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39

Boundary Layers

Edwin R. Braun

University of North Carolina, 39.1 Theoretical Boundary Layers

Charlotte 39.2 Reynolds Similarity in Test Data

Pao-lien Wang 39.3 Friction in Pipes

University of North Carolina, 39.4 Noncircular Channel

Charlotte 39.5 Example Solutions

In a simple model of a solid, material deformation is proportional to the strain. In a simple model of

a fluid, the deformation is proportional to the rate of strain or the change in velocity over a small

distance. The mathematical term describing this phenomenon is the last term in the following boundary

layer equation:

È du du du ˘ dp d Ê du ˆ

rÍ + u + v ˙ = - + Ám ˜ (39.1)

Î dt dx dy ˚ dx dy Ë dy ¯

where u is the velocity in the x direction as a function of x, y, and t. The values r and m are the density

and dynamic viscosity for the fluid, respectively. This equation is good for all situations with no pressure

(P) change present in the direction normal to the wall.

The left-hand side of Equation (39.1) represents time kinetic energy in flow. The pressure term is a

potential energy term. The rate of strain term that represents this energy dissipates through viscous losses.

When the dissipation term is significant compared to the others, a boundary layer must be considered

as part of the flow analysis.

For a straight-channel, steady (not time-dependent) flow, Equation (39.1) becomes

d 2u dp

m = (39.2)

dy 2 dx

1 dp 2

u=- (D - y 2 ) (39.3)

2m dx

where d is the distance toward the wall measured from the centerline and the velocity u is zero at the

walls. This velocity equation is parabola. Note that when y = D, Equation (39.3) becomes

1586_book.fm Page 2 Friday, May 7, 2004 3:56 PM

D 2 dp

u cL = - (39.4)

2m dx

Thus, if the pressure loss over a distance X is measured along with the centerline velocity (ucL), the

viscosity can be determined. Similarly, if the velocity is known at the centerline, the pressure loss per

unit length can be calculated.

As a boundary layer develops, it starts in a smooth, or laminar, state. Downstream, it transforms into a

turbulent state, where the flow is irregular and contains eddies. Various physical conditions, such as wall

or surface roughness or upstream turbulence, will affect the speed of this transition. In smooth-walled

pipes, laminar flow occurs for Reynolds numbers (Re) of less than 2000, with fully developed turbulence

for Re greater than 4000. The Reynolds number is a dimensionless number developed from dynamic

similarity principles that represents the ratio of the magnitudes of the inertia forces to the friction forces

in the fluid.

inertia force

Re =

friction force

where inertia force = rVc2 L2c and friction force = mVc L2c . Then,

rVc L c Vc L c

Re = = (39.5)

m n

where Vc and Lc are characteristic or representative velocities and lengths, respectively. For a pipe or

similar narrow channel, Lc is the internal diameter (ID) of the pipe and Vc is the average or bulk velocity

obtained by dividing the mass flow rate (M) by the cross-sectional area and density of the fluid:

M

Vc = (39.6)

rA

Using the Reynolds number as a similarity parameter, test data can be correlated into generalized

charts for frictional losses.

For the flat plate (Figure 39.1) case, Vc is taken as the free stream velocity outside the boundary layer,

and Lc is the length measured along the wall standing from the leading edge.

The energy equation for steady flow between any two points in a pipe can be written as

V22 - V12 P2 - P1

+ + Z 2 - Z1 - h f = 0 (39.7)

2g rg

where hf is a head loss due to friction. This equation neglects other minor losses (such as elbows, valves,

exit and entrance losses, and bends). It is useful to define the head loss in terms of a friction factor ( f )

such that this nondimensional friction factor ( f ), known as the Darcy friction factor, can be determined

experimentally as a function of the dimensionless Reynolds numbers and a relative roughness parameter

e/D, as shown in Figure 39.2. Rough factors, e, are given in Table 39.1.

1586_book.fm Page 3 Friday, May 7, 2004 3:56 PM

Undisturbed flow Vc

Vc

Boundary layer y

Lc

(a)

Vc

Vc

Vc

u Flat plate

boundary region boundary

layer layer

(b)

FIGURE 39.1 (a) Boundary layer along a smooth plane. (b) Laminar and turbulent boundary layers along a smooth,

flat plate. (Vertical scales greatly enlarged.)

0.1

0.09 Laminar Critical Transition

Flow Zone Zone Complete Turbulence, Rough Pipes

0.08

0.05

0.07

0.04

Lam

0.06

0.03

inar

Flow f

0.05 0.02

0.015

D 2 )

= R

0.04

L ( ρV 2

64

0.01

∆P

0.008

e

D

Relative Roughness, k

Recr 0.006

Friction Factor, f =

0.03

0.004

0.025

0.002

0.02 0.001

Material K, ft 0.0008

0.0006

Riveted Steel 0.003–0.03

Concrete 0.001–0.01 Sm 0.0004

0.015 oo

Wood Stave 0.0006–0.003 th

Pi 0.0002

Cast Iron 0.00085 pe

s

Galvanized Iron 0.0005

0.0001

Asphalted Cast Iron 0.0004

Commercial Steel or 0.000,05

0.01 Wrought Iron 0.00015

Drawn Tubing 0.000005

0.009

0.000,01

0.008

103 2(103) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9104 2(104) 3 4 5 6 78 9105 2(105) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9106 2(106) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9107 2(107) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9108

0.000,005

VDρ VD V(4Rh ) 0.000,001

Reynolds Number, ReD =

µ = ν = ν

FIGURE 39.2 Friction factors for commercial pipe. (Source: Moody, L. F. 1944. Friction factors for pipe flow. Trans.

ASME. 66:672. With permission.)

1586_book.fm Page 4 Friday, May 7, 2004 3:56 PM

Surface e, ft e, m

Drawn tubing 5 ◊ 10-6 1.5 ◊ 10-6

Commercial steel, wrought iron 1.5 ◊ 10-4 4.6 ◊ 10-5

or aluminum sheet

Galvanized iron 5 ◊ 10-4 1.2 ◊ 10-4

Cast iron 8.5 ◊ 10-4 2.4 ◊ 10-4

Concrete pipe 4 ◊ 10-3 1.2 ◊ 10-3

Riveted steel pipe .01 .003

Wood .001 .0003

There are two equations that describe the data shown in Figure 39.2. The first is the laminar line. For

laminar flow in pipes with Re less than 2000, it can be shown through analysis that

64

f = (39.8)

Re

1 È e /D 2.51 ˘

= -2 log 10 Í + ˙ (39.9)

f ÍÎ 3.7 Re f ˙˚

which describes the turbulent region. Note that, as the roughness e approaches zero, we obtain the smooth

pipeline and the equation becomes

1 È Re f ˘

= 2 log 10 Í ˙ (39.10)

f ÍÎ 2.51 ˙˚

For fully developed turbulence, the Re approaches zero and the Colebrook equation simplifies to

1 È 3.7 ˘

= 2 log 10 Í ˙ (39.11)

f Î e /D ˚

For turbulent flows in closed conduits with noncircular cross-sections, a modified form of Darcy’s

equation may be used to evaluate the friction loss:

Ê L ˆ Ê v2 ˆ

hf = f Á ˜ Á ˜

Ë D ¯ Ë 2g ¯

In the case of noncircular cross-sections, a new term, R, is introduced to replace diameter D. R is defined

as hydraulic radius, which is the ratio of the cross-sectional area to the wetted perimeter (WP) of the

noncircular flow section.

1586_book.fm Page 5 Friday, May 7, 2004 3:56 PM

A

R=

WP

A pD 2 / 4 D

R= = =

WP pD 4

Ê L ˆ Ê v2 ˆ

hf = Á ˜ Á ˜

Ë 4R ¯ Ë 2g ¯

v(4R)r v(4R)

Re = or Re =

m n

Example 39.1

Refer to Figure 39.3. Water at 50∞C is flowing at a rate of 0.07 m3/sec. The pipeline is steel and

has an inside diameter of 0.19 m. The length of the pipeline is 900 m. Assume the kinematic

viscosity (n) is 5.48 ◊ 10-7 m2/sec. Find the power input to the pump if its efficiency is 82%; neglect

minor losses.

Given information is as follows:

g at 50∞C = 9.69 kN / m3

15 m

1

m

0

60

Pump

300 m

1586_book.fm Page 6 Friday, May 7, 2004 3:56 PM

Solution

First, determine the Reynolds number:

vD Q

Re = ; v=

n A

4Q 4(0.07)

Re = =

pDn p(0.2)(5.48 ◊10 -7 )

= 8.13 ◊105

Second, determine e/D ratio and friction factor f. Roughness (e) for steel pipe = 4.6 ◊ 10-5 m.

e 4.6 ◊10 -5 m

= = 0.000242

D 0.19 m

Next, determine head loss due to friction:

Ê L ˆ Ê v2 ˆ Q

h f = 0.0151Á ˜ Á ˜ , v=

Ë D ¯ Ë 2g ¯ A

8LQ 2

h f = 0.0151

p 2 gD5

8(900)(0.07)2

= 0.0151

p 2 (9.81)(0.02)5

35.28

= 0.0151 = 17.2 m

0.031

Ê kN ˆ Ê m3 ˆ

PA = h A gQ = 17.2Á 9.69 3 ˜ Á 0.07 ˜

Ë m ¯Ë s ¯

kN ◊ m

= 11.67 = 11.67 kW

s

PA

ep =

P1

e p = Pump efficiency

PA 11.67 kW

PI = = = 14.23 kW

ep 0.82

1586_book.fm Page 7 Friday, May 7, 2004 3:56 PM

50 mm

25 mm Dia.

50 mm

Liquid -25∞∞C 0∞∞C 25∞∞C 50∞∞C 75∞∞C 100∞∞C

Water 1.793 0.890 0.547 0.378

Mercury 1.526 1.402 1.312

Methanol 1.258 0.793 0.544

Isobutyl acetate 0.676 0.493 0.370 0.286

Toluene 1.165 0.778 0.560 0.424 0.333 0.270

Styrene 1.050 0.695 0.507 0.390 0.310

Acetic acid 1.056 0.786 0.599 0.464

Ethanol 3.262 1.786 1.074 0.694 0.476

Ethylene glycol 16.1 6.554 3.340 1.975

Example 39.2

Air with a specific weight of 12.5 N/m3 and dynamic viscosity of 2.0 ◊ 10-5 N ◊ sec/m2 flows through

the shaded portion of the duct shown in Figure 39.4 at the rate of 0.04 m3/sec. (See Table 39.2 or

Figure 39.5 for dynamic viscosities of some common liquids.) Calculate the Reynolds number of

the flow, given that g = 12.5 N/m3, m = 2.0 ◊ 10-5 N ◊ sec/m2, Q = 0.04 m3/sec, and L = 30 m.

Solution

12.5 N / m3

r = g /g = = 1.27 N ◊ s 2 /m4 or kg / m3

9.81 m / s 2

p

A(shaded) = (0.05 m)2 - (0.025 m)2

4

= 0.0025 m2 - 0.00049 m2

= 0.002 m2

= 0.2 m + 0.0785 m

= 0.279 m

A

Hydraulic radius (R) =

WP

0.002 m2

=

0.279 m

= 0.00717 m

1586_book.fm Page 8 Friday, May 7, 2004 3:56 PM

0.5

0.4

0.3

Ca

Gl

0.2

yc

sto

eri

ro

n

il

0.1

SA

SA

0.06

E

E

10

30

oi

oil

0.04 l

0.03

0.02

0.01

6 Crud

e oil

Absolute viscosity µ, (N.s)/m2

An (SG

4 0.86

ilin )

3 e

Ke

ro sin

2 e

Car Mercury

bon Eth

tetr yl a

1 × 10−3 ach lco

lorid hol

e

6

4 Benz

ene

3 Gaso Wa

line ( te

SG 0 r

2 .68)

1 × 10−4

6

4 Air

3

Helium

2

ide

Carbon diox

1 × 10−5

Hydrogen

5

−20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Temperature, °C

FIGURE 39.5 Absolute viscosity of common fluids at 1 atm. (Source: White, F. 1986. Fluid Mechanics, 2nd ed.

McGraw-Hill, New York. With permission.)

Q 0.04 m3 / s

v= = = 20 m / s

A 0.002 m2

4Rvr

Reynolds number (Re)=

m

NR =

2.0 ◊10 -5 N ◊ s / m2

= 3.64 ◊10 4

1586_book.fm Page 9 Friday, May 7, 2004 3:56 PM

References

Colebrook, C. F. 1938. Turbulent flow in pipes with particular reference to the transition points between

smooth and rough laws. ICF Journal. 2:133–156.

Moody, L. F. 1944. Friction factors for pipe flow. Trans. ASME. 66:672.

White, F. 1986. Fluid Mechanics, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York.

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