A process is a physical process or thread. On unix, you can see a process with "ps" for example. It is there.

There are many types of processes in Oracle -- background processes like SMON, PMON, RECO, ARCH, CKPT, EMNn, DBWR, etc..... And user processes like dedicated servers or shared server (multi-threaded server -- aka MTS -- configuration)

A connection is a "physical circuit", a pathway to a database. You can be connected to a database yet have 0 or 1 or MORE sessions going on that connection. We can see that with sqlplus, consider (single user system here, its all about me)

[tkyte@tkyte-pc-isdn tkyte]$ ps -auxww | grep oracleora920 [tkyte@tkyte-pc-isdn tkyte]$ sqlplus /nolog SQL*Plus: Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production on Sat Sep 28 10:36:03 2002 Copyright (c) 1982, 2002, Oracle Corporation. idle> !ps -auxww | grep oracleora920 tkyte 19971 0.0 0.1 2196 916 pts/1 grep oracleora920 tkyte 19973 0.0 0.1 1736 564 pts/1 no process, no nothing idle> connect / Connected. idle> !ps -auxww | grep oracleora920 ora920 19974 1.5 2.2 230976 11752 ? S 10:36 (DESCRIPTION=(LOCAL=YES)(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=beq))) tkyte 19975 0.0 0.1 2196 916 pts/1 S 10:36 grep oracleora920 tkyte 19977 0.0 0.1 1736 564 pts/1 S 10:36 got my process now... idle> disconnect Disconnected from Oracle9i Enterprise Edition Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production With the Partitioning, OLAP and Oracle Data Mining options JServer Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production idle> !ps -auxww | grep oracleora920 ora920 19974 0.6 2.3 230976 11876 ? S 10:36 0:00 oracleora920 (DESCRIPTION=(LOCAL=YES)(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=beq))) tkyte 19978 0.0 0.1 2196 916 pts/1 S 10:36 0:00 /bin/bash -c ps -auxww | grep oracleora920 tkyte 19980 0.0 0.1 1736 564 pts/1 S 10:36 0:00 grep oracleora920 idle> select * from dual; SP2-0640: Not connected still have my process, but no session, the message is a little "misleading". Technically -- I have a connection, I don't have a session S S All rights reserved. 10:36 10:36 0:00 /bin/bash -c ps -auxww | 0:00 grep oracleora920

0:00 oracleora920 0:00 /bin/bash -c ps -auxww | 0:00 grep oracleora920

further, autotrace in sqlplus can be used to show that you can have a) a connection b) that uses a single process c) to service two sessions:

ops$tkyte@ORA920.US.ORACLE.COM> select username from v$session where username is not null;

Statistics ---------------------------------------------------------0 recursive calls 0 db block gets 0 consistent gets 0 physical reads 0 redo size 418 bytes sent via SQL*Net to client 499 bytes received via SQL*Net from client 2 SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client 0 sorts (memory) 0 sorts (disk) 2 rows processed ops$tkyte@ORA920. program from v$process.com (CKPT) ora920 oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn..US. USERNAME PROGRAM --------------.com (ARC1) tkyte oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn..us.ORACLE.com (RECO) ora920 oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn.com (D000) ora920 oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn.oracle.com (DBW0) . you can see all of the backgrounds and my dedicated server.us.oracle.ORACLE.com (DBW0) ora920 oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn..oracle.us..oracle. program from v$process.US.us.com (S000) ora920 oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn.com (CJQ0) ora920 oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn.oracle.com (QMN0) ora920 oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn.-----------------------------------------------PSEUDO ora920 oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn.us.COM> select username. two sessions but.oracle.us.oracle.oracle.COM> set autotrace on statistics.com (PMON) ora920 oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn.US.-----------------------------------------------PSEUDO ora920 oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn. ME ops$tkyte@ORA920..us.com (SMON) ora920 oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn.us.com (LGWR) ora920 oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn.US.com (ARC0) ora920 oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn. USERNAME PROGRAM --------------.oracle.us.us.com (TNS V1-V3) 14 rows selected.us.COM> select username from v$session where username is not null.us.com (PMON) ora920 oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn.oracle.ORACLE. ops$tkyte@ORA920.oracle.oracle.oracle.COM> select username.OPS$TKYTE one session.oracle. Autotrace for statistics uses ANOTHER session so it can query up the stats for your CURRENT session without impacting the STATS for that session! ops$tkyte@ORA920.oracle.us.ORACLE.us.us. USERNAME -----------------------------OPS$TKYTE OPS$TKYTE see.

us. Sometimes there is a one to many from connection to sessions (eg: like autotrace. one connection. Sometimes there is a one to one relationship between CONNECTION->SESSION->PROCESS (eg: a normal dedicated server connection). "SQL .com oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn.oracle.com oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn..us.us. A process will be used by a session to execute statements.us. that process is released back to the pool of processes.com oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn. A process does not have to be dedicated to a specific connection or session however.us. Collection of data structures represents a unique sessions.com oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn.com oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn. two sessions.dedicated server 3. client --connected to-. one or more sessions may be established over a given connection to the database as show above with sqlplus.us.oracle. one process).com oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn.us.ora920 ora920 ora920 ora920 ora920 ora920 ora920 ora920 ora920 tkyte oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn.com (CKPT) (SMON) (RECO) (CJQ0) (QMN0) (S000) (D000) (ARC0) (ARC1) (TNS V1-V3) 14 rows selected.oracle.com oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn.us.COM> I'll try to put it into a single.Oracle Connection Manager(CMAN) Session: Logical entity in the instance.dispatcher 2.com oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn.com oracle@tkyte-pc-isdn. client --connected to-. Options are 1. Zero.oracle. your SESSION will grab a process from a pool of processes in order to execute a statement.oracle.. A connection might be one of many types -.oracle.oracle. When the call is over.US. for example when using shared server (MTS).us. client --connected to-. same 14 processes.oracle. Statistics ---------------------------------------------------------0 recursive calls 0 db block gets 0 consistent gets 0 physical reads 0 redo size 1095 bytes sent via SQL*Net to client 499 bytes received via SQL*Net from client 2 SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client 0 sorts (memory) 0 sorts (disk) 14 rows processed ops$tkyte@ORA920.oracle.us. simple paragraph: A connection is a physical circuit between you and the database. Difference between a Connection and a Session Connection: Physical path from client to Oracle instance.ORACLE.most popular begin DEDICATED server and SHARED server.oracle.

A connection may have zero or more sessions.(zero in cases where OracleNet connection pooling is employed and the session is idle) .statements are execeuted". A session may have have zero or one connection. "transactions are committed" and "stored procedures are run" in a session.

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