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# Asynchronous and Synchronous Machines (EL-208)

## (IV SEM EL Session 2017-18)

Tutorial Sheet 1(dated 08.01.2018)
( 3 PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS)
(Basic Concepts)

1) A 3phase, 6pole, 50 Hz induction motor has a slip of 1% at no load and 3% at full load. Determine
a. synchronous speed,
b. no load and full load speed
c. frequency of rotor current at standstill and at full load

2) A three phase, 4-pole, 50 Hz. Induction motor runs at 4% slip at full load. Determine-
a. Synchronous Speed
b. Rotor speed
c. Frequency of rotor currents at standstill and at running conditions
d. Speed of rotor field w.r.t stator
e. Speed of rotor field w.r.t stator field

3) A 3 phase induction motor has 54 stator slots with 8 conductors per slots and 72 rotor slots with 4
conductors per slot. Find the number of stator and rotor turns/phase.

4) A 6 pole, 50 Hz. Wound rotor induction motor induction motor when supplied at rated voltage
and frequency with slip rings open circuited develop voltage of 100V between any two rings.
Under the same conditions its rotor is now driven by external means at
a. 1000 rpm opposite to the direction of rotation of stator field
b. 1500 rpm in the direction of rotation of stator field
Find the voltage available between slip rings and its frequency in each of these cases.

5) A 3 phase 4 pole, 1440 rpm 50 Hz induction motor has star connected rotor winding having
resistance of 0.2 ohms/phase and stand still leakage reactance of 1ohm/phase. When the stator is
energised at rated voltage and frequency, the rotor induced emf at standstill is 120V/phase.
a. Calculate rotor current and rotor pf at the time of starting and full load.
b. If an external resistance of 1ohm/phase is inserted in rotor circuit calculate rotor current
and rotor pf at the time of starting.

6) Prove that the direction of rotating magnetic field reverses by interchanging the phase sequence of
the 3 phase supply.

7) Explain the following terms with respect to rotating electrical machines: Pole pitch, coil, full pitch
coil, chording angle, conductor, turn, short pitch coil, distributed winding.

## Dr. Priya Mahajan, Associate Prof. EED

Asynchronous and Synchronous Machines (EL-208)
(IV SEM EL Session 2017-18)
Tutorial Sheet 2(dated 22.01.2018)
(3 PHASE ASYNCHRONOUS MACHINES)
(Based on power flow and equivalent circuit)

1. A 6 pole, 50 Hz, 3 phase induction motor running on full load develops a useful torque of
160Nm and the rotor emf is absorbed to make120 cycles/min. If the mechanical torque lost in
friction be 12Nm, determine
a. rotor copper loss
b. i/p to the motor
c. the shaft power o/p.
d. Efficiency
Assume stator losses as 800W.

2. An 8-pole, 3-phase, 50 Hz induction motor runs at a speed of 710 rpm with an input power of
35kW. The stator copper losses at this operating condition is 1200W, while the rotational
losses are 600W. Find
a. Rotor copper losses
b. Gross torque and mechanical power developed
c. Net torque and mechanical power output
3. The power input of the rotor of 440V, 50 Hz, 6 pole, 3 phase induction motor is80 KW. The
motor emf is observed to make 100 complete alternations/min. Calculate
a. Slip and motor speed
b. mechanical power developed
c. motor copper loss per phase
d. motor resistance per phase if the motor current is 65 A
4. A 3-phase, 400 V, 50 Hz induction motor takes a power input of 35kW at its full-load speed
of 980 r.p.m. The total stator losses are 1kW and the friction and windage losses are 1.5KW.
Calculate
(a) slip (b) rotor ohmic losses (c) shaft power
(d) shaft torque and (e) efficiency.
5. A 3 phase star connected, 4 pole, 50 Hz, 440V induction motor draws a current of 100 A
from the mains at a power factor of 0.8 lag. The motor losses under this condition are: Stator
copper losses= 1000W, rotor copper losses= 1300W, stator core losses= 500W, Friction and
windage losses= 600W. Find
a. Power transferred across the air gap
b. Internal torque developed
c. Mechanical power developed
d. Torque at the output shaft
e. Efficiency of the motor
6. A 10kW, 400 V, 4pole, delta connected SCIM gave the following test results ,
N.L. test: 250W, 400V, 8A, B.R. Test : 1350W, 90V, 35A ,
The stator winding resistance/phase is 0.72 ohms/phase. Calculate rotational losses and the
equivalent circuit parameters of the motor.
7. A 3 phase, 400 V, 50 Hz, 4 pole, star connected SCIM has the following per phase constants
in ohms referred to stator:
r1= 0.15, x1=0.45, x2=0.45, Xm= 28.5
Rotational losses= 400W.

## Dr. Priya Mahajan, Associate Prof. EED

Compute stator current, rotor speed, output torque and efficiency when motor is operated at
rated voltage and frequency at 4% slip.
8. A 208 V, 60 Hz, 4 pole, star connected SCIM gave the following test results
N.L. test: 450W, 208V, 1.562A, B.R. Test : 59.4W, 27V, 2.77A
The stator winding resistance between any two terminals=2.4Ω.
a. Compute the equivalent circuit parameters of the motor.
b. Determine the shaft torque and the efficiency of the motor if it is running at its rated speed of
1710rpm.
9. A 400V, 6 pole, 50 Hz, Y connected induction motor running at n.l. takes 7.5A with power
input of 700W. With rotor locked and 150V supplied to stator, input current is 35A with
power input of 4000W, stator resistance per phase being 0.55 Ω. The standstill reactances of
stator and rotor as seen on stator side are estimated to be in the ratio of 1:0.5.
a. compute the equivalent circuit parameters of the motor.
b. When the motor is operating at slip of 4%, calculate stator current, pf, net motor
output, torque and motor efficiency.
10. In case of induction motor, explain why,
a) No load current is high at poor pf.
b) the air gap length is kept small as is mechanically possible.
11. A 3-phase squirrel cage induction motor is designed to have rotor copper bars. If, instead of
using copper, aluminium is used for rotor bars, explain what happens to its speed, efficiency
etc. under normal running conditions.

## Dr. Priya Mahajan, Associate Prof. EED

Asynchronous and Synchronous Machines (EL-208)
(IV SEM EL Session 2017-18)
Tutorial Sheet 3(dated 29.01.2018)
(3 PHASE ASYNCHRONOUS MACHINES)
(Based on torque-slip characteristics and starting methods)

1. A 3 phase induction motor has staring torque of 100% and maximum torque of 200% of f.l.
torque. Find
a. Slip at maximum torque
b. Full load slip
c. Rotor current at starting in terms of full load current.
Neglect stator impedance.
2. A 40kW, 3 phase slip ring induction motor of negligible stator impedance runs at a speed of
0.96 times synchronous speed at rated torque. The slip at maximum torque is 4 times the f.l
value. If rotor resistance of motor is increased by 5 times, determine:
a. Speed and power output at rated torque.
b. Speed corresponding to maximum torque.
c. Neglect stator impedance.
3. A 6 pole, 50Hz, 3 phase induction motor has a rotor resistance of 0.25ohms/phase and
maximum torque of 10Nm at 875rpm. Calculate
a. The torque when slip is 5%
b. Resistance to be added to the rotor circuit to obtain 60% of maximum torque at starting
Explain why two values are obtained for resistance and which value will be preferred to
use.
c. Neglect stator impedance.
4. Calculate the ratio of transformation of an auto transformer starter for a 25kW, 400 V, 3
phase induction motor if the starting torque is to be 75% of full load torque. Assume the slip
at full load to be 3.5% and the short circuit current to be six times full load current. Ignore
the magnetizing current of the transformer and of the motor. (ans 0.77)
5. A 30kW, 440 V, 3 phase squirrel cage induction motor develops a starting torque of 182Nm
at rated voltage and has a full load torque of 135Nm. The starting current of the motor is
207A at rated voltage. If the motor is started using auto transformer starting, determine:
a. The starting torque when the voltage is reduced to 254V.
b. The voltage that must be applied for the motor to develop a starting torque equal to full
c. The starting currents in parts (a) and (b).
d. The starting voltage to limit the starting current at 40A and corresponding starting
voltage.
6. A 3 phase, squirrel cage induction motor has maximum torque equal to twice the full load
torque. Determine the ratio of motor starting torque to its full load torque, if it is started by
a. D.O.L. starter., (b) Star- delta starter, (c) Auto transformer starter with 70% tapping.
The per phase rotor resistance and per phase stand still reactance referred to stator are 0.2
ohms and 2 ohms resp. Neglect stator impedance.
7. A 3 phase, 4 pole wound rotor induction motor has star connected rotor winding with rotor
resistance of 0.12ohms/phase. With slip rings shorted, the motor develops rated torque at slip
of 0.04 and line current of 100A. Calculate
a. External resistance to be inserted in each rotor phase to limit current to 100A.

## Dr. Priya Mahajan, Associate Prof. EED

b. pu torque developed at above rotor resistance starting.
c. External resistance to be inserted in per phase to develop f.l. torque at ¾ synchronous
speed with line current of 100A. Neglect magnetising current. (2.4ohms, 1pu, 0.525ohms)
8. A 3 phase, 4 pole wound rotor induction motor has star connected rotor winding with rotor
resistance of 4.5ohms/phase and standstill leakage reactance of 8.5ohms/phase. With no
external resistance in the rotor circuit, the motor develops starting torque of 85Nm,
a. What is the rotor voltage at stand still?
b. What would be the starting torque if a 3 ohms resistance were added in each rotor phase?
c. Neglecting stator voltage drop, what would be the induced rotor voltage and torque at a
slip of 0.03.

## Dr. Priya Mahajan, Associate Prof. EED

Asynchronous and Synchronous Machines (EL-208)
(IV SEM EL Session 2017-18)
Tutorial Sheet 4(dated 05.02.2018)
(3 PHASE ASYNCHRONOUS MACHINES)
(Based on Speed control and power factor control)
1. A 20kW, 3-phase, 400V, 4 pole, 50 Hz. Squirrel cage induction motor, when working at
rated voltage and frequency, develops a full load torque at 1470 rpm. If the motor is fed from
40Hz source, with its voltage adjusted to give the same air gap flux as at 50 Hz, then
calculate
b) The magnitude of the 40Hz voltage source
c) The speed at which the motor would run so that the same full load torque, as at 50Hz,
is developed. (320 V, 1170 rpm)
2. A 3-phase, 400V, 12 pole, 50 Hz induction motor has star connected rotor and the resistance
measured across any two slip rings is 0.04 ohms. Its full load slip is 0.02. Calculate the
resistance to be inserted in the rotor circuit to reduce the full load slip to 350rpm. The torque
required by the load varies as the speed squared. Assume torque slip curve to be straight line
in the normal operating region. (Ans. 0.568 Ω).
3. A 3 phase, 4 pole wound rotor induction motor has a rating of 110kW, 1760 rpm, 2.3kV, 60
Hz. Three external resistors of 2 ohms are connected in Y across rotor slip rings. Under these
conditions the motor develops a torque of 300 Nm at a speed of 1000rpm. If the torque is
increased to 400 Nm, calculate the corresponding speed. Assume linear torque slip
characteristics. (Ans. 734 rpm).
4. A 3 phase, 480V, 6 pole, 60 Hz, Star connected induction motor has the rotor resistance
referred to stator as 0.3 ohms. Assume the load torque to be constant and equal to 120Nm.
Calculate
a. The rotor speed at rated voltage.
b. Find the speed if the voltage is reduced to 20%
c. The external resistance to be added in rotor circuit if the speed is to be decreased by 20%.
5. A 480V, 2 pole, 60 Hz, Star connected induction motor has an equivalent series inductive
reactance of 4 ohms and a stator resistance of 0.2 ohms. The rotor resistance referred to stator
is 0.3 ohms. The motor is driving a constant torque load of 60 Nm at a speed of 3500rpm.
Calculate
a. The motor current at 60Hz.
b. Motor speed and current if the frequency is decreased to 50Hz and voltage kept constant
at rated voltage.
c. motor speed and current if the frequency is decreased to 50Hz but in such a way that V/f
ratio is kept constant.
Assume small slip approximation.
6. An induction motor operating from a balanced 3 phase, star connected 400V, 50Hz supply,
takes a line current of 10A at 0.8 pf lag. Calculate per phase value of capacitor and total kVA
rating of 3 phase, star connected bank which when connected to motor terminals improve line
pf to 0.9 lag. Repeat the same for delta connected capacitor bank.

7. What are the various classes of squirrel cage induction motor? Explain the application areas
for each class?

## Dr. Priya Mahajan, Associate Prof. EED

Asynchronous and Synchronous Machines (EL-208)
(IV SEM EL Session 2017-18)
Tutorial Sheet 5 (dated 19.02.2018)
(3 PHASE ASYNCHRONOUS MACHINES)
(Based on High Torque cage motors, Asynchronous Generators, power factor control )

1. A 3 phase, 400V double cage induction motor has per phase standstill leakage impedance of
(2+j2) ohms and (0.5+j10) ohms for its two cages. Find the relative currents and torques of
the two cages
a. at standstill b. At a slip of 5%.
2. If the standstill impedance of the outer cage of a double cage machine is (0.3+j0.4) ohms
and of the inner cage is (0.1+j1.5) ohms, compare the relative currents and torques of the two
cages
a. at standstill b. At a slip of 5%. (3.007, 27.12, 0.41574, 0.51853)
3. A 3 phase, 400V double cage induction motor has following per phase parameters as
referred to stator (in ohms):
Stator, r1= 0.5, x1=1.5,
Rotor, top cage, r20= 2, x20=0.6,
Rotor, bottom cage, r2i= 0.4, x2i=3.4,
The primary in delta is energised by 400V supply, Calculate the starting torque and full load
torque at 4% slip using approximate equivalent circuit. Find also pf at starting and at f.l.
Neglect exciting branch.
4. The two cages of a 400v, 3 phase, 50 Hz, 6 pole, delta connected double cage induction
motor have respective standstill leakage impedance of (2+j1) and (1+j4) ohms per phase.
The impedance of the stator winding is (1+j2) ohms per phase. Estimate:
(a) the torque developed at standstill.
(b) At full load slip of 0.04.
5. An induction motor operating from a balanced 3 phase, star connected 400V, 50Hz supply,
takes a line current of 10A at 0.8 pf lag. Calculate per phase value of capacitor and total kVA
rating of 3 phase, star connected bank which when connected to motor terminals improve
line pf to 0.9 lag.
6. At full load slip of 0.04A 3 phase, 400 V, 50 Hz, 6 pole, star connected SCIM has the
following per phase constants in ohms referred to stator:r1= 0.2, r2=0.5, x1=2, x2=2, Xm= 48.
This motor drives a hoist. During lowering of the hoist, the load accelerates the motor to a
speed of 1050rpm. At this speed, determine
(a) Line current
(b) Active power returned to 3-phase supply
(c) Reactive power requirement of the generator
7. A 40hp, 1760 rpm, 440V, 3 phase squirrel cage induction machine has to be used as an
asynchronous generator. The rated current of the motor is 41A and the full load pf is 84%.
Calculate the capacitance required per phase if the capacitors are connected in delta. (Ans.
78µF)

## Dr. Priya Mahajan, Associate Prof. EED

Asynchronous and Synchronous Machines (EL-208)
(IV SEM EL Session 2017-18)
Tutorial Sheet 6 (dated 26.02.2018)
( 1 PHASE ASYNCHRONOUS MOTORS)

1. A 220V, 6- Pole, 50 Hz, 1 – phase IM has the following equivalent circuit parameters
with only main winding in the circuit:
R1 =3.0 ohms; R2= 1.5 ohms; X1=5.0ohms; X2=2.0ohms;
Neglecting the magnetizing current, compute the following when the motor runs at
97% of the synchronous speed,
a. The ratio Emf/Emb
b. The ratio Vf/Vb
c. The ratio Tf/Tb
d. The gross total torque
e. The ratios Tf/(Total torque) and Tb/(Total torque)
2. A 230V, 4- Pole, 50 Hz, 1 – phase IM has the following equivalent circuit parameters
and losses
R1 =2.3ohms; R2= 4.2 ohms; X1=3.2ohms; X2=3.2ohms; Xm= 74 ohms.
where r1 and x1 denoted main winding resistance and leakage reactance resp.
Core losses =98W, F & W losses= 30W
If this motor is running with a slip of 5% at rated voltage and frequency, then
compute stator current, pf , power output and efficiency with only main winding in
circuit.
3. A test on the main winding of a 1kW, 215V, 4- Pole, 50 Hz, 1 – phase IM gave the
following results:
No load test: 215V, 3.9A, 185W.
Blocked Rotor test: 85V, 9.80A, 390W.
Given r1= 1.6 ohms
a. Compute the equivalent circuit parameters of the motor.
b. Compute line current, pf , shaft torque and efficiency of the motor running at a
speed of 1440 rpm.
4. A 2.5kW, 120V, 60Hz capacitor start motor has the following impedances for the
main and auxiliary windings (at starting):
Zmain = 4.5 + j3.7 ohms
Zaux = 9.5+ j3.5 ohms
Find the value of starting capacitance that will place the main and auxiliary winding
currents in quadrature at starting. (177μF)

## Dr. Priya Mahajan, Associate Prof. EED

Asynchronous and Synchronous Machines (EL-208)
(IV SEM EL Session 2017-18)
Tutorial Sheet 7 (dated 21.03.2018)
Synchronous Generators (Basics)

## 1. A turbine turning at 200rpm is connected to a synchronous generator. If the induced

voltage has a frequency of 60 Hz.,
a. How many poles does the rotor have?
b. Which type of construction is used for rotor?
c. Which type of turbine is used as primemover?

2. A 3 phase star connected synchronous generator produces an open circuit line voltage of
6928V when the dc exciting current is 50A. The ac terminals are then short circuited, and
the three line currents are found to be 800A.
a. Calculate the synchronous reactance per phase.
b. Calculate the terminal voltage if three 12 ohms resistors are connected in star across
the terminals.

## 3. A 30MVA, 15kV, 60 Hz. Ac generator has a synchronous reactance of 1.2p.u. and a

resistance of 0.02p.u.
Calculate
a. the base voltage, base power and base impedance of the generator.
b. The actual value of the synchronous reactance.
c. The actual winding resistance, per phase.
d. The total full load copper losses.

4. A test taken on the 500MVA, 3 phase, 60Hz., 200rpm star connected alternator gives
open circuit voltage of 15kV for a dc exciting current of 1400A. With the same dc
current, with the armature short circuited the resulting line current is 21000A. Calculate
a. the base impedance of the generator per phase.
b. The value of the synchronous reactance per phase
c. The per unit value of Xs

5. A 3 phase, star connected synchronous alternator has excitation voltage of 12kV and
synchronous reactance of 2ohms. If for a given load, corresponding terminal voltage is
14kV.
a. Calculate the total active power output of the generator
b. Calculate the power factor of the load
c. Whether the generator is delivering or receiving the reactive power?
d. Draw the corresponding phasor diagram for one phase.
Given Ef leads E by 300 electrical.

6. Draw the phasor diagram of the cylindrical rotor alternator at unity pf and lagging pf.
Also find the voltage regulation for each case.

## Dr. Priya Mahajan, Associate Prof. EED

Asynchronous and Synchronous Machines (EL-208)
(IV SEM EL Session 2017-18)
Tutorial Sheet 8 (dated 2.04.2018)
Synchronous Generators (Power flow and Infinite bus operation)

1. A 3-phase, 1000 KVA,6.6 KV,star connected Alternator with a resistance of 0.4 ohm per
phase and synchronous reactance of 6 ohm per phase delivers full load current at 0.9 pf
leading and at rated voltage. Estimate the terminal voltage for the same excitation and
load current at 0.9 pf lagging.(Ans: line voltage= 5806.98V)
2. A 6.6 KV,1000 KVA,3 phase star connected alternator is delivering full load at 0.8 pf
lagging. It’s synchronous reactance is 20 % and resistance negligible. By changing it’s
excitation, the emf is increased by 20 %.Calculate the new current and power factor. The
generator is operating on infinite bus-bars.(Ans: 167.64,angle: -65.3 degree, pf:0.42 lag).
3. A cylindrical rotor alternator with synchronous reactance of 1.6 pu and negligible
armature resistance is connected to an infinite bus at rated voltage.
(i) Determine the excitation emf and power angle when it delivers full load current at 0.8
pf lag.(Ans:2.34pu, angle: +33.14)
(ii)If the steam input of part (i) remains unchanged, calculate the excitation emf and
power angle at which power factor becomes 0.95 lag. (Ans: 1.9123pu, 42.020).
4. A given steam turbine generator of 732 MVA has a synchronous reactance of 1.3p.u. The
excitation voltage is adjusted to 1.2p.u. and the machine is connected to an infinite bus of
19kV. If the torque angle is 200 electrical. Calculate
a. the active power output
b. the line current
c. draw the phasor diagram for one phase.
5. A synchronous machine is synchronized with an infinite bus at rated voltage. Now the
steam input to prime mover is increased till synchronous machine starts operating at rated
KVA. The machine has synchronous impedance Zs= (0.02 + 0.8j) pu. Determine the
operating pf of alternator and it’s load angle.(Ans: pf:0.9062 lead, load angle: +47.156
degree).
6. A synchronous machine is synchronised with an infinite bus. Now without changing the
field current, the machine is made to deliever real power to the bus. Will it, at the same
time generate or consume reactive power?
7. Show that for the stable operation of the system, incoming machine to the infinite bus
should be running a little faster than frequency of the bus.