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Title : Momentum

Aim : By applying principle of conservation of momentum , to find the common velocity of two
cars which are moving together after a collision .

Apparatus /Materials :

 A track
 Three identical cars
 Meter ruler
 Timer
 Weighing scale
 Velcro tape
 Clamp stand

Diagram :
Principle /Theory :

When two or more bodies act on one another , as in a collision , the total momentum of the bodies
remains constant , provided no external forces act .

Momentum(p) = mass × velocity

Procedure :

1. The cars were weighed .


2. A strip of Velcro tape was attached to each trolley so that they stick together on collision.
3. One trolley was placed at rest half way down the runway and another at the top.
4. The top trolley was pushed and it moved forward with a uniform velocity until it hit the second
trolley and they travel as one .
5. The stop watch was started simultaneously as the trolley at the top moves and the timer was
stopped when it hits the trolley at rest.
6. The time and distance the trolley covered were recorded.
7. The velocity of the trolley on the top when it has moved off was calculated .
8. The experiment was repeated with another trolley stacked on top of the one to be pushed so
that two are moving before the collision and three after .
Observation/Results :

1 2 3
Mass of m1 9g 9g 9g
Mass of m2 9g 9g 9g
Distance moved by m1 75 cm 75 cm 75 cm
Time taken by m1 1.06 sec 0.94 sec 0.52 sec
-1 -1
Velocity of m1 0.71 ms 0.8 ms 1.38 ms-1
-3 -1 -3 -1
Momentum (m1v) 6.39×10 kgms 7.2 × 10 kgms 1.24× 10-2 kgms-1
TABLE SHOWING THE RESULT OF THE TROLLEYS BEFORE COLLISION

1 2 3
Mass of m1 + m2 18g 18g 18g
Momentum (m1 + m2) 18g × V1 18g × V1 18g × V1
-1 -1
Velocity of m1 + m2 0.355 ms 0.4 ms 0.69 ms-1
TABLE SHOWING THE RESULT OF THE TROLLEY AFTER COLLISION

1 2 3
Mass of m1 + m2 18g 18g 18g
Mass of m3 9.3g 9.3g 9.3g
Distance moved by 75cm 75cm 75cm
m1 + m2
Time taken by m1 +m2 1.08s 0.81s 0.77s
Velocity of m1 + m2 0.694 ms-1 0.926 ms-1 0.974 ms-1
Moment (m1+ m2)v 0.0125 0.0167 0.0175
TABLE SHOWING THE RESULTS OF THE TROLLEY BEFORE COLLISION WHILE USING THREE
TROLLEYS

1 2 3
Mass of m1 + m2 + m3 27.3g 27.3 g 27.3 g
Momentum ( m1 + m2 + m3) v1 27.3 × V1 27.3 × V1 27.3 × V1
Velocity m1 + m2 + m3 0.458 ms-1 0.612 ms-1 0.641 ms-1
TABLE SHOWING THE RESULTS OF THE TROLLEY AFTER COLISION WHILE USING THREE TROLLEYS,
Calculations :

While using two trolleys

Before collision

-First time
0.75
Velocity of m1 ( ms-1 ) : =0.71
1.06

Momentum (kgms-1) : 0.009 × 0.71 = 6.39 × 10-3

-Second time
0.75
Velocity of m1 ( ms-1 ) :0.94 = 0.8

Momentum (kgms-1) : 0.009 ×0.8 =7.2 ×10-3

-Third time
0,75
Velocity of m1 ( ms-1 ) : = 1.38
0.52

Momentum (kgms-1) : 0.009×1.38 =1.24 × 10 -2

Average velocity :0.96 ms-1


After collision

Mass of m1 + m2 (g) : 18 g

: 6.39 × 10−3
Velocity m1 + m3 (ms-1) 0.018
= 0.355

Mass of m1 + m2 (g) : 18 g

: 7.2× 10−3
Velocity m1 + m3 (ms-1) : 0.018
= 0.4

Mass of m1 + m2 (g) : 18 g

: 1.24 × 10−3
Velocity m1 + m3 (ms-1) : = 0.69
0.018

Three trolleys

-before collision
0,75
Velocity of m1 + m2 (ms-1) : 1.08
= 0.694

Momentum (kgms-1) : 0.018 × 0.694 = 0.0125

0,75
Velocity of m1 + m2 (ms-1) : 0.81
= 0.926

Momentum (kgms-1) : 0.018 × 0.926 = 0.0167

0,75
Velocity of m1 + m2 (ms-1) : 1.08
= 0.694

Momentum (kgms-1) : 0.018 × 0.694 = 0.0125


-After collision

Mass of m1 + m2 + m3 (g) : 27.3


0.0273
Velocity m1 + m3 + m3 (ms-1 ) = 0.458
0.0125

Mass of m1 + m2 + m3 (g) : 27.3


0.0273
Velocity m1 + m3 + m3 (ms-1 ) = 0.612
0.0167

Mass of m1 + m2 + m3 (g) : 27.3


0.0273
Velocity m1 + m3 + m3 (ms-1 ) 0.0175 = 0.641