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ZIGBEE IN INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION NETWORKS
1. J.MUTHUKRISHNAN email@example.com 9790165041 B.E.,ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION III YEAR
2. A.DHINESH KUMAR firstname.lastname@example.org 9551166169 B.E.,ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION III YEAR
This paper examines the unique needs of wireless industrial automation. wireless mesh networking technology created by the ZigBee Alliance. redundant path. Multi-source products: As an open standard. holds tremendous promise for advancing wireless further in industrial settings. This paper provides an overview of ZigBee from the perspective of industrial automation including when ZigBee is appropriate and when ZigBee is not appropriate. in which some or all of the end devices with which a PLC communicates also function as routers that can communicate with each other. with a programmable logic controller (PLC) communicating directly with various devices on the factory floor. ZigBee. Special attention is given to the topic of gateways and options for integrating the ZigBee network with existing industrial automation application software. This provides an economic justification for automating even the simplest of sensors. Much of what has been written and said about ZigBee has been focused around home automation. and products supporting the ZigBee standard are just beginning to enter the market. Challenges arise when there is a barrier in the line of sight between a PLC and a given end device. A ZigBee-certified modem will communicate with any other ZigBeecertified modem in its class. as well as by ongoing performance improvements and cost reductions in industrial wireless technology. organized by class. ZigBee Alliance working groups define interoperability profiles to which ZigBee-certified devices must adhere.
. especially lighting control and building automation. The move to wireless is fueled by the fact that wiring runs are expensive. WHY ZIGBEE AUTOMATION? IN INDUSTRIAL
ZigBee is designed to support easily deployed. However. what is needed for a residential deployment is very different from what is required for an industrial deployment. A methodology is also presented that can be used to design ZigBee networks for situations commonly found on the factory floor. regardless of manufacturer. in terms of both initial runs and reconfiguration. a new low-cost. it offers three inherent characteristics that are especially desirable in industrial settings: Low cost: The typical ZigBee radio costs far less than most sensors and signal conditioners.ZIGBEE IN INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION NETWORKS
ABSTRACT: The promise of ZigBee is now starting to be realized in industrial automation networks. The paper then discusses the components needed to add ZigBee networks to existing industrial automation networks. the ZigBee components that come together to address those needs and
their interoperation. ZigBee introduces a mesh networking technology. adding about $30 to the cost of any device incorporating one. extending wireless networking¶s reach throughout the factory floor. standards-based. low-cost systems for integrating even the simplest end devices into wireless automation. as with any other new technology. promoting competition and the ability for end users to choose the most effective device for each particular network node. Mesh networking: Traditional wireless networks are point-to-multipoint. ZigBee users must be sufficiently educated in the technology to be able to deploy it successfully. The ability to automatically route communications around barriers as a self-healing network eliminates line-of-sight concerns. The paper concludes with an overview of the nearterm advancements expected in the marketplace in relation to ZigBee. ZigBee provides customers with the ability to choose vendors as needed. INTRODUCTION: Companies are increasingly relying on wireless networks in applications that monitor factory floor conditions and control automated systems. While its potential usefulness extends to a wide range of applications that include home as well as industrial. and the promise ZigBee holds for industrial automation as it gains a foothold as a mainstream technology.
Individual versions of ZigBee sensor modems can support various input types. and a number of them may work in close coordination to carry out a complex task. ZigBee Modbus modems connect to actuators. motors. WIRED INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION NETWORKS: In a wired industrial automation network. ZigBee devices provide an over-the air network interface between the PLC and the sensors and actuators with which it communicates. introduces latency when communication is handed off from one routing device to another.
ZIGBEE WIRELESS INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION: In a ZigBee industrial automation network. which can be as simple as opening or closing a valve or as complex as performing realThe distinction between monitoring and controlling is worth noting because ZigBee. ZigBee sensor modems provide a combination multichannel signal conditioner and ZigBee module for sensors. which are such electromechanical devices as valves. The PLC is the brain of an automation system. Control applications are those that direct automation devices to take action. sound. pressure. Sensors are the primary end devices in monitoring applications and provide the inputs upon which control decisions are based.ZIGBEE IN INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION: MONITORING VS. Controllers run ladder logic programs and communicate with end devices to receive information or to instruct them to perform an action. which is an openly published communications bus designed specifically for use with PLCs and supported by the vast majority of industrial electronic devices. The human-machine interface (HMI) to these systems is provided by software programs that keep a watch on sensor inputs and PLC
outputs. pressure. CONTROL It¶s important in discussing industrial automation to make a distinction between control applications and monitoring applications. such as 4-20mA and full-wave bridge. which are end devices that sense and report such conditions as temperature. with Ethernet as the networking technology for that link. By far the most popular communications protocol for this link is Modbus. INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION COMPONENTS: The typical industrial automation system consists of one or more Programmable Logic Controllers(PLC) plus sensors and actuators working in concert to monitor and/or control a discrete or continuous process. and can provide 4-20mA transmitters. PLCs send instructions to actuators. PLCs receive information from sensors. digital I/O. and temperature for the purposes of recording and of issuing alarms when a condition has exceeded a specific acceptable level. Monitoring applications are those that report such conditions as fluid level. and combine the function of a serial output device with a ZigBee module. and relays that perform actions (which may depend on the state of sensor inputs). Modbus commands issued by the PLC are transported
. strain. and vibration. solenoids. and that generate alarms when process variables exceed preset levels. electrical cabling is run between the PLC and each of the sensors and actuators with which it communicates. as a mesh networking technology. Actuators are the primary end devices in control applications. The PLC also typically has a wired connection to the computer system running the monitoring application to provide the humanmachine interface. and excitation voltages. programmed to orchestrate network activities.
function code. In addition to the device address resolution. plus a fourth field for number of registers to read for inputs or for ON of OFF values for outputs. actuators. The device can be an I/O block that has many sensors and actuator.
The following Modbus command would be sent to turn digital output 1 ON at a ZigBee sensor modem
ZIGBEE MESH NETWORKING: ZigBee Modbus modems and sensor modems can operate as routers (while still providing I/O). as does ZigBee. mapping Modbus addresses to ZigBee addresses and formatting responses from ZigBee remote devices into the Modbus protocol. I/O mapping: Modbus uses a standard set of registers to read and write input and output values. which includes fields for Modbus address. ZigBee Modbus gateways provide the takeout point for the ZigBee network. gateways. Should a router or end device become unable to communicate directly with the coordinator or primary router due to a dropped link. and preserve the functionality of existing PLCs. and register address. except that wireless links have replaced wired connections. the Modbus gateway also translates the Modbus register specified in the Modbus command to the appropriate I/O of the ZigBee sensor modem. capable of communicating with other routers. and monitoring programs. The application functions exactly as before.
. Modbus commands: All inputs and outputs at ZigBee sensor modems and Modbus modems are expressed as properly formatted Modbus commands. Thus.
ZigBee Modbus address assignments: The mapping of Modbus commands to ZigBee addresses at the ZigBee Modbus gateway is a straightforward process. to read the analog-to-digital channel 0 input of a ZigBee sensor modem which has been assigned Modbus address 4. sensors. or end devices. The mapping used by the ZN-2401 ZigBee Sensor Modem is provided in the table below. For example. the following Modbus command would be sent to the ZigBee Modbus gateway. it will automatically establish an RF link with another router and transmit its data back to the gateway through this second router. Modbus assigns a single address to each device in the network.over the ZigBee network and relayed to the I/O module. These mappings prevent the Master PLC from having to be ZigBee-aware. the various I/O of the ZigBee sensor modem must be mapped to the standard Modbus registers to allow standard Modbus commands to be used. or an individual sensor or actuator. The only operation required is to convert that address from Modbus conventions to ZigBee conventions. which is performed in the Modbus gateway¶s controller software. The presence of routers is what makes a ZigBee network self-healing.
this communication could use the ZigBee command set used by the ZigBee module in the gateway. an intermediate or ³meta´ language was developed to communicate with the gateway over an Ethernet connection. For data coming from the ZigBee endpoint devices. The OPC server communicates with the ZigBee Ethernet gateway. that command set is not optimized for communications over an Ethernet network. allowing products that support OPC to be used in combination. The datagram is then sent to the OPC server over the Ethernet network. This language is proprietary to each application vendor and. This provides easy segmentation of control functions. The OPC server abstracts the specifics of the HMI application and the hardware. and translates the meta language commands into the ZigBee command language. there is very little need for third parties to be knowledgeable about this language. The ZigBee gateway communicates with remote devices using the ZigBee command language. There is still the need for central monitoring if not supervisory control of the system. The OPC server allows the ZigBee Ethernet gateway to communicate seamlessly with any HMI application that supports OPC. While in theory. especially when there is infrequent interaction between process functions. in truth. the gateway formats the data into the meta language format and encapsulates the message in a TCP/IP datagram. The OPC server knows and uses this meta language to communicate with the gateway.
Each HMI application uses its own language to communicate between the application client workstation and application server. The gateway accepts the meta language from the OPC server encapsulated in TCP/IP packets.). To avoid having to write drivers for each HMI/hardware combination. The figure below shows data flow between DCS components. (For a simplified DCS network.
Between the HMI application server and the industrial automation hardware is where things get interesting. the industry formed the OPC Foundation to develop a standard interface for HMI applications and industrial automation hardware. in which multiple PLCs provide local process control. Therefore. demand the flexibility to mix and match HMI applications and hardware from multiple vendors. including various ³languages´ used. This interface is implemented using a server-based software component called an OPC server.ZIGBEE WIRELESS DISTRIBUTED CONTROL NETWORKING: A second common industrial automation architecture is Distributed Control System (DCS). The HMI vendor typically provides industrial automation hardware too. Users. see Figure 5. Thus the interface between the application and the hardware is written for the specific vendor¶s products. removes the TCP/IP packet. however.
GROWTH OF ZIGBEE WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY :
ZigBee Takes It Easy: Short-range wireless "ZigBee" networks are ready to unwire your house. 2004 Ember. Brown.
CONCLUSIONS: As a very well-designed standard created with specific applications in mind. ZigBee has much to offer industrial automation applications. there will for many years be a need for ZigBee products that address existing industrial automation networks and existing applications. sensor modems. Rather than needing modems attached to these devices. This will mean products that function well in settings with high RF noise floor. and Modbus modems discussed so far do exactly that. providing interfaces to get ZigBee data off the ZigBee network and onto wired networks that host human-machine interface applications and other applications that make use of the ZigBee data. actuators. As ZigBee becomes a mainstream technology. they will contain ZigBee radios themselves to enable cost-effective. we will see ZigBee devices optimized to meet the unique needs of industrial automation. ready-to-use devices for creating green field ZigBee networks. As the industrial communications equipment industry continues its embrace of ZigBee. mesh networking to cover entire industrial plants and factories. However.com Zigbeenetworks. preserving existing investments while replacing expensive and cumbersome wiring with low-cost and flexible wireless connections. and gateways ± will likely be keys to implementing ZigBee networks for some time to come. ZigBee gateways will continue to be key components. streamlining the mapping process. The ZigBee gateways. and rough handling.com
. Low-cost deployment and redeployment. Technology Review article by Eric S. the most useful ZigBee products available today are designed to introduce ZigBee benefits to existing networks.INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION ± ZIGBEE FUTURE: As ZigBee is a very new standard. and an open standard with multiple vendors make ZigBee especially adept at addressing the needs of industrial automation applications. we will see the introduction of offthe-shelf ZigBee enabled sensors. and the current crop of solutions ± ZigBee modules. and PLCs. August 19. the function of these gateways will change as applications become ZigBee aware. Yet even as the industry evolves toward this optimization. extreme temperatures. sensor modems. REFERENCE:
As this happens.