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Chemistry Project on Spectroscopy
Spectroscopy
CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Physical Quantities measured 3. What Is Spectroscopy 4. Nature of light 5. The Electromagnetic Spectrum 6. General Types of Spectra 7. Continuous Spectra 8. Emission spectra 9. Absorption Spectra 10. Types of Spectroscopy 11. How Spectrometer work? 12. Types of Spectroscopy

Stars like our own Sun 18. The mass-to-charge ratios of molecules and atoms are studied in mass spectrometry. In this case the spectrum is usually called cross section. The amplitude of macroscopic vibrations is studied by acoustic spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical spectroscopy. electrons.13. Kinetic energy of particles is studied by electron energy loss spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy (see also cross section). Uncovering the mystery of quasar 16. similar in appearance to other spectroscopy techniques. 15. the definition has broadened as new techniques have been developed that utilize not only visible light. phonons (sound waves) and others. the quantity that is measured is an amount or intensity of something. Spectroscopy is also heavily used in astronomy and remote sensing. absorbed or scattered by the matter under investigation. Examples of Spectroscopy in Astronomy 14. Normally. Physical Quantity Measured The type of spectroscopy depends on the physical quantity measured. Historically. however. Introduction Spectroscopy Spectroscopy is the study of matter and its properties by investigating light. A device for recording a spectrum is a spectrometer. sound. a mass spectrum. Most large telescopes have spectrographs. Mass spectrometry is more of a measuring technique (metric) than an observation (scopic) technique but can produce a spectrum of masses. x-rays. which are used either to measure the chemical composition and physical properties of astronomical objects or to measure their velocities from the Doppler shift of spectral lines. sometimes called mass spectroscopy. or particles that are emitted. The number of molecules or atoms or quantum-mechanical states to which the frequency or energy parameter applies. spectroscopy referred to a branch of science in which visible light was used for theoretical studies on the structure of matter and for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Probing the Formation of Stars in Colliding Galaxies in the universe. Spectroscopy can be classified according to the physical quantity which is measured or calculated or the measurement process. but many other forms of electromagnetic and non-electromagnetic radiation: microwaves. Spectroscopy is often used in physical and analytical chemistry for the identification of substances through the spectrum emitted from them or absorbed in them. Bibliography 1. Impedance spectroscopy is a study of frequency response in alternating current. • What is Spectroscopy? . radiowaves. Spectroscopy in Astronomy camp 17. • • • • The intensity of emitted electromagnetic radiation and the amount of absorbed electromagnetic radiation are studied by electromagnetic spectroscopy (see also cross section). Recently. Spectroscopy may also be defined as the study of the interaction between light and matter.

Keeping this analogy in mind. and different wavelengths of light manifest themselves as different colors! The energy of a light wave is inverselyproportional to its wavelength. The Electromagnetic Spectrum Physicists classify light waves by their energies (wavelengths). and high-energy light waves have short wavelengths. x-ray. beware the high energy UV.e. But before we hurtle headlong into the wild and woolly field of spectroscopy. TV. and so forth. they simply lie at wavelengths (energies) that your eye doesn’t respond to. It has only been in this century. Labeled in increasing energy. You see. Waves are disturbances. the questions we pose are not always easy. high-energy gamma-ray and X-ray telescopes tend to see the most energetic dynamos in the cosmos. let’s leave the ocean beach for a while and think about light like a wave. When we look at the Universe in a different “light”. Light has particle-like properties too. with a certain number of waves rushing past you every minute (the frequency) and all moving at a characteristic speed across the water (the wave speed). accretion of matter around black holes. Notice the distance between successive waves? That’s called the wavelength. luminosity and composition). comprehensive picture of how the Universe works! General Types of Spectra . let’s just explore light as a wave. mass. at “non-visible” wavelengths. By performing this dissection and analysis of an object’s light. but to understand and solve them will unlock a new way of looking at our Universe. dark cold molecular clouds. the remnants from massive dying stars. obscured structures in the Universe: dusty star-forming regions. we might draw the entire electromagnetic spectrum as shown in the figure below: Notice that radio. Only through studying astronomical objects at many different wavelengths are astronomers able to piece together a coherent. with the creation of quantum mechanics that we have gained a quantitative understanding of how light and atoms work. They’re the reasons you should wear sunblock. for example. low-energy waves have long wavelengths. the primordial radiation emitted by the formation of the Universe shortly after the Big Bang. Visible light telescopes best probe light produced by stars. The Nature of Light To understand the processes in astronomy that generate light.e. and microwave signals are all light waves. so it’s actually quite a twisted beast (which is why it took so many years to figure out). and they possess a certain height (amplitude). we need to try to answer some seemingly simple questions. The wave speed of a light wave is simply the speed of light. i. Longer-wavelength telescopes best probe dark. energies). and gamma-ray photons! Each one carries a lot of energy compared to their visibleand radio-wave brethren. we must realize first that light acts like a wave. but they have presented some of the most difficult conceptual challenges in the long history of physics. astronomers can infer the physical properties of that object (such as temperature. ripples on the water. such as what is light? And how does it behave? These questions may seem simple to you. Picture yourself wading around on an ocean beach for a moment. in other words. But right now. cool. we probe different kinds of physical conditions — and we can see new kinds of objects! For example.Spectroscopy pertains to the dispersion of an object’s light into its component colors (i. On the other end of the scale. and watch the many water waves sweeping past you. such as active galaxies.

and longer wavelengths than even red light). gamma-rays) are emitted. thus the apparent spectrum seems smooth and continuous. electric cooking stove burners. you. Such objects emit light over a broad range of wavelengths. cooling fire embers and… you.e. x-ray. emission (bright line spectra) and absorption (dark line spectra). The way an atom dumps’ that energy is by emitting a wave of light with that exact energy. There are two types of discrete spectra. In this way. Absorption Line Spectra On the other hand. the atom could absorb that specially-energetic’ photon and would become excited. As we’ll discover shortly. as shown below: An excited Hydrogen atom relaxes from level 2 to level 1. a dark-line absorption spectrum is born. Continuous Spectra Continuous spectra arise from dense gases or solid objects which radiate their heat away through the production of light. For a continuous spectrum. a hydrogen atom drops from the 2nd energy level to the 1st. such as radio waves! Similarly. the light is composed of a wide. one sees only bright or dark lines at very distinct and sharply-defined colors (energies). giving off a wave of light with an energy equal to the difference of energy between levels 2 and 1. With discrete spectra. right this minute. discrete spectra with bright lines are called emission spectra. Other examples of such objects are incandescent light bulbs. you could see people by the continuous radiation they emit! Discrete Spectra Discrete spectra are the observable result of the physics of atoms. the electron clouds surrounding the nuclei of atoms can have only very specific energies dictated by quantum mechanics. yielding a photon. In the diagram below. short-wavelength photons (UV. and with few exceptions the levels are distinct and identifiable. are emitting a continuous spectrum — but the light waves you’re emitting are not visible — they lie at infrared wavelengths (i. jumping from the ground state to a higher energy level. lower energies. Atoms will also tend to settle to the lowest energy level (in spectroscopist’s lingo. those with dark lines are termed absorption spectra. which can have any energy it wants (all you have to do is change the temperature). what would happen if we fired this special photon back into a ground state atom? That’s right. If a star with a continuous’ spectrum is shining upon an atom. the wavelengths corresponding to possible energy transitions within that atom will be absorbed and therefore an observer will not see them. Tiny changes of energy in an atom generate photons with small energies and long wavelengths.Typically one can observe two distinctive classes of spectra: continous and discrete. This means that an excited atom in a higher energy level must dump’ some energy. Each element on the periodic table has its own set of possible energy levels. This energy corresponds to a specific color. large changes of energy in an atom will mean that high-energy. Stars emit light in a predominantly (but not completely!) continuous spectrum. This results in a bright emission line. or wavelength of light — and thus we see a bright line at that exact wavelength! …an emission spectrum is born. flames. Yes. If you had infrared-sensitive eyes. what would happen if we tried to reverse this process? That is. this is called the ground state). Let’s try to understand where these two types of discrete spectra. as . continuous range of colors (energies). Emission Line Spectra Unlike a continuous spectrum source.

which parallelizes the beam of light. After calibration. The method can be automated and is widely used to measure concentrations of ions such as sodium and . the slit is arranged at an angle and the slit surroundings are silvered so that the portion of the telescope beam not passing through the slit can be routed instead to an eyepiece for easy telescope guiding. This means that it takes a bigger telescope and/or more integration time to get a good spectrum of a given object than an image. This new color-dispersed beam of light is then focused and imaged on the detector by the camera lens. Each different wavelength comes off of the grating at a slightly different angle. High resolution spectroscopy therefore requires large telescopes and fairly bright objects. A 35 mm camera is the detector in this diagram. we typically use an eyepiece or a CCD array. Absorption Spectroscopy 2. the sample is atomized and then light of a particular frequency is passed through the vapour. or surface brightness of an object on the detector is much lower than when simply taking images of an object. Emission Spectroscopy 3. This slit is what is ultimately imaged on the detector. but relatively few have much experience with the innards of a spectrometer. Nevertheless. The light passing through the slit then is reflected off a collimating mirror. Furthermore. It all starts with the telescope light beam entering the spectrometer. In atomic absorption spectroscopy.shown below: How does a spectrometer work? Many people know how a telescope works. but at Camp. there is a stiff price to pay: the emergent spectrum becomes much dimmer and more diffuse. we have an image of the slit that is spread out like a rainbow by color. just a certain “band” of wavelengths or colors. now let’s put all of this together to make a spectrometer! There is something interesting to note here — in spectroscopy. So now. The broader you disperse the light and the narrower you make the slit. even that band is dispersed (“smeared out”) over the entire detector. before sending it off… … to the diffraction grating! This optical element disperses the parallel beams of light into their component colors/wavelengths/energies. you can see finer and more subtle features in the spectrum. it points out the salient features of most optical spectrometers. So let’s take apart the Astronomy Camp spectrometer to see how it works! Keep in mind that there are as many optical designs for spectrometers as there are optical designs for telescopes. However. So. Scattering Spectroscopy Absorption spectroscopy uses the range of electromagnetic spectra in which a substance absorbs. TYPES OF SPECTROSCOPY In general there are three main types of spectroscopy. the amount of absorption can be related to the concentrations of various metal ions through the Beer-Lambert law. In the case of the Camp spectrometer. some spectral resolution often must be compromised to even SEE the object. we are not looking at ALL of the light from an object. The focal point of the telescope beam is brought to the slit of the spectrometer. This means that the effective brightness. For very faint objects. They are as listed below: 1. and that this is but one example. the better your spectral resolution.

and polarization angles. We can get clues to how this may have looked by observing galaxies currently exhibiting violent. Probing the Formation of Stars in Colliding Galaxies Billions of years ago. when our galaxy took form. Some cool Astronomy Camp spectra also live in these pages. semi-liquid (paste or grease). we can often get information about the temperature. we are performing experiments on the nuclei of atoms. Scattering spectroscopy measures certain physical properties by measuring the amount of light that a substance scatters at certain wavelengths. It is important to remember that. with NMR. extreme star-formation. and chemical reactions. it is thought that there must have been an epoch of rapid star-forming activity that has since subsided. or solid samples to determine molecular information. including collision (either due to high temperatures or otherwise). Other types of spectroscopy may not require sample atomization. composition. One of the most useful applications of light scattering spectroscopy is Raman spectroscopy. ultraviolet/visible (UV/ Vis) absorption spectroscopy is most often performed on liquid samples to detect molecular content and infrared (IR) spectroscopy is most often performed on liquid. Examples of Spectroscopy in Astronomy Spectroscopy is a powerful tool in astronomy — from it. A link to radio-wavelength spectroscopy of comets may be found here. Such “starburst” galaxies are studied best in the infrared and at radio wavelengths. For example.calcium in blood. NMR SPECTROSCOPY Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy is a powerful and theoretically complex analytical tool. density. Studying the chemistry of these “dirty snowballs” gives us a clue as to the composition and nature of our solar system in its infancy and constrains theories of how life may have formed on Earth. Molecular Spectroscopy and Comets Comets consist of almost pristine material from the early formation of our solar system. including structural information. On this page. The substance first absorbs energy and then radiates this energy as light. The chemical environment of specific nuclei is deduced from information obtained about the nuclei. This energy can be from a variety of sources. dried. and important physical processes of an astronomical object. This information can help us answer the questions: • What is it? • What is it like? • What is it made out of? • How did it get there? What will happen to it? • Does it give us clues as to how WE got here? A few examples of astronomical spectra are highlighted here. not the electrons. unprocessed by harsh solar sunlight. Scattering spectroscopy differs from emission spectroscopy due to the fact that the scattering process is much faster than the absorption/emission process. Emission spectroscopy uses the range of electromagnetic spectra in which a substance radiates. since star-forming . we will cover the basic theory behind the technique. incident angles.

With relatively short exposure times.000 Angstroms) spectrum of two such starburst galaxies. Most of the features you see are from molecular hydrogen. the gas is excited by shock-heated gas.5 microns wavelength. Below is a typical spectrum of a quasar. Although 1216 Angstroms lies deep in the ultraviolet. Or ‘Why Light Pollution Filters Work’! 1400 1600 1800 2000 2300 2400 2600 2800 3000 3200 Wavelength (A) . the stuff from which stars are made! These molecular hydrogen emission lines tell us that the molecular gas we see is very warm. Below is an infrared (2. K—band spectra Wavelength (/^m) Uncovering the mystery of Quasars The distant nature of quasars were discovered in the early 1960′s. this line is redshifted into the visible part of the spectrum (4000-7000 Angstroms). or 20.0 – 2. The bottom galaxy has molecular hydrogen excited by ultraviolet light emitted from recently-formed young. The wavelength scale has been rescaled to the “appropriate” rest wavelengths for the spectral lines. H2. X w m 1200 I Spectroscopy at Astronomy Camp! Spectroscopy at Astronomy Camp is done with a spectrograph from Optomechanics Research Inc. where the Earth’s atmosphere is opaque. A few examples of Astronomy Campers’ handiwork are shown below. This redshift can be attributed to the recession (speeding away) of quasars from us. In the standard Big Bang model of cosmology (the faster it’s speeding away from you. in the top galaxy. hot stars. the more distant it is).galaxies often harbor so much dust and gas that visible light cannot penetrate to the centers where the majority of the star formation is taking place.000 – 25. good quality spectra can be taken of most catalogued stars and high surface-brightness deep-sky objects. many quasars are receding from us so fast. Planetary Nebulae. this rapid motion implies that quasars are the most distant objects known. The most noticeable feature is the broad emission line at 1216 Angstroms due to hydrogen atoms making the transition from the first excited state to the ground state. when spectral lines were noted to be substantially-shifted redder than they should normally be. coupled with the Mount Lemmon 40″ or 60″ telescopes and the Camp’s SBIG ST6 CCD detector array.

This is a also clue that conditions in this nebula must be harsh. the representation of the slit width in the diagram is exaggerated. The emission line at 4861 Angstroms comes from hot. Here’s what our spectrum looks like once plotted as intensity versus wavelength. excited atomic hydrogen. The brightest two lines at 4959 and 5007 Angstroms come from twice-ionized oxygen (labeled O++. we can use IRAF to register our spectrum to provide a nice wavelength scale. the Ring Nebula). starting in energy level 4. may eventually deexcite to level 2. The slit length is about 8 arcminutes long and 1 arcsecond wide. The central lines are M57.Here’s an image of M57 (a. Highly-excited hydrogen atoms in M57′s gaseous shell. This means that two of oxygen’s eight electrons have been ripped away. Using the well-characterized wavelengths of the calibration lamps.red We make a 1-D spectrum from the 2-D image by summing over the aperture of the slit covering M57. This image is a 180 second exposure using the Camp’s ST6 CCD on a 10″ Meade SchmidtCassagrain telescope. We combined four 5-minute exposures on the Ring Nebula using the 60″ and the ST6 camera. with a crude representation of the spectrometer slit superimposed. . In fact. giving up the energy difference in waves of light at that particular energy (and… they have a wavelength of 4861 Angstroms!). There is no continuous spectrum here — this points out the important fact that planetary nebulae are hot rarified gases — you see a LINE spectrum.k. these lines can only be excited to emit light in temperatures of several thousand Kelvins and rather thin densities of 1-100 atoms per cubic centimeter. Astronomy Camp’s spectrograph was mounted on the Mount Lemmon 60″ telescope with the same ST6 CCD. This also points out how astronomers can get valuable information about the physical conditions and important processes in distant astronomical objects.a. the upper and lower spikes are the calibration lamp spectra (Hg+He). We subtracted an appropriate 5 minute dark frame from each image and then combined the images using IRAF. blue ■• wavelength *. and the spatial axis (along the Ring Nebula) is vertical. The resulting ST6 image follows: the dispersion (wavelength) axis is horizontal. or O III in spectroscopic notation).

Note a bright continuum at far left. Molecules in Cool Stars! On the other end of the scale — here is Delta Virgo. . Notice that molecules don’t form here (it’s too hot for molecules to readily form without being quickly destroyed). Sirius is a relatively hot A-type star at about 10. G. Notice that the higher-energy transitions on the left result in higher energy absorption lines out in the ultraviolet. You can remove all that ugly skyglow and light pollution without reducing the brighness of the nebula you’re looking for. For nebulae. Stars are classified by their temperatures. near-ultraviolet) and clearly shows a series of deep absorption lines. This 1/2 second exposure of Sirius is centered near 4000 Angstroms (blue. The first spectrum is at 5500 Angstroms (yellow light). but block light at all other wavelengths.500 K and viewed at about 6000 Angstroms (in red light). Most of these features are due to heavy elements — things like carbon (in several ionization stages). we match the dark absorption line that results from each transition upward in the hydrogen atom. These lines are due to the hydrogen atom. calcium etc. In this figure. Would such a narrow-band filter be good for looking at stars or galaxies? Hmm? Stellar Spectroscopy A look at Sirius Now. iron.000 degrees Kelvin. but there are still an awful lot of lines around. and hotter stars will destroy/ionize the hydrogen atoms that create the spectral lines!). a cool M3-type giant star at about 3. oxygen. around 5500 degrees Kelvin. which suddenly dims into a series of striations (bands). The hottest stars are termed O-stars. but also have energy sublevels due to the rotation and vibration of the molecule! At the modest resolution of our spectrometer. This series of lines. magnesium. and finally Mstars. this is very beneficial since they only emit visible light in this wavelength range. K. these hundreds of lines are blended into absorption bands like what we see here. just like the M-star spectrum above. calibration lamps ultraviolet *………………… wavelength ………………………… blue In the cooler outer “atmosphere” around Sirius. F. Here’s Beta-Bootes. then A. do they? In fact. onto stellar spectroscopy.This spectrum also demonstrates why you can use light-pollution filters (like those made by Lumicon or Orion) to get great contrast from reflection/ emission nebulae! These filters pass light waves that lie at wavelengths covered by these three lines. Molecules have a dizzying number of lines because they not only have the electron energy levels like atoms. STARS LIKE OUR SUN Somewhere between hotter A-type stars and cool M-class stars are stars like our sun. the next cooler are B stars. a G8 giant star (roughly what our sun will be when it begins dying in about 5 billion years). these bands are due to MOLECULES that can live in the atmospheres of these cool stars! This particular molecule is TiO (titanium oxide). which can be determined by the star’s spectral features. Such stars have the strongest hydrogen-features (simply due to temperature — cooler stars can’t ‘zap’ the hydrogen atoms as effectively. mildly excited hydrogen atoms in the 2nd energy level (the 1st excited state) are ‘zapped’ by photons (light waves) with just the right energy to send them to even higher excited states. These don’t look like the sharp absorption lines of the hydrogen atom. starting from level 2. is called the Balmer series after their discoverer. Let’s explore how.

This project is made using the analytical data provided by the following reference books and websites: 1... Banking System //**************************************************************** //. Address Book #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #in.. The Science of Spectroscopy – supported by NASA. a Wikibased learning tool.. 1.This is a spectrum of the same star.. Wikipedia (Encyclopedia) 4. No comments yet.. The deep absorption lines at left are due to the ion Calcium II (the difference between this and normal. Chemistry Project on Estimation of Content of Bone Ash C++ Project on Address Book C++ Project on Banking Bone Ash ESTIMATION OF CONTENT OF BONE ASH PROJECT SUBMITTED BY Prashanth.. Schaum’s Outlines Organic Chemistry. Top of Form Name (required) E-Mail (will not be published) (required) Website Subscribe to comments feed . Third Edition.. includes Open Spectrum. but now taken at 4000 Angstroms (deep blue-violet light). The small dip in the middle is due to a blend of metallic features and hydrogen. Notice that the hydrogen lines are very weak here nothing at all like Sirius (a hotter A-class star). Page number 230-244. 3. Professors Lectures University of Arizona (Semester II) Related: • • • • C++ Project on Railway Reservation System Railway Reservation System #include #include #include #include #include #inclu. neutral calcium is that one electron has been stripped off here). Chapter Spectroscopy.. Comments (0) Trackbacks (0) Leave a comment Trackback 1. No trackbacks yet. 2.

Abhisek De 2. Abhyodaya siddhartha .Submit Comment 319 Bottom of Form Chemistry Project on Foaming Capacity of Soaps Chemistry Project to To Determine which Antacid Neutralizes Stomach Acid Most [contact-form 1 "Contact form 1"] Project Work • • • • • C++ Project on Tic Tac Toe Game Biology Project to Study Bio-Insecticides And Pesticides Information Practices (IP) Project on Travel Agency for Class 12th Chemistry Project on Preparation of Potash Alum Chemistry Project on Green Chemistry: Bio-Diesel and Bio-Petrol July 2010 March 2010 July 2009 May 2009 April 2009 March 2009 Archives • • • • • • Tags Banking C++ Project File C++ Project File Structure CBSE Disaster Management Project CBSE Maths Project CBSE Maths Project on Probability CBSE Maths Project Topics CD Cafe Disaster Management Project • • • • CBSE Maths Project Class IX CBSE Science Projects Class IX CBSE Social Science Projects CCE Projects Top Contributors 1.

Garima Bhardwaj 4. Biology. Saurabh 5.3. Physics. Social Science • • • • • • • • Home Biology C++ Chemistry IP Maths Physics Social Science Top of Form • Bottom of Form Home > Chemistry > Chemistry Project on Foaming Capacity of Soaps Chemistry Project on Foaming Capacity of Soaps Foaming Capacity of Soaps . Maths. C++. Swathi Top Copyright © 2010 School Projects Page 2 - Chemistry.

i. without which I would be unable to complete my project. which encircles such particles and emulsify them. This helps the soap molecules make a unimolecular film on the surface of water and to penetrate the fabric. gravitate towards and surround the dirt (fat or oil with dust absorbed in it). .. Hard water contains Calcium and magnesium ions which react with sodium carbonate to produce insoluble carbonates of higher fatty acids. A number of soap molecules surround or encircle dirt and grease in a clustered structure called ‘micelles’. At one end is the long hydrocarbon chain that is non-polar and hydrophobic. Place: D-22 RDVV UNIVERSITY JABALPUR Date: (Sir Francis Xavier) School Stamp I’d like to express my greatest gratitude to the people who have helped & supported me throughout my project. They contain a long hydrocarbon chain of about 10-20 carbon with one carboxylic acid group as the functional group.This is to certify that Mr. Agitating it tends to concentrate the solution on the surface and causes foaming. At last but not the least I want to thanks my friends who appreciated me for my work & motivated me and finally to God who made all the things possible… S.e. The long non-polar end of a soap molecule that are hydrophobic.. 1 2 4 6 Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of higher fatty acids like stearic. 1 2 3 4 Contents INTRODUCTION EXPERIMENT 1 EXPERIMENT 2 BIBLIOGRAPHY Page No. I wish to thanks my parents for their undivided support & interest who inspired me & encouraged me to go my own way. Cleansing action of soaps decreases in hard water. palmitic and oleic acids can be either saturated or unsaturated. thoughts & made this project easy and accurate. no. I’ m grateful to Sir Francis Xavier for his continuous support for the project. The short polar end containing the carboxylate ion. from initial advice & encouragement to this day.) 2C17H35COONa + Mg2+ (C17H35COO) 2 Mg +2Na+ This hardness can be removed by addition of Sodium Carbonate. whose ends have different polarities. At the other end is the short polar carboxylate ion which is hydrophilic i. 2C17H35COONa +Ca2+ (C17H35COO) 2 Ca +2Na+ (Water soluble) (ppt.e. water soluble but insoluble in oil and grease. insoluble in water but oil soluble. face the water away from the dirt. Long Hydrocarbon Chain Hydrophobic end Hydrophilic end When soap is shaken with water it becomes a soap solution that is colloidal in nature. Pratyush Mishra of Class XI ‘B’ has satisfactorily completed the project on “Foaming Capacity of Soap” under the guidance of Sir Francis Xavier during the session 2009-2010. Special thanks of mine goes to my colleague who helped me in completing the project by giving interesting ideas. A soap molecule a tadpole shaped structure.

Ca2++ Na2CO3 CaCO3 + 2Na+ Mg2++ Na2CO3 MgCO3 + 2Na+ Aim: Apparatus: Materials Required: Theory: To compare the foaming capacities of five different commercial soaps. Procedure: • • • • • • • • • • Observation: Five conical flasks (100 ml each) are taken and numbered 1 to 5. The foam would be formed in the empty space above the container. Stop watch is started immediately and the time taken for the disappearance of foam is noted. test tube stand.. five big clean and dry test tubes are taken and numbered 1 to 5 One ml of the five soap solution is then poured in the test tubes of corresponding number. Bunsen burner and stop watch. = 5 gm. The soap for which the time taken for the disappearance of foam is highest has . Test tube no 1 is then shaken vigorously 5 times. 10 ml. In a test-tube stand. In each of these flasks equal amounts (say 5 gm) of the given samples of soap shavings or granules are taken and 50 ml of distilled water is added. = 1 ml. 5. 5 different samples of soap and distilled water The foaming capacity of a soap sample depends upon the nature of soap and its concentration. 2.e. the lower is its foaming capacity. Each conical flask is heated few minutes to dissolve all the soap completely. No. 5 test tubes. 4. The lesser the time taken for the disappearance of foam. the lower is the foaming capacity. The lesser the time taken by a solution for the disappearance of foam. = 50 ml. 5 times) with approximately with the same force and the time taken for the disappearance of foam in each case is recorded. 3. 5 conical flasks (100 ml). of distilled water is then added to each test tube. The foam is formed and the time taken for disappearances of foam in all cases is compared. Soap Sample Time taken (seconds) 1. Similarly the other test tubes are shaken vigorously for equal number of times (i. = 10 ml. Amount of each soap sample taken Amount of distilled water taken Volume of each soap solution taken Volume of distilled water added Conclusions: S. This can be compared for various samples of soaps by taking the same concentration of solution and shaking them.

Now shake first test tubes for formation of foam. test tube stand. water (distilled & tap both) and M/10 Na2CO3 solution. in the form of limestone and chalk.5 g sample of soap.e. 2C17H35COONa +Ca2+ (C17H35COO) 2 Ca +2Na+ (Water soluble) (scum) Hard water is water that has high mineral content (mainly calcium and magnesium ions) (in contrast with soft water). 3. and magnesium (Mg2+) ions precipitate as their carbonates . To above test tubes add soap solutions separately. When Na2CO3 is added to tap water the calcium (Ca2+). perform the experiment with other soap solutions. To achieve the same washing or cleaning action. Hard water minerals primarily consist of calcium (Ca2+). Calcium usually enters the water as either calcium carbonate (CaCO3).5g of soap and dissolve it in 50 ml of distilled water. more soap must be added. = 50 ml. Ca2++ Na2CO3 CaCO3 + 2Na+ Mg2++ Na2CO3 MgCO3 + 2Na+ Procedure: • • • • • • • Observation: Dissolve 0. Add 5 ml of M/10 sodium carbonate to third test tube. No. tap water in second and third test tube. and magnesium (Mg2+) metal cations. = 0. = 10 ml. Now start the stop watch to calculate time taken for disappearance of foam. in the form of other mineral deposits. 1. 0. Time taken (seconds) Amount of each soap sample taken Amount of distilled water taken Volume of each soap solution taken Volume of distilled water added S. or calcium sulphate (CaSO4). Aim: Apparatus: Materials Required: Theory: Study the effect of the addition of Sodium Carbonate (Washing Soda) on the foaming capacity of different soap solutions. Water used . = 1 ml. 5 gm.maximum foaming capacity and is the best quality soap among the soaps tested. 2. Take three test tubes and add distilled water in first. foaming capacity of soap increases. When sodium or potassium soaps are put into water containing calcium and magnesium ions (Hard water). Similarly. 3 test tubes. Bunsen burner and stop watch. and sometimes other dissolved compounds such as bicarbonates and sulphates. Record the observations in a tabular form.i. results in formation of scum which applies grey appearance on the cloth.

.Conclusions: Related: • • • • Foaming capacity of soap in maximum in distilled water.. Biology Project to Study Bio-Insecticides And Pesticides To study the importance. Chemistry Project on Sterilization of Water using Bleaching Powder C++ Project on LIC Database Management STERILIZATION OF WATER USING BLEACHING POWDER A CHEMISTRY INVESTIGATORY PROGECT ANSHUL KUM.. The foaming capacity of soap increases on the addition of Sodium Carbonate. C++ Project on Diabetes Detection Diabetes Detection #include #include #include #include #include #include #inclu... usage and preparation of bio-insecticides and pesticides Introd.. Database Management //////*******************************************************\\\\\\ . 1. Top of Form Name (required) E-Mail (will not be published) (required) Website Subscribe to comments feed Submit Comment 321 Bottom of Form Chemistry Project on Variation of Conductance in Electrolytes Chemistry Project on Spectroscopy [contact-form 1 "Contact form 1"] . No comments yet.. Comments (0) Trackbacks (0) Leave a comment Trackback 1.. No trackbacks yet.

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