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WHAT IS THE INTERNET ?

• A network of networks, joining many government,


university and private computers together and
providing an infrastructure for the use of E-mail,
bulletin boards, file archives, hypertext
documents, databases and other
computational resources
WHAT IS THE INTERNET ?

• The largest network of networks in the world.


• Uses TCP/IP protocols and packet switching .
• Runs on any communications substrate.

From Dr. Vinton Cerf,


Co-Creator of TCP/IP
BRIEF HISTORY OF THE
INTERNET
• 1968 - DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects
Agency) contracts with BBN (Bolt, Beranek & Newman) to
create ARPAnet

• 1970 - First five nodes:


– UCLA
– Stanford
– UC Santa Barbara
– U of Utah, and
– BBN
• 1974 - TCP specification by Vint Cerf
• 1984 – On January 1, the Internet with its 1000 hosts
converts en masse to using TCP/IP for its messaging
TCP/IP
• The Internet protocol suite is the
networking model and a set of
communications protocols used for the
Internet.

• TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity


specifying:
– How data should be formatted
– Addressed,
– Transmitted,
– Routed
– Received at the destination.
IP ADDRESS
• IP (Internet Protocol) address: numerical
address given to each computer connected to
the network.
– An IP address consists of 4 numbers
– (ranging from 0 to 255) separated by
periods.
• Examples:
– 128.95.1.207
– 209.131.36.158
– 4.2.2.1
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Domain Name System (DNS)
• Remember IP address if you want to request
information from another computer

• Domain name: human-readable name given


to a related group of networked computers.

• Domain Name System (DNS): hierarchical


naming system for computers connected to
the Internet

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INTERNET DOMAIN HIERARCHY

General top-level
domain

tracer.cs.washington.
edu
Specific
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TOP LEVEL DOMAIN
• top-level domain: last part of domain name
– Examples:
• .com (commercial)
• .org (organization)
• .edu (education)
• .gov (government)
• .uk (United Kingdom)
• .ca (Canada)

• Some top-level domains (e.g., .com and .org) are open for
registration to anyone, whereas others (e.g., .gov and .edu)
have rules restricting eligibility.

• List of top-level domains:


– http://www.iana.org/domains/root/db/

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Generic domain labels
Geographic Structure
• Geographic TLDs used for organizations in
other countries:

– .uk United Kingdom


– .fr France
– .ch Switzerland
– .jp Japan
– .my Malaysia
– .sg Singapore
– .id Indonesia
– .th Thailand
– .ph Philiphines
INTERNET SERVICE

Electronic Mail (e-mail)


World Wide Web
Telnet
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
Internet Telephone
Web TV/Radio
Internet Relay Chat
News Group
Electronic Mail (e-Mail)

• Distributes e-mail messages and attached files


to one or more electronic mailboxes.

• Eg:- e-mail addresses


– thomas@mes.edu.in
– murugan@mesmarampally.org
Electronic Mail (e-Mail)
Continue……
thomas @ mes . edu .in

Name of Person Organization Type of Organization Country

murugan @ mesmarampally .org


Electronic Mail (e-Mail)
Continue……
• Different e-mail service providers

– G-Mail
– Yahoo Mail
– Hot Mail
World Wide Web (W W W) /
WEBSITE
• Most important service provided by Internet.

• An internet-based hypermedia
initiative for global information
sharing.
Definitions

HTML – HyperText Markup Language – The


Language of Web Pages on the World
Wide Web.
HTML is a text formatting language.

URL – Uniform Resource Locator.

Browser – A software program which is used to

show web pages. 21


Tim Berners-Lee
• Father of W W W.

• The inventor of
HTML.

• Invented W W W
while working at
CERN, the European
Particle Physics
Laboratory.
Types of Web Sites
Portal
• Offers a variety of Internet services.

• Examples of services:
– News
– Sports
– Search engine/directory
– Web publishing
– Reference tools
– Maps
– Shopping
– Email

• Examples of portals:
– AltaVista, AOL, Lycos, MSN, Netscape, Yahoo!
News
• Contains newsworthy material
• Contain stories and articles related to some of
the following:
– Life, money, current events, weather

• Examples:
– WSB-tv
– NBC.com
Informational
• Contains factual information
• Government agencies provide this type of info:
– Census data, tax codes, congressional
budget
• Others that provide this type are:
– MARTA
– Medicare
Business/Marketing

• Promotes or sells a product


• Many examples
Educational

• Offers exciting, challenging avenues for formal


and informal teaching and learning.
• Online training for a new skill.
• Online courses.
• Online college classes.
• Examples
– UGA
– Phoenix University
Entertainment

• Interactive and engaging


• Offer music, video, games, sports, chats,
sweepstakes
Advocacy

• Describes a cause, opinion, or idea


• Presents views of a group of people or
organizations
Blog
• Short for webblog
• Time-stamped articles or posts, in a diary type
format
• Vblog – a blog that contains video
• Blogosphere – worldwide collection of blogs
• Vlogosphere – all vblogs worldwide
• Reflect interest, opinions and personalities
of the author
Wiki

• Allows user to create, add, modify, or delete


web site content.

• Collect recent edits on a web page so someone


can review them for accuracy.

• Anyone can modify a wiki.

• Most popular - Wikipedia


Online Social Networks
• Encourages members in the group to share
interest, ideas, stories, photos, music, and
videos with other users
• Popular examples:
– Facebook
– MySpace (12 million visitors a day)
• Media Sharing Web site – different
– Allows members to share photos, music, and
videos
– ShutterFly, Flickr – popular sites
– GoogleVideo and YouTube are example for
video sharing sites
Personal

• Private individual or family created.

• People publish personal web pages for a variety


of reasons:
– Job hunting
– Share personal experiences
– Family histories
Telnet
• Allows a user to run commands and
programs remotely on another computer
across the Internet.

• The user runs a Telnet client program on


the local host.

• A Telnet server process must be running


on the remote host.

• The user must have the necessary


permissions and password to access the
remote host
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
• Protocol for copying files between client
and an FTP server.

• Uses a TCP connection for reliable


transfer of files with error-checking.

• Most browsers support FTP, or you can


use a dedicated FTP client program, e.g
WS_FTP.

• Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is a


lightweight version for small memory
devices
What is IRC?
– IRC (Internet Relay Chat) is a virtual
meeting place where people from all over
the world can meet and talk; you'll find the
whole diversity of human interests, ideas,
and issues here, and you'll be able to
participate in group discussions on one of
the many thousands of IRC channels, on
hundreds of IRC networks, or just talk in
private to family or friends, wherever they
are in the world.
Logging Chat
• IRC Client Logs
Web Browser
• A web browser or Internet browser is a software
application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing
information resources on the World Wide Web. An
information resource is identified by a Uniform Resource
Identifier (URI) and may be a web page, image, video, or
other piece of content.[1] Hyperlinks present in
resources enable users to easily navigate their browsers
to related resources.
Browsers
• Netscape Navigator (Communicator)
– Product of Netscape (Now owned by AOL)
– Originally was dominant
– Multi-platform (all operating systems)
• Internet Explorer
– Product of Microsoft
– Current Dominant Browser
– Not available for all operating systems
• Browser compatibility problems can
cause web page problems
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Davina Pruitt-Mentle 43
Netscape Search

EDUC 478 Davina Pruitt-Mentle 44


Netscape Search
• 1: Access to
different search
engines
• 2. Type words or
phrases into text
entry box
• 3. Click Button
• 4. Preserve
favorite search
engine
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Internet Explorer Search

•Separate Panel In Browser


•Uses MicroSoft Network
search

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Search Engines
• For searching information on the Internet.

– Google
– Yahoo
– Altavista
WIKIPEDIA
• A wiki is a publishing platform on which many
people can contribute new content and revise
existing content.
• The content benefits from the collective
knowledge of the contributors, so wikis can be
very beneficial for group projects.
• Some businesses and organizations use wikis to
maintain documents.