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 Define Token Economy

 Understand steps/components of the


method
 Identify Advantages and Disadvantages of
Token Economy
 Describe 3 studies that supports the
effectiveness of the method
 It is a system of
exchange in which the
individual earns
tokens, as reinforces
and exchanges them
for tangible and social
reinforces
 Token Program
involves distribution of
tokens
 Tokens can be
stickers, stars, smiley
face, fake money, etc.
 Tokens can be
accumulated
throughout the day
and exchanged at a
later time
 Tokens are flexible
 Tokens can be used for several needs
 There is no delay giving tokens after the
desired behavior has been shown
 It does not matter who gives the tokens
 It can be consistently applied by multiple
teachers in multiple settings
 Prevent Boredom
 Takes a lot of  Parental follow
preparation and through does not
tracking of the always occur
behavior, tokens, and  Can lead to
rewards. dependency
 Not everyone will  Maybe easily abused
respond to token  Can be expensive
system.
 Require organization
 Once the system is and structure
implemented in one
class, it may not
followed through
11 Basic Rules when establishing Token
Economy
 Select the Target  Implement the token
Behavior economy
 Present the target  Provide immediate
behavior reinforcement for
 Post the Rules and acceptable behavior
Review it frequently  Gradually change from
 Select a token continuous to variable
 Establish Reinforcers schedule of reinforcers
which the tokens can  Provide Time for child
be exchanged to exchange token
 Develop a reward  Revise the reward
menu menu frequently.
 The token system has been the most
widely researched and validated
behavioral intervention in the schools. A
token is given when a desired behavior is
displayed.

(According to McLaughlin & Williams (1988),


Swain & McLaughlin (1998)
 Purpose of this investigation was to determine
if a token reinforcement program could
decrease three inappropriate behaviors (out of
seat, talking out, and poor posture) of an
elementary student with learning disabilities.

 The effects of the token program were


examined using a multiple baseline design
across behaviors. The results indicated that
awarding tokens for the absence of the three
target behaviors was an effective procedure.
 Study investigated the effect of social and token
economy reinforcements on academic
achievement of ten, 9th grade boys with
Intellectual disabilities in three junior high school.
 Age range from 13-17 and their IQ was between
60-70 were randomly selected. Each assigned in
one of the three groups: Token Economy, Social
reinforcements and control group.
 Used a teacher-made test and the Wechsler
Intelligence test
 Token Economy and social reinforcements
increase the academic achievement of students
with ID.
Results:
 Token economy and social reinforcements
increased the academic achievement of student
with ID
 Token economy reinforcements even resulted in
an increase in academic achievement than the
social reinforcements
 A study examined the effectiveness of a
combined token economy and self-monitoring
package for a 13 year-old male displaying a
major mental illness and severe aggressive and
persistent disruptive behavior.

 Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder and Conduct


Disorder
 The student received points for lower rates of
aggressive/disruptive behavior and ‘bonus’ points
for accurately self-monitoring and recording his
own behaviors.

Results:

 The results replicated previous research on the


effectiveness of token economy in reducing
minor, disruptive and aggressive classroom
behaviors.

Retrieved on 7/12/12 from


http://educ6725group2.wikispaces.com/file/view/Token+Economy+Plus+Self-Moni
Video
 ABA – Token Economy Example
Activity Reward!!!
Summary
 Token economy involves distribution of tokens
which can be accumulated and exchanged for a
reward.
 Research Bases data has shown Token Economy
is an effective method in decreasing undesirable
behaviors.
 The Token Cycle is a four step process:
Identifying the undesirable behavior, the child
displays the desirable behavior and is given a
token.
 Establish a plan, preparing, and executing is
crucial for a successful plan for the child.
 Walker, J.E. Shea, T.M. & Bauer A.M. (2007). Behavior
Management: A practical approach for educators (9th ed.).
Columbus, OH: Pearson
 Case 1
(According to McLaughlin & Williams (1988), Swain & McLaughlin
(1998)
 Case 2
Mirzamani, Ashoori, Sereshki (2011)
Retrieved on 7/12/12 from
http://www.sid.ir/en/VEWSSID/J_pdf/109520110105
Case 3
Retrieved on 7/12/12 from
http://educ6725group2.wikispaces.com/file/view/Token+Economy+Plus+Se
 YouTube. Retrieved on July 11, 2012 from:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ybIr6NCfA2U