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You are on page 1of 38

They are:

a) Graphical (Geometrical) method

b) Simplex (algebraic) method.

Graphical (Geometrical) method

In an LPP when the number of decision variables is two, the problem can be solved by graphical

method.

1) Formation of the problem: The problem is expressed in the form of a mathematical model.

Here, the objective function and the constraints are written down.

2) Graphically plotting the constraints. The constraints are graphically represented. To start with,

the inequalities are written as equalities. Every equation is represented by a straight line and

then, the area indicating the inequality is identified. The Non-negative restrictions are satisfied

in the first quadrant.

3) Identification of the region of feasible solutions: The common region between various

constraints and non-negativity restrictions is identified. This is the region of feasible solutions.

The corner points of this region are identified.

4) Finding the optimal solution: The values of Z at the various corner points of the region of the

feasible solutions are calculated. The Optimum (Maximum or minimum) Z among these values

is noted. Corresponding solution is the optimal solution.

Note: While finding the corner points, if greater accuracy is needed, the ordinates may be

obtained by algebraically solving the corresponding equations .

Maximize Z= 2000x + 1000y

S.T. x+y 400

8x + 5y 2600

and x o, y o

Solution:

15

Equation Putting x = 0 Putting y = 0 Points (x,y) on the

Corresponding y is Corresponding x is

line

X=0 Y- axis

Y=0 X- axis

Corner Points Z=

Maximize Z= 400x + 1000y

S.T. 12x + 6y 6000

4x + 10y 4000

2x + 13y 1800

and x o, y 0

Solution:

Corresponding y is Corresponding x is

line

16

X=0 Y- axis

Y=0 X- axis

Corner Points Z=

Maximize Z= 5x + 8y

S.T. 12x + 2y 42

x + 3y 12

x+y 10

and x o, y o

Solution:

Corresponding y is Corresponding x is

line

17

X=0 Y- axis

Y=0 X- axis

Corner Points Z=

Maximize Z= 5x + 8y

S.T. 12x + 2y 42

x + 3y 12

x+y 10

and x 0, y 0

Solution:

Corresponding y is Corresponding x is

line

X=0 Y- axis

Y=0 X- axis

Corner Points Z=

18

5) Solve the following L.P.P graphically

Maximize Z= 5x + 8y

S.T. 12x + 2y 42

x + 3y 12

x+y 10

and x 0, y 0

Solution:

Corresponding y is Corresponding x is

line

X=0 Y- axis

Y=0 X- axis

Corner Points Z=

19

6) Solve the following L.P.P graphically

Maximize Z= 3x + 4y

S.T. 5x + 8y 80

x 2

y 8

and x 0, y 0

and x 0, y 0

Solution:

Corresponding y is Corresponding x is

line

X=0 Y- axis

Y=0 X- axis

Corner Points Z=

Maximize Z= x + 1.50y

20

S.T. 2x + 4y 3

100x + 40y 50

10 x + 30y 10

and x 0, y 0

Solution:

Corresponding y is Corresponding x is

line

X=0 Y- axis

Y=0 X- axis

Corner Points Z=

S.T. 100x + 120y 5000

21

and x 0, y 0

Solution:

Corresponding y is Corresponding x is

line

X=0 Y- axis

Y=0 X- axis

Corner Points Z=

S.T. 1000x + 1500y 20,000

x 1

y 5

and x 0, y 0

Corresponding y is Corresponding x is

line

22

X=0 Y- axis

Y=0 X- axis

Corner Points Z=

Maximize Z= 6x + 14y

S.T. 5x + 4y 60

3x +7y 84

x+y 18

and x 0, y 0

Corresponding y is Corresponding x is

line

23

X=0 Y- axis

Y=0 X- axis

Corner Points Z=

SIMPLEX ALGORITHEM

(a) Maximization Problems:

Z max = 6X1 + 8X2

Subjected to: 30X1 +20X2 ≤ 300

5X1 + 10X2 ≤ 110

X1 X2 ≥ 0

Solution:

COST COMPONENT BASIC SOLUTION

VARIABLE VARIABLE

24

Formula:

New Row Element = (Element in old row) - [{Intersectional element of old row} x

{Corresponding elements in replacing row}]

Pivotal element

COST COMPONENT BASIC SOLUTION

VARIABLE VARIABLE

25

CONTRIBUTION PER UNIT

COST COMPONENT BASIC SOLUTION

VARIABLE VARIABLE

26

CONTRIBUTION PER UNIT

COST COMPONENT BASIC SOLUTION

VARIABLE VARIABLE

27

CONTRIBUTION PER UNIT

COST COMPONENT BASIC SOLUTION

VARIABLE VARIABLE

28

2) Solve the following LPP using Simplex Method:

Z max = 500X1 + 600X2 + 1200X3

Subjected to: 2X1 +4X2 + 6X3 ≤ 160

3X1 + 2X2 +4X3 ≤ 120

X1 , X2 X3 ≥ 0

Solution:

COST BASIC SOLUTION

COMPONENT VARIABLE VARIABLE

29

Formula:

New Row Element = (Element in old row) - [{Intersectional element of old row} x

{Corresponding elements in replacing row}]

Pivotal element

COST COMPONENT BASIC SOLUTION

VARIABLE VARIABLE

30

CONTRIBUTION PER UNIT

COST COMPONENT BASIC SOLUTION

VARIABLE VARIABLE

31

CONTRIBUTION PER UNIT

COST COMPONENT BASIC SOLUTION

VARIABLE VARIABLE

32

CONTRIBUTION PER UNIT

COST COMPONENT BASIC SOLUTION

VARIABLE VARIABLE

33

3) Solve the following LPP using Simplex Method:

Z max = 10X1 + 5X2

Subjected to: 4X1 +5X2 ≤ 100

5X1 + 2X2 ≤ 80

X1 X2 ≥ 0

Solution:

COST BASIC SOLUTION

COMPONENT VARIABLE VARIABLE

34

Formula:

New Row Element = (Element in old row) - [{Intersectional element of old row} x

{Corresponding elements in replacing row}]

Pivotal element

COST BASIC SOLUTION

COMPONENT VARIABLE VARIABLE

35

CONTRIBUTION PER UNIT

COST BASIC SOLUTION

COMPONENT VARIABLE VARIABLE

36

CONTRIBUTION PER UNIT

COST BASIC SOLUTION

COMPONENT VARIABLE VARIABLE

37

CONTRIBUTION PER UNIT

COST BASIC SOLUTION

COMPONENT VARIABLE VARIABLE

38

4) Solve the following LPP using Simplex Method:

Z max = 5X1 + 10X2 + 8X3

Subjected to: 3X1 +5X2 + 2X3 ≤ 60

4X1 + 4X2 +4X3 ≤ 72

2X1 + 4X2 +5X3 ≤ 100

X1 X2 X3 ≥ 0

Solution:

COST BASIC SOLUTION

COMPONENT VARIABLE VARIABLE

39

Formula:

New Row Element = (Element in old row) - [{Intersectional element of old row} x

{Corresponding elements in replacing row}]

Pivotal element

COST BASIC SOLUTION

COMPONENT VARIABLE VARIABLE

40

CONTRIBUTION PER UNIT

COST COMPONENT BASIC SOLUTION

VARIABLE VARIABLE

41

CONTRIBUTION PER UNIT

COST BASIC SOLUTION

COMPONENT VARIABLE VARIABLE

42

CONTRIBUTION PER UNIT

COST BASIC SOLUTION

COMPONENT VARIABLE VARIABLE

43

5) Solve the following LPP using Simplex Method:

Z max = 30X1 + 40X2 + 20X3

Subjected to: 10X1 +12X2 + 7X3 ≤ 10,000

7X1 + 10X2 +8X3 ≤ 8000

X1 + X2 +X3 ≤ 1000

X1 X2 X3 ≥ 0

Solution:

COST BASIC SOLUTION

COMPONENT VARIABLE VARIABLE

44

Formula:

New Row Element = (Element in old row) - [{Intersectional element of old row} x

{Corresponding elements in replacing row}]

Pivotal element

COST BASIC SOLUTION

COMPONENT VARIABLE VARIABLE

45

CONTRIBUTION PER UNIT

COST BASIC SOLUTION

COMPONENT VARIABLE VARIABLE

46

CONTRIBUTION PER UNIT

COST BASIC SOLUTION

COMPONENT VARIABLE VARIABLE

47

CONTRIBUTION PER UNIT

COST BASIC SOLUTION

COMPONENT VARIABLE VARIABLE

48

DUALITY

Associated with any LPP is another LPP, called its Dual. The first way of starting Linear

Programming Problem is called the Primal of the problem. The second way of starting the

same problem is called the dual. In other words each LP maximising problem has its

corresponding dual, a minimising problem. Similarly each Lp minimising problem has its

corresponding dual, a maximising problem.

Rules for Constructing the Dual Problems

1) If the objective of the one problem is to maximise, the objective of the other is to minimise.

2) The maximisation problem should have all ≤ constraints and minimisation should have ≥

constraints. If in maximisation case any constraints is ≥ type, it can be multiplied by -1 and signs

can be got revised. Similarly if in a minimisation cases any problem has got ≤ it should be multiplied

by -1 and signs can be got reversed.

3) The number of Primal decisions variables equals the number of dual constraints and the number

of primal constraints equals the number of dual variables.

4) If the inequalities are ≤ type than in the dual problem, they are ≥ type and vice versa.

Subject to : 2x1 + 4x2 ≤ 80

49

3x1 + x2 ≤ 60

x1, x2 ≥ 0

2) Minimise Z = 40X1+200X2

Subject to: 4X1 + 40 X2 ≥ 160

3X1 + 10 X2 ≥ 60

8X1 + 10 X2 ≥ 80

X1, X2 ≥ 0

3) Min Z = X1 + X2

Subject to 2X1 + X2 ≥ 2

-X1 – X2 ≥ 1

X1, X2 ≥ 0

50

4) Min Z = X1 + X2

Subject to 2X1 + X2 ≥ 4

X1 + 7X2 ≥ 7

X1, X2 ≥ 0

Subject to 4x1 + 40x2 ≥ 160

3x1 + 10 x2 ≥ 60

8x1 + 10x2 ≥ 80

x1 , x2 ≥ 0

51

52

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