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antag can Fe given Th espect ofthis Wanstaton. u normung eet Reproduction, even in parts ony wi UDC 621.833 : 001.4 DEUTSCHE NORMEN December 1976 General Definitions and Specification Factors for Gears, Gear Pairs and Gear Trains Allgemeine Begriffe und Bestimmungsgréssen fir Zahnrader, Zahnradpaare und Zahnradgetriebe This Standard contains the general definitions and symbols for geers, gear pairs and gear trains as well as the definitions of their parameters, The content of this Standard has been brought into line with the recommendation ISO/R 1122 — 1969 issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO); for this purpose the Swiss Standard VSM 18 522 — 1974 has also been used as a source, so that extensive agreement with international standardization has been achieved. The quantities contained in 1SO/R 1122 ~ 1969 have been supplemented in this Standard by further terms and parameters which have appeared important in connection with gear tooth geometry. The symbols used agree with DIN 3999. Specific terms relating to particular gear tooth systems are dealt with in separate Standards. Contents 1 Symbols and designations... . 3 3.2.4 Epicyclic or planetary gear transmission (Gear train 5 5 2 General terms relating to a gear. 33.3 External gear pair 6 2.1 Tooth 33.4 Internal gear pair 6 22 Gears... 335 Gear axes of a gear pair 6 23 Gear tooth system 338.1 Axial plane 6 23.1. Tooth 1, tooth 2 et, tooth 3 35.2 Crossing line, crossing points 6 23.2 Tooth spaces 3 35.3 Midplanes 6 23.3 Pitch ps right pitch, lett pitch;designation.. 4 3.5.4 Centre distance a lotfset) 6 2.3.4 Angular pitch + 4 3.5.5. Shaft angle 5 7 2.3.5 Module m 4368 Gearratiow 7 2.4 Number of teeth z 43.7 Transmission ratio i 7 28 Gear axis 437.1 True-angle ratio. 7 26 Datum surface, reference surfece 4 3.7.2. Truetorque ratio. 7 2.7. Plane tooth system 4 37.3. Speed-reducina ratio 7 2.8 Axis! boundary : 4 3.7.4 Speed:increasing ratio. 7 2.8.1. End surfaces of the gear tooth system. . 4 38 Engagement 7 2.8.2 Facewidth b . sits 4 38.1 Point of contact 7 2.9 Position of the gear tooth system relative 3.8.2 Contact line 7 Romig gow bou] 5 38.3 Plane of action 7 2.9.1 External gear teeth, external gear. . Eee aai eet 5 2.9.2 Internal gear teeth, internal gear Clea aie cen inenae : 5 3 General terms concerning gear pairs 5 3.86. Length of psth of contact a 31 Gear pair. 3.8.7 Meshing interference 7 3.1.1. Gear and mating gear +. 5 38 Typesof tooth system « Ee 3.1.2. Pinion (small gear) and wheel (large gear)... § 38:1 Individual tooth system Saar 3.1.3 Driving and driven geet © 38.2 Paired tooth system; X-zer0 tooth system 8 3.1.4 Gear train 5 3.2 Gear transmission ee 5 4 Kinematic terms 8 3.2.1. Singlestage gear transmission 5 4.1. Instantaneous axis. 8 3.2.2 Multistage gear transmission . 5 4.2. Funetional surfaces. 8 3.2.8 Fixed-axis gear transmission 5 43 Rolling type gear transmissions 8 Continued on pages 2 to 20 DIN 868 engl. Preiser. 11 VerieNr 0111 Page 2 DIN 868 43.1 43.2 43.3 43.4 44 4aa 442 443 4a Rolling exis Plane ge: Pitch point C Piteh surface; pitch cylinder, pitch cone. Helical rolling type gear transmissions Helix axis Helix point $ Helical pitch surfaces. Parameters at the helix point S 4.4.4.1 Relative angular velocity py» 4.4.4.2 Velocity of sliding Ug, 5 4.4.4.3 Recuced ed para? Ps 445 4A Of the helical motion Working point W 5 Parameters at the working point W . 4.4.6.1 Relative angular velocity (q, 4.4.6.2 Velocity of sliding toy, 48 5 51 B11 512 513 514 515 62 B21 6.2.2 5.23 6.2.4 83 61 62 63 64 a Pure helical type gear transmissions . . Types of gears and gear ps Seats and ger pas for ling ype vent transmissions Cylindcea gear; cylindrical gear pair. Rack; rack and pinion pair . Bevel goar; bevel gear pair Plane bevel gear; plane bevel goar pair Contrate gear pair; erown wheel Gears and gear pairs for helical rolling type ‘gear transmissions Cylindrical worm gear set (worm gear set); cylindrical worm (worm), wormwhee! Hyperboloid geer pair : : Crossed helical gear pair (ylindical crossed hlical gear pair); crossed helical gears {oylndieal erosed hela gee), crossed helical worm gear . Hypoid gear pair (halical bevel gear ai: hypoid gears (helical bevel gears) . Double enveloping worm gear set; double enveloping worm, double enveloping worm- wheel Crest and root surfaces Crest Tip surface Bottom of tooth space Root surface Tooth flanks and tooth profiles Tooth flanks transmisions,spherieal ger trans " " " " " " " " 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 3 13 13 72 73 73.4 7.3.2 733 74 78 75.1 752 76.3 784 788 786 78 76.1 76.2 7.6.3 7.6.4 785 aw TA 772 213 214 778 718 78 781 782 783 7.84 8 at a2 821 822 823 824 a3 Alphabet Datum tooth trace, tooth trace, reference tooth trace. Gear tooth profile, tooth protle flank profile Transverse profile; transverse section Normal profile; normal section . Axial profile; axial section : Standard basic rack tooth profile. . Types of tooth flank Mating flanks . : Right flank, left flank... : Corresponding flanks Opposite flanks Working flanks Non-working flanks Parts of flanks . ‘Addendum flank, dedendum flank - Usable flank; usable tip circle, usable root circle Active flank Fillet surface, root rediusing - Tooth tip Tooth flank modifications (flank corrections) Tip relief C,, root reliet Cy; vertical crowning C., Longitudinal crowning C, (tooth trace relief). End relief . . Tooth tip chamfer Grinding relief Cutter interference - Flank profiles of cylindrical gears Involute gear teeth Cycloidal gear teeth Point tooth system, cylindrical lantern ‘tooth system fs Circular are gear teeth ‘Backlash and clearance between mating tooth systems Bottom clearance ¢ . Backlash j ‘i Cireumferential backlash Normal backlash j,, Radial backlash /, Axial backlash ji, Entry clearance j, . index. 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 14 18 15 6 18 18 16 7 W 7 7 ” 7 ” 7 7 19 . 1 Symbols and designations ‘The following symbols and designations are used in this, Standard: a Centre distance b Facewidth bg. Width of crowning © Bottom clearance d- Datum surface diameter dy Effective diameter E Transmission ratio i Backlash dg Entry clearance J, Normal backlash i, Radial backlash J, Circumferential backlash iy Axial pley Number of teeth or pitch number m= Module nh Speed (rotational frequency) p Pitch p, Lead "Datum surface radius u Gear ratio Ug Velocity of sliding Number of teeth Pitch point End relief Tip relief Tooth trace relief Root relief Profile modification Helix point Working point Helix angle reference cone half angle Angular pitch ‘Angular velocity Shaft angle pa peeos mereega The above symbols may be supplemented by the follow- ing subscripts or auxiliary symbols: a for the driving goar or for parameters at the tip circle for the driven gear £ for parameters at the root surface m_ for amean value ni for parameters in the normal section 8 for parameters at the helix point for parameters in the transverse section ‘w for parameters at the working point x for parameters in the axial section C for parameters referred to end relief rod for raduced parameters rel_ for relative parameters 1 for parameters relating to the smaller gear of 2 gear pair 2. for parameters relating to the larger gear of @ gear pair = for scalar parameters > for vector parameters For further symbols relating to gear teeth see DIN 3999, DIN 868. Page 3 ‘Symbols are also dealt with in the following Standards: DIN 1302 Mathematical signs and symbols, DIN 1304. General symbols for use in formulae, DIN 1313. Method of writing physical equations in the ratural sciences and technology. 2. General terms relating to a gear 2.1 Tooth tooth is an element projecting from 2 gear body and possessing a shane permitting the transmission of force and motion to the teath of 2 mating gear (see Section 3.4.1) Figure 1. Tooth 2.2 Gear A gear is a mechanical element rotatable about an axis land consisting of the gear body with its bearing surfaces ‘and the teeth projecting from the gear body. Figure 2. Gear 2.3 Gear tooth system ‘The tooth system of a gear comprises the totality of its teeth, 28.1 Tooth 1, tooth 2 etc., tooth it For designating individual teeth, tooth 1, tooth 2 ete are to be so marked on a transverse surface of the gear tooth system (see Section 2.8.1) that the teeth are numbered in ascending order in the counting direction. ‘A tooth is generally designated by the letter symbol It. ‘The next higher tooth in the counting direction is then designated by k + 1 and the next lower tooth in the counting direction by — 1, see Fig. 3. In the case of gear pairs with parallel axes (see Section 23.5) the transverse surfaces used for designating the teeth ‘hall be visible from the same viewing direction; normally this is the direction in which the force is imparted to the driving gear, or some other specific, assumed direction. In the case of gear pairs with intersecting axes (see Section 3.5) the viewing direction for both gears is generally towards the point at which the axes intersect. In the case of gear pairs with non-parallel non-intersect- ing axes (s2e Section 3.5) the transverse surfaces general- ly used for designating the teeth are those which are visible from the drive side in the case of the driving gear ‘and from the drivan side in the case of the driven gear. 23.2 Tooth spaces ‘The tooth spaces are the intervals between the teeth into which the taeth of the mating gear (see Section 3.1.1) enter during the rotary motion.