 11
5.2.4 LED 11
6.0 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 12
7.0 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION 13
7.1 AT89S52 MICROCONTROLLER 13
7.1.1 FEATURES 13
7.1.2 PIN DIAGRAM 14
7.1.3 MICROCONTROLLER RESET CIRCUIT 15
7.1.4 MICROCONTROLLER OSCILLATOR 16
CIRCUIT
7.2 IR MODULE 18
7.3 12V ADAPTER 19
7.4 RESISTOR 20
7.5 CAPACITOR 20
7.6 VOLTAGE REGULATOR 21
7. CRYSTAL 21
7.2.5 DC MOTOR 22
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7.2.6 LED 23
8.0 CALCULATION 23
9.0 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS 24
9.1 KEIL SOFTWARE 24
9.2 PROTEUS DESIGN SUIT 24
10.0 FLASH ISP 25
11.0 WORKING PRINCIPLE 26
12.0 PROGRAM 27
13.0 SUB ASSEMBLY, TESTING AND 30
OBSERVATION
13.1 IR TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER 30
13.2 MICROCONTROLLER UNIT 31
13.3 LED 32
14.0 OVERALL ASSEMBLY TESTING AND 33
OBSERVATION
15.0 ADVANTAGES AND 34
DISADVANTAGES
16.0 APPLICATIONS 34
17.0 FINAL PRODUCT 35
17.0 SCOPE OF IMPROVEMENT 36
18.0 CONCLUSION 36
19.0 TOTAL COST 37
20.0 DATA SHEET 38

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PROPELLER DISPLAY

1.0 INTRODUCTION

A Propeller based display is a display that works on phenomenon of


persistence of vision.

Persistence of vision is that makes discrete images incident on a human eye


and changing at a rate of almost one-sixteenth of a second appears to be an
image collective of all the individual images.

This concept has been used in this project to demonstrate a Text on the
display.

Digital Propeller project is built around 8051 family microcontroller.

The system has a high RPM motor which makes the system rotate.

The LEDs arranged in a row across the PCB turn ON and OFF at specific
intervals when the system rotates to produce image of a character on the
eye of the human watching it.

This makes the observer believe that he/she is watching a Propeller that has
few LEDs lit for each of the digit displayed in the Text.

This system can prove to be very useful in various scenarios where the user
wants propeller based display that consumes less space, less electricity and
also in synchronicity with the users choice of time.

Hence, the Digital Propeller display with 8052 Override Project is a useful
project to demonstrate the advanced technique of display using persistence
of vision using live interface with human.

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2.0 AIM

The aim is to build a PROPELLER DISPLAY USING 8051.

3.0 OBJECTIVES

 The primary objective of the project is to make a “PROPELLER


DISPLAY USING 8051”

 To have an idea regarding IR SENSING.

 To develop knowledge in selection of components according
to the function and requirements.

 To have a knowledge in MC 8051

 Trouble shooting whenever necessary.

3.1 PROJECT RELEVANCE

The project Propeller display has the following advantages.

 Easy construction.

 Easy maintenance.

 Low cost.

 Easy to control, no skilled persons are required.

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3.2 PROJECT TARGET

To make a Propeller display which is having very good


visualization.

3.3 PROJECT LIMITATIONS

 It is not water resistant.

 Accuracy is less.

 Low speed.

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4.0 MODULAR BLOCK DIAGRAM

Fig 4.0(DC MOTOR BLOCK DIAGRAM)

Fig 4.1(PROPELLER DISPLAY BLOCK DIAGRAM)

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5.0 BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION

5.1 DC MOTOR BLOCK

5.1.1 12V DC ADAPTER


12V DC Adapter takes input of 230V AC and produces output as 12V
DC.

5.1.2 DC MOTOR
DC motor is used to rotate the Propeller display and this motor is
powered by 12V DC adapter.

5.2 PROPELLER DISPLAY BLOCK

5.2.1 POWER SUPLLY


In this module two 3.7V Lithium polymer battery’s together will give
the 7.4V as an output. This 7.4V is given to LM7805 Voltage regulator IC and
it will produce constant 5V DC as a output voltage.

5.2.2 IR MODULE
IR module is an input device to the microcontroller which is used find
the speed of the Speed of the DC motor by means of obstacle getting every
rotation.

5.2.3 AT89S52 MICROCONTROLLER


Microcontroller is the heart of the project. It gets the input from IR
module and according to that LED’s are controlled by using Port2.

5.2.4 LED
LED is abbreviated as Light Emitting Diode. Here which is used to display the
characters. This led is controlled by AT89S52 microcontroller.

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6.0 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Fig 6.0 (Circuit diagram)

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7.0 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION


7.1 AT89S52 MICROCONTROLLER

7.1.1 FEATURES
8051 microcontroller is designed by Intel in 1981. It is an 8-bit
microcontroller. It is built with 40 pins DIP (dual inline package), 8kb of ROM
storage and 256 bytes of RAM storage, 3 16-bit timers. It consists of are
four parallel 8-bit ports, which are programmable as well as addressable as
per the requirement. An on-chip crystal oscillator is integrated in the
microcontroller having crystal frequency of 20 MHz.

In the following diagram, the system bus connects all the support devices to
the CPU. The system bus consists of an 8-bit data bus, a 16-bit address bus
and bus control signals. All other devices like program memory, ports, data
memory, serial interface, interrupt control, timers, and the CPU are all
interfaced together through the system bus.

Fig 7.1.1(Block diagram of 8051)

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7.1.2 PIN DIAGRAM

Fig 7.1.2 (Pin diagram)

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7.1.3 MICROCONTROLLER RESET CIRCUIT

Fig 7.1.3 (Reset circuit)

A power-on reset (PoR) is a circuit that provides a predictable,


regulated voltage to a microcontroller with the initial application of power.
The PoR system ensures that the microprocessor or microcontroller will start
in the same condition every time that it is powered up.

A PoR system can be a peripheral, but in sophisticated processors or


controllers the PoR is integrated on the main chip. The most basic PoR
system can comprise a resistor and capacitor connected together with values
tailored so that, when power is first applied, the capacitor takes a
predictable and constant time to charge up. For computer use, however,
additional components are often required, including a circuit called a Schmitt
trigger. When the PoR circuit is designed, the charge-up time should be
adjusted by trial and error so that all of the processor or controller circuits
can set themselves to the correct initial values before the computer begins
to function.

A well-designed PoR circuit can ensure that when power is applied to a


computer, it will start up properly every time (or almost every time), and
will never (or rarely) freeze up right away. This feature not only saves the

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user a great deal of frustration, but it offers a last resort in case of a


stubborn system crash: the so-called cold boot, where the computer is
completely powered-down for a minute or two, and then powered-up all over
again.

7.1.4 MICROCONTROLLER OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT

Fig 7.1.4 (Oscillator circuit)

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION

• The oscillator circuit, the heartbeat of microcontroller is used


to generate the device clock.

• Oscillator will give the pulse used for working of a


microcontroller.

• The frequency range of MC is 0 MHz – 20 MHz

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Crystals are usually selected by their parallel resonant frequency


only, however other parameters may be important to your design, such
as temperature or frequency tolerance. Application Note AN588 is an
excellent reference if you would like to know more about crystal
operation and their ordering information.

The MC internal oscillator circuit is a parallel oscillator circuit,


which requires that a parallel resonant crystal be selected. The load
capacitance is usually specified in the 20 pF to 32 pF range. The crystal
will oscillate closest to the desired frequency with capacitance in this
range. It may be necessary to sometimes juggle these values a bit, as
described later, in order to achieve other benefits.

Clock mode is primarily chosen by using the FOSC parameter


specification (parameter 1A) in the device’s data sheet, based on
frequency. Clock modes (except RC) are simply gain selections, lower
gain for lower frequencies, higher gain for higher frequencies. It is
possible to select a higher or lower gain, if desired, based on the specific
needs of the oscillator circuit.

C3 and C4 should also be initially selected based on the load


capacitance as suggested by the crystal manufacturer and the tables
supplied in the device data sheet. The values given in the Microchip data
sheet can only be used as a starting point, since the crystal
manufacturer, supply voltage, and other factors already mentioned may
cause your circuit to differ from the one used in the factory
characterization process.

Ideally, the capacitance is chosen (within the range of the


recommended crystal load preferably) so that it will oscillate at the
highest temperature and lowest VDD that the circuit will be expected to

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perform under. High temperature and low VDD both have a limiting
affect on the loop gain, such that if the circuit functions at these
extremes, the designer can be more assured of proper operation at
other temperatures and supply voltage combinations. The output sine
wave should not be clipped in the highest gain environment (highest
VDD and lowest temperature) and the sine output amplitude should be
great enough in the lowest gain environment (lowest VDD and highest
temperature) to cover the logic input requirements of the clock.

7.2 IR MODULE

Fig 7.2(IR module)

IR TRANSMITTER
The infrared transmitter can be constructed using an infrared
LED, a current limiting resistor and a power supply. A current-limiting
resistor is generally connected to prevent excess current through IR1.

The transmitter part of the sensor is an Infrared (IR) Led


which transmits continuous IR rays to be received by an IR
receiver.

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IR RECEIVER
The output of the receiver varies depending upon its
reception of IR rays. Since this variation cannot be analyzed as
such, therefore this output can be fed to a comparator. Here
operational amplifier (op-amp) of LM358 is used as comparator.

When the IR receiver does not receive signal the potential at


the inverting input goes higher than that that at non-inverting input
of the comparator (LM 358). Thus the output of the comparator
goes low. When the IR receiver receives signal the potential at the
inverting input goes low. Thus the output of the comparator goes
high. Resistor R8 (10k ) is used to ensure that minimum current
passes through the IR photodiode. Resistor VR1 (preset=10k ) is
used to set the sensitivity of the circuit.

7.3 12V ADAPTER


12V Adapter is a Power supply unit is used provide fixed 12V DC
supply. Input of the power supply unit is 230V AC and provides 12V DC.

Fig 7.3 (12V Adapter)

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7.4 RESISTOR

The resistor is a passive electrical component to create


resistance in the flow of electric current. In almost all electrical
networks and electronic circuits they can be found. The resistance is
measured in ohms. An ohm is the resistance that occurs when a
current of one ampere passes through a resistor with a one volt drop
across its terminals. The current is proportional to the voltage across
the terminal ends. This ratio is represented by Ohm’s law:

Fig 7.4 (Resistor)

Resistors are used for many purposes. A few examples include


delimit electric current, voltage division, heat generation, matching
and loading circuits, control gain, and fix time constants.

7.5 CAPACITOR

A capacitor (also called condenser, which is the older term) is an


electronic device that stores electric energy. It is similar to a battery, but
can be smaller, lightweight and a capacitor charges or discharges much
quicker. Capacitors are used in many electronic devices today, and can be
made out of many different types of material.

The Leyden jar was one of the first capacitors invented. Capacitors are
usually made with two metal plates that are on top of each other and near
each other, but that do not actually touch. When powered, they allow energy
to be stored inside an electrical field. Because the plates need a lot of area
to store even a small amount of charge, the plates are usually rolled up into
some other shape, such as a cylinder. Sometimes, other shapes of

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capacitors are used for special purposes. A capacitor-like effect can also
result just from two conductors being close to each other, whether you want
it to exist or not.

The type of capacitor used depends on the application. Capacitors come in


many sizes. They can be as small as an ant or as large as a dustbin. A few
capacitors are adjustable.

7.6 VOLTAGE REGULATORS

LM7805

LM7805 is a positive 5V voltage regulator used to provide the constant


+5v.

Specifications:

Vin =7 to 25volts

Vout = +5V

Iout = 1.5Amps

7.7 CRYSTAL

Fig 7.7(Crystal)

Crystal is used to provide the clock pulse to the microcontroller.

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7.8 DC MOTOR

A DC motor is any motor within a class of electrical machines whereby


direct current electrical power is converted into mechanical power. Most
often, this type of motor relies on forces that magnetic fields produce.
Regardless of the type, DC motors have some kind of internal mechanism,
which is electronic or electromechanical. In both cases, the direction of
current flow in part of the motor is changed periodically.

Fig 7.8 (DC Motor)

The speed of a DC motor is controlled using a variable supply voltage


or by changing the strength of the current within its field windings. While
smaller DC motors are commonly used in the making of appliances, tools,
toys, and automobile mechanisms, such as electric car seats, larger DC
motors are used in hoists, elevators, and electric vehicles.

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7.9 LED

Fig 7.9(LED)

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source that emits light


when current flows through it. Electrons in the semiconductor recombine with electron
holes, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is
called electroluminescence. The color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the
photons) is determined by the energy required for electrons to cross the band gap of the
semiconductor. White light is obtained by using multiple semiconductors or a layer of
light-emitting phosphor on the semiconductor device.

8.0 CALCULATIONS:

Total Clock Frequency = 20MHZ

Machine cycle Frequency = 1666666.666666667HZ

Time period =1/f

=1/1666666.666666667HZ

=0.6us

Timer Calculation:

For 25ms delay = 25000/0.6=41666.666

=65535-41666.66

=23868

=5D3C

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9.0 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT


 KEIL Software as Compiler, Coding in Embedded C.

 Proteus for Circuit Designing.

9.1 KEIL SOFTWARE
KEIL is a free, integrated toolset for the development of embedded
applications on microcontrollers. It is called an Integrated Development
Environment, or IDE, because it provides a single integrated environment to
develop code for embedded microcontrollers

9.2 PROTEUS DESIGN SUITE

The Proteus Design Suite is an Electronic Design Automation (EDA)


tool including schematic capture, simulation and PCB Layout modules. It is
developed in Yorkshire, England by Labcenter Electronics Ltd with offices in
North America and several overseas sales channels.

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10.0 FLASH ISP

(IN-SYSTEM PROGRAMMING)

In-System Programming (ISP) is a technique where a


programmable device is programmed after the device is placed in a
circuit board. While in earlier days a chip had been removed from
the target board and placed in a programming device, today's
microcontrollers and external memory chips can be re-programmed
without being removed from the circuit. This is called in-circuit or
in-system programming

Fig 10.0 (ISP flash)

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11.0 WORKING
When motor starts rotating based on the rotating Speed
microcontroller will control the leds’s and while rotating the column of led’s
together make a Character.

If shaft starts rotating timer 0 starts and its will increment the ‘I’
Variable every 25ms delay.

This will be controlled by timer 0 interrupt. If interrupt occurs it will go


to the timer 0 interrupt service routine.

If shaft completes the one rotation IR will get obstacle and activates
the External interrupt 0. When External Interrupt 0 is activated it will go to
its interrupt service routine there leds are controlled based on the timer 0.

Time taken for completing one rotation is divided by 50. Why 50


means total no of frames for displaying characters used is 50.

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12.0 PROGRAM
#include<reg51.h>

int i=1,j=1;

void delay(int x);

void main()

P2=0x00;

EA=1;EX0=1;PX0=0;PX1=0;PT0=1;

IT0=1;

TMOD=0X11;TF0=0;TF1=0;

TR0=1;

TH0=0XA2;TL0=0XC3;

while(1);

void intrr() interrupt 0

i=i*25;

j=i/50;

delay(j);delay(j); delay(j);delay(j);

//Program for Displaying the character ‘N’

P2=0XFE;delay(j);P2=0XFE;delay(j);

P2=0X60;delay(j);P2=0X30;delay(j);

P2=0X18;delay(j);P2=0XFE;delay(j);

P2=0XFE;delay(j);P2=0X00;delay(j);

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delay(j);delay(j);

//Program for Displaying the character ‘T’

P2=0XC0;delay(j);P2=0Xc0;delay(j);

P2=0XF7;delay(j);P2=0XF7;delay(j);

P2=0Xc0;delay(j);P2=0XC0;delay(j);

P2=0Xc0;delay(j);P2=0Xc0;delay(j);

delay(j);delay(j); P2=0XC0;delay(j);

P2=0Xc0;delay(j);P2=0XF7;delay(j);

P2=0XF7;delay(j);P2=0Xc0;delay(j);

P2=0XC0;delay(j);P2=0X00;delay(j);

P2=0X00;delay(j);delay(j);delay(j);

//Program for Displaying the character ‘T’

P2=0X82;delay(j);P2=0XFE;delay(j);

P2=0XFE;delay(j);P2=0X92;delay(j);

P2;0XB8;delay(j);P2=0X80;delay(j);

P2=0XC0;delay(j);P2=0X18;

int i=20;

while(i--)

delay(j);}

//Program for Displaying NEC

P2=0XFE;delay(j);P2=0XFE;delay(j);

P2=0X60;delay(j);P2=0X30;delay(j);

P2=0X18;delay(j);P2=0XFE;delay(j);

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P2=0XFE;delay(j);P2=0X00;delay(j);delay(j);delay(j);

//FOR E

P2=0X82;delay(j);P2=0XFE;delay(j);

P2=0XFE;delay(j);P2=0X92;delay(j);

P2=0XBA;delay(j);P2=0X82;delay(j);

P2=0XC6;delay(j);P2=0X00;delay(j);

delay(j);delay(j);delay(j);delay(j);

P2=0X38;delay(j);P2=0X7C;delay(j);

P2=0XC6;delay(j);P2=0X82;delay(j);

P2=0X82;delay(j);P2=0XC6;delay(j);

P2=0X44;delay(j);P2=0X00;delay(j);

delay(j);delay(j);delay(j);delay(j);

delay(j);delay(j);delay(j);delay(j);

//Program for Displaying the character ‘C’

P2=0x00;delay(j);

P2=0X42;delay(j);

P2=0X63;delay(j);

P2=0X41;delay(j);

P2=0X41;delay(j);

P2=0X63;delay(j);

P2=0X3E;delay(j);

P2=0X1C;delay(j);

delay(j);delay(j);

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void timer() interrupt 1

i++;

TF0=0;

void delay(int x)

int i=150;

while(i--);

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13.0 SUB ASSEMBLY, TESTING AND OBSERVATION

13.1 IR TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER


This project uses two IR transmitter and receiver unit, for the
purpose of anti-collision system.

TESTING STEPS:
1. Checked all components.
2.

3. Connected the circuit on the breadboard as per the design.

4. Given the input 5V.

5. Verified the output by observing the reading on the


multimeter.

6. Soldered the components on a general purpose circuit board.

7. Checked for shorts on the circuit by using a multimeter.

8. Given supply and checked whether correct voltage is coming


on the respective connectors.

OBSERVATION:
1. Getting 3.6V as output when receiver receiving IR rays.

2. Getting 15mV when receiver not receiving IR rays, i.e obstacle


in between transmitter and receiver.

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13.2 MICROCONTROLLER UNIT

 At89S52 microcontroller as intelligent brain of our system



 This unit consists of

1. Oscillator circuit

2. Reset circuit

TESTING STEPS

1. Checked all components

2. Connected on the breadboard according to the design

3. Gave input (0/1) to the pins according to the conditions


for reset circuit.

4. Connected the oscillator circuit as per design.

5. Verified the output by pressing the reset switch in the


reset circuit.

6. Soldered the components on a PCB

7. Checked for shorts on the circuit by using a multi-meter


Gave supply and checked whether correct voltage is coming on the
correct pins.

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13.3 LED

1. It is used to display the characters.

2. These LEDs are controlled by the AT89S52 Microcontroller.

TESTING STEPS
1. Checked all components.

2. Connected on the breadboard according to the design.

3. Gave +5V to the LED with series resistance 330ohm.

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14.0 OVERALL ASSEMBLY TESTING AND


OBSERVATION

 According to design of each sub circuits made all modules for


project. The required modules for project are,

 IR TRANSMITTER & RECEIVER.

 MICROCONTROLLER UNIT WITH POWER SUPPLY 5V.

 VOLTAGE REGULATOR.

 LEDs


 Tested all modules independently.

 From the output of the voltage regulator, made connection to
supply for IR transmitter & receiver unit and Display.

 The outputs of the IR receiver circuit are connected to the


input of the Microcontroller unit.

 Checked the continuity of all connections.

 Verified the output of each module.

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15.0 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES


ADVANTAGES

 Low cost

 Highly portable

 Easy in construction.

DISADVANTAGES

 It is not water resistant.



 Not portable.

 Less accurate.

16.0 APPLICATIONS

 Industrial Application.

 Display Applications.













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17.0 FINAL PRODUCT

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18.0 SCOPE OF IMPROVEMENT


Our system can be improved by following ways:

1. By implementing a Bluetooth controlled options

2. By implementing a different color LEDs.

19.0 CONCLUSION
I made sure that my project “PROPELLER DISPLAY” marks a
significant role in Embedded System. I could implement this project
successively and at low cost and finds a significant application in future

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PROPELLER DISPLAY

19.0 TOTAL COST


Component
S.No Name Specification Price Quantity Unit Total Price

Center shaft DC
1 MOTOR 12V-500rpm 145 1 No 145

AT89S52
2 Microcontroller - 70 1 No 70

3 LED RED 3 8 Nos 24

4 LED GREEN 3 2 Nos 6

40Pin base
5 socket - 5 1 No 5

230/12-0-12V
7 Transformer 500ma 60 1 No 60

8 Crystal 20MHZ 20 1 No 20

9 Resistors 10Kilo ohms 1 1 No 1

10 Resistors 330ohms 1 8 Nos 8

11 Motor Wheel - 10 1 No 10

12 Regulator IC LM7805 10 1 No 10

Lithium polymer
13 Battery 350ma 150 2 Nos 300

14 Capacitor 10uf 1 1 No 1

15 Capacitor 22pf 1 2 Nos 2

16 Capacitor 0.1uf 1 1 No 1

17 IR module - 30 1 No 30

TOTAL 693

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