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Black cohosh: has vascular and estrogenic activity.

Coenzyme Q10: has antioxidant properties, is a membrane stabilizer, and is a cofactor in many
metabolic pathways. It is produced by the

human body and is necessary for the basic functioning of cells.

CoQ10 levels are reported to decrease with age and to be low

in patients with some chronic diseases such as heart conditions,

muscular dystrophies, Parkinson’s disease, cancer, diabetes, and

human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

Echinacea: stimulates phagocytosis and increases respiratory

cellular activity and mobility of leukocytes.

Garlic: has lipid-lowering and antithrombotic properties.

Results from clinical studies are varied. Cholesterol-lowering

effects, if any, have been shown to be small.

Gingko biloba: promotes arterial and venous vascular changes

that increase tissue perfusion and cerebral blood flow. It is also

considered an antioxidant. Results from clinical trials are varied. Cholesterol-lowering effects, if
any, have been shown to

be small.

Glucosamine: stimulates the production of cartilage components

and allow rebuilding of damaged cartilage. Studies have proven

its safety and effectiveness in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Kava: inhibits the limbic system, suppressing emotional

excitability and mood enhancement. Randomized, controlled

clinical trials of kava use with anxiety provide some reasonable

support for its use, but there are no clinical comparison trials

with existing anxiolytics.

melatonina: Melatonin release corresponds to periods of sleep. Studies havem proven melatonin
to be safe and effective for the short-termn prevention of jet leg.

Omega 3s: promote the relaxation and contraction of muscles,

blood clotting, digestion, cell division, and the growth and


movement of calcium and other substances in and out of cells.

It also decreases inflammation and platelet aggregation.

Probiotics: are nonpathologic bacteria that reside in the GI

tract. They help maintain a healthy balance of organisms in the

intestines, promote binding of enterocytes within the GI tract,

and prevent harmful bacteria from attaching to these cells.

Saw palmetto inhibits the production of enzymes responsible

for converting testosterone to more reactive dihydrotestosterone

(DHT). Saw palmetto blocks the binding of DHT to prostate

cells, inhibiting enlargement. Studies have shown a decrease in

symptoms in patients with noncancerous enlargement of the prostate. Saw palmetto also
increases urine flow and improves

emptying of the bladder.

St. John’s wort: is a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor. It

inhibits reuptake of serotonin, noradrenaline, adrenaline, and

dopamine. Numerous studies of St. John’s wort in patients

with depressive disorders have shown that it is more effective

than placebo and as effective as antidepressants; however, these

studies had many flaws, and more studies need to be done.

Valerian: binds to gamma-aminobutyric acid alpha-receptor

sites in the brain and CNS. It acts in a competitive action with

any benzodiazepine. In nine randomized, placebo-controlled,

double-blind studies in which valerian was used as a treatment

for sleep disorders, some studies showed effectiveness but

others showed none.