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Performance Improvement in Lifetime and Throughput of LEACH Protocol

Article  in  Indian Journal of Science and Technology · June 2016

DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i21/94838

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2 authors:

Muhammad Nasir Khan Mohsin Jamil

University of Lahore National University of Sciences and Technology


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ISSN (Print) : 0974-6846
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol 9(21), DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i21/94838, June 2016 ISSN (Online) : 0974-5645

Performance Improvement in Lifetime and

Throughput of LEACH Protocol
Muhammad Nasir Khan* and Mohsin Jamil
School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering (SMME), National University of Science and Technology
(NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan;,

Background/Objectives: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are proving themselves as vital part of technology
advancements. A WSN comprises of multiple sensor nodes and a base station as a sink node (i.e., for data communication).
We propose a modified algorithm to improve the performance and life time. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Sensor nodes
are battery powered and placed over remote locations to analyze data. Therefore, the usage of battery affects the whole
network lifetime. Communication methods between nodes and base station are based on various protocols. Among all
protocols, clustering protocols are considered the best protocol so far (lifetime and throughput performance). Lifetime
and throughput are crucial parameters of a network. Findings: In this paper, the critical parameters of a WSN protocol
Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchal (LEACH) are improved using the proposed algorithm. Simulation results of
the proposed scheme for the network lifetime and throughput are compared with original LEACH protocol. We achieve
better performance as compared to the conventional technique with less computational complexity and better lifetime.
Application/Improvements: Further improvement can be achieved if use some hybrid algorithm.

Keywords: Cluster Head (CH), Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchal (LEACH), Wireless Sensor Network (WSN),

1. Introduction
WSN1. he fundamental approach in cluster-based rout-
With the advancement of technologies has made the need ing is that nodes grouped together to form a cluster in
of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) more critical nowa- hierarchical routing. here is a Cluster Head (CH), which
days. A WSN system usually includes multiple numbers of performs as the leader among all nodes. he job of CH is
sensor nodes and sink node (i.e., Base Station (BS)). Sensor the gathering and accumulation of the data from its nodes
nodes transmit the monitored data towards other nodes and transmits to the BS. he aggregation process is helpful
until the data reaches to base station using the wireless in reducing the amount of data for transmission. In this
channel (wired might use). he resources including power, way, it reduces the energy dissipation in communication
signal-processing ability, memory and capability to com- and achieve the purpose of energy saving of the sensor
municate of sensor nodes are very limited. One of the key nodes.
challenges is to use the power intelligently to improve the he sensor nodes have limited power so eicient use
life of nodes. he intelligent use of power depends upon of that power is based on their eicient circuitry but rout-
factors like eicient design of circuitry and the protocols ing protocols play a much important role in consumption
used for routing deployed in WSNs. he common types of energy and bandwidth. Authors in2 suggested a hierar-
of routing are lat-based, location-based and cluster-based chical based clustering algorithm. A cluster based routing
routing. Amongst all cluster-based routing is known the protocol (CBRP) was presented in2,3 which states that all
most efective routing for the improvement of lifetime of data sharing nodes in a network should be disseminated

*Author for correspondence

Performance Improvement in Lifetime and Throughput of LEACH Protocol

in 2-hop cluster. his approach proposed by2 gives way to LEACH. he detailed comparison of these variants can be
hierarchal clustering algorithm but it is not energy ei- found in8–10.
cient for the WSN nodes. he clustering technique for he hierarchal clustering proves to be the most
the eicient energy usage is suggested the eicient tech- eicient among all clustering algorithms so diferent
nique for the WSNs. In process of hierarchal clustering approaches to be implemented to improve the eiciency
when sensor nodes network is to be established, then the of sensor nodes. InLEACH protocol8–13, new CH is elected
process of forming clusters from nodes is begin. hen for each round and the cluster formation for each round
the second step is the selection of node as a CH in each is mandatory. his approach is unnecessary usethe exces-
cluster. he CH nodes have the responsibility of getting sive energy. In addition,even if in the previous round a
data from other nodes, aggregate and transmit it to the CH has not used greater amount of its energy. hen other
BS. According to3, the technique optimizes the bandwidth node with lesser energy from the network will replace it
usage and improves the lifetime of network. and elected itself as a CH in next election round of cluster
According to4,5, only that node will be selected as formation. he eicient mechanism is needed for select-
the CH initially who has higher energy among other ing cluster head. One other drawback of LEACH is that it
nodes. he author in6 states that any node which lies in uses same amount of energy for all types of transmission,
the network can be chosen as a CH. Weighted probabil- which reduces the lifetime of nodes.
ity is given to each node by protocol like Stable Election
Protocol (SEP) to become a CH6. While the node’s cur-
rent energy in selection, standards of a node to elected as 2. Proposed Scheme
a CH in Distributed Energy Eicient Clustering Protocol
In the previous research work12,14–17, the solution for
(DEEC). Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchal
the consumption of energy for improving the network
Protocol (LEACH) shown in Figure 1 gives the main
lifetime because if nodes use energy with no efective
criteria of selecting a CH7,8. he selection criteria of CH
scheme then the nodes would die quickly so the network
can be further improved by SEP and DEEC6. Various
and battery replacement would be needed frequently. To
modiied protocols presented in9, are diferent variants of
diminish the problem of extra energy usage in selecting

Figure 1. LEACH protocol network.

2 Vol 9 (21) | June 2016 | Indian Journal of Science and Technology
Muhammad Nasir Khan and Mohsin Jamil

the CH, eicient clustering approach is proposed. he where n denotes the total number of nodes in net-
proposed scheme involves two criteria as follows; work, � is deterministic probabilty of CH, represents the
current selection number and denotes the set of those
2.1 Selection of CH nodes who have not been the part of the as CH in selec-
tion. For selection of CH, we must consider the threshold
• he next cluster head should be selected only given by Equation (1). he energy consumption by the
who has high energy than the current one. transmitter and receiver is given by7,
E ( k=
, d ) E k + ε kd
λ (2)
• If none have high energy or have equal energy t elec amp
than threshold should be applied for selecting
cluster head. Er ( k ) = Eelec k (3)

Where k is number of bits/sec, is idle state energy, is

2.2 Communication in Cluster
the ampliication energy, d is the distance between trans-
here are three types of communications in clustering mitter to receiver nodes and λ is the path loss exponent.
mechanism. According to Equation (2) the transmitter consumes the
idle state energy, ampliication energy depending upon
• Inter-cluster communication (communication
size of k and λ. Whereas Equation (3) gives the receiver
between clusters).
energy usage depending upon idle state energy according
• Intra-cluster communication (communication
to size of k.
inside of a cluster).
• Cluster-base communication (communication
3.2 Proposed Algorithm
between CH and BS).
Inter cluster is communication between diferent We propose an algorithm and the objective is to improve
clusters, Intra cluster is communication between nodes the performance of the network and enhance the lifetime.
inside of a cluster and cluster-base is communication Our proposed algorithm comprised of the following algo-
between CH and BS. First two communications (i.e., inter rithmic steps;
and intra-cluster communication) require less ampliica-
tion energy as compared to third one (i.e., Cluster-Base • In irst round the CH is selected randomly
communication). herefore, by keeping the diferent because all nodes have same energy.
ampliication energy levels for the inter and intra-cluster • he CH advertises and other nodes sense it.
communication with respect to third communication • he set up phase begins and cluster formation
type, the lifetime of sensor nodes can be improved. takes place in which nodes send request CH to
• Ater joining cluster CH assigns TDMA slots to
3. Network Model Design the cluster nodes and then they send their data in
assigned slot to CH.
First, the mathematical model of LEACH is presented
• CH collects the data , compresses (aggregates)
then the proposed algorithm low diagram and simula-
and send the data to the BS.
tion setup is developed.
• Now the residual energy (remaining energy ater
each round) is checked of the of current CH if it
3.1 Mathematical Model is less than hreshold than the election process
he mathematical model comprises of two parametric initiates otherwise current CH continue working
equations, i.e., the threshold expression and the energy as CH as long as its energy comes below thresh-
expression for LEACH. he threshold is given by7. old.

=r (n) ∀n ∈ Ζ
 1 (1) 4. Simulation Results
1 − ξ (θ mod 
 ξ For simulation of LEACH and En-LEACH simulation
tool MATLAB 2011a is used on operating system of

Vol 9 (21) | June 2016 | Indian Journal of Science and Technology 3
Performance Improvement in Lifetime and Throughput of LEACH Protocol

Windows 7 Ultimate 64-bit, on HP laptop running over clearly seen that total number of rounds of En-LEACH
~2.4 GHz having 2048MB RAM. he values of network is ramarkably high than LEACH. he total number of
parameter selection are given in Table 1 and are kept same rounds in which all nodes die is ~2200 for En-LEACH
for LEACH and En-LEACH.Using the above parameters and ~1600 for LEACH.
network formed is shown in Figure 2 the nodes are ran- his shows that by considering the residual energy of
nodes which saves the energy dissipating in unnecessary
election rounds and setting diferent ampliication levels
mentioned above for inter,intra and base to cluster com-
munication the lifetime of network is improved.
he throughput of the network depends upon the
whole number of packets transmit through CHs to BS
and/or sink node by network in its whole life. he Figure 4
presents the total number of packets transmit to BS using
LEACH and En-LEACH. It shows that using LEACH the
packets transmit to BS are ~14000 and using En-LEACH
are ~16000 with 2000 bits/packet. hus the throughput of
En-LEACH is higher than simple LEACH.
he reason is, as the network lifetime is improved and
Figure 2. Network formation.
network works for more number of rounds so in more
rounds nodes sent their packets to the cluster head which
Table 1. Network parameters
are further transmitted to the BS.
n, total number of nodes 100
Initial Energy of nodes 0.5 J
5. Conclusions
Eelec , idle state energy (Tx=Rx) 50nJ/bit
he LEACH protocol works by selecting CHs in each
k, no. of bits per packet 2000 round and use same energy levels for all types of com-
munications. In this paper an eicient clustering sheme
ε amp ε fs , Amplification energy for d > d o 10 pJ/bit/m2 (En-LEACH) has been proposed which takes into account
ε amp , Ampliication energy for 0.0013 pJ/bit/ the residual energy ater each round to select new clus-
d<do ter head or not and set the diferent energy levels for
diferent communications. he metrices improved using
Data Aggregation Energy 5nJ/bit prosposed method are network lifetime and throughput.
Ampliication Energy (Intra Using MATLAB simulations it is shwon that En-LEACH
Cluster Comm.) ε fs1 = ε fs / 10 improves lifetime of network and throughput as com-
Ampliication Energy (Intra pared to LEACH. Furthermore this work can be extended
Cluster Comm.) ε amp1 = ε amp / 10 to analyze probabilistic model and adding other param-
eters like qualty and large scale network performance to
λ , for d>do 4
2 improve En-LEACH.
λ , for d<do
rmax, maximum number of
2500 6. Conlict of Interests
Network Area 100x100 m2 he author(s) declare(s) that there is no conlict of inter-
est regarding the publication of this paper.
domly arranged shown with blue color and sink node is
placed at (0, -100) shown with red and green circile.
he network lifetime is dependent on number of rounds. 7. References
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4 Vol 9 (21) | June 2016 | Indian Journal of Science and Technology
Muhammad Nasir Khan and Mohsin Jamil

Figure 3. Lifetime of LEACH vs En-LEACH.

Figure 4. hroughput of LEACH vs En-LEACH.

Vol 9 (21) | June 2016 | Indian Journal of Science and Technology 5
Performance Improvement in Lifetime and Throughput of LEACH Protocol

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